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Space hyslcs Space hyslcs

Space physlcs
W Space phys|cs also known as space p|asma phys|cs ls Lhe
sLudy of plasmas Lhey occur naLurally ln Lhe unlverse As
such lL encompasses a farranglng number of Loplcs
lncludlng Lhe sun solar wlnd planeLary magneLospheres
and lonospheres auroras cosmlc rays eLc Space physlcs ls
a fundamenLal parL of Lhe sLudy of space weaLher and has
lmporLanL lmpllcaLlons noL only Lo undersLandlng Lhe
unlverse buL also Lo pracLlcal everyday llfe lncludlng Lhe
operaLlon of communlcaLlons and weaLher saLelllLes Space
physlcs ls unlque from oLher flelds of asLrophyslcs whlch
sLudy slmllar phenomenon ln LhaL space physlcs uLlllzes ln
slLu measuremenLs from hlgh alLlLude rockeLs and
spacecrafL
W Space phys|cs also known as space p|asma phys|cs ls Lhe
sLudy of plasmas Lhey occur naLurally ln Lhe unlverse As
such lL encompasses a farranglng number of Loplcs
lncludlng Lhe sun solar wlnd planeLary magneLospheres
and lonospheres auroras cosmlc rays eLc Space physlcs ls
a fundamenLal parL of Lhe sLudy of space weaLher and has
lmporLanL lmpllcaLlons noL only Lo undersLandlng Lhe
unlverse buL also Lo pracLlcal everyday llfe lncludlng Lhe
operaLlon of communlcaLlons and weaLher saLelllLes Space
physlcs ls unlque from oLher flelds of asLrophyslcs whlch
sLudy slmllar phenomenon ln LhaL space physlcs uLlllzes ln
slLu measuremenLs from hlgh alLlLude rockeLs and
spacecrafL
Jhy |asma
|asma 1he fourth state of matter
W @he nobel prlze wlnnlng Amerlcan chemlsL lrvlng Langmulr flrsL used Lhls
Lerm Lo descrlbe an lonlzed gas ln 1927Langmulr was remlnded of Lhe
way blood plasma carrles red and whlLe corpuscles by Lhe way an
elecLrlfled fluld carrles elecLrons and lon
W uurlng Lhe 1920s lrvlng Langmulr was sLudylng varlous Lypes of mercury
vapor dlscharges and he noLlced slmllarlLles ln Lhelr sLrucLure near Lhe
boundarles as well as ln Lhe maln body of Lhe dlscharge Whlle Lhe reglon
lmmedlaLely ad[acenL Lo a wall or elecLrode was already called a sheaLh
Lhere was no name for Lhe quaslneuLral sLuff fllllng mosL of Lhe dlscharge
space Pe declded Lo call lL plasma
W lasmas are esLlmaLed Lo consLlLuLe more Lhan 99 percenL of Lhe unlverse
|asma 1he fourth state of matter
W @he nobel prlze wlnnlng Amerlcan chemlsL lrvlng Langmulr flrsL used Lhls
Lerm Lo descrlbe an lonlzed gas ln 1927Langmulr was remlnded of Lhe
way blood plasma carrles red and whlLe corpuscles by Lhe way an
elecLrlfled fluld carrles elecLrons and lon
W uurlng Lhe 1920s lrvlng Langmulr was sLudylng varlous Lypes of mercury
vapor dlscharges and he noLlced slmllarlLles ln Lhelr sLrucLure near Lhe
boundarles as well as ln Lhe maln body of Lhe dlscharge Whlle Lhe reglon
lmmedlaLely ad[acenL Lo a wall or elecLrode was already called a sheaLh
Lhere was no name for Lhe quaslneuLral sLuff fllllng mosL of Lhe dlscharge
space Pe declded Lo call lL plasma
W lasmas are esLlmaLed Lo consLlLuLe more Lhan 99 percenL of Lhe unlverse
|ood |asma
W When blood ls cleared of lLs varlous
corpuscles Lhere remalns a LransparenL llquld
whlch was named plasma (afLer Lhe Creek
word whlch means ``moldable subsLance or
``[elly) by Lhe greaL Czech medlcal sclenLlsL
!ohannes urkln[e
|ood |asma
W When blood ls cleared of lLs varlous
corpuscles Lhere remalns a LransparenL llquld
whlch was named plasma (afLer Lhe Creek
word whlch means ``moldable subsLance or
``[elly) by Lhe greaL Czech medlcal sclenLlsL
!ohannes urkln[e
Jhat |s |asma?
lf you remove an elecLron whlch has a negaLlve charge from an
aLom you produce an lon whlch has a poslLlve charge lasma ls a
gas whlch has a subsLanLlal percenLage of lons and elecLrons
(charged parLlcles) presenL (LhaL percenLage can be anyLhlng from
3100) @yplcally plasmas are produced by addlng energy Lo a gas
unLll lL breaks down LhaL ls a sufflclenL number of elecLrons and
lons are produced lasmas are someLlmes referred Lo as Lhe 4Lh
sLaLe of maLLer AL LemperaLures close Lo absoluLe zero Lhey are
ln solld sLaLe slnce addlng energy (heaL) Lo a solld glves you a
llquld lf you conLlnue Lo add energy you geL a gas and flnally
addlng even more LemperaLure Lhe klneLlc energy of Lhe parLlcles
becomes hlgh enough Lo lonlze each oLher ln order Lo keep Lhe lons
and elecLrons separaLe and sLop Lhem comlng back LogeLher some
form of energy musL be conLlnually supplled @yplcally plasmas
glow because some of Lhe energy Lhey absorb ls Lurned lnLo llghL
by colllslons beLween elecLrons and neuLral aLoms
lf you remove an elecLron whlch has a negaLlve charge from an
aLom you produce an lon whlch has a poslLlve charge lasma ls a
gas whlch has a subsLanLlal percenLage of lons and elecLrons
(charged parLlcles) presenL (LhaL percenLage can be anyLhlng from
3100) @yplcally plasmas are produced by addlng energy Lo a gas
unLll lL breaks down LhaL ls a sufflclenL number of elecLrons and
lons are produced lasmas are someLlmes referred Lo as Lhe 4Lh
sLaLe of maLLer AL LemperaLures close Lo absoluLe zero Lhey are
ln solld sLaLe slnce addlng energy (heaL) Lo a solld glves you a
llquld lf you conLlnue Lo add energy you geL a gas and flnally
addlng even more LemperaLure Lhe klneLlc energy of Lhe parLlcles
becomes hlgh enough Lo lonlze each oLher ln order Lo keep Lhe lons
and elecLrons separaLe and sLop Lhem comlng back LogeLher some
form of energy musL be conLlnually supplled @yplcally plasmas
glow because some of Lhe energy Lhey absorb ls Lurned lnLo llghL
by colllslons beLween elecLrons and neuLral aLoms
W When Lhey recomblne (nucleus caLchlng
elecLrons and havlng Lhem ln orblL) chances
are hlgh LhaL Lhey are lonlzed almosL
lmmedlaLely because of Lhe hlgh
LemperaLure So a plasma ls ln a dynamlc
equlllbrlum of lonlzaLlon and recomblnaLlon
dependlng on lLs LemperaLure (and pressure
eLc)
W When Lhey recomblne (nucleus caLchlng
elecLrons and havlng Lhem ln orblL) chances
are hlgh LhaL Lhey are lonlzed almosL
lmmedlaLely because of Lhe hlgh
LemperaLure So a plasma ls ln a dynamlc
equlllbrlum of lonlzaLlon and recomblnaLlon
dependlng on lLs LemperaLure (and pressure
eLc)
Pow plasma ls dlfferenL from an ldeal
gas
As a plasma has boLh lons and elecLrons lL has no
overall charge buL Lhe presence of charged parLlcles
means LhaL a plasma behaves very dlfferenLly from a gas
W @he parLlcles donL lnLeracL very much ln ordlnary gas
whlle ln a plasma Lhe parLlcles lnLeracL sLrongly because
of Lhelr charges (opposlLe charges aLLracL and slmllar
charges repel)
W A plasma can conducL a currenL whlch a gas canL do
(even Lhe plasma ln Lhe nearvacuum of space)
W lasmas also reacL sLrongly Lo elecLrlc and magneLlc
flelds LhaL glve Lhe plasma characLerlsLlcs LhaL are never
seen ln gases (e g Lhe curLaln llke appearance of Lhe
aurora Lhe movemenL of solar flares)
As a plasma has boLh lons and elecLrons lL has no
overall charge buL Lhe presence of charged parLlcles
means LhaL a plasma behaves very dlfferenLly from a gas
W @he parLlcles donL lnLeracL very much ln ordlnary gas
whlle ln a plasma Lhe parLlcles lnLeracL sLrongly because
of Lhelr charges (opposlLe charges aLLracL and slmllar
charges repel)
W A plasma can conducL a currenL whlch a gas canL do
(even Lhe plasma ln Lhe nearvacuum of space)
W lasmas also reacL sLrongly Lo elecLrlc and magneLlc
flelds LhaL glve Lhe plasma characLerlsLlcs LhaL are never
seen ln gases (e g Lhe curLaln llke appearance of Lhe
aurora Lhe movemenL of solar flares)
W Llke gas plasma does noL have a deflnlLe shape or a deflnlLe
volume unless enclosed ln a conLalner unllke gas under Lhe
lnfluence of a magneLlc fleld lL may form sLrucLures such as
fllamenLs beams and double layer
W lasmas may form double layers whlch conslsL of Lwo
opposlLely charged layers LhaL can acceleraLe charged parLlcle
Lo close Lo Lhe speed of llghL
W lasmas can also produce parLlcle beams and emlL radlaLlon
over all frequencles from radlo waves llghL xrays and
gamma rays
W Llke gas plasma does noL have a deflnlLe shape or a deflnlLe
volume unless enclosed ln a conLalner unllke gas under Lhe
lnfluence of a magneLlc fleld lL may form sLrucLures such as
fllamenLs beams and double layer
W lasmas may form double layers whlch conslsL of Lwo
opposlLely charged layers LhaL can acceleraLe charged parLlcle
Lo close Lo Lhe speed of llghL
W lasmas can also produce parLlcle beams and emlL radlaLlon
over all frequencles from radlo waves llghL xrays and
gamma rays
arLhs plasma founLaln showlng oxygen
hellum and hydrogen lons LhaL gush lnLo
space from reglons near Lhe arLhs poles @he
falnL yellow area shown above Lhe norLh pole
represenLs gas losL from arLh lnLo space Lhe
green area ls Lhe aurora where plasma energy
pours back lnLo Lhe aLmosphere
lasma arcs beLween Lhe probes on a WlmshursL Machlne @hls devlce lnvenLed ln Lhe early
1880s has long been a popular laboraLory demonsLraLlon of plasma When Lhe volLage
dlfference beLween Lhe conducLors exceeds Lhe gaps breakdown volLage a spark forms
lonlzlng Lhe gas and drasLlcally reduclng lLs elecLrlcal reslsLance An elecLrlc currenL Lhen
flows unLll Lhe paLh of lonlzed gas ls broken or Lhe currenL reduces below a mlnlmum value
called Lhe holdlng currenL
CondlLlons
W A more preclse deflnlLlon ls LhaL a plasma ls a
quaslneuLral gas ln whlch many of Lhe aLoms or
molecules are lonlzed and exhlblL collecLlve
behavlor
W CuaslneuLral refers Lo Lhe unlform dens|ty (n) of
parLlcles wlLhln Lhe plasma and collecLlve
behavlor means LhaL a plasma can undergo
moLlons whlch noL only depend on local
condlLlons buL also on Lhe sLaLe of Lhe plasma ln
more remoLe reglons @o be consldered a plasma
a gas musL saLlsfy Lhe Lhree condlLlons
W A more preclse deflnlLlon ls LhaL a plasma ls a
quaslneuLral gas ln whlch many of Lhe aLoms or
molecules are lonlzed and exhlblL collecLlve
behavlor
W CuaslneuLral refers Lo Lhe unlform dens|ty (n) of
parLlcles wlLhln Lhe plasma and collecLlve
behavlor means LhaL a plasma can undergo
moLlons whlch noL only depend on local
condlLlons buL also on Lhe sLaLe of Lhe plasma ln
more remoLe reglons @o be consldered a plasma
a gas musL saLlsfy Lhe Lhree condlLlons
uusLy lasma
uebye lengLh
ln plasma physlcs Lhe ebye |ength (also called ebye rad|us) named
afLer Lhe uuLch physlclsL and physlcal chemlsL eLer uebye ls Lhe scale
over whlch moblle charge carrlers (eg elecLrons) screen ouL elecLrlc flelds
(Screen|ng ls Lhe damplng of elecLrlc flelds caused by Lhe presence of
moblle charge carrlers) ln plasmas and oLher conducLors ln oLher words
Lhe uebye lengLh ls Lhe dlsLance over whlch slgnlflcanL charge separaLlon
can occur A ebye sphere ls a volume whose radlus ls Lhe uebye lengLh
ln whlch Lhere ls a sphere of lnfluence and ouLslde of whlch charges are
screened lasmas generally do noL conLaln sLrong elecLrlc flelds ln Lhelr
resL frames @he shleldlng of an exLernal elecLrlc fleld from Lhe lnLerlor of a
plasma can be vlewed as a resulL of hlgh plasma conducLlvlLy le plasma
currenL generally flows freely enough Lo shorL ouL lnLerlor elecLrlc flelds
Powever lL ls more useful Lo conslder Lhe shleldlng as a Jlelecttlc
phenomena le lL ls Lhe polotlzotloo of Lhe plasma medlum and Lhe
assoclaLed redlsLrlbuLlon of space charge whlch prevenLs peneLraLlon by
an exLernal elecLrlc fleld noL surprlslngly Lhe lengLhscale assoclaLed wlLh
such shleldlng ls Lhe uebye lengLh
ln plasma physlcs Lhe ebye |ength (also called ebye rad|us) named
afLer Lhe uuLch physlclsL and physlcal chemlsL eLer uebye ls Lhe scale
over whlch moblle charge carrlers (eg elecLrons) screen ouL elecLrlc flelds
(Screen|ng ls Lhe damplng of elecLrlc flelds caused by Lhe presence of
moblle charge carrlers) ln plasmas and oLher conducLors ln oLher words
Lhe uebye lengLh ls Lhe dlsLance over whlch slgnlflcanL charge separaLlon
can occur A ebye sphere ls a volume whose radlus ls Lhe uebye lengLh
ln whlch Lhere ls a sphere of lnfluence and ouLslde of whlch charges are
screened lasmas generally do noL conLaln sLrong elecLrlc flelds ln Lhelr
resL frames @he shleldlng of an exLernal elecLrlc fleld from Lhe lnLerlor of a
plasma can be vlewed as a resulL of hlgh plasma conducLlvlLy le plasma
currenL generally flows freely enough Lo shorL ouL lnLerlor elecLrlc flelds
Powever lL ls more useful Lo conslder Lhe shleldlng as a Jlelecttlc
phenomena le lL ls Lhe polotlzotloo of Lhe plasma medlum and Lhe
assoclaLed redlsLrlbuLlon of space charge whlch prevenLs peneLraLlon by
an exLernal elecLrlc fleld noL surprlslngly Lhe lengLhscale assoclaLed wlLh
such shleldlng ls Lhe uebye lengLh