Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

- 2008

1. :
1. MnO2 + 4HI MnI2 + I2 + 2H2O;
2. Zn(BrO3)2 + 4CsOH = Cs2[Zn(OH)4] + 2CsBrO3, Zn2+ + 4OH- = [Zn(OH)4]2-;
3. 2Cr(ClO4)3 + 3Rb2CO3 + 3H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3CO2 + 6RbClO4;
2Cr3+ + 3CO32- + 3H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3CO2;
4. 3Ca(H2PO4)2 + 12NaOH = Ca3(PO4)2 + 4Na3PO4 + 12H2O;
3Ca2+ + 6H2PO4- + 12OH- = Ca3(PO4)2 + 4PO43- + 12H2O;
Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2NaOH = CaHPO4 + Na2HPO4 + 2H2O;
Ca2+ + 2H2PO4- + 2OH- = CaHPO4 + HPO4- + 2H2O;
5. HClO3 + K2CO3 = KClO3 + KHCO3; H+ + CO32- = HCO3-;
2HClO3 + K2CO3 = 2KClO3 + H2O + CO2; 2H+ + CO32- = H2O + CO2;
6. FeSO4 + Na2S = FeS + Na2SO4; Fe2+ + S2- = FeS;
7. 2B + 3F2 = 2BF3;
8. 2LiOH + Cl2O7 = 2LiClO4.
2. 300 0,16*300/100 = 0,48 Ca(OH)2, 0,48/(40+2*17) = 6,49*10-3
.
1. :
) 6,49*10-3*6,02*1023 = 3,91*1021 ;
) - 2*6,49*10-3/0,3 = 0,0433 /;
) , , - :
()2 + 2 = 3 + 2. Ca(OH)2,
CO2, 6,49*10-3*44 = 0,286 ;
) : 3 + 2 + 2 = (3)2.
, 2 (6,49*10-3 ), .. 2*6,49*10-3 =
12,98*10-3 . .. 12,98*10-3*22,4 = 0,291 .
2. ( , ):
()2 + F2 = F2 + 2 + O (O2, O3, H2O2, OF2);
()2 + Cl2 = 2 + OCl2 (Cl2 + (ClO)2)

6()2 + 6Cl2 70C 5Cl2 + (ClO3)2 + 62;


6()2 + 6I2 = 5I2 + (IO3)2 + 62; ()2 + O2 ;

3()2 + 3S 100
C 2S + SO3 + 32; ()2 + N2 ;

3()2 + 2P4 + 62 70C 2PH3 + 3(H2PO2)2; ()2 + C ;

()2 + Si + 2 100
C SiH4 + SiO3;
()2 + 2Al + 62 = 3H2 + [Al(OH)4]2; ()2 + Fe .
3. , .
63,5+32+16*4+18*5 = 249,5 , 159,5 , 90
, .. 159,5/249,5 = 0,639.
1. 100*20,7/120,7
= 17,15 . %. 207*159,5/249,5 = 132,3 ,
1000+207 = 1207 . 100*132,3/1207 = 10,96 . %,
, . , ,
.
2. 300*159,5/249,5 = 191,8 ,
.
100*191,8/20,7 = 926,6 927 . 300 300-191,8
= 108,2 , 926,6-108,2 = 818,4 818
300 .
3. . ,
, . 132,3 1207-132,3
= 1074,7 . , 17,15 . %, ..
0,1715. ,
, 0,639 .
132,3+0,639 , 1207+ . :
(132,3+0,639)/(1207+) = 0,1715, , = 159,8 .

4. , (
), , .
( )

, , ,
.
4. 1. Cl2, KMnO4, HCl, H2SO4. . ,
, .
2. ( )
, , , .
, , , -
. . 0,48/24 = 0,02 ,
, , . 0,0136
(M = 70,9 /) 0,02-0,0136 = 0,0064 (M = 29 /).
(0,0136*70,9+0,0064*29)/0,02 = 57,5 /, .. .
(0,0199*70,9+0,0001*29)/0,02 = 70,7 /, 70,7-41,5 = 29,2 /
. ,
?
, ? : (151,43-150,60)/0,02 = 41,5! ,
( !): , , ,
0,02*29 = 0,58 .
29 /, , ,
.
3. , , , :
0,0199/0,02 = 0,995 99,5 %, 0,0136/0,02 = 0,68 68 %.
, , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, . , ( , ),
, , .. . ,
, .
4. : 2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5Cl2 + 8H2O.
, , , -
:
2KMnO4 + 3MnCl2 + 2H2O 2KCl + 5Mn2 + 4HCl 2KMnO4 + 8HCl 2KCl + 2Mn2 + 3Cl2 + 4H2O.
. :
MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O; MnO2 + H2O2 + H2SO4 MnSO4 + O2 + 2H2O.
5. 1. (). ,
l2O3 ( ,
, ), : , , .. 2Al + Cr2O3 2Cr +
Al2O3; 4Al + 3MnO2 3Mn + 2Al2O3;
2Al + 3ZnO 3Zn + Al2O3;
2.
( ).
. ,
2Al + Fe2O3 2Fe + Al2O3 1669,79-811,97 = 857,82 Fe2O3.
3. 1 (55,847 ), 13,8 , 1000 Q =
13,8*1000/55,847= 247,10 . 1 Fe2O3 2 Al 857,82 .
, 247,1/857,82 = 0,288 Fe2O3 (159,694*0,288 = 46,0 ) 0,288*2 = 0,576
Al (0,576*26,98 = 15,5 ).
4. , (
) : Al2O3 + 2NaOH NaAlO2,
NaAlO2() + 2H2O Na[Al(OH)4] ( ). (
), :

Na[Al(OH)4] + NH4Cl Al(OH)3 + NaCl +NH3 + H2O, 2Al(OH)3 t, C Al2O3 +3H2O.

- 2008

10

1. :
1. MnO2 + 4HI MnI2 + I2 + 2H2O;
2. Zn(BrO3)2 + 4CsOH = Cs2[Zn(OH)4] + 2CsBrO3, Zn2+ + 4OH- = [Zn(OH)4]2-;
3. 2Cr(ClO4)3 + 3Rb2CO3 + 3H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3CO2 + 6RbClO4;
2Cr3+ + 3CO32- + 3H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3CO2;
4. 3Ca(H2PO4)2 + 12NaOH = Ca3(PO4)2 + 4Na3PO4 + 12H2O;
3Ca2+ + 6H2PO4- + 12OH- = Ca3(PO4)2 + 4PO43- + 12H2O;
Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2NaOH = CaHPO4 + Na2HPO4 + 2H2O;
Ca2+ + 2H2PO4- + 2OH- = CaHPO4 + HPO4- + 2H2O;
5. Ba(ClO2)2 + 8HCl = BaCl2 + 4Cl2 + 4H2O; ClO2- + 4HCl = 2Cl2 + 2H2O;
CH3

6. H3C

C CH CH2 + Br2

CCl4

CH3

to

7. H3C HC CH2 CH CH3 + Zn


Br

Br Br
H3C
H3C C CH CH2
H3C
H3C

CH3

+ ZnBr2

Br
to

8. H3C HC CH CH2 CH3 + Zn

H3C HC CH CH2 CH3 + ZnBr2

Br Br

2. 1. (CnH2n+2) 2,
2 29 = 58 /, .. 12n + 2n + 2 = 58, n = 4.
410.
2.
, .. , ,
. 410: -
().
,
(). ,
, 1, 2 :
Cl
H3C

CH CH3

CH3

H3C

CH CH2Cl

H3C

CH3
1 ( 2)
1-

C CH3

CH3
2 ( 1)
2-

Br

3. ) H3C C CH2 + HBr


CH3
) H3C C CH2 + Cl2
CH3

) H3C C CH2 + HBr

H3C C CH3
CH3
500oC

CH3

C CH2

CH3


R2O2

H3C CH CH2Br
CH3

H3C C CH2 + HCl


CH2Cl

) 5 H3C C CH2 + 8 KMnO4 + 12 H2SO4

5 H3C C O + 5 CO2 + 17 H2O + 4 K 2SO4 + 8 MnSO4

CH3

CH2Cl
HO OH

) H3C C CH2 + 2 KMnO4 + 2 KOH


CH3

H3C

H3C C CH2 + 2 K 2MnO4


CH3

3. 1-2.
SO3H
H2SO4 .
50oC

OH
NaOH
350oC


400oC
CaC2

H2O

HC

CH

1 NaNH2

HC

CNa

CH3

HC

C CH3
H3C C CH3
Hg2+, H+ II


( , )

H3C C OOH
O2

120oC

H3PO4, 250 C, 25 .

H2O

CH3

H3C CH
H3C CH CH2

CH3I

50oC, H2SO4 -

OH
+ H3C C CH3
O

4. 1. ( )
, ,
, .
, , , - .
. 0,48/24 = 0,02 , ,
, . 0,0136
(M = 70,9 /) 0,02-0,0136 = 0,0064 (M = 29 /).
(0,0136*70,9+0,0064*29)/0,02 = 57,5 /, ..
. (0,0199*70,9+0,0001*29)/0,02 = 70,7 /,
70,7-41,5 = 29,2 /
. ,
?
, ? : (151,43-150,60)/0,02 = 41,5! ,
( !): ,
, ,
0,02*29 = 0,58 . 29 /,
, ,
.
2. , , ,
: 0,0199/0,02 = 0,995 99,5 %, 0,0136/0,02 =
0,68 68 %.
-, : T = PV/ R =
1*24/0,082*1 = 292,68 K 19,5 ( PV/T = const
273,15 22,4 /).
, , ,
, , .
, ,
, , . ,
( , ), , , ..
. , ,
.

3. : 2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5Cl2 + 8H2O.


, , ,
- :
2KMnO4 + 3MnCl2 + 2H2O 2KCl + 5Mn2 + 4HCl
2KMnO4 + 8HCl 2KCl + 2Mn2 + 3Cl2 + 4H2O.

.
: MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O; MnO2 + H2O2 + H2SO4 MnSO4 + O2 + 2H2O.
4. .
,
: Cl2 + 2KI = 2KCl + I2,
2I2 + Na2S2O3 = 2NaI + Na2S4O6.
5. 1. (). :
2Al + Fe2O3 2Fe + Al2O3;
2Al + 3Na(Tl)2O 6Na(Tl) + Al2O3;
2Al + 3Mg(Ba)O 3Mg(Ba) + Al2O3; 8Al + 3Mn3O4 9Mn + 4Al2O3;
4Al + 3Th(Sn)O2 3Th(Sn) + 2Al2O3; 10Al + 3Sb2O5 6Sb + 5Al2O3.
2.
( ).
. ,
8Al + 3Mn3O4 9Mn + 4Al2O3 4*1669,79-3*1387,6 = 2516,36 8
, .. Al 2516,36/8 = 314,545 .
:

Q0,

Fe2O3

Na2O

Tl2O

MgO

BaO Mn3O4

ThO2

SnO2

Sb2O5

857,8
2

415,8
5

1167,7
1

-134,6
8

9,17 2516,3
6

-340,6
7

1597,3
6

5326,42

428,9 207,9 583,86 -67,34 4,59 314,55 -85,17 399,34 532,64


Q0/ Al,
1
3

, ( )
MgO ThO2, Na2O BaO,
, .
1 Tl2O (583,86 ),
.
3. 1 (55,847 ), 13,8 , 1000
Q = 13,8*1000/55,847= 247,10 . 1 Fe2O3 2 Al
857,82 . , 247,1/857,82 = 0,288
Fe2O3 (159,694*0,288 = 46,0 ) 0,288*2 = 0,576 Al (0,576*26,98 = 15,5 ).
4. 1 1 , 35,77 .
1000/55,847 Fe 1539-20 = 1519 , .. 35,77*1519*1000/55,847 =
972919 972,9 . 247,1+972,9 =
1220 . 1220/857,82 = 1,422 Fe2O3 (159,694*1,422 = 227,0 )
1,422*2 = 2,844 Al (2,844*26,98 = 76,7 ).
5. , (
) : Al2O3 + 2NaOH NaAlO2,
NaAlO2() + 2H2O Na[Al(OH)4] ( ).
( ), :

Na[Al(OH)4] + NH4Cl Al(OH)3 + NaCl +NH3 + H2O, 2Al(OH)3 t, C Al2O3 +3H2O.

- 2008

11

1. :
1. MnO2 + 4HI MnI2 + I2 + 2H2O;
2. Zn(BrO3)2 + 4CsOH = Cs2[Zn(OH)4] + 2CsBrO3, Zn2+ + 4OH- = [Zn(OH)4]2-;
3. 2Cr(ClO4)3 + 3Rb2CO3 + 3H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3CO2 + 6RbClO4;
2Cr3+ + 3CO32- + 3H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3CO2;
4. 3Ca(H2PO4)2 + 12NaOH = Ca3(PO4)2 + 4Na3PO4 + 12H2O;
3Ca2+ + 6H2PO4- + 12OH- = Ca3(PO4)2 + 4PO43- + 12H2O;
Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2NaOH = CaHPO4 + Na2HPO4 + 2H2O;
Ca2+ + 2H2PO4- + 2OH- = CaHPO4 + HPO4- + 2H2O;
5. Ba(ClO2)2 + 8HCl = BaCl2 + 4Cl2 + 4H2O; ClO2- + 4HCl = 2Cl2 + 2H2O;
H
CH2 OH
6.

2 CH

OH + Cu(OH)2

CH2

OH

CH3

CH2 O
CH

CH2 CH3

Cu
H

H3C

O CH

+ 2H2O

CH2 CH3
H3C

7. H3C C CH COH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

H3C C CH COO NH4 + 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O

CH3

8.

O CH2

CH3
CH3

CH3
+ HCl

N H Cl

CH3

CH3

2. 1. (CnH2n+2) 3,
3 29 87 /, .. 12n + 2n + 2 87, n 6.
1 2
1 2, -
. ,
, .. CnH2n+1 CnH2n+2. ,

n:
(O) =

16,0
= 0,216 n = 4, .. 410.
12,0n +1,01(2n + 2) +16,0

2. 410: - ().
,
-
. , , 1, 2,
1, 2 :
Cl
H3C CH2 CH2 CH3

H3C

CH2 CH2 CH2Cl


1 ( 2)
1-

H3C CH2 CH CH3


2 ( 1)
2-
OH

H3C CH2 CH CH2


1 ( 2)
-1

H3C CH CH CH3
2 ( 1)
-2

H3C CH2 CH CH3

-2

3. ) 2:
H

H
C

CH3
C

H3C
CH3
- -2

H3C
H
- -2

) , 2- -2
. ,
().
OH

Br

4. ) H3C CH2 CH CH3 + HBr

H3C

CH2 CH

OH
) H3C CH2 CH

OSO3H
CH3 + H2SO4 .

OH
) H3C CH2 CH

CH3 + H2O

CH3 + CH3COOH

H3C

CH2 CH

H2SO4 .
to

CH3 + H2O
O

H3C

CH2 CH O C CH3 + H2O


CH3

3.
CH3

1.
CaC2

H2O

HC CH
o
., 400 C

1 CH3Cl
AlCl3

COOH
KMnO4
H2SO4 -

COOCH3
CH3OH
H2SO4 .

1. C6H5MgBr (2 )
2. H2O

C OH

SOCl2

Br2
Fe
Br

Mg
(C2H5)2O

MgBr

C Cl


( )

: ,
(, , ,
, ..).
2. (TrCl)


+ CCl4
C Cl + 3 HCl
3
AlCl3
(AlCl3) (. ).
,
CCl4 (
). , ?
4. 1. , Na2S2O3 O O 2 Na+
S
: Na2SO3 + S = Na2S2O3. :
S
O
2. Na2S2O3 + 4Cl2 + 5H2O 2NaCl + 2H2SO4 + 6HCl ( ).
( , , ,
, ), ,
, (IV), :
Na2S2O3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + S + H2O +SO2; Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + S + H2O +SO2.
3. : 2Na2O3 + Cl2 + H2O NaCl + NaCl + 2NaHCO3,
- . ,
,
.

4.
SO2:
Na2CO3 + H+ Na+ + HCO3-; Na2CO3 + 2H+ 2Na+ + H2O +CO2. 1
Na2S2O3 (.2) 10*1/158 = 0,0633 H+.
CO2 0,0633/2 = 0,0317 3,35 Na2CO3;
CO2 ( ,
) 2 , .. 6,7 Na2CO3. .
5. : 2Na2S2O3 + 2 2Na2SO4 + 2S; 2Na2S2O3 + J2 2NaJ + Na2S4O6;
2Na2S2O3 + AgCl Na3[Ag(S2O3)2] + NaCl.
5. 1. (). :
2Al + Fe2O3 2Fe + Al2O3;
2Al + 3Na(Tl)2O 6Na(Tl) + Al2O3;
2Al + 3Mg(Ba)O 3Mg(Ba) + Al2O3; 8Al + 3Mn3O4 9Mn + 4Al2O3;
4Al + 3Th(Sn)O2 3Th(Sn) + 2Al2O3; 10Al + 3Sb2O5 6Sb + 5Al2O3.

( ).
. ,
8Al + 3Mn3O4 9Mn + 4Al2O3 4*1669,79-3*1387,6 = 2516,36 8
, .. Al 2516,36/8 = 314,545 .
:

Q0,

Fe2O3

Na2O

Tl2O

MgO

BaO Mn3O4

ThO2

SnO2

Sb2O5

857,8
2

415,8
5

1167,7
1

-134,6
8

9,17 2516,3
6

-340,6
7

1597,3
6

5326,42

428,9 207,9 583,86 -67,34 4,59 314,55 -85,17 399,34 532,64


Q0/ Al,
1
3

, 1
Tl2O (583,86 ), .
( )
MgO ThO2, Na2O BaO, ,
.
2. 1 (55,847 ), 13,8 , 1000
Q = 13,8*1000/55,847= 247,10 . 1 Fe2O3 2 Al
857,82 . , 247,1/857,82 = 0,288
Fe2O3 (159,694*0,288 = 46,0 ) 0,288*2 = 0,576 Al (0,576*26,98 = 15,5 ).
3. 1 1 , 35,77 .
1000/55,847 Fe 1539-20 = 1519 , .. 35,77*1519*1000/55,847 =
972919 972,9 . 247,1+972,9 =
1220 . 1220/857,82 = 1,422 Fe2O3 (159,694*1,422 = 227,0 )
1,422*2 = 2,844 Al (2,844*26,98 = 76,7 ).
4. , 1220 .
. , Fe2O3 2 Al,
Al2O3 2 Fe.
(1519**79,04 + 1519*2*35,77) = 120062 + 108669 = 228731 228,73 .
(1220+228,73 )
857,82 . 1220+228,73 = 857,82,
= 1,94 . ( ),
1,94*159,694 = 309,8 , 2*1,94*26,98 = 104,7 .