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A times B -, . = {K1, P1; K1, P2; K1, P3; K2, P1;
K2, P2; K2, P3; K3, P1; K3, P2; K3, P3; K4, P1; K4, P2; K4, P3; K5, P1; K5,
P2; K5, P3}.
, ,
-.
93

,
-.

:
:
(A union B) union C ~ A union (B union C) A union B union C;
:
A union B ~ B union A;
A intersect B ~ B intersect A;
A times B ~ B times A ( , 1 2
).
.
. ().
-,
(=, , , ..). -
X Y: A where XY ,
, ,
t , XY
"". X Y
,

.
: 1
.
A where >=1.0

K2

D2

1.0

. 8.7. A where >=1.0

94

(=, ).
AND, OR, NOT.
- (. 8.8.).
P
N_

P1
P2
P3
P4
P5

. 8.8.

, ,
:
P where = ""
P where = "" and = "".

where
, :
1. A where X and Y (A where X) intersect (A where Y)
2. A where X or Y (A where X) union (A where Y)
3. A where not X A minus (A where X)
. X, Y, , Z,
A (A[X, Y, , Z]),
{X, Y, , Z} ,
{X : x, Y : y,, Z : z} ,
, Y = y, Z = z.

95

.
R R[ ]
. ,
.
. "":

. 8.9. "".

(P where = "")
N_
P1
P4
. 8.10. P where = "".

. :

-.

join.
{X1, X2, , Xm, Y1, Y2,, Yn} {Y1, Y2, ,
Yn, Z1, Z2,, Zp} .
, (
) .
{X1, X2, , Xm}, {Y1, Y2, , Yn} {Z1, Z2, , Zp}
X, Y, Z. (A join B)
{X, Y, Z} ,
{X : x, Y : y, Z : z}, ,

96

, Y y,
Y y, Z z.
. P
(. 8.11).

97

K
K1

D1
0.8

K2

D2

1.0

K3

D3

0.5

D3

0.7

P1

P2

N_

P3
.13.11.
P.

P4
P5

C JOIN P

K
K
1
K
1
K
2
K
2

D1
D1
D2
D2

0.
8
0.
8
1.
0
1.
0

N_

. 8.12. C JOIN P

98


:
(A join B) join C ~ A join (B join C) ~ A join B join C A join B ~ B join A.
, A join B A times B
(.

.).

-. ,
,

. -
Y
(A times B) where XY.
,
,
t , t
XY .
. {X1, X2, , Xm, Y1,
Y2, , Yn} { Y1, Y2, , Yn} .
. X Y
, X = {X1, X2, , Xm}, Y = {Y1, Y2, , Yn}.
(A divide by )
, {X : x}
, {X : x, Y : y},
{Y : y}, .
:
- , Y-
Y- .
,
.
99

.
AP Bi i = 1, 2, 3.

. 8.13. .

SQL
SQL, .
SQL: .
SQL SQL,

(, ),
SQL.
SQL ,
.
SQL.
SELECT

,
. :
SELECT [ DISTINCT | ALL {* | < 1> [, < 2> ]}
FROM <1 > [, <2 > ]
[ WHERE <_>]
[ GROUP BY [collate collation]
[, 1 [collate collation]]
100

[ HAVING <_>]
[ UNION <_select>]
[ PLAN <__>]
[ ORDER BY <_>];
,
, :
SELECT {* | < 1> [, < 2>]}
FROM < 1> [, < 2>];
< 1>, < 2>
, *
< 1>, < 2> ,
.
, , :
SELECT *
FROM prihod;
:
SELECT n_prihod, date_prihod, name_det, kolvo,
FROM prihod;
WHERE
, :
SELECT { * | < 1> [, < 2> ]}
FROM < 1> [, < 2>]
WHERE < >;
.

:
<__1> <> <__2>.
:

101

. 8.14. Detal Prihod.

, prihod
detal:
SELECT prihod.*, detal.zena_ed
FROM prihod, detal
WHERE prihod.name_det = detal.name_det;
prihod
detal, name_det
name_det prihod.
:
Prihod.name-det = detal.name_det

Detal.name_det = prihod.name_det

. 8.15. .

.
102

.
FROM:
SELECT
FROM < 1 1> [, < 2 2> ]
WHERE ;
:
SELECT prihod.*, detal.zena_ed
FROM prihod P, detal D
WHERE P.name-det = D.name_det;
ORDER BY.
:
ORDER BY <_>.
,
,
, , ..
, ,
:
SELECT name_det, zena_ed
FROM detal
WHERE zena-ed >= 35;
ORDER BY name_det;

. 8.16.

SELECT n_prihod, date_prihod, name_det, kolvo


FROM prihod
ORDER BY name_det, kolvo, date_prihod;

103

. 8.17.

. DISTINCT.
,
.
, ALL (
ALL).
, ,
:

.13.18. DISTINCT.

SELECT DISTINCT name_det


FROM prihod;
.
:
SELECT [DISTINCT | LL ] { * | < 1> [, < 1> ]}
FROM < 1> [, < 2> ];
,

As.
104

:
(. 8.19):
SELECT p.*, d.zena_ed, p.kolvo * d.zena_ed
AS stoim
FROM prihod p, detal d
WHERE p.name_det = d.name_det;

.13.19.

.
COUNT (<>)
;
SUM (<>) ;
AVG (<>) ;
MAX (<>) ;
MIN (<>) .
) , :
SELECT

COUNT

(DISTINCT

name_det)

AS

count_nam
FROM prihod;

. 8.20.

) 4.10.00:
SELECT sum (p.kolvo * d.zena_ed) AS itogo
FROM prihod p, detal d
WHERE (p.name_det = d.name_det) AND
(p.date_prihod = "04.10.00");
105

. 8.20. SELECT sum (p.kolvo * d.zena_ed) AS itogo

. ,

(MIN, MAX, AVG).
, GROUP BY [, ]
WHERE.
,
:
SELECT p.name_det SUM(p.kolvo) AS priem
FROM prihod p
GROUP BY p.name_det;

. 8.21. SELECT p.name_det SUM(p.kolvo) AS priem

:
SELECT p.name_det, p.date_prihod, SUM(p.kolvo * d.zena_ed) AS sum
FROM prihod p, detal d
WHERE p.name_det = d.name_det
GROUP BY p.name_det, p.date_prihod

106

. 8.21. SELECT p.name_det, p.date_prihod, SUM(p.kolvo *


d.zena_ed) AS sum

HAVING.
.
.
: GROUP BY
HAVING <_> <> <>
_ MIN, MAX, AVG, SUM;
=, <>, <, <=, >=;
,
, SELECT.
() 100 .
SELECT name_det, MIN(kolvo)
FROM prihod
GROUP BY name_det
HAVING MIN (kolvo) >=100;

. 8.22. HAVING MIN (kolvo) >=100

HAVING.
WHERE .
WHERE .
HAVING .
.
.
107

, ,
WHERE ,
, SELECT.
.
SELECT :
SELECT
FROM
WHERE < > <> (SELECT);
,
. :
SELECT kolvo, date_prihod
FROM

prihod

8.23.
WHERE kolvo = (SELECT MAX(kolvo) FROM prihod);
SELECT , .
. =
(IN).
.
, ..
, ,
:
SELECT p0.*
FROM prihod p0
WHERE p0.post IN
(SELECT p1.post
FROM prihod p1
WHERE kolvo IN
(SELECT MAX(p2.kolvo)
FROM prihod p2));
108

MAX, , ,
. prihod
:
Post ;
Gorod ;
Addr .
. FROM
:
SELECT { * | < 1> [, < 2> ]}
FROM < 1> < > JOIN < 2>
ON < >;
,

,
.
, (left
, 1; right
, 2; full ).

.

. ,
(left , 1; right
, 2; full
).

.
:

109

1 2,

,
1 2;
3 . 1 2 2 1.
. A B.

. 8.24.

. 8.25.

. 8.26. SELECT A.P1, A.P2, B.P2

FROM A left JOIN B

ON A.P2 = B.P1;


SELECT A.P1, A.P2, B.P2
FROM A left JOIN B
ON A.P2 = B.P1;
:
SELECT A.P1, A.P2, B.P2
FROM A right JOIN B
ON A.P2 = B.P1;
:
. 8.27.
A B:
SELECT A.P1, A.P2, B.P2
110

FROM A FULL JOIN B


ON A.P2 = B.P1;

. 8.28.
, ,
,
..
SELECT p.date_prihod, p.name_det, p.kolvo, p1.post, p1.gorod
FROM prihod p left join postvshik p1
ON p.name_det = p1.name_det;

SELECT p.date_prihod, p.name_det, p.kolvo, p1.post, p1.gorod


FROM prihod p right join postvshik p1
ON p.name_det = p1.name_det;
SELECT.
UNION.
.
. : :
1 SELECT p.*
FROM prihod p
WHERE p.name_det containing 3;

. 8.29.

2 SELECT p.*
FROM prihod p
WHERE p.kolvo > 100;
111

. 8.30.

3 SELECT p.*
FROM prihod p

. 8.31.

WHERE p.post = AMD;


:
SELECT p.*
FROM prihod p
WHERE p.name_det CONTAINING 3;
UNION
SELECT p.*
FROM prihod p
WHERE p.kolvo > 100;
UNION
SELECT p.*
FROM prihod p
WHERE p.post = AMD;
:

. 8.32.


1.

SQL.

112

2.

SQL.
3. . . .
SQL.
4.

. SQL.
5. . . .
SQL.
6. . . .
SQL.
7. . . .
SQL.
8. . . .
SQL.
9. . . .
SQL.
10. WHERE, ORDER BY, DISTINCT, HAVING.
11. .

113

9.

(Didtributed Data Processing DDP) - .


(),

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.

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115



5 , :
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,
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Manager System);
,
.
,
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. 9.2.

(Presentation Logic)
, ,
. ,
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,
116


.
:
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;
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.
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, C++, Cobol, Visual-Basic.
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, .
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Manager

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Processing) ,
.
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117

- (Remote business logic, RBL);


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. 9.3.

,
: .
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118

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122

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126

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148

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n/n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35


1
2
2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.1.1.
2.1.1.2.
2.1.1.3.
2.1.1.4
2.1.2.
2.1.2.1.
2.1.2.2.
2.1.2.3.
2.1.2.4.
2.1.2.5.
2.1.2.6.
2.1.2.7.
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150

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152

12.

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software) ,
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XP)

. 12.1.

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, ,
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153


(Visual Basic, ++, #,Delphi);


,
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:
(Microsoft Office);

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Excel (Microsoft);
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12.1.

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154

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[12, .5].
:
;
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155

. 12.1.
n/n
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1

MS Windows

Linux

Mac OS

MS Office

OpenOffice.org

OpenOffice.org
Base

MS Access
MS SQL
Oracle
OpenOffice.org Base
CorelDraw
AdobeInDesign
QuarXPress
PageMaker
Microsoft.NET

NeoOffice
Microsoft
Office 2007
Oracle

7
8

Scribus
LyX

QuarXPress
Barco Creator
Live Picture

Quanta Plus
Komposer
Bluefish

Silverlight
3D Studio
MAX

Microsoft.NET

1) Eclipse
(C

MathCAD
Matlab
Mathematica

1) Maxima
2) Scilab
3) Octave

Mathlab
Mathematica

Adobe Photoshop
CorelDraw
Gimp
CorelPhotoPaint

Adobe
Photoshop

AutoCAD
SolidWork
ArchiCad
3D

Gimp (
Adobe
Photoshop)
OpenOffice.org
Draw (
OpenOffice.org)
Sk1 +
UniConvertor 1.1.2
(
Corel
Draw)
D
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AutoCAD Linux

156

Adobe
Illustrator

TurboCAD
VectorWorks

Concorde
XAL Exact

NS-2000
Platinum PRO/MIS

Scala
SunSystems

1C

12.2.

(IC)

SAP/R3 (SAP
AG)

Baan (Baan)

BPCS
(ITS/SSA)

OEBS (Oracle
E-Business Suite)

MicrosoftBusiness Solutions Navision, Axapta

J D Edwards
(Robertson & Blums)

MFG-Pro
(QAD/BMS)

SyteLine
(COKA/SYMIX)

:
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158

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159


,
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161

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