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. .

39.425.5
81.2
89
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. : , 2001 112 .

ISBN 966-742-53-0

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. ,

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,
.
- -
,
,
,
.

..
..

5.01.2001. 5
. . 1000 .

. 270014. . . , 16 / 90
/: 28-77-73, 21-04-22

, 2001


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1. ............................................... 33
2. .............................................................. 38
3. ................................................................ 42
4. ............................................................................. 47
5. .............................................................. 53
6. .............................................................. 57
7. ....................................................... 63
8. ....................................................... 70
9. ...................................................................... 76
10. ......................................................................... 83
- .................................................................. 88


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argo ship
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10

Whose :
How
How

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How

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When `
Which `

Whose is
that ship?
:
How do you do?
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ships?
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water?
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heavy

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hard

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old
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bad

good

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complex `

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strong

weak

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dry

wet

11

dark
warm
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12

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take
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see
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saw
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run
p

taken
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driven
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seen
:

13

()

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get

got


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meet
:

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met

nter
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speak
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give

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et

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carry
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stayed

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rest

15

( )
1-
open

fall

drink

pay

turn
:

let

show
`

approach
,
`

arrive

bring

come

ask

pass

16

2-
opened
`

fell

drank

payed

turned
:

let

showed
`

approached
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arrived
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brought

came

asked
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passed

.
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opened
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fallen
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shown
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approached
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come

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work
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hear
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remove
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heard

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spent

lost

removed
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17


( )
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want
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:

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wanted
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:

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3-
wanted
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:


.
1) , ,
, ,
:
:
: `
I speak English

`
a little.
-.
` `
Tankers enter

`
oil terminal

through western gate. : ` `
.
: ` `
You often visit

your friend in the city. : ` `
.

1- ,
3-
(-s) (-es):
`: `
She speaks only

`
French
-
(`)
(Spanish).
( ).
He enters my cabin
whithout permission.
This clock goes fast.

` `
`` `
` ` `

He spoke bad
Russian.
Sailors entered
mess-room
with masters
permission.
My brother
visited me
every Sunday.

:
`
`
c
`
` `
`
`
`
` `

18


.
.

-.



.


.

2- ,

:
` `:
We shall speak

English.
-.
`: ` `
Steward will enter

`
cabins

: `
for everyday

`:
cleaning.
.
: `
Youll visit

: `
your parents

` `
after the voyage.
.

1-
to be, ,
. shall will
ll.
2) ,
.
:
`
Sorry,
,
` `
I am speaking

` `
to the pilot now.
.

`
The ship is entering
()
`
oil terminal

` ` `
with great care.
.
: ``:
We are visiting you

` `:
by a chance.
.
1-
- -ing, to be
(, ),
:
They were speaking
to me about
the problem yesterday.

`
` `
` `

`
Mary

` ` `:
will be entering port

` `
exactly at 7.
7.
to be shall be
will be.

19

3) 3-
(,
):
` `
The tanker has taken

` ` `
about 40 tons
40
`
of water.
.
`: `
The crew had left

` ``
Odessa and arrives

`:
this morning.
.
` `
Well have made

`
the repair

`: `:
before departure.
.
3-
to have
, .
4) (ing- ) (3-
) :
`: `
We are watching

a tanker entering ` `
,
`:
oil terminal.
.
`: `
I saw him spoken
,
`
to the master.
.

:

fast
slowly `
`
`

always

never
`

long ago
recently `

`:

late

early
`
:

seldom

often
`

now

soon
:
`

sometimes
`
immediately
`

usually
`

already
`:

at first
:
`

everywhere

nowhere `
`:

forward

backward `
`
`

here

there

left

right
(,
(,
)
)

20


:
at two oclock
at midnight
on Monday
on

on a day off
in the
morning
in

in the evening

in the summer
(un)til
()

(un)til
the noon
5
by five oclock
by

by the end
of July
8
since eight
oclock
since

1990 .
since
nineteen ninety
:

at

, , from /
/ , to
,

onto /
off

` /

into /
out of

` /
`
()

.

.

.

They took
the ferry
to Varna.
Mary sailed
from Yalta.
The case fell
onto the deck.
The launch
took off
the pilot.
The cargo
was lowered
into the hold.
ars were
lifted out
of the hold.

`
`
`
`

`:
`:
`
()
`:
` `
`
`
`
`

`:
`
`
`

`

` `
` `
`
`
`
`:
`
` `
`:
` `
`

21

,
/

Towards
/ away
from

up
/ / down

,
/

across /
along

over /
under

,
/ ,

/ behind /
in front

of

22

(a)round
/ through

by,
past

`:
/ `
.
`

.
/ `

` /
.
`


` /
.
`

` /
` .
()

.

.
()`

/ :

.
-
,

You are
driving
towards
the rock.
They
drifted
away from
the shore.
The sailor
is climbing
up the mast.
The flag was
hauled down.
Ill not go
across
the channel.

::
`
`:

`
`
`:
`
`
`
` `
`: `
` `
`
`

Sea trams
sail along
the coast.
People
walk over
the bridge.
The barge
passed under
the bridge.

: `
`
`
`:
`: `
`
`:
`
`

A plan
flies
behind
the lighthouse.
The gulls flew
in front of
the lighthouse.
We are sailing
round the buoy.
The diver
swam
through
the shoal.
A tanker
passed by
the receving
buoy.

`
`
`
`
` `:
`
`
` : `
` `
`
`
C:
`
`
`
`:
`

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
20
21
22
23
30
40
50
60
100
157

200
800
1000

10000

100000

:
:
`
:
one
first
`
:
two
second

:
three
third
:
:
four
fourth

five
fifth

six
sixth

`
`
seven
seventh

eight
eighth

nine
ninth

ten
tenth
`
`
eleven
eleventh
`
`
twelve
twelfth
`:
`:
thirteen
thirteenth
:`:
:`:
fourteen
fourteenth
`:
`:
fifteen
fifteenth
`
`
twenty
twentieth
`` twenty-first ``:
twentyone
``
``:
twentytwentytwo
second
`` twenty``:
twentythree
third
`
`
thirty
thirtieth
`:
`:
forty
fortieth
`
`
fifty
fiftieth
`
`
sixty
sixtieth
`
`
one
hundredth
`
hundred
`
` one
hundred`
`hundred
fifty`
and fifty- `seventh
`
seven
`:
`:two
two`
`
hundred
hundredth
`
`eight
eight`
`
hundred
hundredth
` ` thousandth `
one
thousand
`
`ten
ten`
thouthousandth `
sand
`
`a hunhundred-

23

1000000

dred
thousand
a million

thousandth

`
a ten
a dozen
a hundred
pair
half
one third
quarter

millionth
`
a `
`
`
()
` `:
`

,

all, many, some ..
.
:

, , ,
all
all
`
`

most
most
`

;
many;
much;
` ()

a lot (of);
a lot (of); ` ()
`:
`:

a large
a large
` () amount
`
number (of)
()
(of)

;
some;
some;
`
`
;
several;
a little
;
`
a few
.
`

,
few
little
`
`
;
no;
no

none
none

:
1) all, most, many, much, some, several, (a) few, (a) little
, .
:
` `
All liners carry

` :
passengers or car
`:
go.
.
` `
All follow regular

`:
routes.
.
Some cargo

24

`:

is carried in holds.
Some is carried
on deck.

` `
` `
`

.

.

2) Much
:
`
He had

` `
a lot of money

` `
after the voyage.
.
He has not
much money when
going on shore.

`
` ` `
` `:


,
.

Is there much cargo


to be unloaded?

` `:
` `

3)

a large number a large amount


, of:
`: `
A large number

`
of passengers

`: `
prefer aircraft.
.

4) ,
little / a little few / a few ,
.
:
` `
There was

`:
a little time before

`: `
departure, so he
,
:
stayed ashore

`
longer.
.
` `
There was

`:
little time before

`: `
departure, so he
,
`:
went on board

`
at once.
.
:
A few people

:`
are sitting on deck
,
because the weather ` `

`:
is worm.
.
:
Few people

:`
are sitting on deck
,
because the weather ` `

`
is cold.
.

25


1) , , ,

weight

height

depth

degree

length

capacity
-
square meter
~ ~
~ ~s
-
cubic feet

volume

area

thickness

angle

breadth, width
2)

minute

second

hour

GMT,
Greenwich Mean Time

summer time

standard time

2-

~
~

26


day
sunrise, dawn
morning
in the morning
this ~
noon
after~
evening
in the ~
sunset
night
at ~
mid~

`:

`
` `
` `
` `:
`
`
`

, `

`
`
`
`
` :
`
`

`, :
`:
` `:
`:
:
``:
`:
` `:
`

`
`

week
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
the day before yesterday
yesterday
to-day
to-morrow
the day after to-morrow

`:
`
`
`
`:
`
`
`
` `: `
`
`
`
` `

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
spring
summer
autumn
winter
year
season
all year round

`
`
:
`

:
`
`:
`
`
`
`

`
`
`
`
`:
` `

)

,
.
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1,5-2 ,

27

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- :
adishemisemi
midoverreununder-

sternastern
chargedischarge
spherehemisphere
circlesemicircle
shipmidship
loadoverload
buildrebuild
knownunknown
waterunderwater

- :
-al
coast
coastal
-ial
air
airial

28

:
`:
:
`:
`
`
:
`:

`
`
`

`
`
`
`
`

`
`
`
`


(-)

(
)
-

-er
-or

,


drive

`
driver


sail

`
sailor

-ic



base

`
basic
,

-ly

,

`
special

specially

`
man

manly

:
After
`

`:
~noon
~wards

Some, any, every, no:


`
Something
`
Sometimes
`
Everyday

- (some + thing - )
(some + time - )
(every+day ) ..

,
, :
heat
:
,

superheat
`:

heater
`:

superheater
`:
()


, , ,
. :
:
to look at...

:
to look out
,
: :
to look for

: :
to look through
()
`
to look after
,

.

29

)
() .
()
.



!
!

?



(
)

, .
!
!

( )
-


()


,
( )

!

?

,

30

Its all the same


(to me).
You should(nt)
do it.
That's all
That's why
Let me see
Good luck!
Hallo (Hi)!
Excuse me (Sorry)
Sorry to trouble you

`
( )
: `()


` `
:
`
` ()
` (`)
` ` :

How are you?


By the way
It seems to me
Not at all

` : :
`
:
`

Never mind
Its nothing (really)
Just a moment
(minute)!
Congratulations!
So long

`
` (`)
` `
(`)
`
`

To my mind
I see
First of all
On the one (other)
hand
See you soon
It depends


:
`: `
` (`)

: `:
`

Have a good
tripe!
See you later
What did you say?
It looks like
I do my best

: : `
' : `?
`
` `

I am very glad



Let us (Lets)
May I ask you ...

Dont worry
(-)
Dont be late
,
Say it again, please
(-)
Lets go
(-)!
Look here (I say)!

This way, please

May I invite you





()

,
!


,
()
(),

` ()
:
` `
`
` ` :
`
` ( `)
` :
` :


: `
You know best
` `
Quite possibly
: : (`)
You are (quite) right
Thats settled
Of course (Certainly)
Fine!
With pleasure
So much the better
All right (O.K.)
I (quite) agree
I think (hope) so



You are wrong
()
(mistaken)
?
Are you sure?
()
(Of course) not
!
What a pity!
,
Im sorry,
(-)
but I cant

I am very sorry
, Impossible

Never

By no means
( )

No good (at all)


( )

I dont agree

I refuse

I am against it

I doubt it

`
: (`:)

` `
` `
(`:)
(`) `:
(`) `

: :
(`)
: : `
:
` `
`
`
` `
`:
`
` :
` (`)
` `:
`:
`
`

31

()

.
.

hank you (very much)


hanks for your help
Not at all.
Dont mention it.

*-Is this your ship?


Yes, it is.
No, it is not.
No, it is not our
ship.
*-What time is it
by your watch?
Its two oclock sharp.
Ive already
a quarter past two.
Is my watch wrong?
Yes, I think so,
its not in order.
*-Do you speak
English?
Yes, I speak
English, but
now I am speaking
Russian

)
` :

`
` `

`
: `
` :
`
`
`
`
`:
: :
`
:
`
` `:
`

It is necessary
for a seaman to
speak good English.

`
: `:
: `

What language
can you speak
well?

` `
: :
`

` ( )
: :
`

?
.

,
.

?
2 .

.
?
, ,
.

-?
,
- ,


.

)
,
, ,
. , to go
(go, went, gone); ,
(, , manmen)
..
,
. -s
3- Present Indefinite
. , ,

32

, ,
(-), (~).
, - :
`
colour

`
~ed (coloured)
~ ()
`
~less (colourless)

-:

-, ~, ~, ~
my
`
, ~
load

.
,
, .
,
,
.
. :
()`:

good morning

.

.

1.

~
~
~-
~-

, ,
( )
~
~
~
~
~
,

1.
bulk carrier
shore
tug, tugboat
harbo(u)r (yard) tug
deep-sea
oceanic tug
salvage tug
pusher tug
inner roads
harbo(u)r
(bagged) cargo
baled ~
bulk ~
dangerous ~
deck ~
perishable~
channel, canal,
fairway
harbour master

`
:
, `
` , `: `
`:`: `,
` `
` `
` `
``
`:
(`) `:
` `:
`:
` `:
`:
` `:
`, `,
`
`: `

33



,
, ;
,

, ,

,

~
~
~
~

container carrier
pilot station
route
sea
rough sea

` `
` `
:
:
` :

carry

oil

equipment
ferry (~boat)
jetty
loading port
discharging port
port of call
port of destination
home port
berth, quay
channel, canal
time-table
voyage
life-boat
~-station
ship, vessel
shipping
merchant

`
`, `
`
` `:
`: `:
`: `:
`: `
` `:
, :
, `
` `
`
`
``
,
`
`

1.

inward vessel
( , )
~
outward vessel
~
leaving vessel
~
passenger ship
~
fishing vessel
~
dry cargo ship
~
merchant ship

`:
`:
`:
`
`
`:
`

1.
Merchant Shipping
Merchant ships carry cargo or passengers. They can operate in three
ways. First, they can operate as liners. These are employed on regular
routes on a fixed timetable. Their arrival and departure dates are published
in advance and they sail whether full or not.
All liners carry passengers or cargo. All follow regular routes. Many
ferryboats and container carriers operate as liners.

34

Merchant ships also operate as tramps. These vessels do not sail on


regular routes or keep to a fixed timetable, but they are employed where
there is cargo for them to carry. Most of them are dry bulk carriers but some
carry general cargoes.
A large number of merchant ships operate as specialized vessels, carrying particular types of cargo. The most common are oil tankers. They are
often very large, because very much oil needs to be transported. Container
carriers carry containers of standard dimensions, therefore stowage is
easier.
Passenger ships are fewer in number and type than cargo vessels. Nowadays their number is being reduces because of competition of air transport.
The most common type of modern passenger vessel is the ferry.
A Voyage
On 6 April 1999, general cargo ship, the M/V DIOMEDE left the port of
New Orleans in the USA for Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands. She sailed
across the Gulf of Mexico, through the Yucatan Channel and along the north
coast of Jamaica, calling at Kingston. Here she discharged part of her
machinery cargo and loaded some canned fruits. It took her about a week.
Then she passed through the Panama Canal and across the Pacific Ocean
to Hawaii.
The Port of Juzhny
The port situated on the sides of the Adjaliksky Lyman, nearby the
Odessa gulf, was put into operation in June 1978. Port operations are made
on three complexes. The first one handles carbamide, packed or in bulk. It
has two berths, five hundred meters of total length. The second complex
handles gas-carriers bringing in superphosphoric acid or taking liquid
ammonia. Its berth has special cargo handling equipment, depth alongside
the piers are sufficient to accommodate ships of up to 55000 DWT. The third
complex handles coal, iron ore, pipes, packaged metal, bauxite etc. with big
gantry cranes.
*- There is a passenger
liner in the port.
Is she your ship?
No, she is not.
Shes not my ship.
Yes, there is my ship,
but she is
not a liner
Shes a modern
cruise ship (steamer)

1.
` `
` `:
` `: `
` `
` `
` ` `
`:
` `
``:
`: (:)

,
?
.
.
, ,

.

()

35

*- How many ships


` ` `
were there in the port? ` ` `:

None.
(There were 12 ships.)

( ` ` )

.
(12 .)

*- Do you take on any


(cargo in this port)
(containers
on the deck)
passengers on board?
Never.
(Yes, sometimes.)
Yes, we usually
take on some cargo
in this port
*- When does
the ship arrive?
She arrives
in a month.
The ship arrived
on time.
The ship is
to arrive
next Tuesday.
*- We start at 8
to-morrow morning.

`: `o `
(`: `:)
(`
`)
` `:
`
(` `)
` ` `
`:
`:
`
` `?
`
`
` `
`
`

`
`: `
` `:


( )
(
)

We started
at 9 in the evening.
*- The ship is to sail
in a weeks time.
This voyage
will take us 4 weeks.
Where will you go
now?
We shall go
to our home port.
*- Have you ever
been to London
(into the Baltic)?
What is the best
season for
navigation?
I dont know.
Ive been there only
once in summer
(in autumn).

`:
` :

`
`
` ` : `
` : `
`
`
` ` :
` : `
: `
(` `)
`o `
`: :
`
` `
: `a `
` `
(`:)

36

, .
(, .)
,

.

?

.

-.


.
8

.

9 .

.

4 .

?

.
() ()
( ) ?


?
.


().

What a pity! Well


sail there the whole
next year round.
We are to sail
back to Europe
in a few days.
*- When did you leave
your home port?
A month ago.
Have you called
at any
foreign port?
No, we havent.
And are you going
to call at any other
port in future?
Yes, we are going
to call at Aden
in two weeks.
*- How long are you
going to
stay here?
Not more than four days.
We have to fill
our store and make
a small repair.
What kind of repairs?
We had some problems
with our steering
gear
during the voyage.
A diver
must examine
a rudder and
a rudderpost.

` ` `
` `
` `
`:
` `:
`:
` : `:
: ` `:
` `
: `

` `:
` `
`: : `
` `
: `
` : `
`:

` : :
`
`
` `: `:
` `
`: `
`
` `
` `
` `

` `
`
`
`
`

!

.


.

?
.

-
?
.


?
,

2 .

?
4- .


.
?

1.
,

(, , ..)
some ( any,
no), : some cargo
(, ), any water ? (
), no sugar (, ).
in, on, at
.
on time, in a week ..
.

37


to have, to be to go ,
, ,
.. ,
, can,
may, must 1- , to.

2.

()

~
,


~
,

()
,
-, ~

,
~

38

2.
sternpost
forecastle
barrel, head
board, side
freeboard, topsides
onboard
guy
windlass
shroud
covering board
gooseneck
screw
displacement
rudder trunk
nail
trim
LOA, length overall
LWL, lehgth on the
waterline
bottom
funnel
living space
porthole
fairlead

`:
:
`,
:,
`:, `
`:

`
`
` `:
`:
:
`
`

` `

`
`
`
`
`:
`:

truck
hawse pipe,
navel pipe
samson post, bitt
aft, (a)stern
hull
heel
winch
guardrail
lifeline
stanchion

`: ,
`
`,
, :, `:

:
`
`:
`
`

( ~ )
~
~ ()

bilge

hatch ( ~ cover)
skylight
deadlight
headroom

, `
`
`
`

king plank
superstructure
pump
plating, skin
draught
outhaul, guy,
guiderope

bulkhead
, , gear

rail

thruster
,

dimensions

roller

rudder

crosstrees
,
overhang
,
bow
()
bottle screw,
turnbuckle

awning

topping lift,
span rope

ladder
, ,
pipe

pipeline
~ ( ) argo line

hold

halyard

bulwark
() chain locker

worm gear

sheave

davits

frame, rib

scupper, limber hole


, ~
stay, back~

`
`

`,

`, ,
`
`
`

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
` :
`:
`:
` `
`
`

`
`: `
`
`:
`
`
`:
:
`
,
`, `
, `

39

-
~,

-, ~
,

stem
steering wire
electrical current
voltage
wiring
junction box

`: `
` `
`
`
`

fuse
anchor, ~ing gear
case

` ` `

2.
Ships Architecture
The main part of a ship is the hull. This is the area between the main
deck, the sides starboard side and the port side and the bottom. It is
made up of frames covered with plating, the keel joints them altogether. The
hull is divided up into a number of watertight compartments by decks and
bulkheads. Bulkheads are vertical steel walls going across the ship and
along side. Decks divide the hull horizontally. Those dividing up cargo spaces are known as tween decks. The hull contains the engine room, cargo
space and a number of tanks. In dry cargo ships the cargo space is divided
into holds, in liquid cargo ships it is divided into tanks. At the fore end of the
hull are the forepeak tanks and at the after end are the afterpeak tanks. They
are used for fresh water and ballast water. The space between the holds and
the bottom of the hull contains double bottom tanks. These are used for
water ballast and fuel.
All permanent housing above the main deck is known as superstructure.
For a traditional dry cargo ship main superstructure consisting navigational
bridge and a funnel is placed on the midships, above the main deck. For a
modern ships the engine room and the main superstructure are situated at
the after end of the ship to leave more space to load cargo. In tankers, between the engine room and the cargo hold there is a cofferdam, which protects inflammable cargoes from fire. At the fore end is the forecastle, where
many of mooring and anchoring equipment are mounted.
Displacement
Usually a ships weight is expressed as displacement. There are different
displacements for different types of ship and conditions. For merchant ships:
Load displacement. The weight of water displaced when loaded to her
marks with cargo, stores, fresh water, fuel, water ballast, crew, passengers
and baggage.
Light displacement (light weight). This is the weight of the hull of a ship
and her machinery and spare parts, with water in her boilers and condensers
to working level plus lubricating oil and cooling water.
The Load Line

40

To prevent overloading, a load-line is assigned to every merchant ship.


This is the official mark which a cargo vessel is not allowed to submerge by
loading an excess of cargo. These marks are shown on each side
amidships. Lines of this mark show normal water levels when floating on
fresh or salt water and in various seasons. Thus, a ships draft can differ
from the smallest WNA (Winter, North Atlantic) to the largest TF (Tropical
Fresh waters). A line passing through the centre of the disc indicates
Summer load line in salt water. Actual freeboard, which means the vessels
height above the water, is the distance between upper edge of the deck line
and the waterline. It must be registered in the Official Log on every occasion
a vessel proceeds to sea. A vessel must be so loaded that at no time during
her voyage must the appropriate line be submerged. Only for timber carriers
deeper loading is permitted in certain cases.
2.
*- This is a deck.
Is this a deck?
Yes, it is a deck.
No, it is not a deck,
its a tween deck.
Are there cabins here?
Of course, not.
The crew accommodation is on the
upper deck, inside
the superstructure.
Thats much better.

` `
`
` `
` `
` `
: ` ` `
`: `
`: `
` ` `
`
` `

.
?
, .
, ,
.
?
, .


,
.
.

*- How many holds


do you have?
How many passengers
(are there on board)
do you have
on board?
Are there
any containers
on the deck?
No, there are not.
Yes, there are (some).

` ` `
: `
` ` `
(: `a `:)
: `
`:
: `a
` `
`
`, `a : `
`, `a : ()


( )?

?

*- A windlass is on the
forecastle among the
other anchoring gear.
Is your windlass

`
`: `
` `
` : `

?
.
( ).

41

in order?
Yes, the windlass is
ready.
There are mooring
gears
on the forecastle
and abaft.

`:
`, `
`
: `:
`
`:
`

?
,
.

*- Have you any water


(Is there any water)
in this tank?
Yes, we have some
(water in this tank).
There is no water
What do you have
(What is there)
in that hold?
Some 300 tons
of general cargo.

` : ` `
( ` ` `)
`?
`, `
(` `)
` `
` : `
(` `)
` `
` `
` `:

*- How many cabins are


there on the port side?
There are 4 cabins
on the starboard side.

` ` :
` `: ?
: `: `
`: `


?
4
.

?
,
( ).
.

?
300
.

3.

-, ~

1 .
~ 2 .

42

3.
boatswain, bosun
chief steward
watch, (~man)
assistant
master, captain
qualified
cook
deck department
engine department
officers
petty officers
craneman
winchman
pilot
sailor
able seaman
ordinary seaman
engineer

`, `
: `:
`, `
`
`, `
`
:
`:
` `:
`
`
`
`
`
`
`:
`: :
`

(, )

seaman
seamanship
motorman, oiler
supervision
head
maintaining
catering
department
training
duties
experienced
responsibility
answer
carpenter
promotion
endorsement

`:
`:
`,`
`

``
`
`:
`
`:
`a
`
`
`:
`
`:

responsible
storekeeper
officer, mate
radio officer
helmsman,
ratings
overtime

`
`:`
`,
` `
`
`
`

certificate
chief officer,
first mate
crew list
shipwright
crew member
crew
electrician
electrical officer

:`
`: `,
`:
`: `
`
`: `
:
`
` `

3.
,
...


...
,


( )

the man in charge of...

` `:

...is responsible for


is under
the charge of

` :.

:

he is addressed as

` `

...is made up of

are directly

:`

43

44

responsible to...
to sound the tanks

`
` `

3.
The Organisation of a Ships Crew
The man in charge of a ship is the Master. He is responsible for the ship,
her cargo and the safety of the crew. He must be well qualified and an experienced navigator. His correct title is the Master, but often he is addressed as
Captain.
The crew of a cargo ship consists of Deck, Engine, Catering and Radio
Departments. Each department is made up of officers, petty officers and
ratings. At the head of every department is the most experienced officer.
Masters authority is supreme over all departments.
The Chief Officer (First Mate) is the Masters first assistant and head of
the Deck Department. He is assisted by a Second and Third Officers (Mates)
and sometimes a Fourth Officer (Mate). The Deck Department also includes
petty officers: a Boatswain (Bosun) and a Carpenter, and a number of ratings or non-licensed personnel of the Deck Department: Able-bodied Seamen (AB) and Ordinary Seamen (OS). These seamen compose the working
crew of the deck force.
The Chief Engineer is head of the Engine Department. Engineers, electricians and engine room ratings are directly responsible to the Chief Engineer. On tankers there are also Pumpmen or Donkeymen.
The Catering Department and the Radio Department may consist of only
one person each: the Ships Cook and Radio Officer. On board big passenger ships there are many stewards and cooks to serve passengers, and
three radio officers for keeping continuous radio watch.
The Deck Department
The Deck Department is responsible for navigating the ship safely and
economically from port to port. The Master works out the best course. The
Second Officer is responsible to the Master for keeping the ship on course
and maintaining all the equipment used for navigation. The stowage of cargo
in the holds and keeping it in good conditions during the voyage are the responsibility of the Chief Officer (First Mate). He is helped by the Second and
Third Mates. When the ship is not fully loaded, the First Mate must see that
the holds are cleaned and prepared for their next cargo. In a tanker the cargo tanks are washed out during ballast passages and freed of gas. At sea,
much of the Deck Departments time is spent maintaining the ship and her
equipment in good condition. Ships ratings constantly do cleaning, painting
and repair work under the supervision of the Boatswain (Bosun). The Third
Officer is in charge of the life-saving equipment, which must be complete
and in good working order.
The Boatswain and the Carpenter are directly responsible to the Chief
Officer. The Bosun sees that his orders and orders of other deck officers are
carried out by the crew. He is a man with a lot of knowledge and practical
experience in seamanship. The Carpenter is usually a qualified shipwright.
His regular duty is to sound the tanks and bilges to check the depth of liquids
in them.
The Deck Department is also responsible for keeping watches. An officer
is always on watch on the bridge. He answers to Master for the safety of the
ship during his watch. He is head of all the watchmen on board the ship.

45

3.
*- Who is there?
Its me, Igor Petrenko.
What are you?
Im a seaman
from Odessa.
I am a sailor.
Where are you?
Im here, on
the boat-deck.
Who is that?
Thats our second
officer.

x` `
` `
` : `:
` `:
`
` `
`: `:
`
`
` `
` `
`

?
, .
?

.
.
?
,
.
?
2-
.

*- Who are these?


These are sailors
from a Greek tanker.
And those two people?
They are engine
ratings.

: `:
: : `
`: `
` : `:
` : `
`

?

.
?

.

*- Who speaks
English
on board your ship?
Everybody speaks
a little, and the chief
mate speaks well.
Who is the most
experienced sailor
in your crew?
Our bosun, of course.
He has sailed
on board tankers
more than
fifteen years.

`
`
`: `?
` `
`, `
`
` `
` `
: `:
` ` `:
`
`: `
: `:
`: `


-
?

,
.


?
, .

15- .

*- I say, Igor,
have you got
carpenters certificate?
No, Sir, but I can
do all
carpenters work.


: `:
`:

, ,

?
, ,

.

46

` :
`
`: `:

Sorry, but it is
no use.
According
to Companys
Regulations
a boatswain
must have
carpenters
certificate.
Knowing you
as a good AB
I wanted to give you
a promotion.
Thank you, Sir.
During the leave
Ill pass courses
and shall be ready
by the next voyage,
I hope.
All right.
Lets so hope

c` `
:
`:
`
p`
`
`
`:
`
` :
` `
` ` :
`
` : :
` `:
` `:
`
` `
`
`
` `

,
.

.

,

.
, .



,
.
,

3.
what (?)

: (,
..)?

, ,
, , .

4.

~
()
,
,
:

4.
steep coast
stony (shingly) ~
sand hills, dunes

`: `
` (`)
`
`,

landmark

``:

tower
water tower
windmill
town
village
chimney
railway

`
` `
`
`
`
`
`

47

~
~

()
~
~

()

~
();

48

factory
castle
barracks
fort
bridge
monument
flag staff
church, cathedral
lock
buoy
wind
muzzler
visibility
poor ~
waterproof,
~ tight
wave
bow ~
stern ~
lookout
get underway

`
:

`
`
:, `:

`
`
``
`: `
`:,
`
`
`
:`
`
` `

ground
sand
mud
clay
shingle
stones
rock, rocky
to drift
labouring
rolling
pitching
card, rose
bowl
course
heading line,
lubber ~
lighthouse
light vessel
bridge

`
, `

`
`
`
:, `
`
:
` ,
`
`
`

navigation lights

` `

masthead light
riding light
binnacle

` `
` `
`


( )

;
,

,
, ,
, ,

:
,
/

, ; ,



()
/

abeam
underway
watchkeeping
to meet her
bearing
ring sight
turn

`:
`
`:
`:
`
`
:

weather forecast
port (side)
abaft
ahead

` :`
:, `:
`
`

starboard,
~side
downstream
RDF radio
direction finder
coastal features
gulf, bay
entrance / passage
mountain
cape, point
lake, loch
island
estuary, mouth
hill
helmsman,
quarter master (amer)
helm
point
point

`::,
`::
`:
`: `
` `
` `:
,
` / `
`
,
,
`
`, `

`,
``

calling-in-point
(C.I.P)
receiving point
ensign
headway / sternway
turning circle
Jacobs ladder
echo sounder

` ` `
( )
` `
`
` / :
`: `:
` `
` `

49

4.



()
...

goes out of action


maintain the course
caught sight of a ship
(rock)
alter course to ...
disappeared from
sight

set course
205
two zero five

round an object
/
leave to port /

starboard
() she answers the helm

sea conditions
()

GPS

leading line
in line

` `
` `:
` `
()
` `:
`
`
`:
` `(-`) `
` `
: `: /
`::
` `
: `
`
`a `
`:

4.
Watch Time-Table
Traditionally time at sea is divided into four-hour periods called watches.
There are six watches, as indicated in this table:
Midnight-04.00 Middle Watch
Noon-16.00
Afternoon Watch
04.00-08.00
Morning Watch
16.00-20.00
Evening Watch
08.00-noon
Forenoon Watch
20.00-midnight First Watch
The Evening Watch can be divided into two short watches:
Second Dog
16.00-18.00
First Dog Watch
18.00-20.00
Watch
Each watch is
follows:
Time, hours:
a.m.
p.m.
Deck
department:
Engine
department:

50

in the charge of an officer. The traditional time-table is as


12-4
Middle Watch
Afternoon Watch

4-8
Morning Watch
Evening Watch

8-12
Forenoon Watch
First Watch

Second Officer

Chief Officer

Third Officer

Third Engineer

Second
Engineer

Fourth Engineer

Navigational Warnings
The main problem of every navigator is safe and economic sailing from
port to port. Natural obstructions and many other reasons make this problem
complex and risky. Thats why even a well-trained and experienced navigator needs some help to work out the best route at high sea and especially
near the coastline, approaching ports, channels, narrow straits and other
places with complicated sailing conditions. He needs full and exact
information about any danger to navigation, especially submarine and offlying dangers. Sea charts, pilot books and handbooks contain such
information concerning natural and constant dangers.
Warnings to navigators inform about the changes in sailing conditions
regularly. They are made in printed form and by radio messages, for faster
use.
Navigation in Restricted Visibility
When navigating in or near area of restricted visibility, every vessel shall
proceed at a safe speed. Engines must be ready for immediate manoeuvre.
All available means must be used at all times for a proper look-out. When
the presence of another vessel is detected at a dangerous distance, navigators are to make quick conclusions about the situation and the risk of collision. While in a restricted visibility a ship must produce fog signals prescribed by International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea for
this type of vessels.
Electronic Aids to Navigating
A number of new electronic devices have been developed to help the
navigator. They extend and improve information about the ships position
and movement, and reduce the probability of navigational errors. Besides
commonly used radar and echo sounder, the modern navigator may operate
with hishly sophisticated satellite systems for the positioning of the ship at
every point of the Ocean. Such systems give an accuracy of better than one
tenth of a mile in all weathers, all over the world. This has led to fully automatic navigation in the open sea for modern ships.
4.
*- Is he on watch?
Yes, he is.
He is on watch till
8 oclock.
No, he is not on watch.
Who is at watch now?
The second mate is.
He is in the wheel-house.

` `?
` `
` `
`
`, ` `
` ` `
` `
` `-`

?
.

8-.
, .
?
.
.

51

*- Who is by the helm?


Nobody.
We are navigating
with automatic pilot
Is the chief mate
on the bridge?
Yes, he is nearby.
Hes in the chart-room
checking the course
by GPS.
*- Is it difficult
to work on deck,
when it is windy
(rainy, snowy)?
Not at all.
You simply need warm
and waterproof
clothing.

` `
`
: `
` `
: `
`
` ` `
: `::
` `:

`
`: `,
` ` `
(`, `)
`
: ` : `:
``:
`

?
.

.

?
, , .


GPS.

,

( , )?
.


.

*-Is it safe to
proceed eastward
from this island?
No, this route is only
for small craft.
You may steer
a course 30 about
5 cables
westward
There are good depths there.
Steer right
for that lighthouse.
*- Look out
carefully!
Ferries
crossing our
way do not always
observe the rules
of navigation.
Mind the helm!
Ease her!
Nothing to starboard!
There may be
shallow water there.

` `
`: `:
`
` `: `
: `
: `
`: `
`
`
`: ` `
` `
: `
:`
`
`
`
` ` :
`: :
`
` `
`:
` `::
` `
` ` `



?
,
.

30
5-
.
.

.

!
,

,

.
!
!
!

.

52

Yes, sir,
nothing to starboard!

` :
` `::

,
!

5.
5.
, ,

,
(, )
,
,

~

,
()

, ()
,

()
,

,
-,
~
,
()
()

()
( )
();
~
~ ( )
, ()

-, -
~a
-
~

can
~ister
drum
barrel
weight
outreach
hook
grab
load-line
~-mark
claw
bale
secure
cover
~ing
tray, pallet
bag, sack
shortage
eye bolt
guy, guide rope
overload
shifting
damage
loading,
un~,
discharging
lift
gantry
hatchway
cargo battens
shackle
(jib) boom; derrick
(rope) sling
canvas ~
chain ~
tally(-ing)
span rope
stow
~age
pack
~age, ~ing

`
`
`:

`
`:
:

`:
`
`
, `
,
`:
`
, `
`
`
`
`,
`
`:

`
`
`: `

():; `
(`)
`

`(-)
` `
`
`

`, `

53

`: `

yard rope

-, ~
stack
5.
: `

keep records
(`)
give
deck(bottom)
()
`
stowage
`
-
owing to bad
`

handling
` `

broken stowage
` `:

hoistable platform
` `
prevent shifting
5.
Holds and Hatches
Each dry-cargo vessel has four or five holds of different capacity. The
holds have bilges which facilitate the flow of water which may condense on
metal plating and bulkheads. Hold pumps pump out the water collected in
the bilges.
The double bottom is covered with a removable wooden flooring. Cargo
battens are fitted to the inner edges of the frames. These wooden sheathings protect packages of cargo from damage by moisture, which may collect
on the side of the ship.
Each hold has a hatchway, a rectangular opening in the ships deck, surrounded by a coaming. When cargo work is over, its necessary to cover
hatches. This should be done with special covering systems. Quick operating hatch covers permit the opening or closing of covers in as little time as
two minutes per hatch.
Before Loading
On board ship the Cargo Officer is responsible for the safe and efficient
handling and stowage of cargo. He should secure proper preparation of the
holds before loading and he supervises during the time the ship is receiving
or delivering the cargo.
The stevedore should inspect cargo space before the beginning of cargo
work. The holds and other compartments must be clean, dry and well aired.
Cargo battens must be in good condition, scuppers clear, bilges - free and
clean. When preparing or loading bulk cargo, special attention must be given
to prevent its shifting. Shifting boards should be a minimum 2 inches in
thickness, made of good timber and securely fitted at bulkheads.
Stowage
Stowage is the placing of cargoes in the ships hold and on her deck.
Correct stowage must ensure the following:
1. Protection of the cargo from damage and loss during cargo work or
during the voyage.
2. Economy of cargo space that increases the vessels capacity.
3. Optimum convenience of loading and unloading in every port of call.
A plan showing the disposition of cargoes throughout the ship is called
the cargo plan. It makes the loading of cargo pieces in the holds easier. It

54

should be drawn up carefully. When loading for more than one port, a
different colour should be used to indicate the cargo for each port.
Tallying Cargo
To tally is to check and to keep records of all cargo loaded into or
discharged from a vessel. It is provided to prevent claims upon the ship or
stevedores for any shortage. Shore and ships tallymen do the tallying. The
tallyman counts the number of cargo items in each draft, before they are
removed from the sling. If there are some items short or extra, the tallyman
must inform a stevedore about it at once. Tallies must be compared and
agreed upon at the end of the working day and any difference between the
ship tally and shore tally should be immediately corrected.
5.
*- When shall we begin
discharging
(loading)?
In two hours,
I think, not later.
This cargo is not to be
discharged until
further notice.

` `
`:
(`)
`
` `
`: `
`:
` `

*- There are no big


cranes at that berth.
Sorry, there arent.
Will your jib outreach
be sufficient
to handle those
heavy lifts?
Yes, I hope so,
lets try
carefully.
*- Its impossible
to start work
now.
Why not?
Whats the matter?
The break is over!
Dont you see going
to rain in a few
minutes? The cargo
will become wet.

: `
` `:
`, `:.
` : `
`
`
`
` `
`
`
`
`: :
`
`
` `
`
` : : `
`
` :
` `

The rain wont be


too heavy.

`
: `

()?
2 ,
, .

.

.
, .

,

?
, ,

.


.
?
?
.
,

?

.

.

55

I suppose the work


may go on.

` :
`

,

.
,
!



.

*- Watchman, look
here! You must do
correct tallying to
avoid shortage and
damage of cargo.

`
` : `
` `
` `:
` `:

Yes, Sir, I see.

` : `:

, , .

*- Hello! Is this chief


mate speaking?

`:
` `

! ?

Yes, Im listening.
Whats the trouble?

` `
` `

, .
?

During lifting some


packages are being
damaged by
the hatch coaming.
I spoke to
the foreman but
with no result.

` `
` :
`: `
` `:
`
`:
` ` `

-
.

,
.

O.K. Ill take


measures.
Watch them
attentively. They are
often careless.

` `
`
`
` :
` `

,
.

.


` : :
Dont use hooks

` ` `
Handle with care
!
`
Fragile
,
` `
Not to drop

` `
Not to be tipped

(:)
(turned)
`: `
Keep dry


`: `
Keep in cold place

`: `
Keep upright

`: `
Heave here

` `
Open here!
!
/ `
Top / Bottom
/

56

6.
,

(, )
()


()

( )
,
( , )

()
~

,
()
,
, ; ,
-,

,
,

,
,

6.
guest rope
lashing
bosuns chair
tarpaulin
coil
shank
swivel
put in gear
heave in
winch handle
primer
slip rope
swaged fittings
chisel

` `
`
` `
:`:

`
` `
`:
`
`
` `
` `
`

bosuns locker

` `

yarn
kink

snap shackle

` `

paint brush
round, parcel, serve
spanner
wrench
thimble
fender
lash, to make fast
fluke
grab rope
line
whip

`
`, `, :
`

`
, `
:
` `

oil can
hammer
lashing rope
file

`
`
` `

to fend off

eye splice
screw-driver
to cast off
pin

`
:`
`

57

:
,
saw
-;
coat
~,
~ing

stand by
( , )

breastline

headline

sternline
, ;
handle

ring
,
piles, dolphin

marline spike

shackle

scraper
,
lacing
,
rope

splice
()
launch

anchor buoy
, ; ~
brake
, , ,
cable
-
, ,
hawser

knot
~
bowline
~
figure of eight ~
~
clove hitch
~
Blackwall hitch
~ ,
rolling hitch
~
~
reef-knot
~
fishermans bend
~
timber hitch
~
sheet band
~ -
double sheet bend
~
round turn

and half hitch

yard rope

painter

sounding pole

fall rope

ratchet

mop
, ~
scrubbling brush

warp, mooring line,

58

`
`
`
`
`
`:

, `
`: `

`
`
`

:
`

`
` `
`
`
`
`:
` `
`
`:
`
` `:

`: `
`
` `
`
`

` `
`:, `:,

-(-), ~

-
~ ,
~
~
~
~
~ ,
~
~
~
~ -
~
~
~
~




0
!

fast
moor, ~ing
pennant, pendant
round turn
hose
spring
enamel paint
anchor

`, `
`, `
`
`

` `
`

~age

warp, chain, cable


~ is atrip (weigh)
~ came home
holding ~
~ is clear
~ is foul,
~ fouled
~ is apeak
~ is secured
~ drags,
dragging ~
fishermans ~
sea ~
bower ~

`:, ,
` ` (`)
` `
`
` `
` `,
` `
` `:
` `
` `,
`
` `
`: `
` `

6.
` `
break out an anchor
` `
to put out fenders
` `
run out the anchor
`:
proceeding
` `
at dead slow
` :
ahead on course
` `:
0
` `
Mooring forbidden!
`
cast anchor,
` `
let go the anchor


( , )




~ ,


pick up a mooring

` `:

slip the anchor


make ready
made fast to
weigh anchor
slip the mooring
lie to an anchor
to lie alongside
Anchorage

` `
` `
`
` `
` `:
` `
` `
`

59

prohibited!


` `
get anchor

`
ready

` `::
Stand by starboard

(anchor) ( `)

` : : `
Let go port anchor

` ` `
Veer out cable
-
` `
Hold cable
-
Keep cable slackened `: ` `
-
Be ready to heave in ` `:

`: `
Heave in cable
-
` `:
Stop heaving

`
in cable
Pass heaving line
Veer out headline
Check stern line
Make fast forward
spring
Let go aft spring
Heave in breast
line
Stop heaving in!
Hold on!
Veer out handsomely


`: `

` ` ``

` `: `

` `:

`

` ` `

`: ` `

`:
`
` ` `

Heave in aft

`: `

Haul in the slack


Haul taut (fast)
Ship (unship) fenders
Lower the ladder

` `
` `: ( ` )
(`) `
` `



()


Is towing hawser fast? ` ` ` ?
Towing hawser fast ` ` `

`
All fast

Everything is ready ` `

: `
for towing

`: `
Start towing

`: `
I am starting to tow
`:
Shorten

in towing hawser ` `

` `
Veer out towline

60

Cast off towline


Im altering my course
to starboard (to port)
Steer to starboard
(to port)
I must cast off
towline.
Cast off towline.
Keep
your present course

` `
` `:
`:: ( `:)
` `::
( `:)
`
`
` `
`:
: ` `:



()

()

Go slower
(slow down)
Go astern
Stop
your engines at
once

` `
(` `)
` `:
`
: `
`.

6.
Different Types of Rope
A large number of different types of rope are used on board ship, and it is
important for every sailor to know their characteristics so that the right rope
can be used for the right job. Ropes can be divided into three basic types:
natural rope, synthetic rope and wire rope.
Well-known types of natural rope are Manila, Sisal, Coir and Cotton.
They are sometimes used for mooring and towing lines. Many of them are
strong, very buoyant and elastic, but they rot easily when they are wet.
Others are very expensive and therefore not used on merchant ships.
Synthetic ropes now largely replace natural ones because of many advantages. They are very strong and elastic and they are resistant to the
action of water. Nylon rope is the strongest and the most elastic of all the
synthetic ropes. It is used for mooring and handling cargo. Terylene rope is
the most temperature resistant, it melts at a temperature of 260C. It is also
strong and elastic. Polypropylene rope has the lowest melting point, but it is
very buoyant and sufficiently strong to be used as tow-lines.
Seamens Knots
A few knots known and used correctly and promptly show a better seaman than one who knows all the names of the lesser used knots but who is
slow or inaccurate in their execution. The simplest round turn can be a big
help when used properly. In un emergency a quick turn round some strong
object on board will frequently prevent accident or damage. Every knot has
its own use in good seamanship:
to make a loop in the end of a rope without splicing a Bowline;
for securing a rope at intermediate points a Clove Hitch;
to prevent a rope from slipping a Rolling Hitch;

61

when making a rope fast to the bight of another a Sheet Band, and so on.
Handling Windlass
When operating with a windlass do not forget any of these stages:
1. Take to the forecastle a hammer, an oil can and a hose.
2. Ask the engine room for power and water on deck.
3. Couple up the hose, lead it to the hawse pipe and open the water cock.
4. Make sure that the windlass is out of gear and the brakes are on.
5. Turn the windlass over slowly.
6. Oil the moving parts.
7. See that the gears are free to engage.
8. Put the windlass into gear.
9. Remove the compressor bar.
10. When the order to weigh anchor is received, release the brake and begin
heaving in the cable. The cable is heaved aboard.
11. Make sure that the cable is hosed down to wash away any dirt, the
shackles appear in order.
12. When the order to lower the anchor is received, release the brake and let
it down.
13. When the anchor reaches the bottom, hoist the anchor ball or switch on
the anchor lights.
14. When the job is done, apply the brake and replace the compressor bar.
15. Inform the engine room that power and water are finished with.
Mooring a Ship
A ship is made fast to the quayside by mooring lines. The standard mooring lines set consist of a headline, a breastline and a backspring forward, a
sternline, a breastline and a backspring aft. Any of these lines may be doubled. Each line has a large eye spliced in its end. The eye is placed over a
bollard on the quayside. If there is another line already on the bollard, the
eye of the second line should be taken up through the eye of the first line
before placing it over the bollard. This makes it possible for either line to be
let go first.
6.
*- Is it necessary
` `

to take a tug here? ` `
?
We have to swing round ` ` ` .
` `:
I think well need
,
`
two tugs
,
` `
to work the ship

` : `:
into her berth
.
`: `
Pass heaving line!
!
`
Pass head line!
!
Make fast head line! ` `
!
` `
Pass aft spring!
!
Make fast aft spring! ` ` ` !

62

Haul fast! Ready!


*- Which side
shall we get ready
for mooring?
Starboard side.
What lines shall we
put out first?
The forward and
stern springs.
O.K., I see.
Slow ahead!
Steady so!
Stop her!
Helm a-port ten!
Yes, helm a-port ten.
Midships!
Slow astern!
Pass forward spring!
Hard a-port!
Dead slow ahead!
Stop her!
Pass aft spring!

`: `
`
` `
: `:
c`:: `
`
` `:
`:
`: `
` `:
` `
` `
` :
`: `
` `: `
`
` `:
`: `
`: `:
` `
` :
`

Pass head line!

Make fast aft


spring!
Pass breast lines
fore and aft!
Finished
with the engine!

` `

` `
:
`
`

?
.
()
?

.
, .
!
!
!
!
, .
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!

7.
,

- , ~

~,
~
~

7.
boathook
distress
safe, ~ty
coast
~al
coastline
coastguard
windward shore
lee shore

`:
`
, `
`
`
``
``:
`: `:
`:`:

63

~
~
~
~

~ ()
,
, ,


,
()

~
()
,

()

()

~
~ ~

( , )

64

bandage
ill / illness
pain
headache
toothache
acute pain
severe pain
breakers
breaking seas on bar
overfalls
bucket
visibility
eddies
wreck
fasten
sign
bell
hemorrhage, bleeding
shallow water, shoal
aground
to refloat
danger
to navigation
hidden ~
to put on
accident
fire extinguisher
burn, (scald)
dangerous
poisoning
wound dressing
fracture
damage
fire
abandon
breakage, failure
help, assistance
medical ~
first aid
embarkation

`
/ `

`
:`
` `
` `
`
` : `:
`
`
`
`

`, `:
` `, `
`
`
`
`
` `
`
`
` `
:,
`
`
: `
`
`
`
`
`, `
, `
` `
`
`

obstruction
attack
heart ~
hole
distress flares

`
`
: `
`
` `

~

-
~
~
~
~
,

, ;

wound
rock
sunken ~
heavy seas
life jacket
lifebuoy
lifebelt
liferaft
lifeboat
rescue,salvage
collision
leak (~age)
sink
injury
shelter

`:

`
` `:
`
`
`
`
`
`, `
`
:, `:

`
`

7.
- (-)!
` `
Look out!
` `
was badly damaged
() `
()
was (were) out
`

of danger
`

the wind
` `
~
~ is backing
` `
~
~ veering
~
~ increasing
`
`
~
~ decreasing

~,

~,

~

.

...

()

ship, vessel

hampered ~

~ not under
command

`
`

turning ~
You are running into
danger.
out of action
Keep clear of

`: ` ()
: : ` `
`
` `
`

close the crack (hole)

` ` (`)

run short of water

`: `

Its dangerous
~ to alter course

`
` `:

65

to port /
to starboard
~
~ to approach
()
our (your)

vessel
~
to remain in

present position

capsized
!
Be careful!
to stream a sea anchor

pump the bilges

ride out a storm


run into a heavy

storm

ake precautions.
.

ship a green sea

thick fog was


expected
danger of collision
~ / ~ exists / is over
,
make sure

keeps afloat

make an offing

9-
a force nine gale

`: /
`::
`
` (:)
`
`
` `
`
`
: :`
`
` `:
` ` `
`:
` `
`: :
`
`
` `
` / `
` `
`: `

`: `

7.
Dangerous Situations
When two vessels approach one another, a dangerous situation will
sometimes occuv. This happens most frequently in narrow channels and
fairways or under bad weather and sea conditions. Development of the situation can produce dangerous proximity and a growing risk of collision. To
avoid collision every navigator be aware of and operate according to the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. All seamen on
the bridges of approaching ships must be sure that their counterparts act in
accordance with the same Regulations and that their actions are right and
well co-ordinated.
Action to Avoid Collision
Any action taken to avoid collision should be positive, timely and in accordance with correspond to good seamanship. Any alteration in the course
or speed of your ship should be large enough to be clearly seen from another vessel observing visually or by radar. A sequence of small one-by-one
changes must be avoided. Its also better to avoid crossing ahead of another

66

vessel. If one of two vessels keeps out of the way, the other should keep her
course and speed. She may however take actions to avoid collision.
Dangers of Synthetic Ropes
Large synthetic rope under heavy stress poses a great danger of injury to
sailors operating with it. An experienced seaman, who was helping to warp a
ship ahead from one birth to another with the aid of a synthetic mooring line,
was severely injured when the line suddenly shapped. The line whipped
back, causing severe damage to his legs and amputation was necessary.
Unlike hemp or wire ropes there are no visible or audible warnings before
a synthetic fibres rope parts. When the line shaps, it returns to its original
shape and this causes a very strong backlash. Therefore, certain precautions must be observed for their safe handling.
None of the deckhands should be in the way of a breaking line.
Man Overboard
This can happen at any time, but if the look-out man has been sufficiently
alert, the position of the man in the water can be determinate so the rescue
is possible. The use of a life-jacket will help the victim to survive until rescued, a life-buoy promptly thrown overboard will probably ensure his safety.
For night use have an automatic light attached to the lifebuoy, it will prevent
a man overboard from disappearing in the darkness.
Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting
Fire aboard ship is a danger, which should be constantly guarded
against. Everybody on board ship must remember that a fire prevented is
better than a fire occurring. Some very simple rules are useful to prevent fire
in your accommodation:
1. Keep compartments clean and ventilated.
2. Carefully maintain gas and fuel installation.
3. Maintain all electrical wiring and equipment in perfect order, dont
overload it with additional heaters, lamps.
4. Cigarette ends thrown overboard may well blow back aboard or onto
another vessel producing fire.
5. Smoking in bunks before retiring is dangerous because a cigarette falling
into the bed clothes can cause fire in your cabin or smoke poisoning.
To be prepared for fire keep fire fighting equipment in good order. Put extinguishers in a proper place easy to reach in case of emergency.
From the Company Contract
9. Medical care
If an employee receives an injury or is hurt in the service of the vessel or
suffers from any illness (not being an illness due to his own willful act or error
or to his own misbehaviour) the expenses of providing all the necessary
medical services and medicines including all expenses incurred until full recovery of the employee or until the employee is returned to the port of engagement or residence, whichever is closer, or in the case of death, the expenses, if any, of his burial, shall be borne by the employer.

67

Costs for medical treatment ashore, after repatriation, shall be borne by


the employee who is obliged to insure himself and his family, at his own expense, against such costs with an insurance company of his choice.
10. Permanent disability or death
The employer is obliged to insure the employee during his employment
against death or permanent disability caused by accident on board or on
shore.
Rescue at Sea
When the gale had risen to force ten, a distress signal sounded in the air.
The engine of a small fishing trawler had gone out of order. Salvage tug
6033 hurried to render assistance to the trawler. The necessary measures
were taken and the trawler was saved. Tug 6033 set her course for her
port of destination. Suddenly a watchman noticed an object far off in the
waves. It was a sailing ship, badly damaged by the storm. Her mast was
broken, her sails were torn away by the gale. Five seamen were already
quite exhausted, but at the last moment they were rescued.
Aid to Vessels in Distress
Official authorities give assistance when a ship or air craft is in distress
off their coasts. Coastal radio stations keep a continuous watch on the distress radio waves. When a radio distress signal is received by a Coast Radio
Station, it is transmitted to ships at sea and different authorities ashore are
immediately informed. The Coastguard Divisions are responsible for providing search and rescue measures for all vessels in distress off nearby coasts,
up to 1000 miles from shore. They also co-ordinate the activity of all the units
operating together lifeboats, aircrafts, helicopters and vessels at high sea.
The Air Force and Navy also render great assistance.
:
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea .

A Life-Boat should contain the following equipment:
` `
1 Rudder and tiller
1
`
1 Mast
1
: `
2 Sails
2
: `
1 First-aid kit
1
: ` `:
2 Boat hooks
2 ()
`:
5 Oars
5
` `
1 Exposure cover
1
: `
2 Buckets
2
`
6 Crutches
6
: `
1 Sea anchor
1
`
1 Water-tight box
1
2 Boxes of matches ` `
2
`
1 Bailer
1

68

1 Compass
2 Hatchets
1 Gallon of storm
oil
2 Smoke signals
1 Lamp
2 Plugs
2 Painters
1 Signaling mirror
1 Waterproof torch
1 Spare set of
batteries
2 Buoyant
heaving lines
1 Fishing line
with 6 hooks
6 Hand flares
1 Jack-knife
1 Whistle
1 Spare torch bulb

`
: `
` :
`
: ` `
`
: `
: `
` `
`: `:
`
`a
: `
`

:
`
`
`
` `:

4 Parachute
signals
1 Manual pump
Food and water

: `:
`
` `
: `

*- We had good
weather last
week.
Yes, but now
its unsettled
(it is becomins
worse).
The weather
became warm

:
`
`
`, `
`
(` `
`:)
`
` :



.
,

( ).

*- Is it stormy weather today?


No, its calm
but cold.
Can we dry our
wet clothing?

`:
` `
` `:
`
`
` `

?
, ,
.

?

1
2
1

2
1
2
2
1
1
1

1
6
6
1
1
1

4

7.

69

*- What is the force


of the wind
(direction
of the wind)?
Weather forecast at
0640
hours:
Wind North-Westerly
force 6, becoming
south-westerly
force 4 to 5;
periods of rain
showers;
moderate to good
visibility.
*- Gale warnings
are in operation in
sea areas A and B.

`:
`
(`
`)
` :`
` ` `:
`
` `: `
`: ` `
` `
`: `:
`
`
` `:
`
` `:
: `
`: `

In the east
of the region
wind variable
force 3; cloudy,
fog at night;
visibility poor

`:
`
` `
`: `
` `
` `


( )?

06.40:
-
6
-
4-5 ;

;

.


3 ; ,
;
.

8.
8.

aerial

light buoy
~
whistle ~
( )
Roger

spar buoy, perch

call (up)
,
loudspeaker
, range

wavelength

tune
()
headphones

lights
:
- ~

70

group occulting ~

`
`
`
`
`: ,
()
`

`
`

~
~

~

occulting ~
alternating ~
fixed light
flashing ~

quick flashing ~

:
~
~

( )
/

:
~
~

()

leading ~
upper ~
lower ~
headlight
Over
receive /
transmit
radio broadcasting station
radio beacon
distress call
call sign
fog signals
gun shot
explosions
bell
whistle
reed, fog horn
message
frequency
shape
electric torch

` `
` `
` `
` `
`
`
`: `
` `
` `
`
`
`: /
`
` ` `
` `
`
`
`
`
`

:, `:
`
`

` `:

8.


()
(ETD)
?

()


()
.

single letter signal


expected / estimated
time
rrival (ETA)
of departure (ETD)
How do you read me?
Over and out
isolated danger mark
Stand by on channel
Change to channel
I am (not) ready to
receive your message.

` `
` /`

` ( )
`: ( )
: `
` `
` ` `:
` `
` `
() `
`: : `

71

8.
Communications at Sea
Communications at sea are need for the efficient and safe running of a
ship. They take place within the ship herself, between the ship and other
ships, between the ship and shore stations and sometimes between the ship
and aircraft. Communications can be made over different distances. They
use different methods from the simplest visual ones to the most modern radio technologies.
Within the ship an internal telephone system links most compartments.
Orders from the bridge to the engine room are passed by means of the
ships telegraph. Messages can also be given to the ships crew through a
loudspeaker system.
Communications over short distances can be made by visual or sound
signals. Visual signals can be sent by using flags or an Aldis lamp. An Aldis
lamp is an electric lamp used for flashing messages in Morse Code. Sound
signals can be made with the ships siren, whistle or bell. These are used in
fog and other cases when visual signals cannot be seen. The number of
blasts signifies that the ship is maneuvering in a certain way. In emergency,
rockets and flares are used to signal distress.
Communications over long distances are sent by radio. The Radio Officer is responsible to the Master for the efficient operation and maintenance
of the communication equipment on board. Modern merchant ships provided
with automatic satellite systems need not Radio Officers and employed an
Electronics Engineer Officer instead of them. But very large passenger ships
may carry many of them for passengers service.
Large part of the Radio Officers watchkeeping duty is taken up with
transmitting and receiving radio telegrams on ships business, navigational
and weather messages, time signals or press reports. A continuous watch is
kept on the international distress frequency for calls for help or assistance.
Nowadays, the international distress frequency is guarded by an automatic
alarm device, which responds to internationally recognized signals and activates alarm bells.
Signalling at Sea
Signaling at sea in all large vessels is normally carried on by Radio, and
only when signaling to vessels close by or to small vessels will other means
be used. They are:
Sound signals the most useful for maneuver indication of vessels in
sight or hearing of one another, but especially in a fog or other thick weather
conditions. They are used also by navigational facilities, such as Lighthouses, Light vessels and Buoys to indicate their places in a fog or at night When
one ship is watching another one wich it doing something dangerous or not
understood, she will often use a whistle or a siren to attract her attention.
The signal for this purpose is five or more short blasts. Good seamanship
rules recommend that a ship approaching a bend in a river, a narrow pas-

72

sage between rocks, or the entrance to a closed harbor - should produce


one prolonged warning blast for a ship, not yet in sight. In some cases local
Regulations make it obvious.
Signaling by flashing is carried out by using the Morse Code. All certified ships Officers and highly skilled sailors must know the Morse symbols
for transmitting and receiving. By this method its possible to talk to any other
vessel up to several miles away, both by day and by night. A Special Daylight Signaling Lamp called the Aldis Lamp is used in small vessels. Large
vessels can use Searchlights. In any case its very important to hold correct
line of vision on the target for the signal, so that you can transmit messages at a range of several miles both by day or by night.
International Code Flags
The International Code of Signals (ICS) comprises forty special flags,
which enable any vessel and Shore Signal Stations to send and receive
messages. The stowage of Code Flags for easy use must be correct. Usually they are stowed in a Flag Locker. This is a wooden box with small square
holes called pigeon holes in which each Code Flag is stowed separately,
with the letter A, B, C, D etc., marked clearly under each compartment.
Watchmen can quickly and easily find any flag to compose a message of
one-, two- or three- letters, according to ICS Coding book. Experienced
seamen know the most important signals by heart. Here are some of them:
Single-Letter Signals:
B Bravo
I am taking in, or discharging, or carrying dangerous goods.
D Delta
Keep clear of me; I am maneuvering with difficulty.
K Kilo
I wish to communicate with you.
L
Lima
You should stop your vessel instantly.
O Oscar
Man overboard.
P Papa
All persons should report onboard as the vessel is about
to proceed to sea.
Q Quebec My vessel is healthy and I request free pratique.
U Uniform You are running into danger.
V Victor
I require assistance.
Two-Letter Signals:
NC November-Charlie I am in distress and require immediate assistance.
A large set of three-letter signals beginning with M contains information
on Medical Section need for a medical assistance, when a doctor on board is
not available.
ICS signals may be transmitted not only by flags but also by radio in
Morse Code or in voice, or by a flashing light in Morse Code, or even by
hand semaphore. When transmitting by voice, every letter or figure is called
according to the Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code, to avoid any mistake in
the transmitted message. So, the letter A is called Alfa, E Echo, F
Foxtrot, G Golf, H Hotel, and so on. Thus no letter can be confused with any other.

73

Buoyage
Cardinal Buoyage System A is used by the International Association of
Lighthouse Authorities. All Cardinal Marks are divided into four groups corresponding to the four points of the compass.
A North Cardinal mark is black over yellow in color, the top figure made
of two black cones with the points upward, the light is white and gives a
quick flash or a very quick flash.
An East mark is black with a yellow band, top figure of two black cones
with their bases together, a white light gives three very quick flashes every
five seconds or three quick flashes every ten seconds.
A South mark is yellow over black in colour, with two black cones one
above the other and with their points downwards, the light gives six flashes
(quick or very quick) plus one long flash every ten or fifteen seconds.
A West Cardinal mark is yellow with a black band, has two cones with
the points together, its light gives nine flashes every ten or fifteen seconds.
Isolated Danger Mark is black in color with red bands. The top figure is
two black spheres one above the other. The light is white in colour and
flashes in groups of two.
8.
*- This is motorship
`
/

NORMA
, `: `
on course 112.
112.
`
My position is

3 miles South - East `
3 SO
`
of point FONTAN.
.
`
Vessel on bearing

` `
80distance
80
:
3 miles, please
3 ,
` :
what is your name,

: :
course and speed?
,

Over.
.
.
`
NORMA, this is
,
`
French vessel

`
NORMANDY.
.
`: `
My course is 260,
260,
:
speed 12 knots.
12 .

Over.
.
NORMANDY, we are ` `:
,
closing on dangerous ` `
courses. Please alter `: : `
.
: `
course a little

`:: `
to starboard. Over.
. .

74

Roger. I am steering
15
to starboard. Over.

` `
`: `:
`:: `

.
15
. .

Thank you.
Please stand by
on channel 10
till we pass clear.
Over.
This is NORMA
on channel 10.
How do you read me?
Over.
Im receiving you
well.
We are getting
dangerously close.
I cant alter course
because I have
an obstacle on my
starboard side.
Please, slow down.
Ill cross ahead of
you. Over.
.. I am slowing
down to 5 knots.
Over.
Thank you, Captain.
Happy sailing.
Ill stand by
on channel 16.
Over and out.

`:
: `
` `
` `
`
`
`
` : `:
`
`: :
`
: `
` `
` :
`
`
`::
: ` `
` :
`
` `
`

:
` `
`
` `
` `

.

10 ,
.
.

10.
?
.

.

.
,

.
.
.
.
.
5 .
.
,.

16 .
.

75

*- All ships, all ships,


all ships.
This is motor vessel
NORMA BLASCO
Shipping Company.
My position is
I am steering course
I can see a big
red container
on my port side.
It is not always
visible. Please keep
a sharp lookout.
Over and out.

` `
`
` `

` `
`
` ` :
: `
`
: `
: `
` : :
`: `
` `


(3 )


.




.

.

.
.

*- Where are you


coming from? Over.
Coming from Cadiz.
Over.
Whats the weather
in Biscay? Over.
No gale,
visibility good,
wind north-east
force 5,
sea moderate. Over.
Thanks. Im coming
from Hamburg.
The weather is fine.
Over.
Roger. Happy sailing.
Over and out.

: :
` `
`
`
` `
`

`
: :
:
:` `
`
`
`
`
` ` `
` `


? .
.
.

? .
,
,
-
5 ,
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. .

9.

(,
)

76

9
saucer
fiddle

alarm-clock
bottle
bowl
fork

`:

`
:

(.)
~ /~

~
~
-

()

()

, ~

switch
~ ON/~ OFF
peas
mustard
shower
lock
galley
cabbage
sour ~
potatoes
saucepan
porridge
buckwheat groats
gruel oatmeal
mess-room
key
berth
sausage
tin
tin-opener
sweets
coffee-pot
tap
mug
fowl
bulb
spoon
onions
oil
butter
detergent,
washing-up powder
soap
met
beef
mutton, lamb
pork
veal
knife, knives
vegetables
cucumbers
blanket
ashtray
pepper
pillow
~case

` / `
:
`
`

`
`
` `
`
`
`
` `
` `:
`
:
:
`

`
`
`

:
`

`
`,
` `
`
:
:
,
:
:
,
`
`
`
`
`
`
``

77

~
~
~

~
~
~
~


, ,

()

~
~
~

78

towel
fresh water
sheet
rice
fish
fried ~
smoked ~
salt ~
herring
sugar
~ - basin, ~ - bowl
frying pan
cream
juice
orange ~
grape ~
lime ~, lemon ~
apple ~
matches
salt-cellar
glass, beaker
table
cheese
plate
lavatory paper

`
`
:


`

`
`
` `
` `
:
:
` `:
` `:
` `:, ` `:
` `:
`
`
, `

` `

wash basin, sink

` ,

butter beans
dates
bread
horse-radish
(fried) chicken
tea
tea-pot
kettle
cup
garlic
locker
eggs
hard-boiled ~
soft-boiled ~
scrambled ~

`:

:`
() `
:
`:

`:
`

`: `
` `
` `

9.
:`
Help yourself to
`
some

(,
).

?
?
?

?

()


.
,
?

?
?

tea (coffee,
cigarettes).
Would you like
to smoke?
some tea?
Do you like ?
Do you have enough..
drinking water?
I prefer
May I have please
May I offer you

`: (`,
`)
: `
`
`:
: `
: `
` `
:
:
` :

He is having a rest.
What about
playing chess?

` `
` `
` `

watching TV?

` : `

` `:
going ashore?
9.
From the Company Contract
2d. Ratings Bonus System.
A monthly bonus, has been incorporated in the basic wage, this is the
agreed compensation for performing duties during normal working hours
such as:
1. mooring operations for motormen and catering ratings.
2. cleaning of public alleyways, accommodation by deck ratings.
3. serving of Pilots and Agent in port.
4. other duties as required by the Master / Owner.
2e. Ratings Overtime. Lump sum.
A Monthly overtime lump sum of 85 hours is paid for:
1. those who are working on Saturday 4 hours extra.
2. those who are working on Sundays 8 hours extra.
This allows for 50 hours of the total 85 hours overtime lump sum. Heads
of Department have to keep a record of all overtime in respect of each rating
on board. This record will list all hours worked, shall be co-signed by the
Master and sent to the Head Office at the end of each month.
3. Provisions.
On board the vessel good, substantial and appetizing food has to be
supplied in sufficient quantities. Meals will be varied in accordance with climatic conditions under which the vessel may sail.
5. Accommodation
All licensed employees are entitled to single accommodation, where
available on board the vessel.
Relationships

79

In order to succeed, it is important for people to like you and respect you.
Usually, people do not became close friends with co-workers. Dont mix
business with pleasure as they say. The following advice will help you
have good work relationships:
* Treat your boss with respect by being punctual and cooperative and
having a neat appearance. It is not good to show respect by flattery, gifts,
speaking too softly, keeping your head lowered, standing far back, or speaking very formally.
* Be friendly, polite and cheerful with your co-workers. Try to mix with
people of the ships home country and be an accepted part of the natives
group. Do not separate your-self by language or ethnic group.
* Do not try to sell things to your co-workers. Do not ask to borrow money
from them.
* Do not talk about other people in a negative way or discuss their personal life.
* When someone asks you How are you, answer in a positive way (for
example, Fine, thanks. And you?). Dont tell people about your health or
personal problems.
* Listen to your boss and co-workers to learn how formal or informal you
should be. Listen carefully to how names and titles are used.
* Try to speak only in English, especially when other nationalities are
present. Always try to improve your English by listening to others and taking
lessons.
9.
*- May I go ashore?
` ` `:
` :`
Yes, you may.
` `:
Dont go ashore,
` `:
stay on board
*- Is this their cabin?
` `
`, `
No, it is not.
`, `.
Yes, it is their cabin.
*- Where is he?
`
` `.
He is in his cabin.
` `?
Where is his cabin?
` `
Here it is. It is there.
It is on the upper deck. ` .
`
Why is he
` `
out of his cabin?
`
He is on watch.
*- They are on shore,
arent they?
Yes, they are walking.

80

: `:
`:
`, `:`

?
, .
,

?
.
, .
?
.
?
. .
.

?
.
,
?
, .

No, they are sleeping.


They are on deck.
*- Why arent you
working?
We are having a rest.
We have our day off.

`, : `:
: `.
` : :
`:?
: ` `.
` `

, .
.

?
.
.

*- They are smoking


in the corridor.
They are not smoking,
they are just
talking.

: `
`:
: ` `,
: `
`:.


.
,

*- He is reading
something
in his cabin.
I am writing
a letter.
*- When did you have
breakfast?
What did you have
for supper?
We had coffee
and sandwiches
for breakfast.

`:
`
`
`
`
` : `
`
` : `
: `
`
`
: `


-
.

.
?

*- What shall we eat


(drink)?
Ill have some fruit
juice.
I prefer
fried potatoes.

` :
()
:
:
:
`


()?
.

*- Isnt he playing
chess in the saloon?

` `
` `:.

No, he is listening
to the radio in his
cabin.
They are watching TV.

`, `
`
`
: ` :`:


?
,

.
.

*- Do you have a good


time?
Will you have free
time tomorrow?
No, I shall not.

:
`?
:
` `
`


?

?
.


?


.

81

What time do you


finish work?
Usually, I finish
at five but to-morrow
Ill have an overtime
job.

` :
` :
` `
` `
` ``

I shall have free


time next
week.

`
` `
`

82

?

5,

.


.

10.
10.
p``

repatriation
c`

selection
`

shopping
``

holidays
`
,
travel

size
`:

market
`

account

price
10.
` `
() non-stop flight
`: `

booking office
` `

rate of exchange
` `:

business class
` `:

economy class

Where can I get ` `
,
Please, give me `: `
`: `

How far is it to
` `

Which way is
(-`:)
to(-wards)
` ` `

cash in small notes
` `

currency exchange

Please direct me to.. : `
:

pass


flight is
` `
subject to delay
`: `

departure gate
`
?
How much
`
does that cost?
` `:

Im looking for
.
the bus terminal. ` `
`

the railway
`
.
station.
` `
.
the post office.
`:
.
the market.

the underground `
`
station
:

a street.
`
.
a square.
` `
.
Ive lost my way.

83


Attention

Baggage claim

Bakers (Shop)

Barbers (Shop)
()
Beware
!
~ of the traffic
!
Butchers (Shop)

Chemists, Drug Store

Closed

Coast Guard

Cross / Wait
/ ( )
Custom House (Office)

Danger

Departure lounge
()
Do not litter
!
Emergency Call (Exit)
()
Entrance

Exit

First class only


1-
For Litter

Free of Charge

Fresh Paint
,
G, Gents Room
,
Grocery

Keep off the Grass



L, Ladies Room
,
Look out for Locomotive

No Admittance
;
One-way traffic

Personnel only, Service entrance

Private Property

Prohibited Area

Pull
( ),
Push
,
Reserved
,
Ring

Smoking Not Allowed



Snack bar

Subway

Ticketed passengers only
T
WC, Lavatory, Toilet

84

10.
Filling out the Application Form
When applying for a job on a foreign flag vessel, at first you should to fill
in an application form. It consists of some questions about your education,
your qualification level and sea service experience. You must give correct,
detailed and complete information about yourself, presenting your professional features. Moreover, your application form contains some additional
information about you as a prospective employee. This information is provided by how you fill out the application form. If your application form is incomplete, has mis-spelled words, has directions that were not followed it
makes your work, and therefore yourself, look careless. So why should your
employer select you for the job when there are many other job applicants,
who probably better then you are.

From the Company Contract


4. Travel Allowance.
When traveling to and from the vessel for changing a crew not in the
home port, each employee shall, when meals are not provided, be entitled to
a daily allowance of USD 5,00.
6. Travel.
All employees are entitled to tourist or economy class travel. Incidental
expenses incurred may be refunded by the employer upon the proper
presentation of appropriate receipts.
During all travel, employees are restricted to the baggage limit as defined
by the airline. Excess baggage is for the account of the employee.
7. Insurance of personal effects.
All personal effects on board and during travel are insured against risk of
total loss, partial loss or damage, as far as such damages are caused by
loss, stranding, or average of the vessel. Personal effects are insured to a
maximum of US $3500,00. Premiums are for the account of the employer.
11. Vacation.
Upon completion of six continuous months service on board a vessel under this Contract, the employee is entited to four calendar days per completed month of service. The commencement of such leave shall be as agreed
upon between the employer and the employee.
Leave pay shall correspond to the wages received during the preceding
six months of employment and is paid monthly.
*- How long have you
been at sea?
About four months now.
You must feel tired.
Well, I am a bit.
But Im going
to be relieved at
the end of the month.

10.
` :
`: `:
`: `
:` `: `
` ` `
` `
`
` `


?
4 .
.
, .


.

85

*- Please,
when is the next
flight to Cadiz,
Spain?
Sorry, but
there is none this
evening. Only
at six to-morrow
morning.
*- Can I still make
flight five ou three
to Lisbon?
Im afraid
you are late.
Ten minutes ago
they stopped boarding.
Cant something be done?
I can get you
on the next flight
in six hours.
Wait a little, please.
How long shall I wait?
After this plane
leaves well be rebooking tickets.
*- Can you show me
the way
to the docks, please?
Is it far from here?
Not very.
But if you are in
a hurry, youl better
take a bus.
What bus must
I take?
Any bus will take
you there.
How much does it cost
to get there?
Where must I get off?
At the last
stop but one.
Thank you very much.
Not at all.

86

:
` `
`

`
`
` `
` `
`:
` `
`
`
`
: `: `
` `
` `:
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,

,
?
,

.
6
.

503
?
,
,

.
- ?


6 .
.
?





?
?
.

,
.

?

.
,
?
?

.
.
.

*- Where are they?


They are on shore,
doing some shopping.
Were they on shore
yesterday?
No, they were busy
on repair.
*- Could you
show me that ,
please?
shirt
trousers
jacket
shoes
necktie
Certainly, sir.
Here you are.
What is your size?
Size I believe.
How about this?
No, not that one.
Thats not quite
what I wanted.
I mean the other one.
May I try it on?

` : `
: `:
` `
` `:
`
`, ` `
`
:
`
`:
: ..
`
`
:
`
` `:
:`:
` : `
` `
` ` `
` `
` `
`
`: ` `
`

*- How much is this?


Its too expensive
for me.
Have you got anything
like this but
bit less expensive
( bit cheaper)?
Do you give a discount?
*- It doesnt fit.
It fits me all right
Ill take it.
I need a receipt.
*- Anything else?
No, thanks.

` `
: `
:`
: `
`
` `
(` `:)
: ` `
` `
` `
`
`: `:
`
` `

?
,


?
,
.


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, .
?
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?
, .
,
.
.

()?
?
.
-
,

( )?
?
.
.
.
().
- ?
, .

87

abaft
abeam
aboard

`
`:
:

about
about
above
accident
accommodation
accord
~ance
across
act (~ion)

`
`
`
`
`
`:
`:
`
(`)

aft
after
~noon
~wards
again
against
ago
aground
ahead
aid
first ~
air
~craft
alarm
~ clock
all
allow
~ance
along
~side
already
also
alter
always
am
anchor
~age
~ ball

`
``:
``
`
`
`
`
`:

`:

`
`:
`:

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

`
`
`

88

, ,
,
, ;
,
, ;
,
, ;
; ,

-, ~; ~, ~
-, ~
,
();
,
; , ;
; ,

,
,

,
,
, ;

.
;

, , ,
,
; ,
,
,

()

- , ~
()

~ is clear
~ is foul
~ came home
dredging
(dragging) ~
and
another
answer

` p `
`p `
` `
` `



( )

`:
`

any
approach
are (~nt)
area
around
arrive
as
ashore
ask
assistance
astern

`
`
: (`:)
`
`
`

`:

`
`:

at
attention
autumn
available

`
`:
`

average
avoid
away
axe

`
`

; ,

; -
(~, ~, ~, ~, ~)
-,
(~)
(, , , )
; , ,
, ,

,
(~), (~),
,
,
; , ,
;
, ; , , ;

back
bad
bag
bale
ball
band
barrel
bay
be
beach

beacon
beam
bearing

`:
:
`

; ;

,
( )
, , ; ,
, ; ()
, ; ,
,
, ;
,
()
;

89

became
because
become(-s)
bed

`
`:
`(-)

been
before

:
`:

begin

`:

bell
belong
below
ben-d, (~t)

`
`
()

best
berth
better
between
big
bilge
bitt
black
blade
blanket
board

:
`
`

`
:

~ing
boat
boatswain (bosun)
boom
bottle
bottom
bow
box
bracket
brake

`:
`
`
:

`
`

breadth
break

breakfast
bridge
bring
broken

90

, ;
, ;
;
, ; ; ,

; , ;

()-
(~, ~, ~, ~, ~)

,
,
, ; ;
(, )
, (. .)
; ;
(. .)

,
- (~, ~, ~)
, ()

, , ; ;
( )

, ,

,
, ,

, ;
,

(~), (~),
()(~)

, ()
,
, ;
()

broom
brush
flat ~
bucket
bulb
bulk
~head
~er, ~ carrier
~y
bulwark
buoy
~age
~ant
breeches~
receiving ~
but
by

`
`

`
`, `
`
`

`
`
`
` `

cabin
cable

call

came
can

canvas
care
care
~ful(-ly)
~less
cargo
dangerous ~

`
`
`
`(-)
`
`:
`
`:
`
`:
`:
`

`
`:

; ( )
,

, ,

,

, , ,
()



, , ; ,
, , ; ( );

inflammable ~
carpenter
carry
case
cash
cask
catering
ceiling

; , ; ,

,; , ;
( )
, ;
, ; ;
- (~, ~, ~, ~,
~, ~)
,
; ,
; ,
,
,
;

,
,
()
,

; , ( )

91

chain
change
channel
charge

`
:

dis~
chart
~ room
check

`:
:
`: `:

chief
chip (off)

:
()

chisel
clean

~er
vacuum ~er
clear
~ance

`:
` `:
`
`

~ the ship in
(out)
keep ~
climb
~ up
close

` `
()
`

`
`

~ed
cloud
~age
coal
coast(~al)
coat
cold
collect
collision
colour
~ed
~less
come
common
compartment
competition

`
`
`
`
`()
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

`
`:
`

92

, ,
,
, , ;
;
,


, ;
,

; ,
()
, ;
; ,
- (~, ~, ~, ~)
, ,

, ; ()
, ; , ;

()
!
; ,
,
, - (~, ~,
~, ~, ~)
(~, ~, ~)

; ,
,
, ,
, ,

-, (~,~,~,~)
; ,
, ,
, ,

complete

`:

condition
air ~er
in good ~s

cool
~ing water
cordage
correct

`
` `a
`
`
`
`
`: `
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
:
`:`
`:
`

~ion
cover
~ing
crack
crew
~ list
~ member
crowbar
crush
crutch
current
alternate ~
(AC)
direct ~ (DC)
customs
cut
~ter

`
`
`

:
: `
: `
`:

`
`
`
` `
`

in all ~s
sea ~s
cone
consist
contain
~er
~er carrier
content
control
automatic ~
remote ~

, ; ,



, ;
()

,
,
,
,

, ,
; ()

93

D
damage

damp
danger(~ous)
davit
day(~ly)
decrease
deep
degree
dent
department
departure
depth
device
diamond
did
differ
~ent
dimension
dinner
direction
displacement
distance
distress
diver
divide
do
dont
done
door
double
down
~stream
draft
drain
draught
air ~
drift
drive

`
(`)
`
(`)
`:
:
`

`:
`:

`
`

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

`
`:
:

:
` :

~er
crane ~er
drum
dry

`
` `

94

, ;
(~)
, ; ,
- (~, ~, ~)
(-, -, -)-
(-, ~, ~, ~)
(~)

, ,
, ,
;
,
( )
, ~

; ,

,
- (~, ~, ~, ~, ~)
-, (~, ~)
,

-(~)
, ;

; ()
, , ; ()


, ;
, (, );

(, );
; ,

during
duties

`
`

each
east
~ward
eas-y (~ier)
echo sounder
embarkation
emergency
emery
employ

:
:
`:
`: (`:)
`
:`
`:
`
`

empty
enamel
end
engine
enter
entrance
equipment

(ETD)
evening
ever
every
exchange
experience(~d)
external
extinguisher
eye

,
,
, ; ()

( , )
, ,
,
;
( )
`
, ;
`
,

; ()
`
,
`

`
,
: :
()
(: : :)
()
`:
,
`
-;
`
,
`
; (~)
`:() (~)
`:
,
`

F
fairlead
fairway
fall

`:
`

falls
far
fast
fasten
fender
few
ferry(boat)

:
:
:
`
:
`
(`)
( `)

few(~er)

, ;
,
;

, ; ,
,

, ;

, ; ()

95

first
fish
~ ing
fit
~ting
five
flare

`:

`
`
`
:

hand ~
flash
flat
float
flow
fog
follow

`
`

for
force
fore~cast
~castle
~most
~ward

:
:
:
:`:
:
:`
`:

foreign
forg-et(~ot)

`
`
(`)
:
`

`:

`
`

fid
fifteen
file
fill
fire
~ fighting

four
fragile
frame
free
~board
fresh
from
~ to
fuel
full
funnel
future

96

,
;
- (~, ~)

,
; ,
, , ;

; ,
;

- (~, ~, ~, ~,
~, ~)
; -; (); ,
; ;
; () ,
()

,
; ;
,
- (~, ~)
-, ~, ~, ~;
(~, ~)

-, - (~, ~)

,

; ()


- (~, ~, ~)

G
gale
gangway
gantry

``
`

gave
gear

get (up)

()

~ ready
give

glass

go
good
goosneck

:`

grease
green
gripe
ground

:
:

~ing
guadrail
gulf
guy
~man

`
:`

; ;
()
; , ;

- (-, -, -)
, , ;
()
, ,
()

- (~, ~, ~, ~, ~);
~(-); ~- (~)
; , ;
;
- (~, ~, ~);

;
()
()

, ; , ;

();

,
;
,

H
had
half
hammer
hand

:()
`

handle

hang
hank
happen
harbour
~ master
hard

`
`:
`: `
:

, (~, ~)

; ;

, ; ;
;
, ,
()
,


, ; ;
()

97

has
hatch,
~way
~ cover
have

hawser

he
head

~light
~line

`
`

heave in
heavy
~ seas
heel

`:
`
` `:
:

height
helm
~sman
help
her
here
high
his
hitch
hog

~ging line
hoist

` `

hold

hole
stop a ~
home

`
` `
`

hope
hose
hour
how
hull
hundred

`
`
`
`

98

(, , )
, ,
,

; - (~, ~, ~,
~)
, , ;
,

; , ;

,
();

()
, ,

, , ; ;

; ; !
(, )

(~, ~, ~)
( .)
, ;
;
( )

- (~, ~, ~, ~,
~, ~, ~)
; - (~(-)),
- (~)
, ;
()
; , ;

? ?
()
,

I
I (Im)
if
in
increase
inside
installation

()
()

`:
`
`

(~);
;
, ;
,

into
inward
iron
is
island
it(its)

`:
`
`
`
`

`
()

jetty
jib
job

keep
kind
knot
know(n)

, ; ()
, ;

- (~, ~, ~, ~, ~)

ladder
lake
landmark
lantern
lanyard
large
lash
~ing
last
later
launch

`:
`
`:
:

`
:

lead
leak
~age
leave
(~ for )
lee (~side)

:
:
`:
:,
(: :)
: (`:)

,
, ;
, ,
,
,
,
; ; ,
; ,
, ;
()
, ; ,
,
,

( )
(~ )

off-shore ~

,
;
;
(, ,)

()

J
,
(),
,

99

left

length
let
letter
level
life
~-belt
~-boat
~buoy
~line

`
`
`
`

~-jacket
~-raft
lift
light

` `
`

~house
~ vessel
like
line

`
`

air~,
oil~
breast ~
cargo ~
head~
heading ~
pipe~
liquid
little
live
load
~line
~mark
location
lock
lock(~er)

`
`
`
`:
`
`
`
`

:
`
`
`:
`

(`)

log
long
look at
~ for
~out
~see

`:
`: `:
`:
`::

100

; ;
-, -, ~

, ;
;




; ,
; ()


(~); ()
, ; (~);
;


, ; ,
, ; , ;
()
-
~

( )

;
; ,
- (~, ~, ~, ~, ~)
;

~

,
, ;
(, )
, (, )
;
,
; ,
; !
,

loose

loss
low(~er)
lubricate
lunch

` (`)
:`

, ;
,

; (, )

M
made

main
maint-ain

~enance

make
man
many
maritime
mate
may
me
mean

`
`

~s
measure
meet

:
`
:

merchant
message
messboy
messroom
middle
mid-day
(~night)
(a)midships
moisture

`
`
`
`:

:`
(`)
(`)
`
`

month (~ly)
moor
mooring
~ line
mop
more
morning

(`)
`
`
` `

:
`:

()-, ~;
~,
,
, ;

, ;
. o
, ;
; ;

- (~, ~, ~)

( , )
,
; ;
,
; ,
;
- (~, ~, ~, ~,
~)

,
-, ()
, ;
-
(~)
, ; !
, ;
,
()
(-)
;

,
,

101

move
(~ment)
most
much
must
my (~self)

(`)
`

(`)

(~);
()
,
; ,
-(~, ~)
, ;

N
nail
narrow
near (~by)
necessary
need
needle
net
never
new
next

`
` (`)
`
:
:

night
nippers
no
none (no one)
North
not
nothing
now
nozzle
number

`
`

`
`

oar
obstruction
obtain
of
off
often
oil

`:
`
`
()

`:

on
once
one
only
open

`
`
`
`

operate

, ;

, ; ( )

, ;

; (),

-, ~, ~, ~
; , ;
,
;
,

, ;
, ;

, , ;
,
()
, ;

102


, , ;
,
; , ;
(~)
,
, ,
;
;
, - (~, ~, ~,
~, ~)
, ;
,

or
order

:
`:

other
our
out
~board

`
`
`
`:

~door
~haul
~put

`:
`:
`

~reach
~side
~ward
over

`
`
`:
`

~age
~all
~board
~heat
~load

`
`
`:
`:
`

~sea
~time

``:
`

own

; (),
();
(~, ~, ~)
, , ,
, ; ,
, ;
()
,
, ,
, ,

( )
; ,
; ,
-, -; ;
( )

,
; ,

;
( )
,
;
()
; ,

pack

paint
~locker
painter
pallet
part

`
`
`
:

particular
pass

:`

pay
~ment
people
petrol
picker

`
:
`
`

, ;
, ,
; - (~, ~),
,

, ( )
; ; ();
(~),
, ;
, ,
;

,
, ; ,

()

103

pin (~tle)

(`)

pincture
pipe

place
plating
please

`
:

pliers
plywood
point

`
`

calling-in ~
(CIP)
receiving ~
port side
porthole
possible
post

`
(--)
`
: `
`:
`
`

power
present

`
`
(`)
`
`

prevent
produce

proper
pull
pump
push
put
~ in gear
(~ on)

`
(`)
`

`
( )

quantity
quarter
quay
question
quick (~ly)

`
`:
:
`
(`)

prohibit(~ed)

, , , ;

, ; ;

; ,
,
;

,

, ; , ;
,

/


;
, ; , ;
,
, , ;
, ;
(-, ~, ~, ~, ~)
,
;
()
;
(!)

, ; ,
,
; ,
,
(, );
; ()

104

,
; (, )

R
raft
rail
~ing
rain
rasp
read
ready
record
receive
red
reduce
release
remove
repair
replace
rescue
responsibility
rest
rig
right
ring
road
rock(~y)
room
rope
bull ~
drag ~
fall ~
guest ~
grab ~
guide ~
lashing ~
slip ~
span ~
tow(-ing) ~
yard ~
rough
round

, ;
, ;
, ,
`
,

:
; , ;

`
(-, -),
`:
, ;
(`:)
()
`:
(, )

`:
,
:`:
() ()
`:
- (~, ~, ~, ~, ~),

`
;
`
,
`
, ;
``

, ;
;

`
; ,
(`)
()
:
, ;
,
`
, ; ;
()
`
()
`
()
`
()
`
,
`
,
`
,
`

`(-)
`:

; , ;
`
; ; ,

105

route
rower
rowlock
rubber
rudder
run
runner

:
`
`
`
`

rust

sack
safe
~ty
sail
~or
salt
salvage
same
sand
~paper

`
:
`

save
saw

say
scraper
screw
~driver
scrub
~ down
scupper
scuttle
sea
seal
seamanship
search
~light
second
secure

`
:
:`
`
` `
`

:
:
`:
:
`:
`
`

see
send
set

severe

, ; ( )
; , ;

; - (~)

106

; , ;

,
,

,

, ;
, ~; ;
,
,
,
, ;

;
()

, ; ;
; ,

, , ;

;
, ;

, ; ,
(), ()
, ; ,

shackle
shall
shallow
shape
sharp

she

shears
sheave
sheet
shell

`
:
:

ship
~ping
shirt
shore
short
~age
~en

`
:
:
:
`:
`:

should
shovel
show
shroud
side
sign
call ~
silence
simple
single
size
skylight
slack

`
`

`
`

~ away
sling
slow
dead ~
small

`
`

smoke
~ signal
snow
s
soap

`
` `
`
`
`

,
, ; ;
()
; ();
, ( )
(, ;
, )

; ;
, ;
,
;

; , ()

-
, ;
()
-, ~, ~; -, ~
()
- (-, -, -, -, -)
, ; ,
,
, ;

; ()


; , ;

;
, , ()

, ,

, ;

107

some

~body
(~one)
~thing
~how
~times
~where
sound
South
space
living ~
spanner
speak
speed
full ~
splice

`
(`)
`
`
`
`
`
`

`
`
:
:
` :

back~
eye~
tail ~

`
`
`

spring

stand
~ by

starboard
~ side
stay
steady
steam(~er)
steel
steer
~age
~ageway
stem
stern
~line
store

`::
`:: `

`
:(`:)
:
`:
`
`

:
`:
:

~keeper
stowage
stream
strong
such

`:`
`
:

108

-, ;
,
-,
-,
-, -
-,
-, -
, ;
,
,


,


,;
,
( )
;


, ; ;

- (~, ~, ~, ~)

( , )
,

(),
; !
, ,
,
, ,
,

, , ;

, ;
, ;
, ,
,
, ; ; ,
,

sufficient
sugar
summer
superstructure
supply
sure
switch
~ on
~ off
swivel

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

; -, ~, ~, ~

,
; ,
,

table
tackle
watch ~
take

tarpaulin
than
thank

:`:

that
their

them
then
there
therefore
these
they
thick
~ness
thimble
think
thinner
third
this
those
through
throw
thrust
~er

`:
:

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:

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:
`

tide
low ~
high ~

`
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, - (~, ~, ~, ~,
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,

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,

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,
,

109

till
tiller
time
~-table
local shore
~
to
~gether
~wards
to-day
to-morrow
tongs
too
took
torch
tow
~line
travel
trim

``
` :
`

`
`
`
`:

:
`
``
`

truck
trunk
try

Tuesday
tug (~boat)
turn
~buckle
~ing circle
two

`:
(`)
:
:`
`: `:
:

under
understand
underway
get ~

`
`
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` `

until
up
~ and down

``

~per
us
use

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, ; ,


,
,

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;
,
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;
,
; ;
,
, ;
,

,
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~ful

110

`:

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, ;

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,
; -,
;

, ,
;
- (~(~), ~)

used

usually

`:

varnish
veer

`:
`

, ;

~ing
very
vessel
crossing ~
fishing ~
hampered
~
inward ~
leaving ~
manoeuvring
~
outward ~
turning ~
VHF
visibility
visible
voyage

`
`

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`:

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`:

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`

;
, ;
( )
;

~
~
~
~
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~
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~

W
wait
walk
~ out
wall
want
warning
was
wash
washer
watch
~man
water
shallow ~
~proof,
~tight
wave

:
`
`

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:
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``:
`
`

; ,
() ,

(-, -);

, ;
- (~, ~), - (~)

,,,
, (~),

; ;

,
- (~, ~)

111

way
we
weak(~ly)
weather

`
`
`: (`:)
`

heavy ~
nasty ~
thick ~
ugly ~
~-beam
~-board
~cock
~deck
~-roll
week (~ly)
weight
well

` `
` `
`
` `
``:
``:
``
``
``
`: (`:)
`
`

were
West
westward
what
wheel

`
`
`:

when
where
whether
which
while

`
`
`
`

whistle

white
who
whole
why
wide
~ly
width
will
winch
wind

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

trade ~
~bag
~lass

112

`
`
`

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()
; ,

,

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;
;
,

()

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; ,

,
; ,
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, ; ;
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,
(~), , ;

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; , ;
, ;
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- (-, -, -)

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, ;
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wing
winter
wire
~ sling
wish
with
~in

`
`
`
` `
`
`
`

~out
wood
~en
~work
work

`
`:
`:
`:`:
`:

wreck
(shipwreck)
wrong

(`)

yard
year
yellow
yes
you
your

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:

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;
,

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, ; (91,4 )

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zero

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113

- ,
43
60
60 . ,
128
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60
40 . ,
- ,
49
10
, 144 .
- ,
40
36
, 306 .
39 /
5 / 15
39
, 1987. / .
. .
47
(. .
36
), 2- .
79
/
24
.., .. .-., ,
1999.- 400 .
205 /
(
7 / 18
323
) /
206

8
( )
. .
50
42
. - ., 1979.
..
51
28
. - ., 1984.
Galyna Kuyan Ships corrspondence (For senior
64
12
courses and seamen). Odessa, 1999., 114 .
.. -
38
10
, 96 .
.. .
211
20
. - ., 1989.
. ., . .
48
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20
( . .), 208 .
-

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334
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114

115