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V Y S T Y M O BENDRIJA „ NUGAL Ė K PRIKLAUSOMYB Ę ”

VYSTYMO BENDRIJA NUGALĖK PRIKLAUSOMYBĘ

ENGLISH FOR COOKS

Vilniaus kooperacijos kolegija

2006

„ NUGAL Ė K PRIKLAUSOMYB Ę ” ENGLISH FOR COOKS Vilniaus kooperacijos kolegija 2006 D ė

Dėst. Vilma Šiatkutė

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 3 1.1.The ABC 3 1.2.Reading rules 3 2. At work: place and time
1.
Introduction
3
1.1.The ABC
3
1.2.Reading rules
3
2.
At work: place and time
4
2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions
4
2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals
6
3.
Kitchenware. Crockery and cutlery
8
3.1. Kitchenware
8
3.2. Crockery and cutlery
11
4.
Food and drink
13
4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food
13
4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes
13
4.3. Vocabulary. Names of drinks
15
4.4. Do you like and would you like
16
5.
Breakfast
17
5.1. Meals of the day
17
5.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast
17
5.3. Past Simple Tense
18
6.
Lunch and Tiffin
21
6.1. Lunch
21
6.2. Tiffin
21
6.3. Future Simple Tense
22
7.
Tea. Dinner. Supper
24
7.1. Tea
24
7.2. Dinner
24
7.3. Supper
27
8. Healthy food
28
9. National food and cuisine
30
10.
Methods of cooking and preparing food
32
10.1.Present Continuous Tense
32
10.2. Past Continuous Tense
33
10.3. Methods - cooking and preparing food
34
11. Recipes
35
11.1. Christmas pudding, Omelette with cheese, Roast leg of lamb
35
11.2. Present Perfect Tense
37
12.
Revision
39
References
40

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. The ABC

There are 26 letters in the English Alphabet. Remember that this type of pronunciation is valid for sole letters in the ABC only. Letters will be pronounced in a different way when standing in syllables. Pronounce the ABC letters.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm [ei] [bi:]
Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll Mm
[ei]
[bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:]
[ef] [d3i:] [eit∫ ] [ai] [d3ei] [kei] [el] [em]
Nn
Oo
Pp
Qq
Rr
Ss
Tt
Uu
Vv
Ww
[en] [əu] [pi:] [kju:] [a:(r)] [es] [ti:] [ju:] [vi:] [d٨blju:]
Xx
Yy
Zz
[eks] [wai] [zed]

1.2. Reading rules

Pronunciation of vowels mostly depends on the kind of the syllable they appear in – an open syllable ends with a vowel while a closed one – with a consonant (e.g. “name” – open; “stop” – closed). Vowels standing in an open syllable are usually pronounced in the same way as in the ABC and they are shortened in closed syllables.

Vowel

Open syllable

 

Closed syllable

Aa

ei

٨, ə, e:, o:

Ee

i:

e

(not pronounced if the word ends with “e”)

Ii

ai

i

Oo

au

o

Uu

ju:

u, ٨

Yy

wai

i

PRACTICE 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:

Make, cake, cut, salad, fat, no, my, five, bit, ten, pot, dot, nut, put, fall, lady.

Combinations

different sound structures:

vowel + vowel

,

vowel + consonant

,

consonant + vowel,

consonant + consonant

etc. make

ar [a:(r)] – bar, far

ck [k] – bucket, luck ur/ ear [з:] – blur, turn, burn ea [i:] – tea, sea our [o:] – pour, four ou [u] – could ue, oo [u:] – blue, food ow, ou [əu] – now, out er, air [eə] – where, air ear, er [ie] – dear, here oy, oi [oi] – boy, join ur, our [uə] – pure, tour

y at the beginning [j] – yes

ng [η] – sing, bring gh is usually silent [ ] – light, bright ss [s] – miss, kiss

tt [t] – getting

ch [t] – catch, match th [θ] – think, both th [ ] – that

PRACTICE 2. Pronounce the given words and transcribe them.

Blanch

Boil

Braise

Minced

Chill

Poach

Chop

Roast

Deep-fry

Sear

Dice

Simmer

Dry-fry

Stock

Grill

Steam

Stew

Stir-fry

Sweat

Marinade

2. AT WORK: PLACE AND TIME

2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions.

 

Singular

 

Plural

I

am, have, do, like, go, can

We

are, have, do, like, go, can

You

are, have, do, like, go, can

You

are, have, do, like, go, can

He, she, it

is, has, does, likes, goes, can

They

are, have, do, like, go, can

We use the Present Simple to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about now. We use it

to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly (sometimes, often, usually, rarely, seldom), or

that something is true in general. Remember that we say: he/she/it -s.

I work

but He works

 

They like

but my sister likes

 

Sent.

Question

Auxiliary

Subject

Auxiliary

Verb

Object

Adverbial Modifier

 

type

word

Verb/ to

Verb

Manner

Place

Time

be

 
     

I

 

love

   

You

make

Positive

We

bring

They

write

He, she, it My brother Her friend

taste

 

smell

am

The cake

are, is

     

I

do not

love

me

nicely

at work

in the morning in the evening in the afternoon

You

(don’t)

make

you

beautifully in the kitchen

We

bring

him

tasty

at home

They

write

her

loudly

at the restaurant during the day

Negative

He, she, it

does not

taste

them

precisely

at school in prison in the café on the table

at night in summer in winter at 8 o’clock

My brother

(doesn’t)

smell

us

happily

Her friend

am not

my

greatly

The cake

are, is

dog

bitterly

 

not

a letter

 
 

When

     

love

Why

do

make

Where

does

I

bring

How

you

write

What

we

taste

(kas,ką?)

they

smell

Whom

he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

(ką?)

Question

Who (ką?)

am

 

are

is

 

PRACTICE 1. Insert given words into the gaps: bake, cook, like (2).

1. My mum

2. I often

3. My friend

4.

you

cakes every Saturday.

soup because I like it.

fish.

fish?

When we describe places where we find things we use There is. ………/ There are ………

example below:

like in the

There is …………………….

There are ……………………………

+ There is a cup on the table.

+ There are some cups on the table.

- There is not any cup on the table.

- There are not any cups on the table.

? Is there a cup on the table?

? Are there any cups on the table?

NOTE! * When we use some, we are not interested in the exact number.

I have ten fingers (NOT I have some fingers).

I have some friends in Great Britain.

* We use any in questions and negatives.

Are there any photographs?

There aren’t any people.

PRACTICE 2. Tell your friends and ask questions what they can see in the kitchen. Use such words as cupboards(s), washing machine, a fridge (a refrigerator), a cooker, a dishwasher, a radio, plates, cups, sink, a table, a chair, glasses. Do not forget prepositions near, on, next to, in front of, behind, in, under. Describe what is there in your kitchen. Is it different from the one in the picture?

your kitchen. Is it different fr om the one in the picture? PRACTICE 3. Fill-in the

PRACTICE 3. Fill-in the gaps using a, some, any.

It’s

modern kitchen, nice and clean with a lot of cupboards. There’s

washing machine,

fridge,

and

cooker, but there isn’t

dishwasher. There are

lovely pictures on the walls, but there

radio next to the cooker. There are

aren’t

photographs. There’s

plants. On the table there are to the sink.

apples and oranges. And there are

flowers, but there aren’t cups and plates next

2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals. All events are usually connected with certain dates, seasons and daytimes. On every special occasion we should be able to provide our clients with necessary information about our working hours as well as other events taking place at our restaurant or café. E.g. The café opens at 9 o’clock each morning and closes at 7 o’clock in the evening. We do not usually work on Sundays and the café is never open on the first Christmas day. So to be ready to give our clients all the necessary information we should revise the names of weekdays, holidays, months as well as ordinal and cardinal numbers. We will also have a look and remember how to indicate what time it is. Look at the tables below. Remember the usage of prepositions.

ON

 

AT

 

IN

Sunday

holidays

the weekend

Christmas

night

January

winter

the morning

1957

Monday

Easter

midnight

February

spring

the evening

2008

Tuesday

March

summer

the afternoon

Wednesday

April

autumn

Thursday

May

Friday

June

Saturday

July

August

September

October

November

December

PRACTICE 4. Translate:

per Kalėdas

rytą

vakare

sekmadienį

per šventes

gegužę

žiemą

vidurnaktį

1980-aisiais

vasarą

PRACTICE 5. Using the table say the following numerals in their cardinal (kiekiniai) and ordinal

(kelintiniai) forms: 8, 698, 14, 40, 15, 59, 129, 3325, 45,89,78,77,17, 1998, 2004, 158:

1 one

 

the first

 

23

twenty-three

the twenty-third

2 two

 

the second

 

24

twenty-four

the twenty-fourth

3 three

 

the third

 

25

twenty-five

the twenty-fifth

4 four

 

the fourth

 

26

twenty-six

the twenty-sixth

5 five

 

the fifth

 

27

twenty-seven

the twenty-seventh

6 six

 

the sixth

 

28

twenty-eight

the twenty-eighth

7 seven

   

29

twenty-nine

the twenty-ninth

8 eight

 

30

thirty

the thirtieth

 

9 nine

 

the …

+ th

31

thirty-one

the thirty-first

 

10 ten

   

40

forty

 

11 eleven

 

50

fifty

12 twelve

 

the twelfth

 

60

sixty

 

13 thirteen

 

70

seventy

 

14 fourteen

80

eighty

15 fifteen

 

90

ninety

16 sixteen

 

the …

+

th

100

one hundred

the …

+

th

 

17 seventeen

 

130

one hundred and thirty

 
 

18 eighteen

285

two hundred and eighty five

 

19 nineteen

300

three hundred

20 twenty

 

the twentieth

415

four hundred and fifteen

 

21 twenty-one

the twenty-first

678

six hundred and seventy eight

 

22 twenty-two

the twenty-second

1000

one thousand

PRACTICE 6. Say the phone numbers.

a 43816

b 933672

c (041)2287153

d (0923)4828661

e (0225)69026

What is your phone number?

PRACTICE 7. Tell the time using the questions and answers in the table below:

What’s the time? What time is it? Could you please tell me the time? Do you have the time?

It is (it’s) ……

the time? Do you have the time? It is (it’s) …… 1 2 3 4 5

1

the time? Do you have the time? It is (it’s) …… 1 2 3 4 5

2

time? Do you have the time? It is (it’s) …… 1 2 3 4 5 6

3

4

Do you have the time? It is (it’s) …… 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5

6

7.It’s a quarter past four. 8.It’s a quarter to nine.

3. KITCHENWARE. CROCKERY AND CUTLERY

3.1. Kitchenware

Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker Blenders & Smoothie Maker Waffle Maker Deep Fryer
Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker Blenders & Smoothie Maker Waffle Maker Deep Fryer
Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker Blenders & Smoothie Maker Waffle Maker Deep Fryer
Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker Blenders & Smoothie Maker Waffle Maker Deep Fryer

Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker

Blenders & Smoothie Maker

Waffle Maker

Deep Fryer

Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok
Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok
Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok
Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok

Skillets & Griddle

Juicer

Mixer

Food Processor

Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok
Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok
Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok
Skillets & Griddle Juicer Mixer Food Processor Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok

Can Opener

Toaster

Toaster Oven

Sandwich Maker

Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan
Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan
Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan
Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan

Wok

Pot

Kettle

Rotisserie

Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar
Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar
Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar
Oven Sandwich Maker Wok Pot Kettle Rotisserie Rice Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar

Rice Cooker

Frying pan

Roasting tin (pan)

Jar opener

Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar opener Pasta Maker Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice
Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar opener Pasta Maker Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice
Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar opener Pasta Maker Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice
Cooker Frying pan Roasting tin (pan) Jar opener Pasta Maker Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice

Pasta Maker

Contact/Foreman Grill

Bread maker

Ice Cream Maker

Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner
Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner
Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner
Contact/Foreman Grill Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner

Popcorn Poppers/Maker

Countertop Range & Burner

Water Purification

Pizza Oven

Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner Water Purification Pizza Oven
Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner Water Purification Pizza Oven
Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner Water Purification Pizza Oven
Bread maker Ice Cream Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner Water Purification Pizza Oven

Microwave Oven

Food Dehydrator

Iced Tea & Lemonade Maker

Pot Rack

Dehydrator I ced Tea & Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese
Dehydrator I ced Tea & Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese
Dehydrator I ced Tea & Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese
Dehydrator I ced Tea & Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese

Corkscrews

Vegetable Peeler

Ladle

Spatula

Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese Grater Tongs Whisk Flask
Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese Grater Tongs Whisk Flask
Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese Grater Tongs Whisk Flask
Lemonade Maker Pot Rack Corkscrews Vegetable Peeler Ladle Spatula Cheese Grater Tongs Whisk Flask

Cheese Grater

Tongs

Whisk

Flask

PRACTICE 1. Work in pairs. Try to solve the crossword inserting the names of kitchenware.

W W SK F K T R K A P T E N
W
W
SK
F
K
T
R
K
A
P
T
E
N

3.2. Crockery and cutlery

Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot
Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot
Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot
Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot

Plates

Platter

Bowls

Salt and pepper shaker

Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot
Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot
Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot
Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker Salt-cellar, pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot

Salt-cellar, pepper-caster

Sugar basin

Butter dish

Teapot

pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher
pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher
pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher
pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher

Cup

Mug

Beer mug

Glass

Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher Table spoon, tea spoon
Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher Table spoon, tea spoon
Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher Table spoon, tea spoon
Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher Table spoon, tea spoon

Margarita glasses

Pitcher

Table spoon, tea spoon

Fork and knife

PRACTICE 2. Compose word- groups from the words given in column A and B:

A.

B.

Salt and pepper

pot

Margarita

basin

Tea

shaker

Table

dish

Beer

caster

Sugar

glasses

Salt

cellar

Pepper

mug

Butter

spoon

PRACTICE 3. Insert missing letters and write the names of kitchen equipment. Remember them.

1. C _ n

O

r

2. M

W

e

 

r

3. P

a

O

n

4. W

r

P

n

5. C

e

& H _ t

C

e

M

r

6. R

e

C

 

r

7. F

d

D

 

r

8. M

e

O

n

9. V

e

P

r

10. G

C

e

 

r

11. F

d

P

r

12. h

S

M

r

PRACTICE 4. Complete sentences using is/ are and making plural forms of the words in brackets:

is/ are and making plural forms of the words in brackets: NOTE! In the English language

NOTE! In the English language there are nouns having irregular plural forms. They are such as: child-

children; foot-feet; tooth-teeth, mouse-mice; fish-fish; sheep-sheep; person-people etc.

4. FOOD AND DRINK

4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food

Meat

Poultry

Fish

Seafood

Dairy products

Confectionery

beef

chicken chicken broth duck egg egg in its shell hard / soft - boiled egg scrambled egg (s) bacon and eggs to shell an egg white /yolk [jouk] of an egg goose (plgeese) omlet (te) pheasant turkey (s)

cod

prawn/shrimp

butter

chocolate bar of chocolate ice-cream jam honey marmalade sweet biscuit cake doughnut pie cornflakes tart

veal

plaice

crab

cheese

lamb

herring

lobster

cheese

sandwich

mutton

sardine

crayfish

cheeseburger cream sour cream curds/cottage cheese yoghurt milk skimmed milk

pork

trout

oyster

bacon (fat/lean)

salmon

caviar(e)

liver

carp

kidney

eel

tongue

pike

ham

stuffed fish

hamburger

tinned fish

whole milk

sausage (s)

sour milk

beefsteak;

chop

 

cutlet

 

Vegetables

Fruit

Berries

Nuts

Herbs and spices

Cereals

aubergine

apple

cranberry currant black / red / white currant; gooseberry grapes raisin raspberry strawberry bilberry wild strawberry

almond

parsley

corn

tomato

apricot

peanut

thyme

wheat

cabbage

banana

walnut

dill

rice

cauliflower

lemon

hazelnut

mint

buckwheat

spinach

orange

cinnamon

cereal

cucumber

melon

ginger

grain

carrot

peach

nutmeg

garlic

pear

pepper

onion

pineapple

mustard

lettuce

plum

vinegar

radish

cherry

horse radish

potatoes

pomegranate

 

basil

pulses

tangerine

beans

grapefruit

peas

watermelon

4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes

You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes:

My favourite food is fish. I (really) like apples but I don’t like bananas.

I don’t like bananas very much.

I don’t like tomatoes.

I don’t like tomatoes at all!

I hate onions.

tomatoes. I don’t like tomatoes at all! I hate onions. What is your favourite food? Do
tomatoes. I don’t like tomatoes at all! I hate onions. What is your favourite food? Do

What is your favourite food? Do you like grapefruit? Yes, I do, but I prefer pears to grapefruit. Don’t you like bananas? Do you really hate onions?

What food do you like? Why do you like watermelons?

What food do you like? Why do you like watermelons? We like different kinds of food

We like different kinds of food because of some nutrients or taste. We can use such questions to find out the taste of a product or food:

How does it (your salad) taste like? Do you like the taste of it (this cake)? Would you like to taste it (this pie)? To describe the taste we can use:

Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hot / spicy, bland, mild, tasty, tasteless, greasy: too much oil / fat, overcooked / overdone, undercooked / underdone, done to a turn, just perfect, not overdone, delicious, artificial additives. Food always has nutrients: minerals, proteins, vitamins, fats, carbohydrates, fibre, starch.

NOTE! A Noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:

proteins, vitamins , fats, carbohydrates, fibre, starch. NOTE! A Noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:

PRACTICE 1. Tell your likes and dislikes. Complete the table below:

Type of food

My favourite … is

I like …

I don’t like …

I hate …

Meat and poultry

       

Fish and seafood

       

Dairy products

       

Confectionary

       

Fruit and vegetables

       

Berries and nuts

       

PRACTICE 2.

a) Find the pairs of antonyms.

1

ripe

2 sweet

3 raw

4 fresh

5 slimming

6 spicy

7 tender

8

stale

9 fattening

10 sour

11 mild

12 cooked

13 unripe

14 tough

b) Complete the sentences using some of the adjectives given above.

1. I can not eat this cake - it's too

and I'm on a diet.

2. The curry burns my mouth, it is so

3. Could you pass me the sugar, please, I'll put some in this lemon juice, it's too

4. This steak is so

5. I can't cut this bread, it's so

6. These apples are green and not very

7. This fish is almost

I can't even chew it!

, I suppose.

,

you have to cook it for fifteen minutes more.

4.3. Vocabulary. Names of drinks

 

Drinks

Beverages (alcohol)

Hot drinks

Still

Fizzy

juice still mineral water milk-shake

sparkling mineral water soda water Coca-Cola (coke) lemonade

Beer

coffee (black, with milk ) to make coffee to grind coffee tea hot chocolate cocoa

cider

wine

 

cocktail

 

champagne

whisky

vodka

 

tequila

We usually say:

A tea, coffee, cocoa, hot chocolate

cup of

A juice, mineral water, soda water, coke, lemonade, beer, wine, whisky, champagne

glass of

A tea, beer

mug of

For example:

For example: My favourite drink is orange juice. I (really) like coffee but I don’t like

My favourite drink is orange juice.

I (really) like coffee but I don’t like tea.

I don’t like tea very much.

I don’t like vodka.

I don’t like beer at all!

I hate milk.

What is your favourite drink?

Do you like beer?

Yes, I do, but I prefer apple juice to beer.

Don’t you like milk?

Do you really hate vodka?

What cocktails do you like?

Why do you like champagne?

What cocktails do you like? Why do you like champagne? PRACTICE 3. Move around the classroom
What cocktails do you like? Why do you like champagne? PRACTICE 3. Move around the classroom

PRACTICE 3. Move around the classroom and ask about your friends’ favourite drinks. Complete the table below:

Favourite drink?

Student’s 1

Student’s 2

Student’s 3

Student’s 4

Why?

4.4. Do you like and would you like:

Would is the same in all persons. We use would like in offers and requests:

I would like a drink.

My friend would like a cup of tea and a sandwich.

Would you like anything to eat? Yes, please. I’d like some fish. I am hungry. Would you like anything to drink? No, thank you. I am not thirsty.

PRACTICE 4. Choose the correct sentence.

1)

A Do you like a drink?/ Would you like a drink?

B

Yes, please. Some Coke, please.

2)

A

Can I help you?

B

Yes. I like a packet of cigarettes./ Yes. I'd like a packet of cigarettes, please.

3)

A What sports do you do?

 

B

Well, I'd like swimming very much./ Well, I like swimming very much.

4)

A

Are you ready to order your meal, sir?

B

Yes. I’d like a steak, please./ Yes. I like a steak.

 

5. BREAKFAST

5.1.

Meals of the day

breakfast; lunch; dinner; supper; snack / bite; to have a snack

meal: the food taken at one time dish: food prepared for the table course: a division or part of a meal dessert starter/hors d'oeuvre refreshments substantial meal

She eats three meals a day.

What's the main course ? There are five meat and three fish dishes.

NOTE! We say:

 

breakfast

lunch

dinner

supper

to have

a meal

a snack

a bite

a drink

a smoke

5.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast

As a general trend, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer, more

southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a greater

variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern- and central-European countries.

An institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions and served in hotels

world-wide is known as a European "Continental breakfast". It is a light snack meant to tide one over

until lunch. It consists mainly of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) with a variety of

sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate

filling. It is often served with juice. For example, the typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls or

toast with butter, honey, jam, ham or sausage, a soft-boiled egg, and coffee. However, cereals have become

popular, and regional variation is significant. A traditional Dutch breakfast consists of a combination of

poached eggs, bacon, sausage, breakfast cake, and cold sliced meat such as smoked horse or smoked beef.

In Eastern European countries with cold climates, such as Russia, breakfasts tend to be substantial. Zavtrak

may consist of hot oatmeal, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with butter, and coffee or tea.

Yoghurt or, especially in central and eastern Europe, kefir may be consumed. In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of bowls (rather than cups or mugs) of coffee, often café au lait, or hot chocolate with slices of baguette spread with jam - to be dunked. Croissants are also traditional. A full “English breakfast”, or traditional fry-up, is a traditional breakfast meal in England. While weekday breakfasts in England often consist of a brief meal of cereal and/or toast, the fry-up is commonly eaten in a leisurely fashion on Saturday or Sunday mornings. Whether the fry-up is accompanied by orange juice and usually an abundant supply of tea or coffee, or only bacon, eggs, and toast, it is regarded as a ritual comfort and a wholly satisfying start to a day of work or leisure. The ingredients of a fry-up vary according to region and taste. At its heart, the meal it consists of bacon and eggs, but to earn the title of a "Full English" a number of other ingredients are expected. The bacon and eggs are traditionally fried, but grilled bacon and poached or scrambled eggs may be offered as alternatives. Some of the additional ingredients that might be offered as part of a Full English breakfast include: toast, fried bread, or bread and butter; sausages; fried, grilled or tinned tomatoes; mushrooms; black pudding; baked beans; kidneys; potatoes, chips, hash browns or bubble and squeak; condiments such as ketchup and brown sauce

Common beverages at breakfast worldwide include fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grapefruit juice, etc.), milk, tea, and coffee. Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages at breakfast.

PRACTICE 1. Compare Continental and English breakfast meals filling-in the table below. Discuss your answers with your friend.

Meal

Continental breakfast

English breakfast

My breakfast

Yoghurt

     

Toast and jam

     

Latte

     

Bacon and eggs

     

Poached eggs

     

Croissant

     

Savoury pastries

     

Breakfast cereal

     

Smoked beef

     

Fruit juice

     

Kidneys

     

Fry-ups

     

5.3. Past Simple Tense

We use the Past Simple Tense to indicate past time events. We know the time of the event. E.g. yesterday, last month/ year/ summer…, in 1980, on holidays, at Christmas etc. Study this example:

My grandfather’s neighbor was a famous cook. He lived from 1922 to 1992. He opened his first restaurant at the age of seventeen. He had five famous Italian restaurants when he was forty.

Lived/opened/had/was are all Past Simple. Very often the Past Simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): We invited them to our party but they decided not to come. But many verbs are irregular when the Past Simple verb does not end in -ed. For example:

have – had - He had five famous Italian restaurants. see - saw - We saw Rose in town a few days ago. go – went - I went to the cinema three times last week. shut – shut - It was cold, so I shut the window.

For a list of irregular verbs, see the table below:

Infinitive

Past

Participle

Translation

be

was, were

been

būti

become

became

become

tapti

begin

began

begun

prasidėti

bite

bit

bitten

kąsti

break

broke

broken

sudaužyti, sulaužyti

bring

brought

brought

atnešti

burn

burnt

burnt

(nu)degti

buy

bought

bought

pirkti

catch

caught

caught

pagauti

choose

chose

chosen

pasirinkti

come

came

come

ateiti

cost

cost

cost

kainuoti

cut

cut

cut

pjaustyti

do

did

done

daryti, veikti

drink

drank

drunk

gerti

eat

ate

eaten

valgyti

fall

fell

fallen

kristi

feed

fed

fed

maitinti

feel

felt

felt

jausti(s)

find

found

found

rasti

freeze

froze

frozen

sušalti

get

got

got

gauti

give

gave

given

duoti

go

went

gone

eiti

grind

ground

ground

malti

have

had

had

turėti

lend

lent

lent

paskolinti

lose

lost

lost

pamesti

make

made

made

pagaminti

put

put

put

padėti

shake

shook

shaken

kratyti, plakti

smell

smelt

smelt

užuosti, uostyti

speak

spoke

spoken

kalbėti

spend

spent

spent

praleisti, išleisti

spill

spilt/ spilled

spilt/ spilled

išpilti

take

took

taken

paimti

tell

told

told

pasakyti

think

thought

thought

galvoti

throw

threw

thrown

mesti

In questions and negatives we use did/didn't + infinitive (enjoy/see/go etc.):

A.: Did you go out last night?

B:

Yes, I went to the cinema but I didn't enjoy the film much.

The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were.

NOTE! We do not use did in negatives and questions with was/were:

• I was angry because they were late.

Was the weather good when you were on holiday?

• They weren't able to come because they were so busy.

Did you go out last night or were you too tired?

Study the table:

Sent.

Question

Auxiliary

Subject

Auxiliary

Verb,

Object

Adverbial Modifier

 

type

word

Verb/ to

Verb

II f.

Manner

Place

Time

be

 
     

I

 

loved

   

You

made

Positive

We

brought

They

wrote

He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake

tasted

 

smelled

was

were

     

I

 

love

me

nicely

at work

in the morning in the evening in the afternoon

You

make

you

beautifully in the kitchen

We

did not

bring

him

tasty

at home

Negative

They

(didn’t)

write

her

loudly

at the restaurant during the day

He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake

taste

them

precisely

at school in prison in the café on the table

at night in summer in winter at 8 o’clock

smell

us

happily

was not

my

greatly

 

were not

dog

bitterly

 

When

     

love

a letter

 

Why

did

make

Where

I

bring

How

you

write

What

we

taste

(kas,ką?)

they

smell

Whom

he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

Question

(ką?)

was

 

Who (ką?)

were

PRACTICE 2. Make dialogues using the examples below:

What do you usually have for breakfast? What is your favourite breakfast dish? What did you have for breakfast yesterday? What do you have for breakfast at weekends? What did you have for breakfast on Sunday? Do you like cooking breakfast?

And what about you?

PRACTICE 3. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. 1) It was warm, so I …… off my coat. (take) 2) The film wasn't very good. I ……. enjoy it very much. (enjoy)

3)

I knew Sarah was very busy, so I

her.

(disturb)

 

4)

I was very tired, so I

to

5)

The bed was very uncomfortable. I

bed early. (go) very

well. (sleep)

6)

Sue wasn't hungry, so she

anything.

(eat)

7)

We went to Kate's house but she

at

home. (be)

8)

It was a funny situation but nobody

(laugh)

9)

The window was open and a bird

into

the room. (fly)

10)The hotel wasn't very expensive. It

 

very

much. (cost)

11) I was in a hurry, so I

time

to phone you. (have)

 

12) It was hard work carrying the bags. They

 

very

heavy. (be)

6. LUNCH AND TIFFIN

6.1. Lunch

Lunch is a meal that is taken at noon or in the early afternoon. The term is short for "luncheon". Lunch is a newer word for what was once invariably called "dinner," a word nowadays only sometimes used to mean a noontime meal in the British Isles, and in parts of the United States, Canada and Australia. In parts of India a light lunch is known as tiffin. Lunch food varies. In some places, one eats similar things both at lunch and at supper - a hot meal, sometimes with more than one course. In other places, lunch is the main meal of the day, supper being a smaller cold meal. German and Scandinavian lunch mostly is large and cooked (as opposed to, say, a sandwich).

is large and cooked (as opposed to, say, a sandwich). Lunch from Karnataka served on a

Lunch from Karnataka served on a plantain leaf.

6.2. Tiffin

Tiffin is an Indian and British English dialect word meaning a light meal eaten during the day. The word became popular in British India, deriving from tiffing, an old English dialect or slang word for taking a little drink or sip. In modern day India, the word mostly is used for light lunches prepared for working Indian men by their wives after they have left for work, and forwarded to them by Dabbawalas (people who

carry boxes) who use a complex system to get thousands of tiffin-boxes to their destinations. The lunches are packed in tin boxes, also sometimes called tiffins or tiffin-boxes. A common approach is to put rice in one box, dal in another and yet other items in the third or fourth. The other items could be breads, such as naan, vegetable curry and finally a sweet. In Chinese cultures, the stacked porcelain or metal round trays with handles are called tiffin carriers. People also refer to cups of tea as "a cup of tiffin".

PRACTICE 1. Group the meals into the following categories:

Dishes/ drinks

Breakfast

Second breakfast

Elevenses

Brunch

Lunch

Tiffin

A cup of tiffin; sausages; pastries; seafood; tea; coffee; bacon; ham; fruits; pastries; biscuits; vegetable curry; buns; dumplings; sweets.

           

6.3. Future Simple Tense. Future Simple is used to describe future actions and events. We use I'll (- I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. E.g.: Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it. What would you like

to drink?

In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (- will not. E.g.: I can see you're busy, so I won't stay

long. We often use will in these situations:

I’ll have an orange juice, please.'

Offering to do something: That bag looks heavy. I’ll help you with it.

Agreeing to do something: A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished with it? B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon.

Promising to do something: Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise.

Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.

Asking somebody to do something (Will you Will you shut the door, please?

-?)

Shall I

Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I

We use shall I

open the window? Where shall we go this evening?

?

Shall we

?

?

/ shall we

?

?

/ shall we

?

to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions)-

Shall I

We often use will ('ll) with:

probably

I'll probably be home late this evening.

expect

I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening.

(I'm) sure

Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.

(I) think

Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?

(I) don't think

I don't think the exam will be very difficult.

I wonder

I wonder what will happen.

I shall

/ we shall Normally we use shall only with I and we. You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or we will

(we'll): I shall be tired this evening, (or I will be

We will probably go

The negative of shall is shall not or shan't: I shan't be here tomorrow, (or 1 won't be shall with he/she/it/you/they: She will be very angry, (not 'she shall be')

}.

We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday, (or

) Do not use

)

In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll: We'll probably go to Scotland.

Study the table

Sent.

Question

Auxiliary

Subject

Auxiliary

Will/

Object

Adverbial Modifier

 

type

word

Verb/ to

Verb

shall +

Manner

Place

Time

be

Verb

 
     

I

 

love

   

You

make

Positive

We

bring

They

write

He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake

taste

 

smell

be

     

You

will not

love

me

nicely

at work

in the morning in the evening in the afternoon

They

(won’t)

make

you

beautifully in the kitchen

He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake

bring

him

tasty

at home

Negative

write

her

loudly

at the restaurant during the day

taste

them

precisely

at school in prison in the café on the table

at night in summer in winter at 8 o’clock

smell

us

happily

I

shall not

was not

my

greatly

 

We

(shan’t)

were not

dog

bitterly

 

When

 

We

 

love

a letter

 

Why

shall

I

make

Where

will

you

bring

How

we

write

What

they

taste

(kas,ką?)

he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

smell

Whom

Question

(ką?)

Who (ką?)

PRACTICE 2. Put in will ('ll) or won't.

1) Can you wait for me? I hope I won’t be very long.

2)

There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It

rain.

3)

If you don't eat anything now, you

be

hungry later.

 

4)

I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It

happen

again.

5)

I've got some incredible news! You

never

know

believe what's happened.

6)

Don't ask Margaret for advice. She

what to do.

7. TEA. DINNER. SUPPER

7.1. Tea

Tea is the afternoon/evening meal, called that even if the diners are drinking beer, cider, or juice. It traditionally takes place at sometime around 6pm (though these days, it often takes place as late as 9pm).

In Scotland, Northern England, a significant part of the English Midlands, New Zealand, and sometimes in Australia and Northern Ireland, tea as a meal is synonymous with dinner in Standard English. Under such usage, the midday meal is sometimes termed dinner, rather than lunch.

7.2. Dinner

Dinner is a term with several meanings. Around North America in general, dinner may be a synonym of supper – that is, a large evening meal. However, in parts of Canada and the United States, dinner can be a synonym of lunch, with the evening meal in turn called supper. For the most part these terms only persist in rural areas, particularly in the Southern United States and among older Americans. In the United Kingdom, dinner traditionally meant the main meal of the day. Because of differences in custom as to when this meal was taken, dinner might mean the evening meal (typically in the higher social classes) or the midday meal (typically in lower social classes, who may describe their evening meal as tea). There is sometimes snobbery and reverse snobbery about which meaning is used. "Dinner", especially outside North America, is any meal consisting of multiple courses. The minimum is usually two but there can be as many as seven.

minimum is usually two but there can be as many as seven. Possible dinner courses are:

Possible dinner courses are:

1) Hors d'oeuvres (also known as appetizers, starters) refer to the food served before or outside of the main dishes of a meal. Hors d'oeuvre might include canapés, snack foods, cheeses, sausages. 2) Soup course. Traditionally, soups are classified into two broad groups: clear soups and thick soups. 3) Fish course. Some commonly harvested and eaten fish sp