Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 222

..

..

1997

535.4

. . .,
.


.
.
.

, ,
.

, ,
.
,
, ,
.
INTERNET
: .., ..,
.., .. ( ), ..
: ftp://optics.npi.msu.su/pub/co/

..

1.
1.1.
1.1.1.
1.1.2.

1.2.
1.2.1.
1.2.2.
1.2.3.
1.2.4. . -
1.2.5. .
1.2.6.

1.3.
1.3.1.
1.3.2.
1.3.3.
1.3.4.
1.3.5. .
1.3.6.
1.3.7.
1.3.8.
1
2.

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3.
2.1.4.

3
7
10
10
11
12
17
17
20
25
27
32
33
35
35
36
38
39
41
44
45
48
50
51
51
51
52
55
59

2.1.5.

2.1.6.

2.2.
2.2.1.

2.2.2.

2.2.3.
2.2.4.

2.2.5.
2.2.6. ,
2.2.7.
2.2.8.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.
2.4.

2.4.1.
2.4.2.
2.4.3.

2.4.4.
2.5. -

2.5.1.
2.5.2. - -
2.6.
.

2.6.1.
2.6.2.
2.6.3.

61
65
67
67
69
74
75
78
80
84
86
88
88
92
94
97
97
100
103
107
110
110
111
117
117
119
120

..
2.7. .

2.7.1.
2.7.2.
2.7.3. -
2.7.4. .
2
3.

3.1.
3.2.
3.2.1. ,

3.2.2.
3.3.
3.3.1. - .

3.3.2.
3.4.
3.5.
3.5.1. .
3.5.2.
3.6.
3.6.1 4-F
3.6.2.


3.7.

3.8.
3
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.

5
123
123
125
127
132
138
140
140
144
144
147
153
153
156
157
159
159
161
168
168
171
173
175
177
178
179
180
181

4.2.2.

4.2.3.
4.3. .

4.3.1.

4.3.2.

4.3.3.
4.3.4.
.
4.4. .

4.5.

4.6.
4.6.1.
4.6.2.

4
1.

2.

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .

183
187
189
189
191
193
197
199
202
204
205
206
211
213
217
217
218
218
219
222

..


. ,

.

.

.

,

.
,
,
, .
" "

,
, .
,

,
,
, , ,

. ,

, .

.
,
, :
,
. ,

,
,
, . ,

,
, ,
,

, -.
,
,
. 1 (. 1) -
,
, .
2
,
1 2 -
.
.
, .

. ,

. 1. ,

.
2
, 1 2,
1.
1
2 .
,
.
,
,
.

..


.

, ,

.

,
, -
. ,
,
. , ,
- .
,

.

,
. ,

, ,
,
,
. , ,
,
. ,
,
.

.

,
, "".
,

.
,
-

- .

10

1.

1.

,
[1,2],
(., , [3 - 6]).
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
,

.

1.1. [7]

c
.

.
, E
.

r t ,

B ( r1 , t 1 , r2 , t 2 ) = E ( r1 , t 1 ) E ( r2 , t 2 ) ,
(1.1.1)

, ""
.
,
( ),
B ( r1 , t 1 , r1 , t 2 ) = B ( r1 , r1 , t 2 t 1 ) .
(1.1.2)

..

11

,
r2 - r1
B ( r1 , t 1 , r2 , t 2 ) = B ( r2 r1, t 1 , t 2 ) .
(1.1.3)
,

= r2 r1 ,
,
E
B ( r1 , t 1 , r2 , t 2 ) = B ( r2 r1, t 2 t 1 ) ,
(1.1.4)
= t 2 t 1 . B ( , )
= = 0.

1.1.1.


B( r2 , r1 , t 2 , t1 )
( r2 , r1 , t 2 , t1 ) =
,
(1.1.5)
I ( r1 , t1 ) I ( r2 , t 2 )

I ( r1 , t 1 ) I ( r2 , t 2 ) -
.

B( r2 , r1 , )
( r2 , r1 , = t 2 t1 ) =
.
(1.1.6)
I ( r1 , t1 ) I ( r2 , t 2 )

,
.

.

( r2 , r1 , ) 1.
(1.1.7)

= 0 ,
r2 = r1 - .
= k = k ,

12

1.

1.1.2



, , ,
.

.


;

.
,
.
.

.

,
s
1 2
(. 1.1.1).

E(r,t)

. 1.1.1 .
.
, 1 2,
Q2,
Q1.
Pj (i=1,2) E(Pj,t),
Pj Q2

..

13

lj=PjP.

E ( P , t ) = K 1E ( P1 , t t 1 ) + K 2 E ( P2 , t t 2 ) ,
(1.1.8)
tj=lj/c - ( ).
1 2
,
.

I (P ) = E (P ,t )
K 1K
K

1K 2

= K 1K 1I 1 + K 2 K

E ( P1 , t t 1 ) E ( P2 , t t 2 ) +
E ( P1 , t t 1 ) E ( P2 , t t 2 )

I (P ) = | K 1 |2 I 1 (P1 )+ | K 2 |2 I 2 (P2 ) + 2| K 1K 2 | Re B ( s, t ).
(1.1.9)
I ( P1 ) , I 2 ( P2 ) - P1 P2,
( s, ) - - :
B ( s, ) = B ( s, t ) = E (P1 , t - t 1 )E (P2 , t - t 2 ) , (1.1.10)
t2-t2=, s- 1 2 Q1;
.
Q1,
, ,
2

I 1 = I 1 ( P ) = K 1 I 1 (P1 ) I 2 = I 2 ( P ) = K 2 I 2 (P2 ).
, (1.1.9)

I (P ) = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1I 2 Re ( s, t ) ,

( s, t ) =

B ( s, t )

I 1I 2
( s, t ) - .

E = eA( x, y,z,t ) exp i( 0 t k 0 z )

(1.1.11)

14

1.

(e - , -
) (1.1.4)
B( s, ) = A( r , t ) A ( r + s, t + ) exp i( 0 ) = B ( s, ) exp i( 0 ) .
, ,
z.
,
( s, ) = ( s, ) expi[ ( s, ) 0 ] ,
(1.1.12)

( s, ) = arg B ( s, ) . , (1.1.11)

I(P) = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 ( s, ) cos[ ( s, ) ] .


(1.1.13)
:
l 2 l1
2
=
, = 0 =
( l l ),
0 2 1
c
0- . << (1.1.13)
,
Q2 (. 1.1.1)

I max = I1 + I 2 2 I1 I 2 ( s) .
(1.1.14)
min

, ,

I I
v = max min ,
(1.1.15)
I max + I min
. (1.1.14)

1
I
2 I1 I 2
I2
1
( s) .
v( P ) =
( s) = 2
+
(1.1.16)
I1
I1 + I 2
I2
(I1=I2),
(1.1.16)
B ( s)
v = ( S ) =
,
(1.1.17)
I1 I 2
..
. . 1.1.2

..

15


.
(1.1.15)
- .
, :
v = v( ) = ( s, ) .
(1.1.18)
,

<<,

,
. 1.1.2.

,
. 1.1.3.

,
. . 1.1.3.
()
1

2. ,
Q ().
, ,
, Q, .
,
(, ,
).

1 1, Q

16

1.

E ( r , t ) = E1( r , t t1 ) + E2 ( r , t t 2 ) ,
tj=2lj/c, lj- j .

(1.1.19)

(1.1.19) (1.1.8). ,
,

I = I1 + I 2 2 I1 I 2 ( ) cos[ ( ) 0] ,
(1.1.20)
(1.1.13) (=t2-t1).
,
=0 ,

()
.
,

. ,

, ..
<< 1; ,
0
(1.1.15),
I1=I2
v = ( ) .
(1.1.21)

,
.
:
.

.
, ,
.
-
, . ,
, .

..

17

. ,

, .

1.2. [1-6,
8-12]
,
, .

,
.

1.2.1.

.

E D
H B.
:

D
,
t
B
rot E =
,
t
rot H =

(1.2.1)
(1.2.2)

divB = 0,
divD = 0 ,
D = 0 E ,
B = 0H ,

(1.2.3)
(1.2.4)
(1.2.5)
(1.2.6)
0 0 - ,

-
.
(1.2.6) (1.2.2) , ,
,

rot(rot E ) = 0

rot H .
t

(1.2.7)

18

1.

(1.2.1) (1.2.5),
,

rot(rot)E = divE E , divE = E ,

(1.2.8)

(1.2.7)


2E
= 0 0
E + E
.


t 2

(1.2.9)

(1.2.8), (1.2.9)


, , .
x y z

, , (1.2.9)

2E
E = 0 0 2 .
(1.2.10)
t
rot (1.2.1),
B

B = 0 0

2B
.
t 2

(1.2.11)

(1.2.11) , (x,y,z,t)
E B

1 2
,
v 2 t 2

(1.2.12)

v = ( 00 )

2.

(1.2.13)

(1.2.12)
, n.

,

= a cost nr ,

- , - .

(1.2.14)

..
k =
(1.2.14)

19

n
, k=2/,
v

= a cos( t kr ) .

(1.2.15)

= a exp[ i( t kr ) ] .

(1.2.16)

( r ) exp[i(t kr )] ,
= ( a ) exp[ i(t + kr )] .
r

= a

(1.2.17)

(1.2.18)


, ,

exp i(t ) .

(1.2.19)

(1.2.19),
-i
(1.2.12)

+ k 2 = 0 ,

(1.2.20)

.
(1.2.20) .
.


.
(1.2.12),
(1.2.9).
,
.
,
(1.2.9).
(1.2.9)
, .
(1.2.9) ,

20

1.

2 E
0 0 2 .
R = E


t

(1.2.21)

, [8], , R

2 1
,
2 S

(1.2.22)

1 2 1
.
2

(1.2.23)

1, 2 -
, S , - .
S =,

R=


(1.2.9), R<<1. ,

1.
,
(1.2.10) (1.2.9).
, ,
, R .
(1.2.10) (1.2.12),
, .

.

1.2.2.

.
,
. ,

.
,

.
.
(1.2.20).

..

E ( x , y , z, t ) = ( x , y , z) e it ,

21
(1.2.24)

(x,y,z) (1.2.20).
S (. 1.2.1.).

.



dS ,

n
n
S

( )dV =

(1.2.25)

- ,

V,

S,
S. ,

(1.2.20). n

(1.2.25)


n S.

. 1.2.1.
-.

1
= exp( ikr ) , r -
r


V (- r
, ).

(.. ).
,
V ,
.
R V. (1.2.25)





dS
dS .

n
n
n
V
S
S n
(1.2.26)
V V , S - .

( ) dV =

22

1.

(1.2.26) . (1.2.26)
,

e ikr e ikr

dS = lim
dS =
R 0 S n R
n
R n
S n

eikr
eikr eikr 2
= lim ik

R d = 4( P ) .
R 0 S
R
R
R n
(1.2.27)
2

(1.2.27)
S . ,

( P) =

1 eikr eikr

dS .
4 S n r r n

(1.2.28)

(1.2.28)
-.
(1.2.28)
. , , ,
. ,
, .
, ,
S. - ,
(1.2.28) , n .
.

1
(1.2.29)
k >> ,
r
, 1 r
exp(ikr ) , (1.2.28)
( P) =

1 r
eikr

ik dS .
4 S n
n r

(1.2.30)



(. 1.2.2). , ,
,
~
R , .
x , y , z ,

..

23

k z , ,
, . . 1.2.2 ,

= ,
n z

(1.2.31)


=
= ik z = ik cos
n z

(1.2.32)

r
= grad n = cos .
n

(1.2.33)

(1.2.32) (1.2.33) (1.2.30)


( x ', y ', z') =

ik
4

( cos + cos ) ( x , y , z )

eikr
dS .
r

(1.2.34)


()
-.
(1.2.34)


, ,

.
,
,

,
. 1.2.2.
.

.

,
.
,
,
,

lim = R
jk = 0 .
n


(1.2.34)

24

1.

n . ,


. , , (1.2.34)
, .
,
, ,

cos 1.

(1.2.35)

cos = 1.

(1.2.36)

, ,
, ,
(1.2.34)

( x, y, z) =

i
eikr
( x , y , z ) dS ,
A
r

(1.2.37)

. , ,
,
,
. ,
2 (-
(1.2.37) -i).

x x << z z y y << z z ,

(1.2.38)

r,

1 ( x x) + ( y y)
r = z z +
+...
2
z z
2

(1.2.39)

,
- (1.2.34):

( x, y, z) =

i ikz
e
4

'

( cos + cos )

( x x ) + ( y y )
exp ik z
dS
2( z z )

z z

(1.2.40)

..

25

(1.2.40):
.
,
x 2 + y 2 , ,
.
, .
,
,
,
, .
.
1802 . , :
,
, ,
. .

1.2.3.

-
.
l.
(1.2.40) ,
:

( x ', y ') =

( x ') =
( y ') =

exp( ikz )
( x ') ( y ') ,
i z

(1.2.41)

a/ 2

2
k
exp i ( x x ') dx ,
2z

a/ 2

a/ 2

2
k
exp i ( y y ') dy.
2z

a/ 2

k
k
x x '), =
(
( y y '),
( z ' z )
( z ' z )

26

1.

( x ') =
( y ') =

( z ' z )

exp i 2 d ,

( z ' z )
k

exp i 2 d,

1 =

k a
k a

x ' ,
+ x ' , 2 =

( z ' z ) 2
( z ' z ) 2

1 =

k a
k a

+ y ' , 2 =
y ' .

( z ' z ) 2
( z ' z ) 2

(x') (y')
, .

C( ) = cos

t 2

dt , S ( ) = sin
0

t 2
2

(1.2.43)

dt .

,
2

2
2
2

exp
i
d
exp
i
d
exp

2
2 i 2 d , (1.2.44)

0
0
1

( x ') =
( y ') =

( z ' z )
k

( z ' z )
k

{[C( ) C( )] + i[ S( ) S( )]},
2

{[C( ) C( )] + i[ S( ) S( )]}.
2

(1.2.45)

, (1.2.45) (1.2.41),

exp(ikz )

{[C( ) C( )] + i[ S( ) S ( )]} (1.2.46)


{[ C( ) C( )] + i[ S ( ) S ( )]}.

( x ' , y ') =
2

iz

..

I ( x ' , y ') =

{[

{[

] }

2
1
C( 2 ) C( 1 ) + i S ( 2 ) S ( 1 )
4

] [

] [

] }.

C( 2 ) C(1 ) + i S ( 2 ) S (1 )
2

27

(1.2.47)


, ;
(. 1.2.3) C(
) S () .

. 1.2.3. .
, C()+iS()
, .
,

{[C( ) C( )] + i[S ( ) S ( )]}


2

, 1 2.
,
(1.2.46) (1.2.47) .

1.2.4. . -
,
. ,
-

28

1.

-
, .
,
. ,

, -.
-
.
{x,y,0}
( x , y ,0) ,
z.
. , ( x , y ,0) .
{x,y,0} -

A fx, fy =

( x , y,0) exp[ i 2( f x x + f y y ) ]dxdy . (1.2.48)

- A f x , f y

( x , y ,0) =

A( f x , f y ) exp[i 2( f x x + f y y)]df x df y . (1.2.49)

(1.2.16) ,

2
( x , y , z ) = expi
(x + y + z) ,

(1.2.50)

, , - ,
= 1 2 2 .

[ (

)]

exp i 2 f x x + f y y , (1.2.42),

= fx , = fy , = 1 ( f x ) 2 ( fy ) 2

, A f x , f y df x df y ,

(1.2.44)

fx = , fy = .

, , (1.2.42)
( x , y ,0) , ,
z,

..

29

.
, ,
, .
, -
.
,
Ai f x , f y

t(x,y).

t ( x , y ,0) = i ( x , y ,0) t ( x , y ) , (1.2.45)
i - . -
, -
At f x , f y

At ( f x , f y ) =

A ( f , f )T ( f
i

f x, f y f y)df xdf y , (1.2.46)

- - t(x,y).

, -

Ai ( f x, f y) = ( f x, f y) . (1.2.47)

(1.2.46)

At = T ( f x , f y ) .

(1.2.48)

,
-
t(x,y). ,
-
, ,
.

. ,
(1.2.40), ,
cos cos 1:

( x, y, z) =

i exp( ikl )

k
expi ( x2 + y2 )

2l
l

30

1.

k 2
(
x + y 2 ) exp i
xx + yy ) dxdy ,
(
l

2l
(1.2.49)
l = z z .

( x , y ) expi

l >>

k x2 + y2

max

(1.2.50)

k 2

exp i
x + y 2 ,
2l

x , y
i
k

2

( x, y) = exp( ikl ) expi ( x2 + y2 ) ( x, y) expi ( xx + yy) dxdy .


2l

l

l
(1.2.51)


- ( x , y )

fx =

x
y
, f y = , , - F {( x , y ) } ,
l
l
i

k
( x, y) = exp( ikl ) expi ( x2 + y2 ) F {( x , y ) } . (1.2.52)

2l
l

,
-
.

, F ( x , y ) = T . -
.
1.

(1.2.53)

(1.2.54)

t ( x , y ) = rect( x l x ) rect y l y ,

l x , l y - ,

T = l x l y sinc( l x f x ) sinc l y f y ,
sin c = sin c( ) / .
2.

..

x2 + y2
,
t ( x , y ) = circ

D
2

D - ,

31

(1.2.55)

2
2
2
D J 1 D x + y l
T=
,
2
D x 2 + y 2 l

(1.2.56)

J1 - .
3.

1 m
x
y
t ( x , y ) = + cos( 2f 0 x ) rect rect ;
(1.2.57)

2 2
L
L
L - , f 0 - , m -

T=

L2
m
m
sinc Lf y sinc( Lf x ) + sinc L( f x + f 0 ) + sinc L( f x f 0 ) .

2
2
2
(1.2.58)

( )

4. - L,
N (
, b ,
d=a+b)

T = sinc( af x )

sinc( Lf x )
sinc( df x )

(1.2.59)

5. ""

[ (

)]

t ( x , y ) = exp x 2 + y 2 ,

(1.2.60)

T = exp f x2 + f y2 .

(1.2.61)

[ (

)]

.
(1.2.60) (1.2.61) , ,
( ,
,
(1.2.60), -
. , ""
, ,
.
.

32

1.

1.2.5. .

. .

. 1 2 -
,
( )

1 ( r') + 2 ( r') = ( r') ,

(1.2.62)

( r') - . (1.2.62)
(1.2.40),
. , 1 ( r ) 2 ( r )
( r ) ,
. ,
, 1 ( r ) 2 ( r ) ( r ) ,
(1.2.62) .
,
.
.
( x , z ) ,
y, z=0

( x ,0) = f ( x ) =

+N

x
d

f n expin2 ,

n= N

(1.2.63)

f ( x ) = f ( x + d ) - x,
N,

N
<< 1.
d

(1.2.40),

exp( i / 4 ikz )

( x x ') 2
x
+
f n exp ik
+ in2 dx =
d
2z

( x, z ) =

+N

n= N

= exp( ikz )

+N

n= N

x n2 2 z

f n expin2 + i
.
d d 2k

(1.2.64)

..

33

qd 2
, z = zq =
(q=1, 2, ...)

n2 2 zq
= exp in 2q = exp(inq ) ,
exp i

2
d
k

x, zq = exp ikzq f x + qd .

(1.2.65)

, zq
. ,
.
1836 . -,
.

1.2.6.

,

.
,
, .

. ,




. ,

(. 1.2.4.).
. 1.2.4.

G.

34

1.

.

, E
(1.2.25), , .
E :

1
1
E
E ds = [ E( n) ( n) E] ds,(1.2.66)
4 S n
4 S
n

, rotE = i H divE = 0,
c

E=

E( x , y , z ) =

1
i [ nH] + [ [ nE] grad] + ( nE) grad ds,

4 S c
(1.2.67)

- .
H .
(1.2.67) E
. ,
E H
. ,
,
.
,
,
,
(1.2.67)

E( x , y , z ) =
+

1
i [ nH] + [ [ nE] grad ] + ( nE) grad ds +

4 S c

c
( Ht) grad dl ,
4i C

(1.2.68)

- , dl.
,
, .


.

..

35

1.3. [1,9,10,13,14]

.

, .
,
.
[11],
.


,
.
.
,
.
.
,
, ,
.

1.3.1.
(n=const)
-

= Ae iknz .

(1.3.1)

z=cnst, .. .
.

n=n(r),
,
. ,
. ,
,
(=2/k). l - ,
,

1
<< 1.
knl

(1.3.2)

36

1.

-
, .

= A( k , r ) e ikS ( r ) .

(1.3.3)

(k,r) - ; kS(r) - ; S(r)


. " " ,
2/kn .(1.3.1).
S ,
, (1.3.3), ,
, k .
. ,
k:

A( k ,r ) =
m

Am (r )

(ik ) m

(1.3.4).


(1.3.2).
(1.3.3), (1.3.4)

+ k 2 n 2 = 0

(1.3.5)

( S ) 2 = n 2 ,

(1.3.6)

k,

-

2A0S + A0 S = 0,
2A1S + A1S = A0 ,

(1.3.7)
(1.3.8)

.
, (1.3.4)
, .
, ..

u = A0 (r )e

ikS ( r )

(1.3.9)

. (1.3.3), (1.3.9)
0 .

1.3.2.

S. ,

..

37

: S=const, - ,
.
,
, 0 (r). ,
S(k,r) k. u
S,
0.
(1.3.6)
.
.
S p, p,
d=d/n. r
, dr/d - . (1.3.6)
|p|=n. ,
:

a)

dp 1 2
dr
= p, )
= n ,
d 2
d
dS
= n2 .
d

(1.3.10)
(1.3.11)

(1.3.10)

r = r ( ) , p = p( ) ,

(1.3.12)

.. r p (
).
, (1.3.10,) S, ..
. ,
.
p, , ,
(1.3.11,) .
,
n.
n 0 , p=const,
.
(1.3.11)

S = S ( 0 ) = + n 2 d .

(1.3.13)

S ( 0 ) - = 0 ;
. ,

38

1.

S - S ( ) ,
S.
S = S 0 + n 2 0 .
z , -
" " - k,
kn(zz0), , , n
=z.


(. 1.3.1).

,
,

S ( 0 ) ,

, ,
. 1.3.1. .
,
- ().

( )

1.3.3.
,
, ,
.
.
,

nd

(1.3.14)


. , r0 r1,
, , ,

S ( r1 ) S ( r0 ) (1.3.13) .

1 = 3

(1.3.15)

sin 1 / sin 2 = n2 / n1

(1.3.16)

- .

..

39

n1 - ,
. -
n2. 1, 2, 3 - ,
.
.
,

, (1.3.9).

1.3.4.
, ..
S=const S, .
, , (1.3.7), (1.3.8)
,
.
(1.3.4)
:

A0 ( ) = A0 ( 0 )

D( )
0

A1 ( ) = A1 ( 0 )
D( )

1/ 2

D( 0 )

1/ 2

D( )

(1.3.17)

,
1/ 2

1 D( )

2 D( )

A0 d.

(1.3.18)

( x , y , z ) y
D( ) =
=
( , , )
z

(1.3.19)

- ; 0 ,
, . (1.3.19) ,
.
, ,
.
: , ,

40

1.

, z, r/n. D ()=nr; A0 ( ) = A0 ( 0 )

n( 0 )r ( 0 )
n( )r ( )

. ,

( ,
n).

,
2
= n, D( ) = n ,


,
R=.

D( ) = nR1 R2 .

. 1.3.2. .

.
= 0 s( 0 )
(. 1.3.2).
, ,
. D( ) / D( 0 )
:

D( )

D( 0 )

n( )s( )

n( 0 )s( 0 )

(1.3.20)

. , ..
, (1.3.17), (1.3.20)

n( ) s( )
0
0
.
A0 ( ) = A0 ( 0 )
(
)
(
n s )
1/ 2

(1.3.21)

,
,
,
n . (1.3.17), , ,

A02 ns = const

(1.3.22)


, ,
.

..

41

. , (1.3.4)
, ,
, ,
-
.
,
,
. ,
1 (1.3.18) ,
,
,
0. 1 0 ,
1 ,
(1.3.4), k , 0.
- ,
1
0,
n .
,
, 1/k
0.
, .
.
,
, ..
s() .
(1.3.21) .
,
.

1.3.5. .
r0, r0 (. . 1.3.3)
, (1.3.9).
r1
r= r . r
:

( )

S (r1 ,r ) S (r1 ,r ) +

1 d 2S
2 dx 2 x

( x x ) 2 .

(1.3.27)

42

1.


,
.
,

,
,
r1,
.
.
,

. 1.3.3.

r1
R.
r.
r
r1 ,
r1 ,
r + a F . ,
aF , ,
k, :

k S ( r + a F , r1 ) S( r , r1 ) = .

(1.3.29)

a F << max( R , z ) ,

(1.3.30)

(1.3.29) aF ,

1 1 1

a F =
+
n R z

1/ 2

(1.3.31)

z-
.
(R>0) , (R<0) .

r1 (. 1.3.4).
z0, , ..

, .

..

43

aF R>0 z

a F = R / n , z .

(1.3.32)

. 1.3.4.

.

R=, .. ,

a F = z / n .

(1.3.33)

R<0, ,

1 1
aF =
+
n z R

1/ 2

(1.3.34)

, z=|R|
. ,
. z
(1.3.32): a F R / n , . ,
-
z (1.3.33).

r
, r1 .
, ,
.

44

1.

1.3.6.
(1.3.2),
, , ,
.

, ,
(1.3.3)
.
, .
,
,
. ,
,
, , .
(,
) l,

a F << l .

(1.3.35)

, (1.3.2)
. , ,
a F z / n , z / n , z
.
: z R , R < 0 . ,

, z
. (
) .
z
(1.3.32), ,
, ,
(1.3.35).
, ,
,
. , ,
L
R, ,
,

..
z L + R z

a F ( z) =
L+R

45

1/ 2

(1.3.36)

z (. 1.3.5).
(1.3.31) R, . .
z , L + R z .

. 1.3.5.
(
) ,
r0 r1.
) ) .

1.3.7.

, . -
( ), (. 1.3.6).
.
( ).
.
, .
. 1.3.7, ,
.
,
, (1.3.4)
, i
.
, ,
.
, .

, ;
.

46

1.

. 1.3.6. a
.

. 1.3.7. -

.

, - ,
.
.
,
.
, n=1,
z=0 (. 1.3.8). z>0
z n 2 ( z ) :

n 2 ( z) =

z0 z
,
z0

(1.3.37)

z0 - , , n=0.
, .

d 2
+ k 2 n 2 = 0
dz 2

(1.3.38)

t = k 2 / 3z01/ 3 ( z z0 )

(1.3.39)

d 2
t = 0.
dt 2

(1.3.40)

(1.3.40) v(t),

..

. 1.3.9.
.

. 1.3.8.
.

v( t ) =

x3

cos
+ txdx.

0 3

47

(1.3.41)

( t ) = Av( t ) ,

(1.3.42,a)


t=t0, t0 t (1.3.39)
z=0:

A = 2 v(t 0 ) i ( kz0 )

1/ 3

v ' (t 0 )

(1.3.42,b)

, .
. 1.3.9.
, v(0)=0.63,
t-1: v(1.02)=0.95.
z=z0 (.. t<0)
(|t|>>1) , .

. ,
, (1.3.20)
,
.
, ,
, ,
, /2.
,
,

48

1.

,
- .

1.3.8.
,
,
(1.3.14).
,
.

ds = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 = 1 + x '2 + y '2 dz ,

x' =
(1.3.14)

dx
dy
, y' = ,
dz
dz

(1.3.43)
(1.3.44)

L( x , y , x ' , y ' , z) dz = min.


2

(1.3.45)

P
1

1 2 .
L

L( x , y , x ', y ', z) = n( x , y , z ) 1 + x '2 + y '2 .

(1.3.46)

(1.3.45) ,
,
.
,
t z.
L . z

, .
,
.
(1.3.45)
.

d L L

= 0,
dz x ' x
d L L

= 0.
dz y ' y

(1.3.46)

(1.3.47)
(1.3.48)

..

d
nx '
= 1 + x '2 + y ' 2
dz 1 + x '2 + y '2
d
ny '
= 1 + x ' 2 + y '2
2
2
dz 1 + x ' + y '

49

n
,
x

(1.3.49)

n
.
y

(1.3.50)


(1.3.47), (1.3.48) ,
(1.3.49), (1.3.50)
:

dx H
=
.,
dz px
dy H
=
.,
dz p y
dpx
H
=
.,
dz
x
dp y
H
=
.
dz
y

(1.3.51)
(1.3.52)
(1.3.53)
(1.3.54)

x, y, z -
, "" px py

px =
py =

nx '

1 + x '2 + y '2
ny '
1 + x '2 + y '2

(1.3.55)

(1.3.56)

,
.

H = n 2 px 2 p y 2 .

(1.3.57)


,
,
. ,
,

- .

50

1.

1
1.

., . . - .: , 1970, 856 .

2.

. . - , 1953, 487 .

3.

. -. - .: , 1970, 364 .

4.

.. . - .: , 1968,
556 .

5.

.. . - .: , 1986, 352 .

6.

.., . - .: , 1978,
384 .

7.

.., .., ..
. .: , 1981, 640 c.

8.

. . - .: , 1974, 576 .

9.

., ., .
. - .: , 1989, 664 .

10.

.., .. . - .:
, 1982, 272 .

11.

.., .., .. - .:
, 1990, 432 .

12.

.. . - .: - ,
1968, 316 .

13.

.., ..
. - .: , 1980, 304 .

14.

.., .., .. .
. . - : , 1984, 424 .

..

51

2.


. ,
,
.

.
- ,

.

2.1 [1-5]
2.1.1

.
,
( , , ),
.
, ,

= u ( x , y , z )e ikz ,

(2.1.1)

u(x,y,z) - ,
, .
z (2.1.1)
. ,

2u 2u 2u

u
= 2 + 2 + 2 + 2ik k 2 u e ikz .
z
y
z

(2.1.2)

(2.1.2) u z
c , (1.2.20)

2 u 2 u
u
= 0.
2 +
2 + 2ik
z
x
y

(2.1.3)

52

2.


, , ,
. ,
(2.1.3) ,

.

2.1.2


k 2
u = exp i p +
r ,
2q

(2.1.4)

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 . -
z, q - ,
r, r . , q ,
. (2.1.4)
(2.1.3),

i kr 2
(1 q ) = 0 .
2k p + +
q q

(2.1.5)

z. (2.1.5)

q = 1,

(2.1.6)
i
.
q

(2.1.7)

q2 = q1 + z .

(2.1.8)

p =
(2.1.6),


,
z.

.
,
.
.
q
R w

..

1 1

= +i 2 .
q R
w

53
(2.1.9)


(2.1.9) (2.1.4). , R
, w .
, . 2.1.1,
w ,
.

. 2.1.1.
.

,
,
. w , 2w . , ,
2w . ,
0

z,

w02
q0 =
.
i

(2.1.10)

w02
q = q0 + z =
+z.
i

(2.1.11)

(2.1.9) (2.1.11)
:

54

2.
2

w ( z) =

w02 1 +

z
2
w0

(2.1.12)

w 2 2
R( z ) = z 1 + 0 .
z
,
. 2.1.2.

(2.1.13)

(2.1.12),

. 2.1.2. : , - .

w(z) ,

= w0 .

(2.1.14)

.
z
(2.1.7) (2.1.11);

p =

i
i
=
.
q
z + i(w02 )

(2.1.15)

(2.1.15)

iP( z ) = ln 1 i( z w02 ) = ln 1 + ( z w02 ) i arctg( z w02 ) .


2

(2.1.16)

, -

..

55

w0 w ,
- .
(2.1.1)

( r , z ) =

w0
ik

1
expi( kz ) r 2 2
,
w
w
2R

= arctg( z w02 ) .

(2.1.17)
(2.1.18)

(2.1.18) , z
w0 . /2.
(2.1.17) ikr 2 2 R

- .

2.1.3.

(2.1.3), ,
. , ,
(2.1.3),
-
. (2.1.3)
,

.
x, y, z (2.1.3)

k 2
x y
x + y 2 ) ,
u = g h expi p +
(
w w
2q

(2.1.19)

g - x z, h - y z. g h
,
w(z). (2.1.19) (2.1.3),
, g h
, Hn(t)

d 2 Hn
dHn
+ 2nHn = 0 ,
2 2t
dt
dt

(2.1.20)

56

2.

n - , t =
h.

2 x w g t = 2 y w

x
y

g h = Hm 2 Hn 2 ,

w
w

(2.1.21)

m, n - .
m n,
, , ,
x y. ,

w(z).

H0 (t ) = 1,

H1 (t ) = 2t ,
H2 (t ) = 4t 2 2,
H3 (t ) = 8t 3 12t .

(2.1.17),
g h .
, ,

x
y
ik
w0

1
Hm 2 Hn 2 expi ( kz ) x 2 + y 2 2

w
w
w
2R

(2.1.22)
m=0, n=0 -
. R(z) (2.1.22) .
,
.
. ,
z
( m, n, z ) = ( m + n + 1) arctg 2 .
(2.1.23)
w0
(2.1.23) ,
.
(2.1.3)
r, , z,
( x , y , z ) =

..

k 2
r
= g expi p +
r + l .
w

2q

57
(2.1.24)


l
r2
r

l
g = 2 Lp 2 2 ,

w
w

(2.1.25)

Llp - , l -
, ,
.
:

Ll0 (t ) = 1,
L1l (t ) = l + 1 t
1
1
Ll2 (t ) = ( l + 1)( l + 2) ( l + 2) t + t 2
2
2
, ,
-

( r , ) =

r2
w0
r l
ik cos l

1

2 Llp 2 2 exp i( kz ) r 2 2
.
w
w
w
2 R sin l
w

(2.1.26)

, w R
, , ,

z
( p, l , z ) = ( 2 p + l + 1)arctg 2
w0

(2.1.27)


. 2.1.3.
,
, .

58

2.

. 2.1.3. mn-:
- 00; - 10; - 20; - 30; - 40.

..

59

-, - ,
, , ,
.

.
mn pl.
, , , ,
(2.1.22) (2.1.26),
. (m+n)
(2p+l) , ,
m+n+1 ( 2p+l+1)
kz.
(2.1.22) (2.1.26) , , ,
.
, ,
,
.

2.1.4.
,
,

.
.
,
,
. R(z) w(z)
.
, 1,
2.
f
R1,
R2 ,

1
1 1
=
.
R2 R1 f

(2.1.28)

60

2.

. 2.1.5. (2.1.30)

. 2.1.4.
. - .

. 2.1.4.
, ,
z. ,
.
,
(2.1.28)

..
1
1 1
=
,
q 2 q1 f

61
(2.1.29)

q1,2 .
q1 q2 d1 d2 ,
. 2.1.5,

q2 =

(1 d2 f )q1 + (d1 + d 2 d1d2 f )


(q1 f ) + (1 d1 f )

(2.1.30)

(2.1.8) (2.1.9).
, , ,
,
,
.
, ,
(2.1.28) (2.1.29).

2.1.5.

. 2.1.6. ,
1.

,
,


,
1 (. 2.1.6).

y1

1 1 r1, ..

r1 = y1 1 .

(2.1.31)

62

2.

,
.

( ) ( )

R = r n = y v , n -
, v = n . ,
R .
, R
.
1; 2.

y2 = Ay1 + Bv1 ,
v2 = Cy1 + Dv1 .

(2.1.32)
(2.1.33)

y2 v2 2. A, B, C, D
. (2.1.32)
(2.1.33)

y2
v2

AB y1
CD v1

(2.1.34)

ABCD .
(2.1.32) (2.1.33)

y2 Ay1 + Bv1 A( y1 v1 ) + B
=
=
.
v2 Cy1 + Dv1 C( y1 v1 ) + D

(2.1.35)

y/v R, ,

R2 =

AR1 + B
.
CR1 + D

(2.1.36)

(2.1.36) ABCD.
q
R,
ABCD

q2=

Aq1 + B
.
Cq1 + D

(2.1.37)

, ,
(2.1.37)
.
, ABCD

..

63

.
. 2.1.1. 1 2
. 1
d, 2 -
f. 3
.
3 4,
. 5
n
d. 6
n d. 1 6, ,

, , ,
.
- ,
, .
,
,
.

,
q R,
.
,
,
. ,
[5],
,
(0,0,-ib), i - , b=w02i. " "

.

64

2.
2.1. .

..

65

2.1.6.

, ,

.

.

,
, ,
.

.
.

,
.

. ,
u(r,
). pl- (p,l -
),
pl.

uD(r,,z) z

u D ( r, , z ) = C pl pl ( r, , z ) ,

(2.1.38)

p ,l

z TEMpl- (
z=0).

pl = u D ( r , ) pl ( r , ) dS ,

(2.1.39)

S.
TEMpl
(2.1.38). ,
,

66

2.

:
TEMpl- .

00 r0.

r 2
1 2
u A ( r) =
exp 2 ,
w
w

(2.1.40)

w - .

Cp0=Cp, .
=

=

w
w

pl, z
(
, w = w 0)

I ( x ) = u D u D =

( ) w2( z) , (2.1.41)

= C p Cq L p ( 2 x 2 ) Lq ( 2 x 2 ) exp( 2 x 2 ) cos pq
p ,q

x=


z
,
, pq = 2( p q ) arctg

w
2


.
w( z ) = w0 1 +

(2.1.41)
TEMp0 ,

r
w 0 = r0 , <1, w =w0, 1, = 0 -
w

(2.1.41),
, p
l, 10.

..

67

2.2. [1-4, 6-10]



,
.

,
.
.

()
, .

2.2.1.

,

.
(. 2.2.1). , ,

.

. 2.2.1. ; - .

.
.
, , ,

68

2.

( ),

. ,
, 2.1.5.
,

f=R/2.

, , hk
k- , k=0, :

h k = h0

cos[( k + 0.5) ]
sin ( k )
,
0d c
cos( 0.5 )
sin

(2.2.1)

h0 0 -
, s=g (0<g<1), g - g- ,
d R
.

. ,
.
.
, , ,
,
. , ,
.
(), ..
.


.
, ,
R1 R2 :

0<g1g2<1,

(2.2.2)

g1=1-d/R1 g2=1-d/R2 - g- .

.
,

.
.

..

69


,
.
,
.
,

.
[8,9]
-
.

2.2.2.



. ,

.


2.1 . ,
- -
()
.
. 2.2.2,. ,
, ,
.
, ,

(. 2.2.2, ).

, .
- -

, ,

mn, m n.
(2.1.12, 2.1.13, 2.1.22, 2.1.26).

70

2.

w0
,

. 2.2.2. : - ;
- ; 1,2 -

, .

,


, 2. ,

2=2,

(2.2.3)

- ,
N - . (r=0) (2.1.23)

d
d
= (d 2 ) (d1 ) = kd ( m + n + 1) arctg 22 + arctg 12 .
w0
w0

(2.2.4)
, d1 d2
d=d1+ d2 (. . 2.2.2,). (2.2.4)
(2.2.3)

d
d
( m + n + 1) arctg 22 + arctg 12 = N .

w0
w0

(2.2.5)

..

71


, ,
,
, .
,
2. , ,
, , .
(2.2.5)
. d1 d2,
w1 w2 1 2, w0
R1 R2 d .
(2.1.13),

w04
,
2 d1

(2.2.6)

w04
R2 = d 2 + 2 .
d2

(2.2.7)

R1 = d1 +

w0 ,

( R1 d1 ) ( R2 d2 ) = d2

d1 .

(2.2.8)

(2.2.8)

d1 + d 2 = d ,

(2.2.9)

d1 d2

d1 = d ( R2 d ) / ( R1 + R2 2d ) ,

(2.2.10)

d 2 = d ( R2 d ) / ( R1 + R2 2d ) .

(2.2.11)

(2.2.10) (2.2.11) (2.2.6) (2.2.7)


- w0
2
d ( R1 d )( R2 d )( R1 + R2 d ) .
w04 =

( R + R 2d ) 2
1

(2.2.12)

(2.2.10), (2.2.11) (2.1.12),


R
w14 = 1

d ( R2 d )

( R1 d )( R1 + R2 d )

(2.2.13)

72

2.
w24

R
= 2

d ( R1 d )

( R2 d )( R1 + R2 d )

(2.2.14)

(2.2.5)
, .

, (2.2.15)
arctg + arctg = arccos
2
2
2 2
+
+
+
1

d1
=
w02

d2
=
w02

d ( R2 d )

( R1 d )( R1 + R2 d )
d ( R1 d )
.
( R2 d )( R1 + R2 d )

(2.2.16)

(2.2.17)

(2.2.15)

d1
d2

d
d
arctg
1 .
2 + arctg
2 = arccos 1
R1
R2

w0
w0
(2.2.18)
(2.2.18) (2.2.5)

2d

m+ n +1

d
d
arccos 1 1 = N .
R1
R2

(2.2.19)
( )

c
2d

(2.2.19)

m+ n +1
d
d
arccos 1 1 . (2.2.20)
N +
R1
R2

,
(2.2.1),
, .
N ,
. N
. m n
,

..

73

- . m=n=0
. ,
d1, d2, w0,
w1,2 N
m n.
m n, (2.2.20)
, "
( ) /2d.
, -
(2.2.10) - (2.2.14).

c
d
d
2p+ l +1
N +
=
arccos 1 1
.
2d

R1 R2

(d=R1=R2=b)

b
,

(2.2.22)

d1 = d 2 =

b
b
, w02 =
,
2
2

(2.2.21)

w12,2 =

c
1
N + ( m + n + 1) .

2d
2

(2.2.23)

b .
,
: ,
m, n, N
. , (2.2.23) ,
, m+n
2 (=1, 2, 3...), N .
(2.2.23),
, m+n
, /4d.

74

2.

2.2.3.

,

. ,

. 2.2.3.
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - .
, ,
( ).

, .
,

(. 2.2.3 ). ,
w10, z1.

w20 z2.

2
2
q1 = iw01
, q2 = iw02
.

(2.2.24)

(2.1.11) (2.1.28)

q 2 = 1 ( q1 + z ) 1 f

+ z2 .

(2.2.25)

f - . q1 q2
, (2.2.25)

(z

f )( z2 f ) = f 2 + q1q2 ,

(2.2.26)

..
q2 ( f z1 ) q1( f z2 ) = 0 .

75
(2.2.27)

, , z2 z1.
:

z22 2 fz2 q22 f 2 2 1 = 0 .


q1

(2.2.28)

(2.2.28) ,

f > f 0 , f 0 = q1 q2

12

(2.2.29)

(2.2.26) (2.2.27)

( f z )( f z ) = ( w
( z f )( z f ) = f
1

w20 ) ,
2

10
2

f .
2
0

(2.2.29)
(2.2.30)

(2.2.30)
.
f02.

2.2.4.


.
.

, .

, .

-
(1.2.34). 1 (. . 2.2.2)
u1, 2

ik
eikr
u2 =
u (1 + cos ) dS , cos=1,
4 A 1 r

(2.2.31)

- . 2,
. ,
,
. q

76

2.

(2.2.31),
u1 uq, u2 uq+1.


.
,

q

1
uq = v ,

(2.2.32)

v - ,
, - , .
(2.2.32) (2.2.31),

v = KvdS ,

(2.2.33)

K=

ik
( 1 + cos ) eikR .
4R

v
.
2

= 1 ,

(2.2.34)

- , -
.

= ,

(2.2.35)

2 d
,
t

(2.2.36)

c

N + .
2d

(2.2.37)

- ,
, ,
2d/. ,

t - , ,
, .

(2.2.33)
,

..

77



. 1
, (2.2.31)
.
, 300 , ,
, 0.03 %
, 300
.
. 2.2.4
00
. . 2.2.5
00
N=a2/d ( N ,

). g . . 2.2.4 2.2.5 ,

. 2.2.4.
00

. 2.2.5.
00 .

(N=1).

.

. N10

78

2.

.
- .

2.2.5.

, .
,
. ,
1 , ,
1.
, g- g1g2>1 g1g2>0,

,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .

. 2.2.6.


, ,
.

(. 2.2.6). , ,
.
1 2, ,
1 2, ,

..

79

: , 1,
2 ,
2, .
. 2.2.6
r:

r = g 2 ( g 2 1)

+ g g .

(2.2.38)

, ,
,
,

M = g + ( g 2 1) .
12

(2.2.39)

.
,

S 2 S1 M 2 1
=
,
S2
M2

(2.2.40)

S1 S2 - , 1,
1 2.
, . 2.2.6 ,
.
.
. 2.2.7.

,
.
, ,
. 2.2.7.

.
.
,

,
.

, ,

80

2.

,
.

. ,
,
.
,
.
2.3.1.

2.2.6. ,
2.2.2 2.2.3,
,
, .

.
. ,
00 ,
.

, , . ,
,
, .
.

,
.
,
, .
,
- .

.
.
,
.
,
. 2.2.8, . 1 2
4, 2 3 - .

..

81

1 2 .
, ,
2 3, ,
R* .
,
-,
. 2.2.8, .
dg =/2dg.
2.
,
R*. 3 ,
. 2.2.8, ,
(. 2.2.8, ). , R*
, ,
.

, . 2.2.9, .
, 1, 2,
5.
2, 3, 4,
. , 2, 3
4
R*.
,
R* .
R*() . 2.2.9, .
R* , , . 2.2.9, ,
,
.
. ,
,
,
.
. 2.2.10,
. ,
.
,
.

82

2.

. 2.2.8.
: ; -
;

; -
; I

. 2.2.9.
: -
; -

; -
.

.

,

.
-.
. 2.2.11. , .

.
,
.

.

..

83

. 2.2.10. : 1 ; - ;
- ; 2,3

. 2.2.11. :
1- ; 2- -;
3- ; 4- .

84

2.

2.2.7.
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, . 2.2.12.

. 2.2.12. :
- ;
- .
, ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
.

, , 2.2.2
,
, .
,
. ,

. ,
(. . 2.2.12,),
,
.

w0 = 4

3R a a / 4 k 2 ,

(2.2.41)

..

w0 = 4 4 3R a a / 4 k 2 ,

85
(2.2.42)

- , R - .

1
1
a 3

c
1 n+ 2
2a m + 2
+
= ( 2 N n ) +
arccos1
arccos1
.
6 2
a
R 3 2
2 R

(2.2.43)

n - , m -
.

. ,
,

(. 2.2.12, ).

.

.
.

86

2.

2.2.8.

.
, , -

- .

.

. 2.2.13. .

,
, . . 2.2.13

( ,

).

, 1 2.

,
.
N , ,
, N
, .
, -
,
.

..

87

,
.
N2 ,
. , , ,
,
. ,
, ,

. ,
.

, (. . 1.2.4).
,
, .
.
,
zq, .
, ,
zq/2 , ,
, .


,
, . 2.2.13,
.

88

2.

2.3. [2,12-14]

,
-
. ,

.

.
,
.

2.3.1.

. ,

1
n = n0 n1 ( x 2 + y 2 ) .
2

(2.3.1)

,

,
.

,
.
. (2.3.1)
x y
.
, , ,
,
n>1.
,
(2.3.1),

(1.2.21) R<<1.

..

89

+ n 2 k 2 = 0,

(2.3.2)

n 2 = n02 n0n1( x 2 + y 2 ) .

(2.3.3)

k0
k 0 = 2 / ,
(2.3.1), (2.3.3)
.
, (2.3.2)

x y
= g h eiz .
w w

(2.3.4)

pq ( x , y , z) =

2/

w 2

p+ q

H p 2
w
p! q !

(2.3.5)

y x2 + y2

Hq 2 exp
exp i pq z .

w
w2

,
- -.

w2 =

2
k0 n0n1

(2.3.6)

z. pq

pq = n02 k02 k 0 n0n1 ( 2 p + 1) + ( 2q + 1)

]}

1/ 2

(2.3.7)

,
, (2.3.5) c
. ,
, .
,
. ,
, . ,

.

, ,

90

2.

,
.
,
,
, , , ,
,
.

, .
n0
n1.
.
, n0

n0 = n0r + in0i .

(2.3.8)

n0i << n0r ,

(2.3.9)

n02 = n 2 0r + 2in0r n0i .

(2.3.10)

n0i
.

n0n1 = a + ib.

(2.3.11)

(2.3.6) .
. , w
, (2.3.5)

( x , y , z ) =

x
y

2 Hq 2
H
p
w
w
w 2 p+ q p ! q !
2

k
k

exp 0 ar 2 expi 0 br 2 exp i pq z .


2
2

(2.3.12)

r=

( x 2 + y 2 ) , ,
a > 0.

(2.3.13)

(2.3.12), , ,

..

91

. ,
,
.
p = 0, q = 0 b
, z. ,
b ,
(2.3.8) (2.3.11)
(2.3.1)

1
( a 2 b2 ) r 2 ,
2n0r
1
Im n = n0i +
abr 2 .
n0r

Re n = n0r

(2.3.14)
(2.3.15)

(2.3.14) (2.3.15)
n0i a 2 , b 2 ab.
a - , b
, r . ,
n0i . c r=0.
b .
, ,
, , ,
, .

b, a>0,
, a2, b2 . Re
n r, a 2 > b 2 , , a 2 < b 2 .
,
.
,
b<0, ,
(2.3.12) , b<0
,
.

(2.3.7)
:

Re pq = n0r k0

a
( p + q + 1) ,
n0r

(2.3.16)

92

2.
Im pq = n0i k0

b
( p + q + 1).
n0r

(2.3.17)

pq.
, Im pq<0, , Im pq>0.
, , :
n0i , b p+q+1.

2.3.2.


. . 2.3.1
(,
..), ,
.
.
, .

. .
.
(. 2.3.1, a).

,
.
,
r

. 2.3.1. () ()
.

..
r
a

93

n( r ) = n( 0) [ n( 0) n( a ) ] .

(2.3.18)

(. 2.3.1, )
.

.
, .
,
2.3.1 ,
.

,

"".

EH,
:
r<a

r>a

cos

r
E x = 0; E y = AJ u
,
a sin

cos
r

;
H y = 0; H x = An1 J u a

sin

(2.3.19)

cos

J ( u) r
E x = 0; E y = A
K
,
K ( ) a sin

cos

J ( u) r
.
H y = 0; H x = An1 K ( ) K a

sin

(2.3.20)

A - ; Ex, Ey H x, Hy -
; J - ; K ;

u = ka n12 1; = ka n22 1; = 0,1,2,K

94

2.

. , ,
. 2.3.2,
.



,
.

. 2.3.2.
:
-
n;
-
I .

2.3.3.



,

.
,
.
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
:
1) 0m,
;
2) 0m,
;
3) nm,
.

nm (n0; m1),
.
n0<2.02,
11,
J 0 (2.405 r a ) (r - , -

..

95

).
00.

E = J n1 (u nm r a ) cos(n) ;

(2.3.21)

E r = J n1 (u nm r a ) sin(n) ,
u nm - m- J n1 (u nm ) = 0 , -
, J n ( x ) - n- . ,

a >> nc unm ,

(2.3.22)

- . 11
1m,
TE0m + EH2m EHn1,m + EHn+1,m .


2
2 1 unm inc'
1
=
(2.3.23)
1
.
2 2a
a
nm

nm
:

nm

nc'
2 1 unm 2

1
= Re{ } =
1 + Im ;
2 2a
a

(2.3.24)

u 2
nm = Im{ } = nm 3 Re( nc' ) ,
2 a

nc'

1 ( n 2 + 1)
c
= 22
.
nc 1

(2.3.25)

(2.3.26)

. , 11
=1
nc =1.5 =1 ,
1.85 /.
. , 11 ,
10 .

96

2.

/ ,
.


,
( - -
).
. ,

,
:

mnq =

qc mn
,
2 L 0

(2.3.27)

q=0, 1, 2...., L - , 0 -
, mn =

2
.
nm



.
, 98%

00. w0

w0 = 0.7032a

( 00 ).

(2.3.28)

..

97

2.4.
[15-19]
,
.

,
.

2.4.1.

r n

; , ,
.

.

- r:

r = r ( r) = n 2 ( r)

(2.4.1)

2 (r) + k 02 n 2 (r) 2
(r) = 0 .
n

(2.4.2)

(1.2.9)
. n
<n> n1.
(1.2.9) (.
(1.2.21)-(1.2.23)), (2.4.2) ,
,
.
,
:

( 2 + k 02 n 2 ) (r) = 0.

(2.4.3)
2

k 2 = k02 n , k0 -
, k1

+ k 2 ( 1 + n1 ) (r) = 0.
2

(2.4.4)

98

2.

(2.4.4)
n1. .
:

= 0 + 1 + 2 +...

(2.4.5)

~ +
~ +
~ +...)
= exp(
0
1
2

(2.4.6)


, - ,
- ..
. 2.4.1.
:
(2.4.5)
, (2.4.6) .
.
. (2.4.4)

( 2 + k 2 ) = k 2n,

(2.4.7)

n = ( 1 + n1 ) 1 = 2n1 + n12 .
2

. 2.4.1 () ()

..

99

(2.4.8)

0 ( r) - ( n = 0) ,

G ( r r' ) =
.
(2.4.8)

exp(ik r r' )

4 r r'

(2.4.9)

r,

exp( ik r r' )
,
r r'

r'.

n1(r'),
,
.
0, 1
. ,
.
. (r)

~

( r) = e ( r )

(2.4.10)
~
( r ) . ,

,
.
,

, .
(2.4.7) (2.4.10),
,

~=
~ +
~,

0
1

(2.4.11)
~
1:
~ ( r) = 1 G( r r' ) (
~
~ + k 2n) ( r' )dV '. (2.4.12)

1
1
1
0
0 (r) V '
(2.4.12)
. (2.4.12), ,

100 2.
~ << k 2n ,

(2.4.12a)

~ 2 << n .

(2.4.12b)
~
, 1

n
. ,
(2.4.12a,b),
(). ,
~
~ ,
(2.4.12)
1
1

~ (r) =

10

1
G( r r')n(r' )0 ( r' )dV ' ,
0 ( r) V '

(2.4.13)


.
, :

~ +
~ ) = ( r) exp[
~ ( r)] .
( r) = exp(
(2.4.14)
0
10
0
10
~
1

, (2.4.12) (2.4.13):

~ ( r) =
~ ( r) +

1
10

1
G( r r')~1 (r' ) ~1 (r' )0 (r' )dV '.
0 ( r) V '
(2.4.15)

~ ,

10
~
. ,
1
.

2.4.2.

.

n = 2n1 + n12 2n1


~ ( r)] ,
( r) = 0 ( r) exp[
1
~
( r) = h( r, r')n ( r') dV ',
1

V'

h( r , r' ) = 2 k 2 G ( r r' )

0 (r' )
.
0 (r)

(2.4.16)
(2.4.17)
(2.4.18)

(2.4.19)

..

101

~ ( r)
(2.4.18)
1
n1( r) .
A S (r).

( )
( r) = A( r) eiS r , 0 ( r) = A0 ( r) exp[ iS0 ( r) ]
(2.4.20)
~ ( r ) = + iS = ln A + i( S S ) . (2.4.21)

1
1
0
A0
~ , ,

1

. , S1,
. , pp 1

A A0
.
A0

,
z=0 (. 2.4.2).
L z=0.

0 ( r) = eikz .

(2.4.22)

.2.4.2. [(L,x,y)-
].

~.
(2.4.22) (2.4.18) (2.4.19),
1
,
. -, ,

102 2.
, (2.4.18)
z=0 z=L. ,
~ ( r) y' y x' x , y' y x' x

1
z z' .
< l0, l0 - ,
l0
l .
0

L

~1 ( L, y , x ) = dz' dy' dx' h( L z', y y', z z')n1 ( x', y', x') ,


(2.4.23)

k ( y ' y ) 2 + ( x ' x ) 2
1
k2

h( L z ' , y y ' , x x ') =


expi
2 ( L z ')
L z'
2

(2.4.24)
G( r r')

(2.4.19)

exp( ik r r ' )

4 r r '

2

(
y y ') + ( x x ') 2
1
.
expik ( z z ') +

4( z z ')
2( z z ')

(2.4.24)

(2.4.17) (2.4.18)
.
(2.4.23)

( r) = hr ( r r') n1( r') dV ',


S1( r) = hi ( r r') n1( r') dV '

(2.4.25)

B ( r1 , r2 ) = ( r1 ) ( r2 ) ,
Bs ( r1 , r2 ) = S1( r1 ) S1( r2 ) .

(2.4.26)

..

103

(2.4.26)
. (2.4.26)
:

B ( r1 ,r2 ) = dV1 ' dV2 ' hr ( r1 r1 ')hr ( r2 r2 ') Bn ( r1 ',r2 ') , (2.4.27)
Bs ( r1 ,r2 ) = dV1 ' dV2 ' hi ( r1 r1 ')hr ( r2 r2 ') Bn ( r1 ', r2 ') ,

Bn ( r1 ',r2 ') = n1( r1 ') n1( r2 ')

(2.4.28)

.
(2.4.27),
B Bn.

2.4.3.

,
(2.4.27) (2.4.28) ,
Bn
. ,
,

n1 ( r1 ) n1 ( r2 ) =

n12

r r
1
2
exp
2
l

(2.4.29)


, ,
, .
(2.4.29) l
. (2.4.29)
(2.4.28) (2.4.27), L <<

B ( ) =

l2
L >>

n12

l2

2
3
2
8 L
2 1 2
exp 2 1 2 2 + 2 , (2.4.30)
3 l
2 l
l
l
2
2
2
Bs ( ) = n1 k Ll exp 2 .
(2.4.31)
l

104 2.
B ( ) = Bs ( ) =

2
1 2
k Ll exp 2 .
2
l

n12

(2.4.32)

- .
(2.4.30) (2.4.31) , l

L , ..
.

3

n12

8 L
,
3 l

(2.4.33)

2s = n1 k 2 Ll ,

(2.4.34)

= B ( L,0) - , = Bs ( L,0) .

2
s

l2
L >> , (2.4.32),

,
. l
L .

2 = 2s = n1

1 2
k Ll .
2

(2.4.35)

(2.4.33)-(2.4.35) . 2.4.3.
,
, ,
.
,
.

.2.4.3.
.

..

105

Rs =

Bs ( , l )
2s

R =

B ( , l )
2

. 2.4.4.

.2.4.4
D (D<<1) (a) D (D=10) (), D=4L/kl2.

RS
. R
.
,
.

,
.
,

106 2.

0.40.5. ,
n12 L, (2.4.35)
. ,
L , .


(2.4.5). ,
, ,
.
. 2.4.5

2I

(I

)2

I
2

,
.
,

.2.4.5.

,
.
,
. 2.4.6
,

.

,

bI ( z1 , 1 , 2 ) =

I1 I 2 I1 I 2
I1 I 2

(2.4.36)

, .

..

107

.2.4.6.
(0 - ).

,
.

,

.
,


.

2.4.4.

-
.

.
. ,
,
: L0
l0.
,
.
,

108 2.
- .
(L0> <l0)
, ,
.

.2.4.7. ;
.

. 2.4.7.
, Dn(r)

Dn ( r ) = n1( r + r1) n1( r1)

= Cn2 r 2 / 3 ,

(2.4.37)

Cn2 - ,
. Cn2

Cn2 = 2 n12 L02 / 3 .

(2.4.38)

(2.4.37) , " " .



, (2.4.37)

2

Bn ( r ) = n1 0.5Dn ( r ) .

(2.4.39)

..

109

, , ,
,

. -
.

= S S0 .

2 = 0.3k 7 / 6 L11/ 6Cn2 ,


2 = 0.4 k 2 LL50/ 3Cn2 .

(2.4.40)
(2.4.41)

, L
.
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
"" .
n1 ( , t )

(, )
v0, ..

n1 ( , t ) = n1 ( v0t ,0) .

(2.4.42)

w ( ) Cn2 k 2 / 3 L7 / 3 / v0 , 0,

(2.4.43)

.

, , (2.4.42),
:

w ( ) Cn2 k 2 / 3 L7 / 6 ( / t )

w ( ) Cn2 k 2 / 3 L7 / 3 ( / t )

< t =

8 / 3

/ v0 , ,

(2.4.44)

8 / 3

/ v0 , 0.

(2.4.45)

kv02
, > t
L

8/ 3 .
(2.4.44).

110 2.

2.5. -
[20-22]

,
.
, ,
- .
-.

2.5.1.
.

. , -
. (, )

.2.5.1. . ,
, l,
l
f =
.
z

..

111

L, .

y. -, z
,
,
. , l,

l
. ,
z
L
.. f max =

z
f =

. l
, ,
. ,

l,

L-l.


,

.
L-l,
fmax -f,
.

f =

1
1 L
f max =
,
3
3 z

(2.5.1)

, , " "
:

Ly
.
I ( y ) = 1 + cos 2
3z

(2.5.2)

, I

z
. ,
L

.
, .. 15

, (, ,
)

bs 1,5

z
L

(2.5.3)

2.5.2. - -

,

112 2.
.

.
- - ,
,

. ,
. 2.5.2,.
f D
.
l0 li

1 1 1
+ = .
l0 li f

(2.5.4)


, bs,
:

bs 1.22

li
.
D

(2.5.5)

Ly,
,
, .
,
MLy, -
. MLx,
Lx.

i.
,
- .
, L
bs,
-, ML. ML

.
- ,

.

..

113

)
.2.5.2. : - ; - ; -
, ,
..

114 2.
,
fT, . 2.5.2,.

, ,

.
, ;

-,
.
,

, (. 2.5.3,).

)
.2.5.3. -: ; - .

..

115

L .
L

b y y
I = I 0 cos2 + s .
l0 ls

(2.5.6)


ds, df=
fT/ds.

L=

f T

Md f

(2.5.7)

- ,
; fT - , ;
- , ; df - .

-
-

,
() , -,
, -.

. ,
.
bs 122
.

z
, z D

D - .

.
, bs 122

f
,
D

D/f - .
,
-,

.
,
, ,
(. 2.5.4). ,
, -
. ,

116 2.

, ,
-
. , ,
-, ,
z. -
.
z,

2
(1 + cosi ) z,

(2.5.8)

- .
-
.

z =

N
,
1 + cos i

N = 0,1,2, K ,

(2.5.9)

,
, z=0.

N +

2
,
z =
1 + cos i

N = 0,1,2, K ,

(2.5.10)

, ,
, . ,
, , .
-
.
,
,
. ,
,
-.
,
,
, ,
.
- .
, .
.

..

117

2.6.
.
[2325]
2.4-2.5


. , ,
,

. ()

.

2.6.1.

, 1.3.8. z
, r=(x,y,z).
(1.3.51-1.3.57) , ,
(x,y,z)

H
H
, r& =
r
p

(2.6.1)

H = n 2 ( r, z) p 2 .

(2.6.2)

p& =

z. ,
, . p

p=

nr&

1+ r& 2

(2.6.3)

n = n( r , z )

.
,
.

n 2 ( r , z ) = n 2 ( r ) + ( r , z ) ,

(2.6.4)

118 2.
n( r ) ( z) ,
. <<1 .

H = H0 ( r, p) + V ( r, p, z ) ,

(2.6.5)

H0 ( r , p ) = n 2 ( r ) p 2 ,
V ( r, p , z ) =

( r, z )
.
2 H0

(2.6.6)

0 .
(2.6.1), (2.6.5) (2.6.6) ,

, ,
0. z
.
, n y.
(2.6.1), (2.6.5) (2.6.6) :

p& =

H
H
, x& =
,
x
p

p px ,

H = H0 + V ( x , p, z ) , H0 = n ( x ) p .
2

(2.6.7)

. n
n(x) x n(x)
. 0

.2.6.1. ( )
( ).

..

119

.

,
, . 2.6.1.

2.6.2.
-
(I,) .
(2.6.7)

H = H0 ( I ) + V ( I , , z ) ,

V
V
I& = -
, & = ( I ) +
.

( I ) =

dH0
dI

(2.6.8)

(2.6.9)

,
. , 2/
. (2.6.8-2.6.9)
,
.
,
z. ,
2/.
2.6.8-2.6.9 . ,

m ( I ) + s = 0

(2.6.10)

(
, ). =/m.

.

. ,

,
. ,

-
.

120 2.

2.6.3.



.
,
(),
-
.
.
,
- , ( -
, ). , ,
, .
( ) .
() .
, -, ..
, (1 -
, 2 - ..).

,
.

. , ,
,
.
.
,
, .
,
.
.
( , ,
)
.

..

121

; ,

f ( z) =

4b
(1 ) ,
L

(2.6.11)

b, L , =

z.
b=0 h. ,
.
,

.
, D

D = 2hctg0 , 0 .
,
, m n

2 n 2 m
=
,
D
L
m 2h
tg 0( m,n ) =
,
n L

(2.6.12)

-
.
0( m,n )
. . 2.6.2,
0.
k,
.
, , r
N(r)
. . 2.6.2, ,

N(r). . 2.6.2,
( ).

122 2.

.2.6.2. (a)
. 0.01; -
, , 0.001.
: h/L=1/3, b/L=0.001. (b) (
z) . :
h/L=1/3, b/L=0.005.

..

123

2.7.
. [21, 26, 27]

.
,
.
,

.
,
" " " ".
,
.
,
.

2.7.1.

, ,

(. 2.7.1, ).
.

. 2.7.1. ()
().

124 2.

.
.
,
.
, ,
.

. ,
,

-
.
, .
. -
,
"
". () ,
2.
,
. ,
() ().
.
(. . 2.7.1, ),

. . 2.7.1, ,
, .
-,
, ,
. , ""
.
u

u = C x x + iCy y,

(2.7.1)

x y - ,
; Cx, Cy -
. (2.7.1)
,
,

..

125

/2 ( i
). (2.7.1), u
x y,

. - (0,0) -
.

. Cx=C=C, ,
:

u = C r exp( i) ,

(2.7.2)

r = x 2 + y 2 - , - .
(2.7.2)
.

,
2.
.

2l, l .

u = C r l exp( il).

(2.7.3)

2.7.2.

.


. ,
, ,
.
.
,

(,
).
""
.

126 2.
R,
u
:

r 2

u = C r l exp( il) + a expi

+ i ,

(2.7.4)

- .

.

r / R

- r '= r R ,
(2.7.4),

r ' = l - .

(2.7.5)

. 2.7.2, ,
.

, ,

. ,
.
, - ().
.
.
, (.
. 2.7.2, , ).
, - .

. - ,
.


, ,

. ,
.

..

127

. 2.7.2. "" (,)


(,) , (,6) (,)

2.7.3. -
,
,

. ,
.

-
.

128 2.
. 2.7.3
( )
- . 1
, 1 2
. 2
,
.
2

. ,
,
3.

. 2.7.3. - .

3
a(x,y) (x,y),
.

..

u = a( x, y ) exp[i( x , y) ] .

129
(2.7.6)

, , .
. 2.7.4,
( ), .
, ,
.
.

. 2.7.4.
() (
) ,
.


. . 2.7.5, ,
,
600 .
(. 2.7.5, )

130 2.
.
(. 2.7.5, ) .
.
. . 2.7.5,
,
.

(
).
(. 2.7.2, , )
, (l=1),
.

.

. 2.7.5. (,) () ; , - .

,
.
""
l=1.

,
.
,

.

..

131


.
,
. ,
,

.
.

, ,
.
,

,
. , .
,
,

.


,
.
,


.

,
- .

- .
,
.
.

132 2.

2.7.4. .
-
2.1,

.

-. (2.1.26).
, ,
:

w -

L lp

u pl f pl a pl eil + b pl eil ,
(2.7.7)

w
2
; f ( t ) t l Llp 2t 2 e t ,
pl

( )

- ; apl bpl - ; l,
, .

.
.
,
,
apl bpl, (2.7.7) :

cos l
r
u pl f pl a pl
,
w
sin l

(2.7.8)

(2.1.26). (2.7.8)

.
.

. ,
p
l. ,

.

, , .

..

133

.
,
,
p l. ,
, 2.2.2,
. . 2.7.6,
. , -
( ,
) .
- ,
.
,
.
, . 2.7.6, . ,
.

. 2.7.6. () ()
.

,
.

" ".

134 2.

, ,
.

"",

.
, ,
. ,

.

.
, , ,
.
, (.
. 2.7.7, ).
. . 2.7.7, .
. 2.7.1,
,


,
. ,
(
) .
-

,
,
.
,
.
, , (2.1.26)
.
,
l.
. 2.7.7, l=5.

..

135

. 2.7.7. (,)
(); , -
, - .

, ,
,
.
, 2.2.1,
(. 2.7.8).
,
g-

K 1
= arccos( g1 g2 ) ,
N

(2.7.9)

N - , -
, .

.2.7.8. .

136 2.
, ,
,
(-).

-

. -
-
.
2-.

2-

. 2.7.9.

2 3. ,
1 4, -
.

.
;

.
,
,
,
. ,

, .
, -
(
), .

.
,

, ,
.
.
, ,
.

..

137

.

.

, . ,

-
. ,


.

. 2.7.9. - 2-:

1,4- ;
2,3- .

138 2.

2
1.

., . , .
// . ... .: . ,
1978, .11-24.

2.

. . - .: , 1974, 576 .

3.

.. . - .: , 1983,
302 .

4.

., , .
. - .: , 1989, 662.

5.

.., .., ..//


. . 1978, .21, 11, . 1644-1647

6.

.., ..,
. - .: , 1986, 152 .

7.

.. . - .: -
, 1989, 96 .

8.

.., .
. //, 1964, .47, . 8, . 508-517.

9.

.., ..
. - .: , 1972.

1O.

.. . //
. ... .: . , 1978, .24-46.

11.

.., ..
. , 1990, . 160, .3, . 101-143.

12.

., ., ., . . - .: ,
1984, 504 .

13.

. . - .: , 1988.

..

139

14.

Marcatili E.A., Shmeltzer R. Hollow metallic and dielectric waiveguides


for long distance optical transmission and their losses // Bell Syst. Tech.
J., 1963, v.43, 7, 1783-1809.

15.

. , .2.-.: , 1981, 318 .

16.

. " " .
..-.: , 1981, 416 .

17.

.., .., ..
, .2. - .: , 1978, 464 .

18.

.. - . - .: ,
1975, 172 .

19.

.., ..
.- .: , 1978, 272 .

20.

. . - .: , 1982, 504 .

21.

.., .., ..
. - .: , 1985, 228 .

22.

. . - .: , 1980, 174 .

23.

.., .. . - .:
, 1988, 368 .

24.

.., ..
- . //,
1984, .87, .3 (9), . 763-775.

25.

.., .. .//,
1995, .165, 4, . 361-401.

26.

.. . //
, 1998, . - , - , . - .

27.

.., .., ..
-. //
, 1995, .22, 6, . 562-566.

140

3.

3.



. C

,
-
. , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

. ,
(, ,
, , ..),
.
,
, , , ,
.

, .

.

3.1. [1-3]

. 3.1.1.

1 2,
() 3. ,
, ( ) 7
4. ,
( ) 8
( ) 5 .

..

141

(,

..)
,
, 2
. ,
, ,
.
,
.

,

. 3.1.1.
1- ; 2-; 3- ()
; 4- ; 5- (
); 6- ; 7- (
); 8- ( ).

.

(x,y), - (x,y).
,
( x , y) ' ( x ', y') (. . 3.1.1)

142

3.

' ( x ', y') = L$ {( x , y) } ,

(3.1.1)

L$ - . ,

.
- ,
( x , y)

( x , y ) = ( , ) ( x , y ) dd .

(3.1.2)

(3.1.2) (3.1.1) L$ ,

' ( x', y') = L$ ( , ) ( x , y ) dd =


= ( , ) L${ ( x , y ) }dd .

(3.1.3)

, ' ( x ', y')

() L{ ( x , y ) }

( x , y ) . - ( x , y )
"" = x , = y (
),

h( x', y'; , ) = L{ ( x , y ) }

.
, (3.1.3)

' ( x', y') = ( x , y ) h( x', y'; x , y ) dxdy .

(3.1.4)

(3.1.5)

h( x ', y', x , y)
, (3.1.5)
" ".
,
.

L$ { ( x + x , y + y ) } = ' ( x'+ x', y'+ y') .

(3.1.6)

, ,
.

..

143

(
),
.
h( x ', y', x , y) ,

h( x', y'; x , y ) h( x' x , y' y ) .

(3.1.7)

(3.1.5)

'( x', y') = ( x , y ) h( x' x , y' y ) dxdy .

(3.1.8)

F { ' ( x', y') } = F{ ( x , y ) h( x' x , y' y ) dxdy }.

(3.1.8)

(3.1.9)

F { ( x , y ) h( x' x , y' y ) dxdy } = F{ ( x , y ) } F{h( x , y ) }, (3.1.10)

(3.1.9)

F { '} = F { } F {h}

F { '} = S ' f x , f y ,

F { } = S f x , f y ,

(3.1.11)

F {h} = H f x , f y .

(3.1.12)

H f x , f y .
(3.1.11) (3.1.12)

) (

S f x , f y H f x , f y = S' f x , f y .

(3.1.13)

,

. (3.1.13),
,
.
, .

144

3.

3.2. [1-4]
3.2.1. ,

-
( ) . ,
,
. ,
F D ( , ) (,)
(',') d0 d1 (.
. 3.2.1).

.3.2.1. .

, ,
. ,
(,)
'(,)

' (, ) = (, ) (, )

(3.2.1),

(, )

2 + 2
(, ) = exp -ik
P (, ),
2F

(3.2.2)

..

1
P(, ) =
0

145

D
,
2
D
2 + 2 > .
2

2 + 2

(3.2.3)

.
,
.
(1.2.40) . 1,
-iexp(ikz).
(,) d0

1
d 0

(, ) =

( , y) expik

( - x ) 2 + ( - y) 2
dxdy. (3.2.4).
2d 0

(3.2.1 - 3.2.3),

2 + 2
.
' (, ) = (, )expik
2F

(3.2.5).

(1.2.40),
( d1)

' ( ' , y' ) =

( - x ') 2 + ( - y') 2
1
dd. (3.2.6).
' ( , ) expik
2 d1
d1

(3.2.4-3.2.6),
(,) (',')

' ( x' , y' ) =

1
2
d 0 d1

( x, y )expik

( - x ) 2 + ( - y ) 2

2d 0

2 + 2 ( - x' ) 2 + ( - y' ) 2
expik
dddxdy.
exp-ik
2F
2 d1

(3.2.7).

h=

( - x ) 2 + ( - y ) 2
1
ik

exp
2d 0
2 d 0 d1

2 + 2 ( - x' ) 2 + ( - y' ) 2
expik
dd.
exp-ik
2F
2 d1

d0=d1=F. (3.2.8)

(3.2.8)

146

3.

x 2 + x ' 2 + y 2 + y' 2
1

h = 2 2 expik
2F
F

x( x + x ') + h( y + y ')
x 2 + h2
exp-ik
dxdh.
expik
2F
F

(3.2.9)

exp[ia(

+ 2 ) ]exp[ib(u + v )]dd =

2
2
2 u +v
4a

(3.2.10)

exp -ib
a
k
k
pa =
, b = , u = x + x ', v = y + y',
F
2F

h=

-i2 ( xx' +yy')


1
exp
.
F
F

(3.2.11)

x'
y
= fy ,
= fx ,
F
F

(3.2.12)

(3.2.7)

S(Ff x , Ff y ) =

)]

1
( x, y) exp i 2 f x x + f y y dxdy. (3.2.13)
F

, d0=d1=F
- :
. ,
,
.
,
,
d0>F. (3.2.7)
( )

'(x', y') =

d x'2 + y'2
1
exp ik1- 0

F F 2 F

xx' +yy'
(, )exp -ik
dxdy.

(3.2.14)

..

d 0 x'2 + y'2
exp ik1-
,
F 2F

147

(3.2.15)

,
.

3.2.2. [1]
,
.
,
,
. .
,
, ,
,
.
, , d0
, .
(x,y)
, d1 ,
'(x',y'). - ,
' ""
.
'
(3.1.5).
, ,
h (. (3.2.8)).
,
' . ,
-, ..

h( x ' , y ' ; x , y ) K ( x ' Mx , y ' My ),

(3.2.16)

K - , - ,
, .
" " ,
(3.2.16) .
(3.2.8)

148

3.
h( x ', y'; x , y) =

1
expi
x '2 + y'2 )
(
d 0 d1
2d1

x 2 + y 2 ) P(, )
expi
(
2 d1

(3.2.17)

k 1 1 1

expi + ( 2 + 2 )
2 d 0 d1 f

x x ' y y'
expik + x + + y dd.
d 0 d1 d 0 d1

(3.2.17)
'.
, '
.

- ,
. , :

expi
x '2 + y'2 ) ; expi
x 2 + y2 )
(
(
2d1

2d1

(3.2.18)

(, ).
(x',y') (x,y).
,
, .
,
.

expi
x '2 + y'2 ) ,
(
2d1



, ,
(, ).
,
, ,
.

..

149

x 2 + y 2 )
(
2d1

, expi

,
(x,y) .
, , .
, , ,
, (3.2.16),
(x',y')
,
(. 3.2.2).

.3.2.2. R, h (x',y')
.

x 2 + y2 )
(
2d1

expi

k x '2 + y'2
k

2
2
expi
x
+
y

exp
(
) i 2d M 2 .
2d 0

(3.2.19)

, (x,
y) ,
(x',y').

150

3.

h( x ', y'; x , y)

k 1 1 1

1
P(, ) expi + ( 2 + 2 ) (3.2.20)
2
d 0d1
2 d 0 d1 f

x x ' y y'
expik + + + dd.
d 0 d1 d 0 d1
, ,
d1 ,

1 1 1
+ = 0.
d 0 d1 f

(3.2.21)

,
. (3.2.21)
, ,
( ).
,
.

1
P(, )
h( x ', y'; x , y) 2
d 0d1
x x ' y y'
expik + + + dd.
d 0 d1 d 0 d1

(3.2.22)

M=

d1
,
d0

(3.2.23)

h( x ', y'; x , y)

1
P(, )
2 d 0d1

( x '+ Mx ) + ( y'+ My)] dd.


expi
[
d1

(3.2.24)

..

151

, ,
,
(x i=-Mx, y i=-My ) .

.

,
.
, , .
.

, ~ =
,
d1
d1

(3.2.25)

(3.2.24)

~
h( ', '; , ) M P( d1 , d1~ )

(3.2.26)
~ ~
~
exp i 2 ( '+ M ) + ( '+ M ) d d .
% ),
, ( % ,

]}

, ,
, .
,

h( x', y'; x , y )
~
~
M exp i 2 ( x'+ Mx ) + ( y'+ My )~ d d~ =

]}

M ( x'+ Mx , y'+ My ) =

(3.2.27)

y'
1 x'
+ x , + y .

M M
M

(3.2.16),
,

' ( x', y') =

y'
1 x'
, .
M M M

(3.2.28)

, ,
, .
, , .

.

152

3.

, (3.2.26)
:

~
x = Mx, ~
y = My.

(3.2.29)

~
~)
h( x ' , y '; ~
x, ~
y ) = M P( d1 , d1

(3.2.30)

]}

~
~ dxdy
~ ~.
x ) + ( y ' ~
y)
exp i 2 ( x ' ~

, h - ,
( x ' -~
x , y' -~y ) .

~ 1
h
h=
M

(3.2.31)

~
' ( x ', y ') = h ( x ' -x~, y ' -~
y)

~
1 x~
y ~ ~
, dxdy
.
M M M

(3.2.32)
~

h
.

( x ' , y ') =

y'
1 x'

, .
M M M

(3.2.33)

(3.2.32) :

' ( x', y') = h ( x', y') i ( x', y') ,

~
~
~)
h ( x ' , y ') = P( di , d i

~
~] d ~
~.
exp i 2[ x ' + y '
d

(3.2.34)

(3.2.35)

(3.2.34) (3.2.35)
. ,
.
,
~
h .


. ,

..

153

.

" " ,
. ,
.

3.3. [1, 8]
3.3.1. - .

, c
, ,
, . "".
, ,
, ,
,
, . ,
.
,
, , "" "
,
.
. 3.1.1,
,

( ),
, , ,

),
,

. ,

. ,
,

.

,
- ,

154

3.

. ,
.
,
,
, ,
, . ,

, ,
, ,
.

.
, .

,
, .

,

.
, , ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
,
,
1873. ,
, ,
.
,
. . 3.3.1,
,
.
1896 . ,
,
. ,
(3.2.34) (3.2.35),
,

..

155

. 3.3.1.

.
,
.
-
~
h ,
(
(3.2.35) , P
)
, ,

{ {

}}

~
H f x , f y = F F P( d1 , d1~ ) = P d1 f x ,d1 f y . (3.3.1)

,

.
, . ,
, ,
,
.

,
.

156

3.

3.3.2.

,
,

.
.
, , ,
,
, .
,
. ,
- , .
.
.

. 3.3.2. .
- ; - .

..

157

M ,
,
. . 3.3.2
.

,
.

3.4. [5]
,
( ), ,

.
,
. ,
,
,
,
. ( , )

kW ( x , h) , k = 2 / , W- ,

~
P ( , ) = P ( , ) exp[ jkW ( , ) ].

(3.4.1)


.

.

:

~
H f , f = P d1 f , d1 f =

) [

)]

= P d1 f , d1 f exp jkW d1 f , d1 f ,

(3.4.2)

f f - .
,
,
, .

158

3.

. ,
.

W
(c
) ,
( ). ,
.

r =

2 + 2
(R -
R

) , W :

W = dr 2 + s1r 4 + s2 r 6 + ( Kr + C1r 3 + C2 r 5 ) cos +


+ ar 2 cos 2.

(3.4.3)

:
d , ..
(r=1)
( , );
s1 - 3- .

,
( );
s2 - 5-
;
K - ,
;
C1 - 3- , ..
,
,
( );
C2 - 5- ;
a - , ..
.

..

159

3.5. [2, 6-9]


3.5.1. .
,
, ,
,
. ,

() ()
. O R
M, ,

O = o( M ) exp{io ( M ) },

(3.5.1)

R = r ( M ) exp{ir ( M ) },

(3.5.2)

o, r o, r - .

,
:
2

I = O + R = O + R + OR * +O * R .

(3.5.3)


I.
R,

RI = O + R

)R+O R

+ O * R2 .

(3.5.4)

) R R,
( O + R ) R ;
2

O + R

R O = r 2 o exp{io } - ,
r2.
, r ( x , y ) = ro ;

r2. , (3.5.4)
2

O R 2 = r 2 o exp{2r 0 } - , -

. ,

160

3.

,
.

.
, 1962 .
. . 3.5.1.

. 3.5.1. () () : 1 - ; 2 ; 3,4 - ; 5,6 - ; 7 ; 8 - ; 9 - ; -


; R - .

,
, .

.

..

161

,
, .

3.5.2.
. 3.5.2
, .
,
- .
,
.
,
, , ,
, - .
3.
, S.
1 2 S0,
.

. 3.5.2. .

3 ,
.
, 111.
3. S0

162

3.

. ,
S ,
h(x,y). g(x1,y1).
3 h(x,y) ,
h(x,y) g(x1,y1) :

1
g( x1 , y1 ) =
f 1

h( x, y) exp i

2
xx1 + yy1 ) dxdy , (3.5.5)
(
f 1

- S, f1 -
3. (3.5.5) :

g( x1 , y1 ) =

x
h( x, y) expi 2 f

x+

y1
y dxdy ,
f 1

p=

(3.5.6)

x1
y
, q= 1 .
f 1
f 1

(3.5.7)

1
g( x1 , y1 ) =
h( x, y ) exp i 2 ( px + qy) dxdy.
f 1

(3.5.8)

g( x1 , y1 ) =

1
H ( p, q ) ,
f 1

(3.5.9)

H(p,q) - h(x,y), p q
(3.5.7). H(p,q)
h(x,y), A(p,q) ( p,q )

H ( p, q ) = A( p, q ) exp i ( p, q )

- .
. 3.5.2
h(x,y). , :
,
.
, -
0, ..

..

163

E0 ( x , y ) = A0 ( x , y ) .

(3.5.10)

0(,). ,

0 0, 0(-0, 0)=(,). , :

h( x , y ) = A0 ( x , y ) + E 0 ( x x0 , y y0 ) .

(3.5.11)

(3.5.8).
,
,
(3.5.11) . , ,
-

f ( x ) ( x ) dx = f ( 0) ,

H 0 ( p, q ) =

A ( x, y ) exp[ j 2 ( px + qy)] dxdy = A . (3.5.12)

E ( x x , y y ) exp[ i 2 ( px + qy)] dxdy.

H E ( p, q ) =

x x 0 = u,

H E ( p, q ) =

y y0 = v,

E ( u, v ) exp[ i 2 ( pu + qv)] dudv exp[ i 2 ( px


0

H E ( p, q ) = exp i 2 ( px0 + qy0 ) H E0 ( p, q ) ,

+ qyo )

(3.5.13)

H ( p, q ) - .
, ,
0
E

g( x1 , y1 ) =

1
H ( p, q ) + H E ( p , q ) ,
1 f 1 0

(3.5.12) (3.5.13) :

g( x1 , y1 ) =

1
A0 + exp i 2 ( px0 + qy0 ) H E0 ( p, q ) . (3.5.14)
f 1

164

3.


H E0 ( p, q )
:

H E0 ( p, q ) = AE ( p, q ) exp i E ( p, q ) .

(3.5.14) :

g( x1 , y1 ) =

) ]}

[ (

1
A + AE ( p, q ) exp i 2 ( px0 + qy0 ) E ( p, q ) .
f 1 0
(3.5.15)


. ,
I(p,q), (p,q) (
) :

( p, q ) = k [ I ( p, q ) ] 2 ,

(3.5.16)

I ( p, q ) = g ( x1 , y1 ) g *( x1 , y1 ),

(3.5.17)

- . k
.

g(x1,y1), ..

x1 = pf 1 ,

y1 = qf 1 ,

.
(3.5.17) g(x1,y1) (3.5.15), :

J ( p, q ) =
=

][

1
~(
)
i~ ( p , q )
A0 + AE ( p, q ) ei p ,q =
2 A0 + AE ( p, q ) e
f1
2

~(
1
)
i~ ( p , q )
2
2
+ A0 AE e i p ,q .
2 A0 + AE ( p , q ) + A0 AE e
f1

(3.5.18)

~ ( p, q ) = 2 p( px + qy ) - ( p, q )

(3.5.19)
0
0
E
i
e +e
~ , :
,
= cos
2
2

A0 AE2 ( p, q )
AE ( p, q )
I ( p, q ) = 1 +
+2
cos ~( p, q ) . (3.5.20)
2
A0
A0
f 1

~
i

..

165

, (3.5.20)
(3.5.16). 0, (p,q),
(3.5.16) ,
:

A0 AE2 ( p, q )
AE ( p, q )
~( p, q ) .
( p, q ) = k 1

cos

A02
A0
f 1 2

(3.5.21)

( p, q ) = k [ AE2 ( p, q ) AE ( p, q ) cos ~( p, q )] .
k =

k A 0 1
f1

, =

(3.5.22)

1
A0
, =
.
2A 0

(3.5.22) ,
. 3.5.2.

(p,q)

-
.


, AE(p,q)

E(p,q) .

k, , ,
0
. 0>10AE 2.

(3.5.22).
.
k=0 ,
, ..
AE(p,q)=0.

k AE2(p,q)
.
0,
, ,
. ,

166

3.

,

.
,
.
,
. - c
s % .

, - .
,
.

p = 2x 0, q = 2y 0 ,

(3.5.23)

.
(3.5.19)
. E(p,q)=0, (3.5.19) :

~0 ( p, q ) = 2x0 p +

y0
q .
x0

(3.5.24)

, ,

p+

y0
q = z = const ,
x0

(3.5.25)

p=

y0
q + z.
x0

, k=-y0/x0.

AE(p,q) E(p,q), ..
.
,
. ,
.
, E(p,q),

% , ,

0 0
(3.5.19). ,
( ), E(p,q)=0.

..

167

,
. ,

% (p , q )
, AE(p,q) cos
p q,
, - .

(. 3.5.3)

.3.5.3. :
1- ; 2-

.
,
.

. ,
.
,
, . 3.5.2,
, .

168

3.


. ,
, , ( ),
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ..
,
.

,
.

3.6.
[2, 3]
3.6.1 4-F
, (. 3.6.1).
, (x,y) c
1, 1
c 2.
(x',y') 2.
. 3.6.1 ,
F; (1,1)

1, (2,2) ,
(3,3) - 2.
4-F.
.
(x,y) -
1. (2,2)
S(fx,fy)

..

( 2 ,2 ) =

1
F

( x , y) exp[ i2 ( f

169

)]

x + f y y dxdy =

(3.6.1)
1
=
S(f , f ).
F x y
, 2=Ffx, 2=Ffy.
(2,2), S(fx,fy),
2.

) [ (
)]
S ( f , f ) exp[ i 2 ( f x'+ f y')] d f df = ( x' , y') .

' ( x' , y') =


x

1
F2
2

S( f

, f y exp i 2 f x x'+ f y y' d2 d2 =


y

(3.6.2)

, 4-F
.

. 3.6.1. 4-F

4-F
. (2,2)

. T(2,2),
S(fx,fy)

S1(f x ,f y )=S(f x ,f y )T(T( x ,Fy ).

(3.6.3)

170

3.

1 ' ( x' , y') ,


S1(f x ,f y ) . ,
,
.

, . ,
4-F
() i ( x , y )
n

( x , y ) = a ( x , y ) + i ( x , y ) .

(3.6.4)

i =1

:
n

S(f x , f y ) = Sa (f x , f y ) + Si f x , f y .
i =1

(3.6.5)

(3.6.6)

T(f x ,f y )=S a(f x ,f y ),

( x , y )
2

S1 (f x , f y ) = S(f x , f y )T(f x , f y ) = Sa (f x , f y ) +
n

+ Si f x , f y Sa *(f x , f y ).
i =1

(3.6.7)

Sa(fx ,fy ) (2,2) ,


, 2,
. (3.6.7)
, 2
.
,
, , ,
() .
,

. ,
.

..

171

3.6.2.




.
. . 3.6.2
,
. : 2,
h(,),
; 3 F,
- h(,); 4
; 5,

.3.6.2.

1 ,
.

O=

[ (

)]

H f x , f y = h( , )exp -i2 f x + f y dd ,

1 x y
,
H
,
F F F

R = exp( i 2y ) ,

172

3.

sin

1 x y
+ exp( i 2y ) =
,
T ( x, y)
H
F F F
= 1+

1
1
2
H + exp( i 2y ) +
2 H +
F
( F )
1
+
H * exp( i 2y ) .
F

(3.6.8)



(3.6.8) .
*. ,
- (. 3.6.1)

dxdy

HSi 2 F x'+ F ( y'F ) F


2

= 1 ' ( x' , y'+F ) ,

x
dxdy
y
H * Si 2 F x'+ F ( y'F ) 2 F 2 =

= 2 ' ( x' , y'F ) .

(3.6.9)

(3.6.10)

(3.6.9) (3.6.10) , ,
,
F , , *,
.
.


.
,
( ), ,
h(,)
.

..

173

,
, . ,
("") .

.
(x,y), -
'(x',y'). ,
='.
, ,
(
).
H*.
, ,

T=

H*
H

(3.6.11)

'
4-F (. 3.6.1)
',
(3.6.11).
4-F ' = F 1 { S ' T } . S'=SH,
(3.6.11)

S T =

SHH *
H

= S.

(3.6.12)

, ' = ,
(3.6.11) "" ""
,
.

3.7.
[2]

,
,
,

,
-
. ,

174

3.

. , ,
,
, , ,
.
(,
,
..).
.

,
. ,
,
.
(x,y)
~ ( x , y ) ,
.

~( x , y ) = ( x , y ) .
2

(3.7.1)

~' ( x' , y') = ( x , y ) h( x' x , y' y ) dxdy =


2

(3.7.2)

2
~
= ~( x , y ) h ( x' x , y' y ) dxdy .

2
~
h ( x' x , y' y ) = h( x' x , y' y )

(3.7.3)

)]

~
~
H f x , f y = h ( x , y ) exp i 2 f x x + f y y dxdy .

(3.7.3)
,

) (

(3.7.4)

~
H f x , f y = H f x ' , f y ' H * f x '+ f x , f y '+ f y df x ' df y ' , (3.7.5)

..

175

3.8. [10]


.

, () , 0(x,y)

'0(x',y'); .

'i(x',y')

0 -
, . -
i 0.


() . :
() TL

TL

' ( x', y') dx' dy'


=
;
' ( x', y') dx' dy'
2
i

(3.8.1)

2
0

[ ' ( x' , y') ' ( x', y')] dx' dy'


= 1.0
' ( x' , y') dx' dy'
' ( x', y') ' ( x', y') dx' dy'
Q =
.
' ( x', y') dx' dy'
2

2
0

2
0

(3.8.2)
(3.8.3)

, + ,
. ,

QL =

TL + L
.
2

(3.8.4)


, ;
TL 0
.

TL
,
. TL " "

176

3.

- .
L - ,
.

, .

,
; - ,
( ) (
).

..

177

3
1.

. -. - .: , 1970, 364 .

2.

.., .. .- .:
, 1974; 169 c.

3.

.., .. ..: . , 1987, 141 c.

4.

.. .- .: , 1985, 351 c.

5.

., . .- .:
, 1964. 295 .

6.

., ., ., . .- .: ,
1984, 504 c.

7.

. .- .: , 1972, 246 .

8.

.. .- .: ,
1971, 616 .

9.

.. .. . - .: , 1976,
152 .

10.

. . //.
. . . . .-.: ,
1983, 430 .

178

4.

4.
" "
.
. ,
" " -
.
,
,
, ,
, .


. , -
,
.
, ,
.

,
,
, ,

.

? . -,
. ,

,

. .
,

.
-,
, ,
.
, ,-

..

179

, , ,
.


.
, , ,
.

4.1. [1,2]

.
,

.

- .

.

. ,
, -
.
, .
,
, .

.
,
. , ,

.
,
,
- .
.

.
, ,
: , , .

180

4.

,
,
.
,
,
.


, .

:
;

;
;

-
;
.

.

,
.

4.2. [3-5]


,
.
,
.
,

.
,
,


, ,

..

181

,
.

,
,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
.


.
.

,
.

4.2.1.

, ,
:
1) , ,

,
. .
2) ,
. ,
, , ,
.
.
3) , ,

. , , - ,
..
4) ;
. ,
, ,

182

4.

.
.

,

,
.

, , ,
,
.

,

, . ,
,
()
. .

.

, .

,

.

,
.
, , 6,2%,
10%.
,
,
. .

, .

,
.
,

, .. 100%.

..

183

4.2.2.


. ,
3.5.2.
,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
. , ,
,
.
.
, ,
,
.

, , ,
f0,
xm,
x = 1 / 2f0 .
.

x = 1/ 2p 0 ,

y = 1/ 2q 0 .

,
, (. . 3.5.2),
, .
. ,

,
. 4.2.1. .
,
:

x = 1 / 2 P; y = 1 / 2Q; M = X / x = 2 PX; N = Y / y = 2QY .


(4.2.1)

184

4.

MN.
. ==1,
:

P = M / 2; Q = N / 2; x = 1 / M ; y = 1 / N .

(4.2.2)

, :

x m = mx = m / M, m = 0,K , M;
y n = ny = n / N, n = 0,K , N.

(4.2.3)

,
,
, .
MN. , ,
MN ,

.4.2.1 .

M
M
1, ;
2
2
N
N
Q = Q ,1,K , 1, .
2
2

(4.2.4)

2 X = (f 1 M ) / X; 2Y1 = (f 1 N ) / Y .

(4.2.5)

P = 0,1,K ,

(4.2.1)
, = x1 / f 1 q = y1 / f 1 (3.5.7)
,

..

185

.
, .. m n , p q .

, mn, (m,n), pq (,q).
,
, . :

hmn = A0 mn + E mn ,

(4.2.6)

hmn :

pq

M 1 N 1

h m n exp i 2 p M

m =0 n =0

+q

n
N

(4.2.7)

c (4.2.6)

Hpq = A0 + Apq exp(ipq ),

(4.2.8)

,
(3.5.22),

p q = k Ap2 q Ap q cos p q ,

(4.2.9)

n
m
p q = 2 p 0 + q 0 p q .
M
N

(4.2.10)

Hpq
,
MN .
, a pq
. ,
, :

2
pq = k pq
a pq .

m
n
+ q m n ,
M
N

m= 0 n =0
M 1 N 1

m
n
= 2 E m n sin 2 p
+ q m n ,
N
M

m= 0 n= 0
1
Ap2 q = ap2 q + bp2q .
4

ap q = 2
bp q

M 1 N 1

E m n cos2 p

(4.2.11)
(4.2.12)
(4.2.13)
(4.2.14)

186

4.


.
, .

,
(..
mn ), M, N,
k, , .

pq

(),
: , .
. 4.2.2.

().
1
, .
Cpq ,
,
. a pq bpq
2
.
Apq

. .


.
() .
: 0 1.
.
pq . '. pq

', pq , .

1, p q A;
pq =
0, p q < A.

(4.2.17)

1 , 0 - .

..

pq

1, A p2q + a p q A ,
=
2
0, A p q + a p q > A ,
A'
A =
.
k

187
(4.2.18)

.


.

4.2.3.
,

( , ) = A(, ) exp[i(, )]



( , ) .
, ,

, ,

. 4.2.2.

188

4.

,
. .
,
, .
,
. , ,
, .
.
( , )
.
,
0 2 , ..
, 2 .
,

$ ( , ) =

nm ( mod 2) ( n, m) ,

n= N m= M

mn ( mod 2 ) = 2j ,

j 2 ( j + 1) 2;

(4.2.19)

j = 0,1,2,K


,
, .

.

.



t ( , ) rect rect
exp[ ic ( mod 2 ) ]

( n , m ),

(4.2.20)

n = N m = M

,
-
. ,
, .
(4.2.20) ,

..

189

, . , ,
$ = 0 ,
,
$ = 2 . , ,
,
( ) .
,
;
,
. .

,
.

4.3. .

[1, 2, 6-9]
4.3.1.

,
.

:
. ,
. 25

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
( ) ,
.
, ,
, :
-. ,
.
E ( x ) = a( x ) exp( i( x ) ) , - -

190

4.

F ( x ) = A( x ) exp( i( x ) ) .

1
E ( x ') exp( ixx') dx ',
2

(4.3.1)

F ( x ) = LE ( x ) .

(4.3.2)

y0 (x) = a ( x ) exp( i( x ) ) .

(4.3.3)

LE ( x ) =

a(x)
A(x), .

-.
, .
,
a(x), exp( i( x ) )
;
. y0(x),
,

Ly0 = A0 ( x ) exp( i0 ( x ) ) .

(4.3.4)

, ..
A(x), . -

Y0 ( x ) = A( x ) exp( i0 ( x ) ) ,

Y0 =

ALy0
Ly0

(4.3.5)
(4.3.6)

y1 =

aL1Y0
L1Y0

(4.3.7)

Yn =

ALyn
Lyn

yn+1 =

aL1Yn
L1Yn

(4.3.8)

..

191

, ,
, y

y = lim yn .
n

(4.3.9)


-
, ,
y a( x) exp( i( x) ) .
,
.

4.3.2.


,
,
.
,

.
.
. 4.3.1.
, G
u=(u,v), .
D =(,) I(x,z).

u , , .
(u,y),
.
: -,
; -, ; , .
, , ,

. , ,
, D ,
, d (),
f, Df/d.

192

4.

,
.
. ,

, , ,
, - ,

. , , ,
,
, ,
. ,

,
.

. 4.3.1


. ,

. "" ,

. ,
.

..

193

""


.

. ?

. - ,
-
. .

,
.
.


.
.

- .
.
, , - ,

. -
.

" ",
.

4.3.3.

.
[0, 2),
.
,

.

194

4.


, .

-
(3.2.2),

2 + 2

D
,
2F
2
F - ; D - ; r = 2 + 2 .

( , ) = (r ) = k

(4.3.10)

(4.3.10) [0, 2)
. 4.3.2.
n,

hmax =

n 1

h( r ) =

1
(r ) mod 2
n 1 2

(4.3.11)

(rj ) = 2j ,

r j = 2Fj

(4.3.12)
D
j0 r j 0

D2
j0 =
8F

(4.3.13)

- .


(. 4.3.3),

() = k

2
D / 2 .
2F

(4.3.14)

..

195

[0, 2]
. , (4.3.12)
rj j. . 4.3.4
.

. 4.3.2.
[0,2]

. 4.3.3.


(. 4.3.5).
,
,

( ) =

2
,

(4.3.15)

= (n 1)tg .
( ) [0, 2) (. . 4.3.6)
1-D " " (. 4.3.7).
:

hmax =

n 1

h() =

1
() mod 2 .
n 1 2

(4.3.16).

d = sin ,

(4.3.17),

196

4.

sin = (n 1)tg .
1-D
-
, /2 (. 4.3.8).

. 4.3.4.
.

. 4.3.5. .

. 4.3.6. " ".

. 4.3.7. " ".

..

197

. 4.3.8. " ".

4.3.4.
.


,
,
. , ,
.

. u (r ) , ,
aj, :

u( r ) =

a j S j ( r) ,
j =1

(4.3.18)

S j ( r ) - ,

. S j ( r )
,
j- . , ,
.
{aj}.

198

4.


. 4.3.9 ( "Perkin-Elmer").

. 4.3.9. .

0.5-1.5
,
(V0), ,
, V0 Vs , Vs - ,
. ,
50-100 . Vs
, , ,
.
/20. -
Vs , ,
.
100 0.5.
,
.
. 4.3.10.

..

199

. .

-

. ,

). ,

. 4.3.10. .

(, ,
,
..).

4.4.
. [7-9]
, ,
, .

200

4.



. , ,

, . ,
,
,
.
.

.
: = A exp( ik)

k =
,

,
, u=-,

. -
: = A exp( ik) .
. . 4.4.1 .

, .

. 4.4.1. .

..

201

(

).

(. 4.4.1, ).

, , ..
-. ,
(. 4.4.1, ).
.
,
.
(. 4.4.1, ).

. 4.4.2. ,
. 1-; 2-; 3- ; 4, 5-
; 6- ; 7-; 8- ;
9-; 10- ; 11- ; 12 ; 13- .

202

4.


,
(. 4.4.2).
1, ,
4 5, 6,
, 8.
( ,
) 9
10. ,
,
.
11.
3,
7. ,

,
, .
2
.
() 12.

.
.

4.5.
[1]

,
- .
,
. ,
k (u, v) .
,
k,
.
, .
,
- .
.

..

203

,
k (u, v) .
k- . ,

.

.

.
,
.
: -
. ,
,
- .

() ,
.
,
.
.
-
.
-
.
.
, ,
.
: "

?"
: "


?" ,

.
,

204

4.

.

. ,
.
,
.
, ,
- .
,
c
. ,

. ,

- .

4.6.
[10-13]

.
- , ,

.

, .. ,
.


,
,
.

,
. ,

, .
,
" "
.

..

205



, -, ..

,
.

,
.

4.6.1.
,
-
, ,
, , , , ,
. , ,
.
C ,
. ,
, . , ,
,
,
..
.

,

(),
. ,
,
.
.
,

,

.
,

, ,
.. ,

206

4.

.
-
,
.

, -
()
, , ,
()
.
. ,

, .
, ,
, .. ,
.
.
,
,
.

.
,


.

4.6.2.

()
: ()

(),

.

.
,
,

..

207

,
.

.

,
(-).
,
.
""

, .

"-2",

. 4.6.1 -

20 .
.

208

4.

"-2"
MS-DOS
-
512512 64
.
8.8
704560 .

- 50 . ,
,
20 . ,
- 50 .
- n-

.
- . 4.6.1.
,
,
, .
,
,
.

. ,
. 4.6.1,, ,
,
1.

2, ,
(. 4.6.1,).
, . 4.6.1,.
.
,

.
-
"-2",
.

. 4.6.2. 6- -

..

209

. 4.6.2 - .
1- ; 2- ; 3- ; 4- ; 5,6-
.

() 1, 64 .
2.
, . ,
().
() .
,
- ,
.
,
, , .
:
.

, ,
.

,
( ),
0 255.
, - .

210

4.


().
,
.

"".
.
,
.

. ,
.
.
1. .
2. , ,
.
3. <I>
.
4.
2

(I I )
=
,
2
I
2

(4.6.1)

I = I(x, y) -
.
5. :

y 2x2
I ( x , y ) xdxdy
y 1 x1
=
,
y 2x2
I ( x , y )dxdy
y 1 x1

y 2x2
I ( x , y ) ydxdy
y 1 x1
=
, (4.6.2)
y 2x2
I ( x , y )dxdy
y 1 x1

x1, y1, x2, y2 - .


6. :

~
~
I ( x + , y + ) I ( x, y ) x, y
R (, ) =
,
2I
~
I = I I , x,y; , - ;
:

(4.5.3)

..

R (r ) = R(, ) 2 +2 =r 2 ,

211

(4.6.4)

R(r) -
, r. ,
, .
r=0 ( ), r,
. R , ,
, , ,
.
7. r -
r, r 1/2.
8. -
f
f. -

.
, ,
-.

f f.
9. -
,
.
9. .

,

.
-
.

4
1.

.., .. .
//. " " . . ..
. .., 1987, .1, .5-19.

2.

.. //
, 1998

212

4.

3.

. .- .: , 1972, 248 .

4.

.., .. ..: ,1974, 80 .

5.

.., .. .- .: ,
1989, 140 .

6.

.. //, 1988, .154, .


4, . 677-690.

7.

.., .. ..: , 1985, 336 .

8.

.., .., ..
. - .: , 1988, 270 .

9.

., .
//. " " . ..
- .: , 1980, . 428-447.

10.

..
. . //. "
" . .. ..
, - .: . . . .-. ., 1990, 400 .

11.

.., ..
//
. .. , 1982, . 57, . 185, . 7- 13.

12.

.. . 1.
// ,
1996, 2, . 118-124.

13.

.. . 2.
// , 1996,
3, . 110-121.

..

213

cpn =

M 1

( E mn ) exp i 2p

k =0

(.1.1)

( E mn )

exp i 2p

m

M

cpn.
2 .
, ||cpn|| 3
.
, .. ||cpn|| 23
23- . ,

, -
, ,
,
,

.
,
203 ,
.
,
().
( ) .
.
Em
, M=2, =1,2,
:

214

.1.
cp =

M 1

E m expi 2p

k =0

m
,
M

(.1.2)

M
1.
p = 0,1, K ,
2

, Em,
Fm Gm, M/2
. ,
Em, , -
:

Fk = E 2 k , Gk = E 2k +1 ,

p = 0,1,K ,

M
1.
2

(.1.3)

Fk Gk ,
:

(c )
p

ev

M
1
2

k =0

(c )
p

2
k
k

= G i 2p
Fk i 2p
, c
M
M p od k =0 k

2
2
M
p = 0,1,K , 1.
2

ev

( )

(c )
p

(.1.4)

od

,
.
(.1.2) ,
Em, , - :

cp =
=

M
1
2

k =0

M
1
2

k =0

2k

E 2 k exp i 2p +

M
1
2

k =0

2k + 1

=
F2 k +1 exp i 2p

M
M

k
p 2
k

+ exp i 2p Gk exp i 2p
,
Fk exp i 2p

M / 2
M k =0
M / 2
M
1.
p = 0,1,K ,
2
(.1.5)

..

215

(.1.4), (.1.5) k

( )

(M/2)-1 cp

( )

cp

ev

( )

cp = cp

ev

od

. ,

( )

+ exp i 2 cp

( ) (c )

, cp

ev

od

od

, p = 0,1, K ,

M
1. (.1.6)
2

P=M/2, :

c M = cp
p+ 2 ev

( )

, c M = cp
ev
p+ 2 od

( )

od

( )

= cp

M
p+
2

p + ( m / 2)
cp
+ exp i 2
ev
M

( )

od

p + ( m / 2)
p
p

exp i 2
= exp i 2 exp( i ) = exp i 2 ,

M
M
M

M
p+
2

( )

= cp

ev

( )

exp i 2 cp

od

, p = 0,1,K ,

M
1. (.1.7)
2


, , :

( )

( )

+ exp i 2 cp ,
(.1.8)
ev
od

M
p
M

exp i 2 cp , p = 0,1,K ,
1. (.1.9)
od

M
2

cp = cp

p+

M
2

( )

= cp

ev

( )

cp, /2

( )

cp

ev

( )

cp

od

(c )
p

ev

( )

cp

od

, ,

(.1.8) (.1.9)
Fk Gk /4
.

216

.1.

,
.
Em.
,
(.1.8), (.1.9)
cp. cp
.

, k- 2-(k-1) 2k-1
2-k 2k
(k=1,2,,). , k-
i- , , (.1.8) (.1.9)
:

(c )
p

(c

( )
) = (c )

( k)
i

= cp

( k)

p+ 2

k1

( )
( )

( k 1)
p

+ exp i 2 k cp
,
2i
2 i +1

2
( k 1)
( k 1)
p

exp i 2 k cp
,
p
2i +1
2i

2
( k 1)

(.1.10)

k = 1,2, K , , i = 0,1, K ,2 k 1, p = 0,1, K ,2 k 1 1., p = 0,1, K ,2 k 1 1.


(.1.11)
(.1.10) (.1.11)
2 cp ,
k=1
Em.

(c )
p

( k 1)

( )

= cp

..

217

2. :

( )
..
31 1998.
1. .
,
, ,
,
.
.
. . [1].

[1] i
RMS .


, .
. . , [1] :

I (P )
2
2
i (P ) =
1
( P ) ,
I0

2

RMS = ( P ) 2
2

, i
.
,
. .,

, ,
. ,
,

218

.2. .

,
,
- .
-
.

2. .
. .


[3],[4]:
I

I0

= e RMS ,

,
.
[2].
[2]. .

3. .
. [2]
.

,

.
,
41-

(. . 1).



, . 1

..

219

,
( ).

4. .

, . .2, 1 .,
""
. .3,
.
.
. " "
:

I~

T 175
. RMS

1 + cos(T ) sin 2 (T )

,
2
12


(. .4).

,

. .5.
..

.

220

.2. .

.2 ,

.3

..

.4 ,

.5

221

222

.2. .


1. . . " ", .500-508
2. Robert D. Quinnell "Limitation on the use of root-mean-square (rms)
phase to describe beam quality characteristics", SPIE, vol.293, Wavefront
Distortions in Power Optics (1981), p.12-19
3. .. , .. , .. "

", "
", 24, 2 (1997), .173-175
4. .. , .. , .. "
", " ",
10, 2, (1997), .162-171