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Donato Bramante (1444 11 March 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan

n and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. Peter's Basilica. [edit]Urbino and Milan

Main architectural works

Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan, ca. 14821486 Santa Maria delle Grazie (cloister and apse); Milan, 14921498 Palazzo Caprini (also known as Raphael's House), Rome, started around 1510 (demolished in the 17t century)

Bramante's architecture has eclipsed his painting skills: he knew the painters Melozzo da Forl and Piero della Francesca well, who were interested in the rules of perspective and illusionistic features in Mantegna's painting. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan, a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, and built several churches in the new Antique style. The Duke, Ludovico Sforza, made him virtually

San Pietro in Montorio (also called the Tempietto); Rome, 1502 Santa Maria della Pace (cloister); Rome, 1504 St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, design 1503, ground breaking, 1506 Cortile del Belvedere, Vatican City, Rome, 1506.

Plans for St Peter's Basilica his court architect, beginning in 1476, with commissions that culminated in the famous trompe-l'oeil choir of the church of Santa A draft for St Peter's superimposed over a plan of the ancient basilica Maria presso San Satiro (14821486). Space was limited, and Bramante made a theatrical apse in bas-relief, combining the painterly arts of perspective with Roman details. There is an octagonal sacristy, surmounted by a dome. In Milan, Bramante also built the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie (149299); other early works include the cloisters of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan (14971498), and some other constructions in Pavia and possibly Legnano. However, in 1499, with his Sforza patron driven from Milan by an invading French army, Bramante made his way to Rome, where he was already known to the powerful Cardinal Riario. [edit]Career in Rome Bramante's final plan

In Rome, he was soon recognized in Cardinal Della Rovere, shortly to become Pope Julius II. For Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile or possibly Julius II, Bramante designed one of the most harmonious buildings of the Renaissance: the Tempietto (1510) of San Pietro in Montorio on the Janiculum. Despite its small scale, the construction has all the rigorous proportions and symmetry of Classical structures, surrounded by slender Doric columns, surmounted by a dome. According to a later engraving by Sebastiano Serlio, Bramante planned to set it within a colonnaded courtyard. In November 1503, Julius engaged Bramante for the construction of the grandest European architectural commission of the 16th century, the complete rebuilding ofSt Peter's Basilica. The cornerstone of the first of the great piers of the crossing was laid with ceremony on 17 April 1506. Antonio da Sangallo the Elder Madonna di San Biagio, Montepulciano, 1518 consecrated 1529[1] The dome, as planned by Bramante

Antonio da Sangallo the Elder (c. 1453 December 27, 1534) was an Italian Renaissance architect who specialized in the design of fortifications. [edit]Biography

In a demonstration of Michelangelo's unique standing, he was the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive.[2] Architectural work

Michelangelo worked on many projects that had been started by other men, most notably in his work at St Peter's Basilica, Rome. The Campidoglio, designed by Michelangelo during the same period,

Antonio da Sangallo was born at Florence. His father Francesco Giamberti was a woodworker, and his

rationalized the structures and spaces of Rome's Capitoline Hill. Its brother Giuliano da Sangallo and nephew Antonio da Sangallo the shape, more a rhomboid than a square, was intended to counteract the Younger were architects. To a great extent he worked in partnership effects of perspective. The major Florentine architectural projects by with his brother, but he also executed a number of independent works. Michelangelo are the unexecuted faade for theBasilica of San As a military engineer he was as skilful as Giuliano, and carried out Lorenzo, Florence and the Medici Chapel (Capella Medicea) important works of walling and building fortresses and Laurentian Library there, and the fortifications of Florence. The at Arezzo, Montefiascone, Florence and Rome. His finest existing work major Roman projects are St. Peter's, Palazzo Farnese, San Giovanni as an architect is the church of San Biagio at Montepulciano, in plan dei Fiorentini, the Sforza Chapel (Capella Sforza) in the Basilica di a Greek cross with central dome, "the first of the great cinquecento Santa Maria Maggiore, Porta Piaand Santa Maria degli Angeli. domes to be completed".[2] and two towers, much resembling, on a small scale, Bramante's design for St. Peter's Basilica. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola his other works includes he church of San Biagio at Montepulciano, the Forte Sangallo of Civita Castellana and the Old Fortress of Livorno.

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni[1] (6 March 1475 18 February 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci. Two of his best-known works, the Piet and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty. Despite his low opinion of painting, Michelangelo also created two of the most influential works in fresco in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling and The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered theMannerist style at the Laurentian Library. At 74 he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan, the western end being finished to Michelangelo's design, the dome being completed after his death with some modification. The five orders, engraving from Vignola'sRegola delle cinque ordini d'architettura.

Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi (or Barocchio) da Vignola (often simply called Vignola) (1 October 1507 7 July 1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Ges in Rome. The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio. Biography

Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Assisi (with Galeazzo Alessi);

Church of Sant'Andrea in Via Flaminia, Rome, the first church to have an oval dome, which became a signature of the Baroque.

Giacomo della Porta Giacomo della Porta (c. 1533 1602) was an Italian[1] architect and sculptor, who worked on many important buildings in Rome, including St. Peter's Basilica.[2] He was born at Porlezza, Lombardy and died in Rome.

Giacomo Barozzi was born at Vignola, near Modena (EmiliaRomagna). He began his career as architect in Bologna, supporting himself by painting and making perspective templates for inlay craftsmen. He made a first trip to Rome in 1536 to make measured drawings of Roman temples, with a thought to publish an illustrated Vitruvius. Then Franois I called him toFontainebleau, where he spent the years 1541 1543. Here he probably met his fellow Bolognese, the architect Sebastiano Serlio and the painterPrimaticcio. From 1564 Vignola carried on Michelangelo's work at St Peter's Basilica, and constructed the two subordinate domes according to Michelangelo's plans. Giacomo Barozzi died in Rome in 1573. In 1973 his remains were reburied in the Pantheon, Rome. Works [edit]Biography

Della Porta was influenced by and collaborated with Michelangelo, and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, his teacher of architecture. After 1563 he carried out Michelangelo's plans for the rebuilding of the Campidoglio or Capitoline Hill's open spaces where he completed the faade and steps of Palazzo Senatorio, and the Cordonata capitolina or the ramped steps up to the Piazza del Campidoglio. After the death of Vignola in 1573, he continued the construction of Il Ges, the mother church of the Jesuit order, and in 1584 modified its faade after his own designs. From 1573 he was in charge of the ongoing construction of St. Peter's Basilica, and later, in collaboration with Domenico Fontana, completed Michelangelo's dome between 1588-1590. Giacomo della Porta completed a number of Rome's fountains from the 16th century; these included the fountains in the Piazza del Popolo,

Vignola's main works include:

Villa Giulia for Pope Julius III, in Rome (1550-1553). Here Vignola was working with Ammanati, who designed the nymphaeum and other garden features under the general direction of Vasari, with guidance from the knowledgeable pope and Michelangelo. A medal of 1553 shows Vignola's main villa substantially as it was completed, save for a pair of cupolas.

the Fountain of Neptune, Rome and La Fontana del Moro in the Piazza Navona.

Carlo Maderno Carlo Maderno (1556 January 30, 1629) was a SwissItalian[1] architect, born in Ticino, who is remembered as one of the fathers of Baroque architecture. His faades of Santa Susanna, St. Peter's Basilica and Sant'Andrea della Valle were of key importance in the evolution of the ItalianBaroque. He is often referred to as the brother of sculptor Stefano Maderno, but this is not universally agreed upon. [edit]Biography

Villa Farnese at Caprarola (15591573); Villa Lante at Bagnaia (1566 onwards), including the gardens and their water features and casini;

Chiesa del Ges, Rome, the mother church of the Jesuit order, which would become a source for Baroque church facades in the 17th century;

Born in Capolago, Ticino (an Italian-speaking canton of Switzerland), Maderno began his career in the marble quarries of the far north, before moving to Rome in 1588 with four of his brothers to assist his uncle Domenico Fontana. He worked initially as a marble cutter, and his background in sculptural workmanship would help mold his architecture. His first solo project, in 1596, was an utterly confident and mature faade for the ancient church of Santa Susanna (15971603); it was among the first Baroque faades to break with the Mannerist conventions that are exemplified in the Ges. The structure is a dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, with a protruding central bay and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, still maintaining rigor. The Santa Susanna faade won the attention of Pope Paul V, who in 1603 appointed him chief architect of St Peter's. Maderno was forced to modify Michelangelo's plans for the Basilica and provide designs for an extended nave with a palatial faade. The faade (completed 1612) is constructed to allow for Papal blessings from the emphatically enriched balcony above the central door. This forward extension of the basilica (which grew from Michelangelo's Greek cross to the present Latin cross) has been criticized because it blocks the view of the dome when seen from the Piazza, often ignores the fact that the approaching avenue is modern. Maderno would not have had liberties to design this building as much as in other structures. Maderno was called upon to design chapels within existing churches, the Chapel of St Lawrence in San Paolo fuori le Mura and the Cappella Caetani in Santa Pudenziana.

outshining other sculptors of his generation, including his rival, Alessandro Algardi. His talent extended beyond the confines of his sculpture to consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to be able to synthesise sculpture, painting and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the art historian, Irving Lavin, the unity of the visual arts.[1] A deeply religious man, working in Counter Reformation Rome, Bernini used light as an important metaphorical device in the perception of his religious settings; often it was hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship,[2] or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative. Bernini was also a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture along with his contemporaries, the architect, Francesco Borromini and the painter and architect, Pietro da Cortona. Early in their careers they had all worked at the same time at the Palazzo Barberini, initially under Carlo Maderno and on his death, under Bernini. Later on, however, they were in competition for commissions and fierce rivalries developed, particularly between Bernini and Borromini.[3] Despite the arguably greater architectural inventiveness of Borromini and Cortona, Berninis artistic pre-eminence, particularly during the reigns of popes Urban VIII (162344) and Alexander VII (16551665), meant he was able to secure the most important commission in Rome of the day, St. Peter's Basilica. His design of the Piazza San Pietro in front of the Basilica is one of his most innovative and successful architectural designs. Bernini and other artists fell from favour in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque. It is only from the late nineteenth century that art historical scholarship, in seeking an understanding of artistic output in the cultural context in which it was produced, has come to recognise

Gian Lorenzo Bernini Berninis achievements and restore his artistic reputation. Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also spelled Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo) (Naples, 7 December 1598 Rome, 28 November 1680) was an Italian artist who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age and also a prominent architect. In addition he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets. Architecture

Bernini's architectural works include sacred and secular buildings and sometimes their urban settings and interiors.[9] He made adjustments to existing buildings and designed new constructions. Amongst his most well known works is the Piazza San Pietro (165667), the piazza and

A student of Classical sculpture, Bernini possessed the unique ability colonnades in front of St Peter's and the interior decoration of the to capture, in marble, the essence of a narrative moment with a Basilica. Amongst his secular works are a number of Roman palaces: dramatic naturalistic realism which was almost shocking. This ensured following the death of Carlo Maderno, he took over the supervision of that he effectively became the successor of Michelangelo, far

the building works at the Palazzo Barberini from 1630 on which he worked with Borromini; the Palazzo Ludovisi (now Palazzo Montecitorio)(started 1650); and the Palazzo Chigi (now Palazzo ChigiOdescalchi) (started 1664).

traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant 12 years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates.[5] Architecture

After Bramante's death in 1514, he was named architect of the new St In 1639, Bernini bought property on the corner of the via Mercede and the via del Collegio di Propaganda Fide in Rome. On this site he built himself a palace, the Palazzo Bernini, at what are now Nos 11 and 12 via della Mercede. He lived at No. 11 but this was extensively changed in the nineteenth century. It has been noted how very galling it must have been for Bernini to witness through the windows of his dwelling, the construction of the tower and dome of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte by his rival, Borromini, and also the demolition of the chapel that he, Bernini, had designed at the Collegio di Propaganda Fide to see it replaced by Borromini's chapel.[13] Raphael Papacy. Julius had made changes to the street plan of Rome, creating Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483 April 6, 1520[3]), better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of theHigh Renaissance, celebrated for The Villa Madama, a lavish hillside retreat for Cardinal Giulio de' the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. Together Medici, later Pope Clement VII, was never finished, and his full plans with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[4] Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at 37, a large body of his work remains. Many of his works are found in the Apostolic Palace of The Vatican, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of In 1515 he was given powers as "Prefect" over all antiquities Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in unearthed entrusted within the city, or a mile outside. Raphael wrote a Rome much of his work was self-designed, but for the most part letter to Pope Leo suggesting ways of halting the destruction of ancient executed by the workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of monuments, and proposed a visual survey of the city to record all quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside antiquities in an organised fashion. The Pope's concerns were not Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. exactly the same; he intended to continue to re-use ancient masonry in After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more the building of St Peter's, but wanted to ensure that all ancient widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more inscriptions were recorded, and sculpture preserved, before allowing serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest the stones to be reused.[56] models. His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years (from 15041508) absorbing the artistic Giovanni Giocondo Fra Giovanni Giocondo (c. 1433 1515) was an Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar. have to be reconstructed speculatively. He produced a design from which the final construction plans were completed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Even incomplete, it was the most sophisticated villa design yet seen in Italy, and greatly influenced the later development of the genre; it appears to be the only modern building in Rome of which Palladio made a measured drawing.[54]
[2]

Peter's. Most of his work there was altered or demolished after his death and the acceptance of Michelangelo's design, but a few drawings have survived. It appears his designs would have made the church a good deal gloomier than the final design, with massive piers all the way down the nave, "like an alley" according to a critical posthumous analysis by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. It would perhaps have resembled the temple in the background of The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple.[50] He designed several other buildings, and for a short time was the most important architect in Rome, working for a small circle around the

several new thoroughfares, and he wanted them filled with splendid palaces.[51]

Biography

Baldassare Peruzzi Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481 6 January 1536) was

Giovanni Giocondo was born at Verona in about 1433. He joined an Italian architect and painter, born in a small town near Siena and the Dominican Order at the age of eighteen and was one of the many died in Rome. He worked for many years, beginning in 1520, of that order who promulgated the Renaissance. Afterwards, however, under Bramante, Raphael, and later Sangallo during the erection of the he entered the Franciscan Order. Giocondo began his career as a new St. Peter's. He returned to his native Siena after the Sack of Rome teacher of Latin and Greek in Veronawhere Julius Caesar Scaliger was (1527) where he was employed as architect to the Republic. For the one of his pupils. Sienese he built new fortifications for the city and designed (though did As a young priest, Fra Giocondo was a learned archaeologist and a superb draughtsman. He visited Rome, sketched its ancient buildings, wrote the story of its great monuments, and recorded, deciphered and He was a painter of frescoes in the Cappella San Giovanni in the explained many defaced inscriptions. He stimulated the revival of Duomo of Siena. classical learning by making transcriptions of ancient manuscripts, one of which, completed in 1492, he presented toLorenzo de' Medici. Architectural works Other work Between 1496 and 1499 Giocondo was invited to France by Louis XII, and made royal adviser. There he built one bridge of remarkable beauty, the Pont Notre-Dame (1500-1512) in Paris, and designed the palace of the Chambre des Comptes, the Golden Room of the Parliament, and the Chateau of Gaillon (Normandy), one portal of which has been removed to Paris, and stood for years in the courtyard of the cole des Beaux-Arts to serve as a model for students of architecture, and was returned in 1977. Between 1506 and 1508 Giocondo returned to Italy and constructed the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (1508), which was decorated by Titian and Giorgione. In 1513 the Rialto Bridge and its environs were burned. Giocondo was one of those who presented plans for a new bridge and surrounding structures. The designs of a rival were chosen. Giocondo left Venice for Rome where he was employed by theVatican from 1514. In a letter to Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, in 1513, Giocondo referred to himself "an old man". On Donato Bramante's death he was made part of a team with Raphael and Giuliano da Sangallo to superintend the erection of St. Peter's Basilica. The work included strengthening the foundations. He died in 1515, while involved with this project. The close proximity of Raphael's work has overshadowed Peruzzi's work in the ceiling decoration of the Stanza d'Eliodoro in the Vatican. While Raphael may have designed the general plan for the decoration of the hall, it is certain that the tapestry-like frescoes on the ceiling are to be ascribed to Peruzzi. Four scenes represent God's saving omnipotence as shown in the case of Noah, Abraham,Jacob, and Moses. The manifestation of the Lord in the burning bush and the figure of Jehovah commanding Noah to enter the ark were formerly considered works of Raphael. Peruzzi had produced for the church of S. Croce in Jerusalem a mosaic ceiling, the beautiful keystone of which represented the Saviour. Other paintings ascribed to him are to be found in Sant'Onofrioand San Pietro in Montorio. That Peruzzi improved as time went on is evident in his later works, e.g., the "Madonna with Saints" in S. Maria della Pace at Rome, and the fresco of Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl in Fontegiusta at Siena. As our master interested himself in the decorative art also, he exercised a strong influence in this direction, not only by his own decorative paintings but also by furnishing designs for craftsmen of various kinds. His final architectural masterpiece, the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne (1535) located on the modern day Corso Vittorio Emanuele, is His son Giovanni Sallustio was also an architect. not build) a remarkable dam on the Bruna River near Giuncarico. He seems to have moved back to Rome by 1535.

well known for its curving facade, ingenious planning, and architecturally rich interior. Giuliano da Sangallo Giuliano da Sangallo (c. 14431516) was an Italian sculptor, architect

this Giuliano was recalled to Rome by Julius II, who had much need for his military talents both in Rome itself and also during his attack upon Bologna. For about eighteen months in 1514-1515 Giuliano acted as joint-architect to St. Peter's together with Raphael, but owing to age and ill-health he resigned this office about two years before his death.

and military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance. Giuliano's work includes: He was born in Florence. His father Francesco Giamberti was a woodworker and architect, much employed by Cosimo de Medici, and his brother Antonio da Sangallo the Elder and nephew Antonio da Sangallo the Younger were architects. His son Francesco da Sangallo was a sculptor. Giuliano was the preferred architect of Lorenzo de' Medici, so a significant number of his commissions came from the Medici. During the early part of his life Giuliano worked chiefly for Lorenzo de' Medici, known as 'the Magnificent', for whom he built a fine palace at Poggio a Caiano, begun in 1485, between Florence and Pistoia, and strengthened the fortifications of Florence, Castellana and other places. Lorenzo also employed him to build a monastery of Augustinian Friars outside the Florentine gate of San Gallo, which was destroyed during the siege of Florence in 1530. It was from this building that Giuliano received the name of Sangallo, which was afterwards used by so many Italian architects. While still in the pay of Lorenzo, Giuliano visited Naples, and worked there for the king, who sent him back to Florence with presents of money, plate and antique sculpture, the last of which Giuliano presented to his patron Lorenzo. After Lorenzo's death in 1492, Giuliano visited Loreto, and built the dome of the Basilica of the Madonna, in spite of serious difficulties arising from its defective piers, which were already built. In order to gain strength by means of a strong cement, Giuliano built his dome with pozzolana brought from Rome. Soon after this, at the invitation of Pope Alexander VI, Giuliano went to Rome, and designed the fine panelled ceiling of Santa Maria Maggiore. He was also largely employed by Pope Julius II, both for fortification walls round the Castel Sant'Angelo, and also to build a palace adjoining the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, of which Julius had been titular cardinal. Giuliano was much disappointed that Bramante was preferred to himself as architect for the new Basilica of St. Peter, and this led to his returning to Florence, where he did much service as a military engineer and builder of fortresses during the war between Florence and Pisa. Soon after [edit]Biography

Villa Medici at Poggio a Caiano, near Florence (1485), noteworthy for its pedimented portico is strongly influenced by Vitruvius and Alberti

Santa Maria delle Carceri in Prato (1485) Tomb of Francesco Sassetti (148590) in Santa Trinita, Florence Palazzo della Rovere at Savona (1496)

Domenico Fontana Domenico Fontana (1543 28 June 1607) was a Swissborn Italian[1] architect of the late Renaissance.

He was born at Melide, Ticino, Switzerland on the Lake Lugano and died at Naples. He went to Rome before the death of Michelangelo. He won the confidence of Cardinal Montalto, later Pope Sixtus V, who entrusted him in 1584 with the erection of the Cappella del Presepio (Chapel of the Manger) in Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, a powerful domical building over a Greek cross. It is a marvellously well-balanced structure, notwithstanding the profusion of detail and overloading of rich ornamentation, which in no way interferes with the main architectural scheme. It is crowned by a dome in the early style of S. Mario atMontepulciano. For the same patron, he constructed the Palazzo Montalto near Santa Maria Maggiore, with its skilful distribution of masses and tied decorative scheme of reliefs and festoons, impressive because of the dexterity with which the artist adapted the plan to the site at his disposal. After his accession as Sixtus V, he appointed Fontana architect of St. Peter's, bestowing upon him, among other distinctions, the title of Knight of the Golden Spur. He added the lantern to the dome of St. Peter's and proposed the prolongation of the interior in a well-defined nave.

Of more importance were the alterations he made in Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano (c. 1586), where he introduced into the loggia of the north facade an imposing double arcade of wide span and ample sweep, and probably added the two-story portico the Scala Santa. This predilection for arcades as essential features of an architectural scheme was brought out in the fountains designed by Domenico and his brother Giovanni, e.g. the Fontana dell'Acqua Paola, or theFontana di Termini planned along the same lines. Fontana also designed the transverse arms separating the courts of the Vatican. In 1586 he erected the 327 ton obelisk in the Square of St. Peter's. This feat of engineering took the concerted effort of 900 men, 75 horses and countless pulleys and meters of rope. He gives a detailed account of it in Della transportatione dell'obelisco Vaticano e delle fabriche di Sisto V (Rome, 1590) [1] [2]. The astronomer Ignazio Dantiis known to have assisted Fontana in this work. After his patron's death, he continued for some time in the service of his successor, Pope Clement VIII. Soon, however, dissatisfaction with his style, envy, and the charge that he had misappropriated public moneys, drove him to Naples where, in addition to designing canals, he erected the Palazzo Reale. He died in 1607, and was buried in the church of Sant'Anna dei Lombardi.