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....................................................................................................................................

4
1. ......................................................... 6
1.1 Wi-Fi? ................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 .................................................................................................. 7
1.3 ........................................................... 8
1.3.1 .........................................................................8
1.3.2 ...................................................................................................... 11
1.3.3 ................................................................................................ 12
1.3.4 ............................................................................. 16
1.3.5 .................................................... 16
1.3.6 ......................................................................... 19
1.3.7 ........................................................................... 23
1.4 IEEE 802.11 ................................................................................................ 26
1.4.1 IEEE 802.11 .................................................................................. 27
1.4.2 802.11 ............................................................ 27
1.4.3 MAC- .............................................................................................. 32
1.5 IEEE 802.11 ................................................................................................... 36
1.5.1 IEEE 802.11................................................................................................................ 38
1.5.2 IEEE 802.11b.............................................................................................................. 41
1.5.3 IEEE 802.11 .............................................................................................................. 45
1.5.4 IEEE 802.11g.............................................................................................................. 47
1.6 ........................................................................ 50
1.6.1 Ad Hoc ........................................................................................................... 50
1.6.2 ...................................................................................... 56
1.6.3 WDS WDS WITH AP ..............................................................................59
1.6.4 ...................................................................................................67
1.6.5 .......................................................................................................... 68
1.7 ......................................................69
1.7.1 ............................................................................................................. 69
1.7.2 ......................................................................... 75
1.8 WiMAX ................................................................................ 77
1.8.1 WiMAX ............................................................................................. 77
1.8.2 ..................................................................................................... 78
1.8.3 ......................................................................................................... 80
2. ..................................................... 85
2.1 ..................................................... 85
2.2 ..................................................................................................... 89
2.2.1 ....................................................................... 89
2.2.2 ............................................................................................................ 89
2.3 ............................................................93
2.3.1 WEP ................................................................................... 94
2.3.2 WEP ................................................................................ 98
2.4 ...................................................................... 103
2.4.1 IEEE 802.11 .............................. 103
2.4.2 802.11................................................ 107
2.4.3 WPA ............................................................................................... 109
2.4.4 802.11i (WPA2) .......................... 114
2.4.5 802.1x/EAP (Enterprise-) .............................................................116
2.5 ............... 125
2.5.1 .............................................. 125
2

2.5.2 .......................................................... 128


2.6 ........................................... 129
3. .............................................................................................................. 134
3.1 ................................................................................................... 134
3.1.1 ................................................................................... 134
3.1.2 ............................................................................................... 135
3.1.3 .......................................................................... 135
3.2 .............................................................................................. 137
3.2.1 ..................................................................... 137
3.2.2 ..................................... 137
3.3 ...........................................138
3.3.1 ................................................................................................................. 138
3.3.2 ........................................................................ 139
3.3.3 .......................................................................................................................... 139
3.3.4 ..................................................................................... 140
3.4 / ................................................ 140
3.5 ...................................................................................... 142
3.5.1 ...................................... 142
3.5.2 .............................................................................................. 144
3.6 - ... 145
3.6.1 - ............................................................... 145
3.6.2 - ........................................................................ 150
3.6.3 , ........................................... 151
. D-Link .........................................153
. ............................... 165
. D-Link................................................................................ 169
............................................................................................................................. 174
.............................................................................................. 178


XIX
20-
. 30-
. 70-

. , 80- GSM,
,
, , . 90-x
.
. ,
.
, CDMA (Code Division Multiple
Access, ), GSM (Global for Mobile
Communications, ), TDMA (Time
Division Multiple Access, ), 802.11, WAP
(Wireless Application Protocol, ), 3G (
), GPRS (General Packet Radio Service, ),
Bluetooth ( , ,
), EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution,
GSM), i-mode .. ,
.
(WLAN), Bluetooth
( ). ,
, , , .
1990 , 802.11
IEEE ( ).

. 90-
WAP-, .
, , ..
Bluetooth, WLAN .
. XXI
. .
,
, ,
, .
.

.
,
. - .
,
(, , ,
, , ,
..) -
.


4

.
(
, ),
(
), (
, , ).
.
,
, .

1.
1.1 WI-FI?

.

, .
. ,
. ,
.
.
Wi-Fi ( Wireless Fidelity,
)

.

, ,
.
,
.
. WLAN- (Wireless Local Area Network). Wireless
LAN (
). ,
.
,

( , , ,
.).

Wi-Fi .
WLAN- :
WLAN- ,
;
,
, ;
( 108 /),
;
WLAN- ,
.
. ,
, - ,
.
Wi-Fi ,
, , .
Wi-Fi :
;
,
;
-
.
6

1.2
Wi-Fi .
(. 1.1) ,
PCI, PCMCI, CompactFlash.
USB 2.0. Wi-Fi ,
.
. Centrino
Wi-Fi, . Wi-Fi, , ( ),
.

. 1.1

.
Ad Hoc ( ).
.
.

Ad Hoc, .
(. 1.2)
- .

, . ,
.

. 1.2

(uplink port),
.
.
.
(
),
(Wireless Distributed System, WDS).
- - ,
.

.
. -
(service set indentifier, SSID) ,
.
(service set, SS)
, .
(basic service set, BSS) ,
. BSS
, (access point).

.
1.3
1.3.1
, ,
, . ,
. ,
. ,
,
( ). . 1.3
. ,
.

)
. 1.3
,
. . 1.4
()
( , ). : s(t)
,
s(t + ) = s(t), < t < + ,
( ,
).

)
. 1.4
.
: , f
.
; , ,
. ( ,
). ,
, ; ,
1 .
(
).
:
2
.
,
, .
, , ,
.
, v.
: = vT, f = v.
v=, ,
3 10 /.
, ..
, ,
. ,
()
, .
, .
:
4 sin(2 kft )
s (t ) = A
.

k =1,3,5...
k
,
, .
10

.
.
- ,
, . ,
: ,
. , ,

. , ,
. ,

.
1.3.2
, , .
.
.

.
. ,
.
, , ;
.


.
,
, ;
, , , ;
.
,
;
,
.
,
, .
1.1:
, ,
20 20 .
. 300-3400 ,
.
.
300-3400
. :
.

,
(/).
11


.
1.3.3
3


(
,
)

,

.





(
)

, .
,



(.
(
1.5):
(Am
mplitude-Shiift Keying, ASK);
A

(Frequeency-Shift Keying,
K
FSK
K);
(Phase-Shhift Keying,, PSK).
,,


.

1.5
.

12
2


. , ,
; ..
, (. 1.5, ).
:
A cos(2 f c t ) - 1
s (t ) =
.
(1.1)
0 - 0

A cos(2 f ct ) .



(Binary FSK, BFSK),
, (. 1.5, ).

A cos(2 f1t ) - 1
s(t ) =
,
(1.2)
A cos(2 f 2t ) - 0
f1 f 2 , fc ,
, .
,
.
, ,
(Multiple FSK, MFSK),
. .
MFSK ( )
:
cos 2
, 1
(1.3)

fi = f c + (2i 1 ) f d

fc ;
f d ;
= 2L;
L .
. 1.6 MFSK = 4.
, 2- .

13

. 1.6 MFSK (M = 4)

.
, -
,
.


.
(Binary PSK,
BPSK), (. 1.5, ).
( ):
A cos(2 f ct )
A cos(2 f ct )- 1
=
s(t ) =
(1.4)
+

A
cos(2
f
t
)
A
cos(2
f
t
)
0
c
c

PSK PSK
(DPSK), . 1.7. 0
,
, 1 ,
. ,
,
- .
,
. DPSK
.
, .

14

. 1.7 (DPSK)
,
. , ,
(Quadrature phase-shift keying, QPSK),
180, BPSK, ,
2 (90).
:

A cos(2 f ct + 4 ) 11

A cos(2 f t + 3 ) 10
c

4
(1.5)
s (t ) =
A cos(2 f t + 5 ) 00
c

7
A cos(2 f c t +
) 01

4
, , .
: , ,
, . ,
.
(Multiple FSK, MFSK).

(Quadrature amplitude modulation, QAM)
,
.
.
QAM
,
, 90.
-. ,
.
,
.
15

(2QAM)
,
22 = 4 . (..
, 4QAM)
44 = 16 . , 64 256
. , ,
. , ,
,
.
1.3.4
, .
,
, ,
, . :
.
,
, , .
, .
(/),
;
,
. ,
().
. .
. 1
0 .
, : , ,
, . , ,
, .

,
. ,
.
,
.
.
1.3.5

.
(
), ,
, , .
, , /
.

16

,
, , t f si. To

,
.
,
, -
,
. ,
.
,
.
.
(Frequency Division Multiplexing, FDM)
,
(. 1.8).
,
.

. 1.8

, .

, .
,
,
,
.
(Time Division Multiplexing, TDM)
, . .
f s,
ti ( , )
( 1.9).

17

. 1.9
,
.
, .

, , - ,
.
TDM-, GSM,
.
(Code Division Multiplexing, CDM)
f ,
s t, ci .
CDM (CDMA, CDM Access)
IS-95a,
(cdma2000, WCDMA .).
CDM
CDM- 11, 16, 32, 64 .. (
). .
, 1 CDM-,
0 , .
CDM- , .
, .
() ( )
CDM- .

CDM-.
, , 1 0.

. CDM-
. ,
( ),
18

. CDM-
() , CDM-,
.
(DSSS Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum), .

: ,
, . ,

,
.


.

(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, OFDM)
:
( ). (
) ,
.
, . . N
, N , .
,
, .
OFDM . -,
, .
, .
, OFDM .

, ( ) .
OFDM N ,
N . ,
Ts, OFDM NTs.
. N
, NTs
.
1.3.6

. ,
,
.
.
.
.
(Frequency Hopping
Spread Spectrum, FHSS)
19


,
.
, -
. ,
. -
,
.
. 1.10.

. 1.10

.
, FSK PSK.
,
.
-
.
,

,
. ,
,
.

20

)
. 1.11
21

, ,
(. 1.11, );
(. 1.11, ).
,
, ,
,
. ,

.
,
.
FHSS IEEE 802.11 Bluetooth.
FHSS ,

.
.


. , FHSS

,
(, ,
).
(Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum,
DSSS)

, .
FHSS
, , N ,
N . , ,
, N .
N,
.
DSSS , FHSS
.
,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
. ,
, .

. FHSS,
, BFSK.
,
.
. 10 100.
22

1.2:

(Barker), 11 : 10110111000.
, 110
:
10110111000 10110111000 01001000111.


, .
,
. ,
, ,
. ,

, ,
.
DSSS ,
, , ,
.
DSSS 22 ,
WLAN .
, , 22
2,42,483
. . 1.12.

. 1.12 , DSSS
1.3.7

:
;
,
(Forward Error Correction, FEC);
23

(Automatic Repeat
Request, ARQ).
.
,
ARQ. ARQ
, ,
.
, , .
FEC ,
, .
1)

,
.
,
(Frame Check Sequence, FCS).
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.

. ,
.
2 .
, , ,
1, - 0. , 100101011
1.
,
.
( )
, .
, 110101010, .
, ,
, 1/8.
-
.

. ,
, .

. ,
.
.
(Cyclic Redundancy Check, CRC)
(
, ,
).
. , Ethernet, 1024
24

, , 8192 .
R.
- ,
16 (2 ) 32 (4 ).
R,
.
R ,
, .
,
, .
CRC ,
. . ,
Ethernet 1024 4
0,4 %.
2)
, ,
, ,
(Forward Error Correction, FEC). ,
, , ,
.

. ,
. , 4-
:
000 1, 001 0, 010 0, 011 1, 100 0, 101 1, 110 1, 111 0, 8 16
.
,
,
.
, .
2.
,
, n, (n- 1)-
(n-1)/2- .
, 2,
.
,
,
.
( ) .
,
(onvolutional coder),

(delay) . ,
,
(Finite memory code); ,
,
. (Constraint length of a
code) ,
. ( )
(Code rate).
25


1/2.
,

.




, ,

,
,

. ,

.
3
3)







.




.



(Autom
matic Repeat Request, ARQ).

AR
RQ
(stoopand-w
wait ARQ
Q). ,

(Acknow
wledgemennt, ACK),


.



-,

(
)

.
1.13
,

,



,

.

. 1.13

ARQ

1.4
IEE
EE 802.11
IEE
EE (Institutee of Electriical
and Electronics
E
Engineers))

802.111 1990 .

,
2,4 ,
1 2 /.

7 ,
1997
802.111. IEEE 802.11

WLAN

, .
26
6

IEEE 802..11,

: IE
EEE 802.11aa, IEEE 8022.11b IEE
EE 802.11g.
1.4.1
1

IEEE 802.11

IE
EEE 802.111



8022,


MAC (M
Media Accesss Control))

LLC
C (Logical Link Conntrol).

8022, 802.111
,

MA
AC, LLC

LAN
N (. 1.14)..

. 1.14

IEEE
E 802.11

,

.





MAC,,

MA
AC
.
1.4.2
2



802.11
8
802.11
8
MAC



(. 1.14):

DCF (Distributeed Coordinaation Functioon);

PC
CF (Point Co
oordinationn Function).
1
1)
DCF
,
DCF.

(Carriier Sense Multiple Access


A
witth Collision
n Avoidannce,
CSM
MA/CA).

CSM
MA/CD,

.
27
7

.
-
,

-
,
.
DC
CF
.

802.11







(. 1.15).
1



-

,,

. 1.15
1

DCF
D
,

,
.

IEEE
E 802.11


( ):
.


,
RTS/C
CTS


,
(



, , ..

,


.


,


,



(IFS).

IFS

,

.
-

,
.


,
CS
SMA/CD.


,
[0, CW
W],
CW
C Contentiion Window
w (
).


1.15.


3.

) 3
28
8

. ,
1, , .
, ,
. .
- ,
, .
, .
,
. ,

,
.
; , FHSS
28 , DSSS 1 . ,

, .
,
,
. , , .
,
.
, .
,
.
[0, CW], ,
. , , 8 ( CW = 7),
16 (CW = 15),
32 . . CW
802.11 ,
.
CSMA/CD,
, 802.11
. N , ,
.
,
.
, ( )
,
(. 1.16) .
,
, .

29

. 1.16
DCF
. ,
,
RTS (Request To
Send, ).
CTS (Clear To Send, ), . CTS
, -,
-, .
802.11 2346 , RTS- 20
, CTS- 14 . RTS- CTS- , ,
RTS- CTS- ,
. RTS- CTS- .
,
, ,
RTS- CTS-.
, ,
, . -
MAC , -
.
(. 1.17).
,
.
; , -
, ,
. .

30

. 1..17

, ,
.



DCF.

,

802.11.
8

,
802.11 MAC,

.


-


.
2
2)
PCF
F
,

,

,


PCF,


.
,

.
PC
CF 802.11

DCF.




((. 1.18).

.. 1.18
PCF DC
CF
31
1

,
:
(Short IFS, SIFS);
PCF (PIFS);
DCF (DIFS).
DCF
, , , DIFS.
IFS DCF DIFS
, .
SIFS ,
CTS- ,
.
PIFS , SIFS, , DIFS.
PIFS DIFS .
, ,
. , ,
DCF , ,
.
, ,
.
, DIFS
DCF.
PCF.
,
, . ,
, ,
(
, ).
- ,
.
.
PCF,
.
1.4.3 MAC-
1.19 802.11.
,
.

FC
D/I /
SC
. 1.19 MAC IEEE 802.11
:
32

.
( ).
/. ,
( ),
MAC.
, .
. .
: , , ,
.
. 4- ,
, 12-
, ,
.
. LLC
MAC.
. 32-
.
, 1.20 :
. 802.11, - 0.
. : , .
. .
. 1.1.

1.1.

00

0000

00

0001

00

0010

00

0011

00

0100

00

0101

00

1000

00

1001

00

1010

00

1011

00

1100

01

1010
PS-opoc
01

1011

01

1100

01

1101

01

1110
(F)-
01

1111
CF- + CF-
10

0000

10

0001
+ CF-
10

0010
+ CF-opoc
33

10

0011

+ CF- + CFopoc .
10

0100
( )
10

0101
+ CF-
10

0110
+ CF-opoc
10

0111
+ CF- + CFopoc
DS. MAC 1,
.
DS. MAC 0,
.
. 1, .
. 1, .
. 1,
.
. , .

.
WEP. 1,
(Wired Equivalent Privacy, WEP). WEP
.
. 1, ,
, .

DS
MF
RT

MD
W
0

. 1.20
MAC.

.
:
(PS-).
, .
, ,
, .
(RTS). ,
. , ,
,
, .

34

(CTS). .
- -
.
(). ,
PS-opoc.
(F)-. ;
.
CF- + CF-. CF-.
,
.

, .
,
-. :
. .
, .
+ CF-. .

.
+ CF-opoc.
,
.
+ CF- + CF-opoc.
.

.
, , .
, ,
. (CF, CF-opoc, CF- + CF-opoc) ,
( + CF-, + CF-opoc,
+ CF- + CF-opoc), .

.
:
.
(Basic Service Set, BSS).
, ,
, .
. ,
.
. BSS,
BSS.
,

.
35

. ,
.
.
. BSS
IEEE 802.11.
. .
. ,
BSS.
.
(
), ,
.
. .
.
.
. .
1.5 IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11,
,
(IEEE), : 802.11b, 802.11a 802.11g.
IEEE 802.11b (
11 /),
Ethernet, 2,4 ,
.
, 11 /
, , 802.11b
.
IEEE 802.11a
802.11, 54 /.
, 2,4 ,
802.11a 5 .
(OFDM).
802.11a
5 , .
IEEE 802.11g 802.11b
. , 802.11g
802.11b, 802.11g
802.11b. 802.11g
54 /,
.
802.11g
: OFDM
PBCC,
802.11b. 802.11g :
OFDM CCK,
PBCC. CCK OFDM .
802.11
(Physical Layer Protocol, PHY),
802.11 MAC. PHY:
36

PHY
802.11
(FHSS
S)
2,4 .
PHY 802.11

(DSSS)
2,4 .
2,4
PHY
802.ll1b

.

PHY

802
2.11

(OFD
DM)
5
.

(Ex
xtended Raate Physicall Layer, ER
RP)
802.11g
2,4 .

802.11 -

MAC,
M

MAC.
M

PHY
,

.

MAC
PHY

8022.l1b, 802.11 802.111g.



802.11

.
Physicall Layer Connvergence Procedure (PLCP).



.
Physicall Medium Dependent
D
(
(PMD).


.
1.21 ,



(Open Systtem
Interrconnection,, OSI).

. 1.221 PHY



,
PLCP



MAC (M
MAC Protoocol
Dataa Units, MPD
DU) -

PMD
D,
37
7

.
PLCP PMD 802.11.

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
. ,

.
,

.
( ) ,
;
,
.
.

.
; ,
.
1.5.1 IEEE 802.11
802.11 :
.

(FHSS) 2,4 .

(DSSS) 2,4 .
1)
850 ,
, (LED).
, LAN
.
: ,
.
.
, ,
2) (FHSS)
FHSS 1 2 /.
FHSS 2,402
2,480 79 (
). 79 1 ,
FHSS
, 1 , .
:
2,5 6- (6 ) .
38

26. . 1.2
1

,
.

1
2
3

1.2 FHSS
F


{0,,3,6,9,12,155,18,21,24,227,30,33,36,,39,42,45,48,51,54,57,60,63,66,69
9,72,75}
{1,4,7,10,13,116,19,22,25,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52,55,588,61,64,67,7
70,73,76}
{2,5,8,11,14,117,20,23,26,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53,56,599,62,65,68,7
71,72,77}

,
6
,

.
MA
AC
-,

PLC

FHSS

CP, PSD
DU
(PLC
CP Service Data Unit), PLCP

,
PPDU (P
PPDU
PLC
CP).

1.22 FHSS
F
PLCP
P.

. 1.22.
FHSS
PL
LCP
:
PLCP
Sync 800 .
,
0 1,
0.
,


(frequenncy offset)
(packet tim
ming).

(start of frame delimiter,
d
S
SFD) 16 .


(0
0000 11000 1011 11001,

))

(frame timing)

.
PLCP
P
:

PL
LCP (PSDU
U), PSDU Length Woord
(PLW)

12 .
MAC (PS
SDU) .
PLCP (Siggnaling Field PLCP, PSF)
P
4
.


.
HEC (Heeader Errorr Check)


PLCP
P (PSDU
U)


(
)

PSDU


1.23.

.

32-
.




, ,

,
39
9

,
,

FHSS
. 1.223
PSDU

PLCP



PMD
D. PMD
FHSS

, (Gaussian Freequency Shhift


Keyiing, GFSK).
3 ,
3)

DS
SSS



8002.11






(DSSS
S).


802.11
19997 , DSSS
D
1 2 /.

PLCP,, F
FHSS,
PL
LCP

DSSS
D

8022.11 MAC,
M

PPDU: PL
LCP
PLCP
P.

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. 1.24.
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LCP
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:
Sync
1288 ,
,

.

.
SFD 16
; F3A0;

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40
0

Service

8 ,
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;
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Length

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MA
AC .
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.
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MD. PPDU

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U ,

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,

:

(Diffferential Biinary Phasee Shift Keying,
DBPSK)) 1 /.

(Differentiaal Quadratu
ure Phase Shhift
Key, DQ
QPSK)

2 /.

1.5.2
2 IEEE 802
2.11B


- (MPDU)
(


PLCP- (
. 1.25).
,

. 1.25
IE
EEE 802.111b



(SYNC)

16-
(SFD) F3A016. PLCP-

SIGNAL
L (

), SERVICE
(
,

PB
BSS-) LENGTH
L
(
(

).


16-

CRC
C.
IEEE 802.11b
:

(. 1.26).

41
1

. 1.26.
1

802..11b


(128 56 ),
,


. ,

1 /,




1
/,
2 /.

,

SIGN
NAL SERVICE.
S

IEEE 802.11b

.
IEEE
E 802.11
,

,
Ethernet.

IEE
EE 802.11b
b.

, IEE
EE 802.11

DSSS

(Barkker)

11 : 1 = (101101110000).

2 (
)

, . .


B1,


B11. 11
.

(DBP
PSK DQPSK,
D


).

11
1

1 2 /.

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11 5,5

/.

-- (Complem
mentary Coode
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).

,


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11 /


, ,


1 2 /,
-
.

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1 2 /
11- .

8-

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8



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8

4 8





5,5 11 /.

5,5 /,


4 (b00, b1, b2 bb).

(b2 b)
8

,

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5, 66, 7, 8}

. . 1.3 j ,

-11,

,

.
42
2

(b2, b)
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01
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11

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j
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j

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2
3
4
5
6
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j
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1

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0, ,
. , DQPSK,
QPSK,
, PSDU,
DQPSK ,
2 /.

(b0,b1)
00
01
11
10

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0
/2

- /2

0
/2
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8 ,
.
11 /,
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, 8 , 64
, , (b2, b)
. (b0,b1)
, 5,5 /
.
-? ,
-. -
, .
,
- .
, - - 3 (
), QPSK- 11 /
22 /. , -
, .
IEEE 802.11b
.
.

, .
- ,
2 .
43

(P
Packet Binnary
Convvolutional Coding).
C

IE
EEE 802.11b

(
) . (
. 1.27) IE
EEE
802.11b 5,55; 11 22 /.

1.27
.

-
,
.

5,5 11 /


(. 1.28).


. d

(c0, c1).
11
/ 0 c1
1


QPSK
K-
.

55,5 /

BPSK--
,

c0 1.


22 /,
(
. 1.29):

(c0-c2)
(


8-
8-
S-.

PSK-
.

s (.. 1.23) (s = 0),

(s = 1).
s

256-

S.

U = 338Bhh,

. 1.28

44
4

. 1.29

,
11
5,5 /, 64
6
.





, -.

/


.
1.5.3
3 IEEE 802
2.11
IEEE 8022.11

IEEE 802.11b,
1999 .

,

,


(OF
FDM).
802.11a ,

,

-
.
IEEE 802.11
8

52
,


300 (20 /664).
20

. BP
PSK, QPSK
K, 16- 64--


(QAM)).

r (1/2 3/4,
64-QAM
M 2/3 3/4)
6,
9, 122, 18, 24, 366, 48 54 /.

1.5
,


OFD
DM.

1.5
8002.11

OFDM
(
(/)

6
BPSK
1/22
1
48
24
9
BPSK
3/44
1
48
36
45
5

12
18
24
36
48
54

QPSK
QPSK
16-QAM
M
16-QAM
M
64-QAM
M
64-QAM
M

1/22
3/44
1/22
3/44
2/33
3/44

2
2
4
4
6
6

96
96
192
192
288
288

48
72
96
144
192
216

52

4
48


,
4
.


IEEE 8022.11b,
(. 11.30).

. 1.330
IEEE 80
02.11
(12
(


),

(PLCP-)

,

-..

(BPSK
K, r = 1/2),


,
, ,

. OFDM-

4 ,

3,2
3

0,8

( ).





.

OFDM-

(
/
, /
).

/
(. 1.31)


,,

/

(

)
. -,
,,

O
OFDM-

46
6

1.31
.


IEEE
E 802.11
1.5.4
4 IEEE 802
2.11G
IEEE 802.11g

OFD
DM, 802.11, 5

2,4

8802.11b. ,
802.11
8
2,4 5

22 .




8002.11g

8022.11b. , 802.11
1b


(C
Complemenntary Code Keying),

PBS
SS.

802.11g

-

11 //
OFD
DM
. 802.11

CSMA
A/CA

.

802.111
,
,


..

802.11b 802.11g,

8022.11g OFDM,
O
802.11
1b

, ,


.

.

CCK-OFDM
C
M.

802.111
.

(
. 1.32).

47
7

1.32 IEEE 802.11g


.



,,

,
,

.
CCK-O
OFDM

(
- DSSS

,
802.11g
DSS
SSOFD
DM),


OFDM.
,
802.11b,

,


,

802.11gg.
.
,
,
1 /.
,


PBSS,

802.11g
g

, 8002.11b,
PBSS,

,
,

PBSS 22 33 /.


8022.11g

802.11b .

. 1.6,

. 1.33.
1.6


IE
EEE 802. 11g
,

5,5
CCK

6
O
OFDM
C
CCK-OFDM
M
9
OFDM, CCK-O
OFDM
11
CCK

12
O
OFDM
C
CCK-OFDM
M
48
8

18
22
24
33
36
48
54

OFDM, CCK-O
OFDM

C
CCK-OFDM
M

OFDM, CCK-O
OFDM
OFDM, CCK-O
OFDM
OFDM, CCK-O
OFDM

O
OFDM

. 1.33



. ,, 100%

11 /
, IEEE 8022.11g


802
2.11b.

,



CC
CK-OFDM PBSS



802.11b/g.

802
2.11 , .
8022.11b 8002.11g OF
FDM-
.

.

8802.11



(RTS)

(C
CTS). RT
TS/CTS

802.11bb/g.
,

.
. 1..7


..
49
9

()


(/c)

1.7
802.11 DSSS 802.11 FHSS 802.11b
802.11

802.11g

2,4

2,4

2,4

2,4

11

54

54

DSSS

FHSS

CCK

OFDM

OFDM

QPSK

GFSK

QPSK

64-QAM

64QAM

15

1.6
1.6.1 AD HOC
Ad Hoc (. 1.34)
. -,
.
,
.

50

. 1.34 Ad Hoc
:
( ).
.
, Ad Hoc
11 /, .
, 11/N /, N
. ,
.

.
1.3:
USB-.
(PCI, PCMCI, ExpressCard ..)
.
,
.
(. 1.35)

51

. 1.35
Ad Hoc 1
1 (.1.34), .
: Windows XP
Windows Vista D-Link AirPlus XtremeG Wireless Utility,
D-Link.
1) Windows.
, Windows,
.
Windows
(. 1.36)

52

. 1.36
IP-.
, ,
(TCP/IP) (. 1.37)

. 1.37
(1) IP-: 192.168.0.1,
(1): 192.168.0.2, : 255.255.255.0.

53

Ad Hoc,
(. 1.35)
Windows. , ,
(. 1.38). SSID
(, AdHocNet) .
.

. 1.38
Windows (. 1.38),
(AdHocNet).
,
Ad Hoc.
, ,
.
.
2) D-Link AirPlus XtremeG
Wireless Utility.

Windows , 1.36.
Ad Hoc
(. 1.39).

54

. 1.39
SSID (, AdHocNet),
Ad Hoc IP- .
.
,
.

(. 1.40)

. 1.40
, IP-
. ,

. .
.

55

1.6.2

(. 1.41). .
,
, .

. 1.41
Ethernet,
.
1.4:
.
, ..
Ethernet-. ,
, ..
.
1.
(. 1.35). .
,
.
2. .
->-> TCP/IP->
- IP-

56

- 192.168.0., (1, 2, 3
.).
- 255.255.255.0
-
3. .
,
.
.
reset. reset!
20 .
Power LAN.
Internet Explorer http://192.168.0.50 ,
(. 1.42).

. 1.42
4. .
admin .
IP- . ,
. Home Lan ().
- 192.168.0.xx, xx .
- 255.255.255.0
-Default Gateway 192.168.0.50
Apply,
.
5. .
,
http://192.168.0.xxx
Home Wireless ()

57

(. 1.43):
Mode (): Access Point
SSID: Network
SSID Broadcast: Enable
Channel: 6
Authentication: Open System
Encryption: Disable

. 1.43
,
, .
, Advanced.

,
Help.
Apply,
.
.
. ,
, ADSL.
,
(. 1.40).

58

1.6.3 WDS WDS WITH AP


WDS (Wireless Distribution System)
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
. uplink (. 1.44).

. 1.44
, ,
.
LAN,
, .
,
(. 1.45).

59

. 1.45
,
.

.
, ,
. ,
.
WDS with AP (WDS with Access Point)
, , ..
,
(. 1.46).
.
.

60

. 1.46 WDS with AP


, , WDS with
AP ,
15-20 .
WDS-,
uplink-.
WDS
.


, (. 1.47).

. 1.47

, ,
(
61

).
. ,
.
,
,
.

,
(. 1.48). ,
.

. 1.48
,
.
62

,

( ).
.

, 4 2
1 3 (. 1.48). ,
, Spanning tree.
.
, -
Spanning tree ,
.

,
(. 1.49).
, .

63

. 1.49
,
,
.

. ,
10 -
.
, ,
.
1.5:
-.
.
1. IP- :
- Internet Explorer,
192.168.0.50, : admin, .
- Home->LAN IP address : 192.168.0.5X,
X (, 1, 2, 3 ..).
2. , . 1.50

. 1.50
- Home->Wireless
(Mode): WDS (. 1.51), WDS with AP (. 1.52).

64

. 1.51
- SSID: Network (
SSID, ..
).
- : 6.
- Remote AP MAC Address MAC (, 00:13:46:75:85:64),
MAC- (, 00:17:9A:01:5C:84).
- .

65

. 1.52
- ,
.
3. :
- .
- ping , ,
, : ping 192.168.0.5X, X
, ping www.dlink.ru

1.6:
- (. 1.53).
.
1. WDS (. 1.51):
- Home->Wireless
(Mode): WDS.
- (, 1, 6 11).
- Remote AP MAC Address MAC-
.
- .

66

. 1.53
2. WDS with AP (. 1.52):
- Home->Wireless (Mode): WDS with AP.
- SSID: NetworkX, X .
- , .
- Remote AP MAC Address MAC .
- ,
.
- ,
.
3. :
- .
- ping ( )
, : ping 192.168.0.5X, X ,
ping www.dlink.ru

1.6.4
, , ,
, -

.
(Repeater) (. 1.54).

67

. 1.54
,
, .
, .
- ,

,
.
802.11,
( )
. WDS ,
WDS .
.
1.6.5
,
Ethernet,
.
(. 1.55)

. 1.55
68

-
. 802.11,
.
1.7

.
: ,
.
.
:
1. -
1 25.

.
2. . 0,5 ,
45 , 1 . 2
12 !
, 90
.
3. -

. ,
.
4.
.
5. , , 1-2
, , , ,
, .
.
6. 2.4
X-10 (, ),
.
.
,
, .
,
, , Network
Stumbler (http://www.stumbler.net/).
/ .
1.7.1

(Small Office / Home Office SOHO)
(. 1.56).

69

. 1.56
,
. ,
.

,
. -,
-
.
,
( ).
16-20. ,
.
.
uplink- .
,
, ,

.
,
.
70

1, 6
11.


,,

1, 6 11
1

(. 1.57).

1.57
.



-.

:

;

;
.

. ,

(,

- Skype),




(. 1.588)

. 1.58




Networrk Stumblerr. ,

71
1

.
,
.

.
(. 1.59)

. 1.59
,
uplink-.
.
,
.

WDS (. 1.60).

72

. 1.60 WDS
,
WDS, , ,
WDS with AP. , ..
,
. 2-3 .
,
,
, (. 1.61)

73

. 1.61
WDS, ,
.
, .
(
), ,

.

D-Link
.

, ,
(. 1.62).

74

. 1.62
, ,

(SSID). ,
.
,
, 802.11, , ,
.
,
, .
SSID
, .
,
, . ,
:
,
.
,
, .
,
.

.
,
.
-
, .
1.7.2

, , ,
(. 1.63).
75

. 1.63

, . uplink-
,
.

, , Power-over-Ethernet.
,
.

,
, .
, ,
76

,
.
,
.
.
1.8 WIMAX
1.8.1 WIMAX

: ,
.
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access),
IEEE 802.16.
WiMAX WiMAX-:
http://www.wimaxforum.org IEEE 802.16, 1999 .
, Nokia, Harris Corporation, Ensemble, Crosspan Aperto.
2005 230 .
(World Summit on Information Society,
WSIS) ,
WiMAX:
1) WiMAX
, ,
, , 1,5
100
.
2) WiMAX

, ,
2005 960 . , 14,5
.
WiMAX ,
( ,
, )
- . ,
:
1) (xDSL ),
WiMAX
,
, ()
.
2) (
),
(
), , ,
.
3) , ,
, .
4)
, .
77

5) .

. WiMAX
OFDM
,
.
6) WiMAX IP,
.
7) WiMAX ,
.
1.8.2
WiMAX :
1) WiMAX, :
.
2) WiMAX: (. 1.64).

. 1.64 WiMAX

2-11 .
20 /
. WiMAX
802.11 (Wi-Fi),
WiMAX.
, WiMAX ,
: , .

10-66 .

78

120 /. , , ,
,
, .
,
. ,
,
.
.

, (, ),
.
. ,
(. 1.65).

. 1.65 WiMAX

79

IEEE 802.16
: ,
50 , .
,
.
. Ethernet, ,
802.11 Wi-Fi Ethernet.

WiMAX.
,
.
1.8.3
802.16e-2005
.
1) Fixed WiMAX - ;
2) Nomadic WiMAX - ;
3) Portable WiMAX - ;
4) Mobile WiMAX - .
.
Fixed WiMAX

(xDSL, T1, ..). 10-66 .
-
(. 1.66).

80

. 1.66
,
- .
( - 25
28 ), 120 /.
802.16d-2004 .
, Fixed WiMAX,
WiMAX.
Nomadic WiMAX
() Fixed
WiMAX.
WiMAX,
, .
, , , .
,
.
Portable WiMAX
Portable WiMAX
WiMAX
.
40 /. ,
81

( ,
, , , ..).

. 1.67

WiMAX (. 1.67). 2006 ,
WiMAX. , 2008
.
Mobile WiMAX
802.16e-2005
120 /.
:
1) .
2) .
3) Time Division Duplex (TDD),

.
4) Hybrid-Automatic Repeat Request (H-ARQ),

.
5)

.
82

6)
.
7) Network-Optimized Hard Handoff (HHO), 50
.
8) Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS),
DVB-H, MediaFLO 3GPP E-UTRA :

;
;
;
.
9) Smart Antenna,
, ,
, -
, ().
10) Fractional Frequency Reuse,
/
.
11) 5

( , ).
WiMAX .
,
, - Fixed WiMAX.
, ,
(
, ) .
WiMAX- , ,

,
. Mobile
WiMAX , ,
,
: WiMAX-,
.
,

- , .
(
) ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. , WiMAX
. , ,
Fixed WiMAX, Mobile WiMAX.
,
. Fixed
WiMAX ,
( )
.
83

, ,
, - WiBro.
,
. ,
WiMAX, WiBro. ,
WiMAX-, . , -

, .
,

.
Mobile WiMAX, .
802.16f (Full Mobile WiMAX) 802.16m.

.
1
/ 100 /.
2008 2009 , .

,
WiMAX.
.

84

2.
2.1

.
.

. ,
,
, .
, ,
, , ,

.

,
, .
,
2.1.

. 2.1
, ,
, .
, .
, .

.
85

,
. ,
, , ,

. , .
,
, .
, .
, ,
, .
.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
.
MITM (man in the middle, ) .

. MITM , :
.
.
,
, .
, ,
.
ARP-, ,
, .
.
,
( ).
(Denial of Service, DOS)
DOS. ,
, ,
(. 2.2).
.
, . DOS
.
,
.

86

. 2.2

,
,
, .
.

, 2.3.
,
. ,
.

. 2.3


, 2.4.
.

. 2.4
,
. , ,
,
.
,
87

, .
, .


.

.
WEP ,
802.11.
, .
,
. WEP- , -

. ,
. WEP

.
,
,
.
( ,
).
, .
, , ,
.
.

.
, ,

.
.

-
. , ,
. ,
,
, .
,
,
.

,
, (, ),
. ,
, , . .
88

802.11
, .

, .
2.2
2.2.1
: ,
( , , , . .).
: .
:
, .
: ,
, , .
:
.
: ,
, .
: , /
; ;
.
: , /
; ;
.
: ,
.
-: ,
( ). , ,
.
: , -.
(Message digest): , -
( , ).
: .
: ,
( ), .
AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting): ,
.
VPN (Virtual Private Networks): .
IDS (Intrusion Detection System): .
2.2.2

. ,
.

. , ,
, ,
.
( ) ().
89

:
, -.

,
,
.
,
. ,
( ),
/.
2.5.

. 2.5
, Data
Encryption Standard (DES), 3DES ( DES) International Data Encryption
Algorithm (IDEA). 64 .
64 ( ),
64 , - .
, , :
(Electronic Code Book, ECB);
(Cipher Block Changing, CBC);
x- (Cipher FeedBack, CFB-x);
(Output FeedBack, OFB).


(firmware).
,
. :
,
;

.


, ,
.

,
: (. 2.6).
.
90

. 2.6
:
;
;
.
/
, ,
, .
, ,
.

/ .
-
. ,
.
RSA (RivestShamir-Adleman, --) ElGamal (-).
-
- , ,
,
.
(-),
(. 2.7). (
). -
.

. 2.7 -
- :
Message Digest 4 (MD4);
Message Digest 5 (MD5);
(Secure Hash Algorithm, SHA).

91


,
. 2.8.

. 2.8

. -
.

,

. X.509,

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.

92

. 2.9
, ,
(Certification authority, CA), ,
. (. 2.9):
1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5)
.

CA .
PKI (Public Key Infrastructure). PKI
,
,
, .
PKI
, .
PKI
, , ,
- ,
.
PKI , ,
.
, ,
, .
2.3

93

,
: ,
.
(, ,
, , ..)
.
,
, .
,
,
.
2.3.1 WEP
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy,
) RC4 (Rivests Cipher v.4, ),
. ,

.
.
,
.
,
. ,

.
RC4 , .
n . , n = 8,
.
. RC4 2n
, . S-,
S. 2n .
i j.
RC4 .
, Key, l .
S,
.
S, , S
.
1) :
for i = 0 to 2n 1
{
S[i] = i
j=0
}
2) :
for i = 0 to 2n 1
{
j = j + S[i] + Key[i mod l]
(S[i], S[j])
}
94

RC4 , S,
S . RC4
n- K ,
.
3) :
i=0
j=0
4) :
i=i+1
j = j + S[i]
(S[i], S[j])
: K = S[S[i] + S[j]].
WEP-:
,
,
;
.
,
;
: WEP ;
;
WEP-
IEEE 802.11.

.

2
( , XOR) ,
, .
,
, (. 2.10).

. 2.10

,
. ,
XOR .
95

,
(. 2.11). ,
16- 38
16 1 6 , 10
.

. 2.11

(ECB). ECB ,
.
,
,
,
.
:
1) (Initialization Vectors, IVs)
2) (feedback modes)
40- 104-
, .
(IV).
(Initialization Vector, IV)

,
, IV.
. 2.12
,

, .

96

. 2.12 WEP
IEEE 802.11
, . ,
, ,
.
24 40- 104-
WEP, ,
64- 128- .
, ,
. ,
WEP 64 128 ,
40 104
. 40-
5 ASCII- (58=40) 10
(104=40), 104- 13
ASCII- (138=104) 26 (264=104).
128- .


.
.
, (CBC).

XOR
.
,
. . 2.13.

97

. 2.13
2.3.2 WEP
WEP
: .

2001 ., . . (Fluhrer S.,
Mantin I., Shamir A.) , WEP
,
. WEP
(Key Scheduling Algorithm, KSA)
RC4. (
) ,
.
AT&T/Rice University AirSnort
40 104
4 .
4 ,
.
WEP ,
.
98

WEP ,
.

WEP

. ,
2 (XOR)

. .
,
IEEE 802.11,
(Message Intgrity
Check, MIC).
. ,
ICV (Integrity Check Value),
, CRC32 (32-bit Cyclical
Redundancy Check, 32- ),
. ,

: (IV Replay)
(Bit-Flipping).
1) (Initialization Vector Replay
Attacks)


, ,
. 2.14.

99

. 2.14
1.
(, IP-,
, ..).
2.
, .
3. , XOR
.
4.
, ,
.
,
, ,


WEP.
,
, ,
. 2.15.

100

. 2.15
1. ,
. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol,
), ping,
, .
2. .
3. 256
ASCII-.
4.

,
, ICMP.
5. ,
.
2) (Bit-Flipping Attacks)
,
, ICV.
,
.
2-
() OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) 3-
() . . 2.16.
1.
802.11.
2.
3- .
3. ICV (
).
4. .
5. ( )
ICV
.
101

6. ICV
.
7. , .
8.
.
9. ,
.
10.
.
11.
.
12. ,
,
.

. 2.16
ICV .
ICV
,
(. 2.17):
1. F1 C1.
2. F2 , F1,
F1.
3. F3 XOR F1
F2.
4. 2 F3.
5. C3 F3 XOR
C1 C2.

102

. 2.17
WEP
IEEE 802.11
. , WEP
,
. IEEE 802.11
, ,
,
.

. D-Link
.
.

, ,
, / .

.
2.4

IEE 802.11, WPA, WPA2 802.1x.
.
2.4.1 IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11 (Tradition Security Network,
TSN) :
(Open Authentication)
103

(Shared Key Authentication).


802.11,
(Service Set Identifier, SSID)
MAC- (MAC Address Authentication).
(SSID)
, . ,
SSID ,
. SSID
,
.

, , , SSID.
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
,
.
IEEE 802.11 (. 2.18):
1. (Client) Probe Request .
2. (Access Point, AP),
, Probe Response.
3.

(Authentication Request).
4.

(Authentication Reply).
5.
(Association Request).
6.
(Association Response).
7.
.

. 2.18 802.11
,
Probe Request.
Probe Request ,
,
SSID .

Probe Request Probe Response,
104


. , ,
.
, ,
.

, ,
.
. ,
, , 1997
IEEE 802.11
. , IEEE 802.11-
( . .), ,
.
:
(Authentication Request);
(Authentication Response).
,
. ,
, SSID ,
. WEP
.
WEP-,
, ,
(. 2.19).

. 2.19


IEEE 802.11.
WEP. . 2.20:
1. ,
.
105

2. ,
Challenge Text.
3. Challenge Text WEP-,
.
4.
Challenge Text,
, .

. 2.20
MAC-
MAC-
IEEE 802.11,
, D-Link. MAC-
MAC-
,
(. 2.21). MAC-
IEEE 802.11
.

. 2.21
2.1:
WEP-.
1. , , SSID, ,
1.4. Authentication () Shared
Key ( ) (. 2.22).

106

. 2.22

2.
WEP, Encryption () Enable.
3. (Key Type) (Key Size).
4. , Valid Key
( ). 64- ASCII 5 , pass1.
, , ,
, .

2.4.2 802.11

SSID
Beacon ,
, . . ,
SSID
802.11, Sniffer Pro Wireless. , D-Link,
SSID
Beacon. SSID
Probe Response, . SSID
.
, SSID
107


.

,
.
, WEP.
D-Link WEP.
, WEP (,
),
-.

WEP Challenge Text, .

Challenge . ,
Challenge Text, , ,
(Man in the middle Attack).
Challenge Text, Challenge Text,
(. 2.23). WEP
XOR ,
(Cipher-Text). ,
XOR
. ,

.

. 2.23
108

MAC-
IEEE 802.11 MAC-
. ,
MAC-,
MAC- . MAC ,
MAC-.
IEEE 802.11 MAC- .
2.4.3 WPA
2001 .
802.11 IEEE 802.11e,
.
802.11i 802.11,
,
.
Wi-Fi- WECA (Wireless
Ethernet Compatibility Alliance), Wi-Fi Alliance,
IEEE 802.11i, IEEE 2002 .
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA),
.
WPA
, WEP.
WEP 802.11i ,
.
IEEE (Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol, TKIP).
, TKIP:
. WEP ,
;
.

;
.

, WEP, IV (Initialization
Vectors), , AirSnort,
, ,
IV.
WEP-,
, ,
.
IEEE , (per-frame
keying). , ,
, IV, MAC- WEP-
.
104- WEP- 24- IV.
109

IEEE 24- 48- IV.


. 2.24 48- IV , IV
.

. 2.24 48- IV
(. 2.25):
1) WEP- 32 48- IV
(32- 0-4 294 967 295) MAC-
. 1- .
1- .
2) 1- IV MAC-
.
3) (IV), ,
16 (16- 0-65 535).
8 ( 24- IV)
, .
4) WEP- .
5) 16- IV , 1-
32 1.
6) , 2.

110

. 2.25 WPA
.
IV, 0. 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.
32 IV ( 32 )
WEP- (, 128- ) MAC ( 48- ) 1 (80- ).
1- () 32 IV
MAC- , 128- ,
16 IV (16 ).
1.
IV , IV 1- (32 ) 1
(

31

,
00000000000000000000000000000001) ..
WEP ,
. , ( TKIP )
WEP 802.11. ,
.

,
(ICV) 802.11,
(MIC). MIC
,
.. IEEE ,
Michael (), ICV
802.11.
MIC , ,
.
MAC- MAC- ,
. . 2.26 Michael MIC.

111

. 2.26
TKIP :
1) (. 2.27).
2) MIC MIC .
3) MAC
.
4) .
5) .

112

. 2.27 TKIP
TKIP,
(. 2.28).
1) 1- .
2) IV, WEP,
2- .
3) IV , , .
4) (ICV).
5) ,
.
6) ,
.
7) MIC ,
MIC .
8) , .
9) , , MIC
MIC.

. 2.28 TKIP
MIC :
1) .
2) .
3) , ,
60 , .
4) .
WPA : Enterprise () Pre-Shared Key
().
113

,
802.1x ,
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). Enterprise-
.
WPA
, .. ,
. WPA-PSK
( , ,
, ). ,
. , WPA-PSK
,
WEP, -
.
, WPA/TKIP ,
WEP ,
802.11
.
MIC
MIC. ,
. ,
Enterprise-, 802.11i
.
2.4.4 802.11I (WPA2)
2004 . IEEE
802.11i.
, WPA .
WEP,
, Wi-Fi-.
WPA ,
.
WPA, , .
RC4 TKIP. ,
- .
, WEP,

.
. 802.11i,
WPA2 Wi-Fi Alliance.
802.11i (Robust Security
Network, RSN), ,
.
, .. , RSN,
WEP.
RSN, WEP ( WPA/TKIP
, ),
WEP .
802.11i TKIP,
RSN AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) CCMP (Counter
Mode CBC MAC Protocol) , ,
.
114

RSN AES , ,
RC4 WPA.
, WEP. AES ,
128 . CCMP, , ,
AES. TKIP WPA. CCMP MIC,
Cipher Block Chaining Message
Authentication Code (CBC-MAC).
.
WEP .
. WEP
( ), .
RSN ,
TKIP. AES/CCMP, , 512 , TKIP.
- , .
, -.
128- ,
(128 ). , -
. ,
, WPA.
802.11i (WPA2) , ,
,
.
802.11i .

,
.
, 802.11i , ;
. , , WPA
,
, ,
RSN.
,
, 5-20% WEP,
WPA. , AES
TKIP, - .
, WPA2-
.
WPA2, WPA, : Enterprise
() Pre-Shared Key ().
2.2:
WPA2PSK.
1. ,
, SSID, , 1.4. Authentication
() WPA2-PSK (. 2.29).

115

. 2.29

2. (Cipher Type). : AUTO,


TKIP, AES. AUTO,
.
3. (Group Key Update
Interval), .
4. PassPhrase , 8 ,
secretpass.
, , ,
, .

2.4.5 802.1X/EAP (ENTERPRISE-)


,
802.11 .
,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
IEEE 802.1x IEEE 802.1x

.
116

Extensible Authentication Protocol EAP (


)

.
IEEE 802.1x
IEEE 802.1x
(. 2.30):
(Supplicant) ;
(Authenticator)
;
(Authentication Server) RADIUS-.

. 2.30 IEEE 802.1x


IEEE 802.1x

.
.
, ,
.
.
,

.
117

, 802.1x
Ethernet. , ,
, .
RADIUS-,
, RADIUS, LDAP, NDS
Windows Active Directory.
, .
(
).
,
.
IEEE 802.1x,
. ( ) EAP Start
( EAP) (. 2.31) .
EAP Request Identity ( EAP)
(Identity). EAP Response (
EAP), , .

. 2.31 802.1x/EAP
RADIUS-ACCEPT
() RADIUS-REJECT () .
RADIUS-ACCEPT ,
.

118

802.1x ,
.
802.11
, . ,
, ,
. WPA
- (Master Key). .
2.32 .
.
1) (
-, PMK, . Pairwise Master Key),
802.1x.
2) ,
(Authenticator Nonce, ANonce),
EAPoL-Key 802.1x.
3) ,
(Supplicant Nonce, SNonce).
4) (Pairwise Transient Key, PTK)
PMK, SNonce, ANonce, MAC- , MAC-
. MAC- , MAC-
MAC- .
, MAC-
(. 2.33).
5)
(Pseudo Random Function, PRF), 512- PTK.
6) SNonce, 3,
EAPoL-Key 802.1x, EAPoLKey MIC.
7) SNonce PTK ,
.
8) EAPoL-Key MIC .
9) EAPoL-Key, ,
PTK ANonce, EAPoL-Key MIC.
, ANonce, 2,
.
10) EAPoL-Key, EAPoL-Key MIC,
, .

119

. 2.32

. 2.33
120

- (PMK) (PTK)
.
, .
,
.
( BSS,
)
, ,
.

. - (Group Master Key, GMK)
. GMK PRF,
256- GMK. PRF-256
( Nonce), , MAC
(NTP). . 2.34 .

. 2.34
-, , MAC- GNonce
(, )
PRF, 256-
(Group Transient Key, GTK). GTK 128- / , 64- MIC
(transmit MIC key) 64- MIC (MIC receive key).

, ,
- (PMK).

EAPoL-Key. EAPoL,
.
, - BSS. MIC,
,
.
121

, ,
RADIUS- .

( ). ,
WEP.
802.11 ,

. ,
.
802.1x
EAP,
(IETF). EAP CHAP (Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol, ),
(Point to Point Protocol, -),
. EAPOL ,
802.3, 802.5 802.11.
, 802.1x,
2.35.
EAP ,
(authentication, authorization, and accounting, AAA),
. AAA- (
AAA, ), EAP,
,
. ,
.
.

. 2.35 802.1x/EAP
, . ,

.
, ,
:
EAP-MD5 ,
802.1x, .
CHAP.
122

EAP-MD5 . -,
. ,

, . ,
,
;
EAP-TLS (EAP-Transport Layer Security, )
. EAP-TLS
SSLv3 . TLS
SSL PKI (Public Key Infrastructure):

. AAA-
.
PKI. RADIUS EAP-TLS.
802.1x/EAP,
.
EAP-TLS (. 2.36):

. 2.36 EAP-TLS
EAP-LEAP (Lightweight , EAP)
Cisco ,
Cisco. LEAP (
) 802.1x, .
LEAP
Free-RADIUS, , .
, ,
.
, EAP-LEAP , .
123


,
.
PEAP (Protected , EAP) EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer
Security , EAP),
Certicom and Funk Software. ,
, D-link. EAP-TTLS
, ,
,
. EAP-TTLS
, PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, MS-CHAPv2 EAPMD5. , EAP-TTLS
TLS ,
. EAP-TTLS

Odyssey Funk Software. EAP-TTLS,

CHAP. PEAP-MS-CHAPv2 PEAP-EAPTLS, .
D-link, Windows XP
Service Pack 2.
(.2.37):

. 2.37 PEAP
EAP-SIM -
SIM USIM.
124

IETF GSM,
802.11. , EAP-SIM
.
, 802.1x 2.38.

. 2.38 802.1x

WPA WPA2.
2.5

2.5.1
(Virtual Private Network, VPN) ,
,

. 802.11

, VPN
, .
,
.
-
.
VPN, ,
802.11i RADIUS- .

(PSK) 802.1x
. VPN
,
. VPN ,
.
.
VPN , . VPN
,

, (Layer Two Tunneling
125

Protocol, L2TP). , ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, (-, ,
) .
VPN : , .
, VPN DoS- DDoS-

.
VPN, ,
,
, , .
, WEP
. VPN ,
. ,
,
- . VPN
. VPN
,

.
VPN, -,
- -.
-
VPN-
(. 2.39).

126

. 2.39 -
VPN ,
, .
,
, VPN- .
,
RFC 1918 ,
.
.

.
,
,
. , WEP
TKIP , , ,
.
-

.
,
VPN.
.

VPN.
127

VPN -,
, VPN - .

.
-
, -, . ,
.

VPN. ,
.
,
. , VPN -
(Ad Hoc) .
2.5.2
IPSec
IPSec ,
VPN.
. IPSec ,
, IP.
( 3) OSI
, IP.
,
, IPSec, , IP-.

( 2) , ,
IP.
IPSec :
(Authentication Header, );
(Encapsulating Security Payload,
ESP);
(Internet Key Exchange, IKE).
IP
. , ,
. ESP
, , ,

. , IKE
-.

(Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, )
Microsoft,
VPN.
, MS-CHAP, CHAP, SPAP .
, ,
128

VPN,
.
:
-, - ;
-, VPN-
;
-,
.

Windows- Intranet.
L2TP
, Cisco, Microsoft 3Com,
. ,
L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol, )
Cisco Layer Two
Forwarding (L2F). L2TP -
IP- .
CHAP, ,
, L2TP .
L2TP ( 2),
-IP . L2TP
, ATM, Frame Relay 802.11.
,
.
2.6
(Intrusion Detection System, IDS)

. : .
(Network Intrusion Detection Systems, NIDS)

( ).
.

(Network Node IDS).

(Host Intrusion Detection Systems, HIDS).
,
..
NIDS :
. IDS ,
. ,
, ,
. -
, , , . ,
, , . IDS
,
,
129

. IDS
.
IDS 2.40.

. 2.40
IDS
, , .
IDS ,
.
-
. , ,
, IDS,
. ,
?
IDS
.
. ,
. , ,
.
,
, , , .
,
. ,
, , .
IDS
.
, , ,
IDS (. 2.41).

130

. 2.41

, , , ,
, .
802.1x/LEAP
. ,
,
, ,
. - DoS-
, ,
. ,
IDS ,
TCP SYN,
DoS-, , ,
( 1).
1) :
;
,
;
;
,
;
,
/.
,
, ,
,
1 2.
2) , :
;
;
;
, ;
;
131

,
;
;
;
, SSID SSID ;
SSID;
SSID;
SSID ,
;
-, ;
-;
-.
,
, ,
, -, ,
SSID
2,
.
3) , 802.1x/:
,
802.1x;
,
;
;
;
;
;
.
;
, (
);
802.1x/.

, 802.1x,

DoS-,
. ,
1.
4) , WEP:
;
, WEP-;
, WEP- ;
IV;
IV;
IV;
WEP , TKIP;
WEP-.
,

.
132

5) , :
;
;
;
;
;
.

. , IDS,
,
.
6) :
, ;
,
IDS;
, ;
;
, MIC,
;
.
,
,
,
, DoS- 802.11i

. , ,
,
.
IDS .
AirDefense Guard Isomair
Wireless Sentry. .

133

3.
3.1
,
.

,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, . ,

.
, .
3.1.1
.
.

,
.
.

.
,
.
, (. 3.1).
,
. . 3.1

( ).

()
()
. 3.1
134

. ,
.
,

. . 3.1
( ).
; .
3.1.2
.
, (
) (. 3.2).

()

()

. 3.2 () ()

,
. .
,
, ,
.
E
H
.
-
,
.
, ,
.

, , ,
.
.
3.1.3
.
,
, ,
135

.

(dB), (dBi)
,
.
,
(. (3.1) (3.2)).
P
V
= = log10 1 = 2 log10 1
(3.1)
P
V
2
2

P
V
= = 10 log10 1 = 20 log10 1
P2
V2

(3.2)

P1 (),
P2 (),
V1 (),
V2 ().
3.1:
100 ,
50 ,
:
L = 10 lg

100
= 3
50

, .
10 5 3 .

3.2:

, .
, , ,
4 , 12 ,
- 35 , -
10 . (-12+35-10)=13 .
:
G = 13 = 10 lg

P
4

P = 4 101,3 = 79,8


, .
,
.
1 ,
dBW (-). :
,
1
(dBm) (). 1 .
, = 10 lg

136

,
1

. ,

. ,
,
( ),
.
, = 10 lg

3.2
, ,
,
.
3.2.1
(. . 3.3)
.
, .
2 . ,
,
.
.

. 3.3 ( 2 )

, .
3.2.2
30 ,
.
(. 3.4).

137

. 3.4 ( 30 )
30
.
, .

. ,
.
. , ,
.
,
. , 802.11a,
802.11b 802.11g ,
, .
3.3
,
.
.
, .
,
.
,
. :
;
;
;
;
3.3.1
.
, , .
, (
) . .
1) ,
.
2) ,
138

, .
3) ,
.

.
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
, .
. ,
,
, .
.
,
, .
3.3.2

. , ,
, .
.
, ,
.
.

Pt Pr .
,
10.
Pt (4 )2 (d )2
(3.3)
=
Pr
G r Gt 2
Pt ;

Pr , ;
;
d , ;
Gt ;
Gr .
,
,
.
3.3.3
,
, ,
, ,
139


. .
, .
:
;
;
;
.
.
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. , , f1
f 2 , f1 + f 2 .
,
f1 + f 2 .
,
.
.
,
.
. ,
,
. ,
( ) .

. , ,
.

,

. ,
(, )
() .
3.3.4

,
. ( ,
) ,
, .
. , ,
,
, .
3.4 /

140

/.
/ 1
1 (Eb N 0 ) . ,
, R /. , 1
= 1 /, : Eb = STb ( S
; Tb ). R
R = 1 Tb . , ,
1 ,
N 0 = kT (/),
(3.4)

N 0 1 ;

k , k = 1,380310 23 ;
T ( ),
, ,
Eb S R
S
=
=
.
(3.5)
N0
N0
kTR
Eb N 0 ,
() .
Eb N 0 , ,
. ,
Eb N 0 R
.

. ,
,
. ,

.
3.3:
, ,
Eb N 0 8,4 10-4
( 1 10000).
290 , 1 /,
, ?
:
(3.5) S :

S=

Eb
kTR
N0

E
E
S = 10 log10 b kTR = b + 10 log10 (kTR)
N0
N 0
1 = 1048576 ,

S = 8,4 + 10 log 10 (1,38 10 23 290 1048576 ) = 135,37

S = 10

S
10

= 2,904 10 14

141

, 135,37 .

3.5
3.5.1
.
:
FSL = 33 + 20(lg F + lg D )

FSL (free space loss) ();


F ();
D ().
FSL .
:
(3.6)
Y = Pt , + G t , + G r , Pmin, Lt , Lr ,

Pt , ;
Gt , ;
G r , ;
Pmin, ;
Lt , ;
Lr , .

.
(, 1-2 ) : 90
94 . , .
3.1
802.11a,b,g.
3.1

54 /
-66
48 /
-71
36 /
-76
24 /
-80
18 /
-83
12 /
-85
9 /
-86
6 /
-87 .
-
. ,
.
FSL :
FSL = Y - SOM
(3.7)

142

SOM (System Operating Margin) ().


, :

;
: , , ;
, , - .
SOM 10 . , 10-
.
F 3.2.
3.2

()
1
2412
2
2417
3
2422
4
2427
5
2432
6
2437
7
2442
8
2447
9
2452
10
2457
11
2462
12
2467
13
2472
14
2484
:
D = 10

FSL 33

lg F

20

20

3.4:
, 56
/ 6 / DWL-2100AP DWLG132. :
DWL-2100AP DWL-G132: 16 ;
DWL-2100AP 54 /: -66 ;
DWL-2100AP 6 /: -88 ;
DWL-G132 54 /: -66 ;
DWL-G132 6 /: -87 ;
DWL-2100AP: 2 .
DWL-G132: 0 .
- , ..
.
:
1) 54 /.
FSL

FSL = 16 + 2 ( 66) - 10 = 74

(3.8)
( ):

143

(3.8)

D54 = 10

74 33

lg 2437

20 20

= 0,046 50

2) 6 /.
FSL

FSL = 16 + 2 ( 88) - 10 = 96

(3.8)
:

D6 = 10

96 33

lg 2437

20 20

= 0,579 580

3.5.2

,
(. 3.5). (, , ) (,
) , , .

. 3.5
,
:
1 SD
(3.9)
R = 17,3
f S+D

R ();
S , D
();
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:
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. 40% ,
.
, .
.
,
.
144

,
.
3.5:
10 (. . 3.5),
7
.
:
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1 37
= 16,06 .
2,437 3 + 7

, ,
16 .

3.6 -

,
,
. , ,
,

, .
, ,
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,
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)
, , ,

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,
, (indoor) .

(outdoor) .
3.6.1 -
. 3.6 - ,
. ,
. ,
, , .

145

. 3.6 -
1.
D-Link
25 (, DWL-2100AP, DWL-3200AP, DWL-8200AP, DWL-2700AP,
DWL-7700AP, DWL-G520 ..) ,

.
, .

,
- .
:
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, .
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1,5 .

, ,
NCS F24XXX,
. ,
, .
3. SMA-RP-plugN-type-male
pigtale
indoor , SMA-RP ( SMA),
146

- N-type (.
3.7).

. 3.7 pigtale
Pigtale- (outdoor) D-Link,
.
0,5 .
4.

( 0,5 ) ,
220. 2 N-type-female.
.
5. TLK-N-type-MM
N-Type Male-Male (. 3.8)
female male, ,
( N-typemaleN-type-female).

. 3.8 TLK-N-type-MM
, , ,
, , ,
, , (female),
, (male).
,
147

.
N-type-maleN-type-male.
6. (, HQNf-Nm15)
15 N-type (female)N-type (male) (. 3.9).

. 3.9 N-type (female)N-type (male)


, ,
15- ( ),
:
,

,

.
7. 2,4 (, NCS24XX)
(. 3.10)

,
.

148

. 3.10 2,4

.
.
.
:

,
- ,
-
,
, .
, ,
, .
3.6:
200
NCS2405, 10-100 , 500 .
100 , .. 3
,
0,3 / 2,4 .

,
, ;

, ,

,
.
3.7:
indoor
( 16 ) NCS2401 . 3.6.
2,4 0,3 /.
:
(
):
Y = 0,5 (pigtale)+0,5 ()+6 (15-
( 0,3 /)+3 0,75 ) = 7,75 ,
, , ,

149

16-7,75 = 8,25 .
NCS2401
4 (6 ). ,
:
8,25-6=2,25 ;
2,25/0,3=7,5 ,
.. 7,5 . ,
22,5 .
, . ,
-98 ;
30 .
10 (7,75 +2,25 ).
: -98+30-10=(-78 ). 3.1
,
:
(-78 ) < (-76 )
,
24 /. , ,
, .

3.3 .
3.3

. .

12,4

0,5 - 1

3- 20

/
0,02 0,05

/
0,35
pigtale

0,5
NCS F24XXX

1,5

/
0,3
N-type

0,75

0,5
8. (, HQNf-Nm1,5)
HQNf-Nm1,5 () N-type(female)N-type(male) 1,5 .
9.
D-Link . Ntype(female)N-type(male).
10. (, ANT24-2100)
21 . : N-type-female.
3.6.2 -
. 3.11 ,
, - .
150

. 3.11 -
3.11 :
1. DWL-2100AP;
2. pigtale ( );
3. ;
4. ( );
5. ANT24-1400.
, ,
,
. ,

.

,
.
6 , ,
.
3.6.3 ,
, . 3.12,
,
.

. 3.12 ,
3.12 :
1. DWL-2100AP;
2. pigtale ( );
151

3. ( );
4. ANT24-1400.
,
, , .
indoor

.
.

152

. DLINK
D-Link
:
AirPlusG -
802.11g 2,4 ;
AirPlusXtremeG -
802.11g 2,4 ;
AirPlusXtremeG MIMO -
802.11g
2,4 ;
AirPremierAG -
802.11a/b/g 2,4/5 ;
AirPremier -
802.11b/g 2,4 ;
802.11g
AirPlusG -
.
, , -
PCI/CardBus/USB-. 802.11g
54 / 802.11b.

WPA/WPA2.
Web-.
DWL-G700AP
AirPlusG 802.11g, 54 /

. .1 DWL-G700AP

802.11b/g
1 10/100Base-TX
: ,
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
153

MAC-
SSID
DHCP /
Web-

DI-524/524UP
AirPlusG 802.11g, 54 /

. .2 DI-524UP

802.11b/g
4 10/100Base-TX LAN
1 USB 1.1 (DI-524UP)
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
NAT, VPN pass-through, MAC/IP/URL
DHCP /
Web-

802.11g

-
D-Link

AirPlusXtremeG, AirPremierAG AirPremier


108
/. ,
PCI, PCMCIA,
USB. , AirPremier AirPremierAG
802.3af Power over Ethernet (PoE).
SNMP v.3,

.
108 / - (Turbo
mode). - Dynamic Turbo Static
Turbo.
Dynamic Turbo
.
,
154

,
- 802.11g. ,
54 /.
Static Turbo
, -
.
, ..
.
Super G without Turbo mode
( 54
/):
Packet Bursting ( ):


DIFS (Distributed
InterFrame Space).
Fast Frames ( ):

.
Hardware Compression and Encryption ( ):
Lempel-Ziv .

Super G with Turbo mode


Packet Bursting, Fast Frames, Hardware Compression and
Encryption Multi-Channel Bonding.
Multi-Channel Bonding ( ):
()
.
DWL-2100AP
AirPlusXtremeG 802.11g, 108 /

. .3 DWL-2100AP

802.11b/g
1 10/100Base-TX
155

: , WDS , WDS (),


,
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
MAC-
WLAN STA
8 SSID
SSID
802.1Q VLAN Tagging
WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia)
DHCP /
Web- , SNMP v.1, v.3, Telnet

DI-624/624S
AirPlusXtremeG 802.11g, 108 /

. .4 DI-624S

802.11b/g
4 10/100Base-TX LAN
2 USB 2.0 (DI-624S)
WEP, WPA WPA2
IP-
NAT, SPI, DMZ, VPN pass-through, MAC/IP/URL
QoS (DI-624S)
6 (DI-624S)
Web-

DGL-4300
GamerLounge 802.11g, 108 /

156

. .5 DGL-4300

802.11b/g
4 10/100/1000Base-T LAN
1 10/100Base-TX WAN
5 dBi
WDS
GameFuel Priority
WEP, WPA WPA2
NAT, VPN pass-through
256
( )

/

1000

Web-

DWL-2200AP
AirPremier 802.11g PoE, 108 /

157

. .6 DWL-2200AP

802.11b/g
1 10/100Base-TX
5 dBi
802.3af PoE
: , WDS , WDS ()
WEP, WPA WPA2
AES
MAC-
SSID
802.11i-ready
DHCP /
Web- , SNMP v.3, Telnet

DWL-3200AP
AirPremier 802.11g PoE, 108 /

158

. .7 DWL-3200AP

802.11b/g
1 10/100Base-TX
2 5 dBi
802.3af PoE

: , -, -
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
MAC-
8 SSID
SSID
802.11i-ready
DHCP /
Web- , SNMP v.3, Telnet

DWL-7100AP
AirPremier AG
802.11a/b/g, 108 /

159

. .8 DWL-7100AP

802.11/b/g
1 10/100Base-TX
: , WDS , WDS (),
,
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
MAC-
WLAN STA
SSID
DHCP /
Web- , SNMP v.3, Telnet

DI-784
AirPremier AG
802.11a/b/g, 108 /

. .9 DI-784

802.11/b/g
160

4 10/100Base-TX LAN
1 10/100Base-TX WAN PPPoE
WEP, WPA WPA2
IP-
NAT, SPI, DMZ, VPN pass-through, MAC/IP/URL,
Network Timing Protocol (NTP)
Web-

MIMO
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) 8
..
MIMO-, DI634M PCI CardBus- DWL-G520M DWL-G650M
.
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.

,
.
MIMO DI-634M, DWL-G520M DWL-G650M
108G,
, .

.
DI-634
AirPlusXtremeG 802.11g
MIMO, 108 /

. .10 MIMO- DI-634


161

802.11b/g
MIMO
4 10/100Base-TX LAN
1 10/100Base-TX WAN
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
NAT, DMZ, VPN pass-through, DHCP,
Web-


, ,

,
. ,
IEEE 802.3af, ,
.

DWL-2700AP DWL-7700AP.
, ,
SNMP, ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.

DWL-2700AP
AirPremier 802.11b/g, 54 /

162

.11
.

DWL
L-2700AP

802.11b/g
1 10/1000Base-TX
2 5 dBii

8
802.3af
PoE
E


: , WDS
W

, WDS ()

WEP, WP
PA WPA22

802.1

MAC-
M
Multiple
SSID
D

WLAN
W
STA
A

SSID
D
8002.1Q VLA
AN Tagging
W
Web-
, SNM
MP v.3, Tellnet

DWL
L-7700AP
AirP
Premier

/8802.11a/b/g,, 108 /

163
3

. .12 DWL-7700AP

802.11a/b/g
1 10/100Base-TX
2 5 dBi
802.3af PoE

: , WDS , WDS ()
WEP, WPA WPA2
802.1
MAC-
Multiple SSID
WLAN STA
SSID
802.1Q VLAN Tagging
WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia)
Web- , SNMP v.3, Telnet

164

.

22
09.02.2007 N 14-:
22
4.
:
;
...
;
,
;
.

.
5. , ,
, .
, ,
.
,
,
(),
, ,
,
, .
,
, .
24
() ,

.
.

()
()
.
2,4

1) .
2400-2483,5
(
) 04-03-04-003 6 2004 ..

Wi-Fi
.
165

04-03-04-003 6 2004 .
3.
2400 2483,5 ,
( 2),
,
:
,
;

.
2 04-03-04-003 , ,
D-Link:
DWL-1000AP+, DWL-1040AP+, DWL-900AP+, DWL-650+, DWL-520+, DWL-120+,
DI-714P+, DI-614+, DWL-G520, DWL-G650, DWL-2100AP, DI-624, DWL-G520+, DWLG650+, DWL-2000AP+, DI-624+, DI-724P+, DI-824VUP+, DSL-G604T, DWL-G120, DWLG122, DWL-G510, DWL-G630, DWL-G730AP, DI-524, DWL-3200AP.
2) .
2400 2483,5
( 802.11b/g)
25 2000 . ( 2/7).

,
- ,
05-10-01-001 28 2005 .
3) Bluethooth.

Bluetooth, 2400-2483,5
25/2 31.03.03.
,
Bluetooth
2,5
.
Bluetooth
100
04-03-04-003.
5
5
, .
,
5 ( 802.11a),
.
:
30 2001 . 11/1
23 2002 . 23/5
05-10-01-001 28 2005 .
166


24 ()
25
()
N 126- 09.02.2007 N 14- ,
,
.
24
10. ,
() ,


,
() 2 3
, ,
.
11.

:
;
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,
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, ()
,
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13.
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25
1. ()
167

() :

;

;
;
,
, ()
() ;
;
.
2.
-
() .

.
.

() ,

.

,
.
,

, , ,
.
30 2004 . 318

(),
1
2005 . N 175
.
68
,
, ,
, ,
- .

168

D-LINK
ANT224-0700



7

. .1()
(. .1()).

()
()
. .1

ANT24-00700
D-Link ANT24-07700


2,4 ..

802.1
11b 802.11g,




.




.

(
)
.
ANT224-0800



8 (. .2())).

. .2().

()

()

ANT24-00800
. .2
169
9

D-Link ANT24-0800 ,
2,4 .
360- ( ) 15 . D-Link ANT24-0800
,
SMA-RP-plug. : ,
, -.
,
.
, .
ANT24-0801

8,5 (. .3()).
. .3().

()

()
. .3 ANT24-080

2,4 ,
, . ANT24-0801
, SMA-RP-

, 2,4 .
, .
3- .
ANT24-1201
, 12 (. .4()).
. .4().

170

()

()
. .4 ANT24-1201
D-Link ANT24-1201
, 2,4
.
.
,
SMA-RP.
, , .
1 //11 /:
1,5/500;
2,5/1.
ANT24-1801
, 18 (. .5()).
. .5().

171

()

()
. .5 ANT24-1801

2,4 2,5 ,
, .
ANT24-1801 ,
SMA-RP-
, 2,4 .
, -
RP-SMA .
1 //11 /:
5/2;
8/3.
ANT24-2100
, 21 (. .6()).
. .6().

()

172

()
. .6 ANT24-2100
D-Link ANT24-2100 802.11b
802.11g (2,4 ).

/
.
- SMA-RPN-Type,
, ANT24-2100
D-Link, .
N- (N-type-female) ,
D-Link, .
(21 ) .
ANT24-2100 2,4 35 (
D-Link, DWL-2100AP, DWL3200AP, DWL-8200AP) (
) 1 M/ 10 .
ANT24-2100
.

173


801.11 - IEEE,

2 /. 802.11
DSSS FHSS, .
802.11 - 802.11 IEEE, ,
54 / DSSS.
802.11b - 802.11 IEEE, ,
11 / DSSS.
802.1lg - 802.11 IEEE, ,
54 / DSSS,
802.11b.
802.1li - IEEE, .
802.1 TKIP/CCMP
,
.
802.1 - IEEE .
Access point ( ) - ,

.
Ad Hoc mode ( ) - ,

, .
.
Autentificator () - 802.1
, RADIUS, .
;
.
Bluetooth - 802.15 ,
Bluetooth SIG,
Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Intel Toshiba.
BSS (Basic Service Set) ( ) - 802.11,
.
(Counter Mode with CBC MAC) - AES
, WEP TKIP.
WPA 2.
CDMA (ode Division Multiple Access) -
. ,
.
Clear-To-Send (CTS) ( ) - 802.11,
. CTS
RTS. ,
Network Allocation Vector.
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) ( ) -

. ,
.
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) -
, 802.11
. ,
174

.
.
dBi - , .
dB - , .
DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) - .
802.11, ,
. DCF CSMA.
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) -
. DSSS
,
.
, ,
.
(Extensible Authentication Protocol) - ,
,
802.1.
EAPOL ( over LAN ) -
. Ethernet Token Ring.
EIRP ( ) - ,
, IR + .
ESSID (Extended Service Set ID) - , 802.11.
, ESSID.
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) (
) ,
.
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) -
. ,
.
.
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) -
).
. ,
.
FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) . ,
,
, .
ICV (Integrity Check Value) ( ) - ,
802.11 WEP.
IV (Initialization Vectors) ( )

. ,
.
Hotspot ( ) ,
. ,
, , , .
MIC (Message Integrity Check) ( ) - ,
802.11i .
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) -
. ,
.

175

802.11 802.11g
.
Point-To-Multipoint System ( - ) ,
.
Point-To-Point System ( -) ,
.
Point-To-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) ( ) -
, Microsoft.
PSK (Phase Shift Keying) . ,
,
.
PSK (Pre Shared Key) ( ) -
WPA ,
, .
, 802.1
.
QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) .
,
,
.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) -
.
, Internet
Internet .
Request-To-Send (RTS) ( ) -
802.11, .
802.11, , ,
RTS.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) ( ) -
802.Id 2,
.
Supplicant () - 802.1 ,
.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) -
. ,
.
.
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) ( ) RC4 ,
WEP. TKIP
802.11i. WEP
.
VPN (Virtual Private Network) - ,
,

.
WDS (Wireless Distribution System) ( ) -
, ,
.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) - 802.11
,
RC4.
176

Wi Fi (Wireless Fidelity) - , Wi-Fi


Alliance, ,
802.11.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) - Wi-Fi. ,
Wi-Fi,
. WPA 1
TKIP WEP; WPA 2 802.11i,
AES.
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) ( )
802.11.

177


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)

. .: . . .:
, 2003. 640 .
., ., ., .
. - .:-, 2005. 592 .
..,. .. . , , :
. 3- . .: , 2006. 958 .
.., .., .. .
.:-, 2005. 384 .
, .
802.11. : . . - .: , 2004.
304 .
. / , ; .
. .. .: ; , 2004.- 288.
..Wi-: /
. , . , . ; .
. . . .: , 2005. 463.
http://www.tayle.com .
http://www.airdata.ru Air Data Communications.
http://www.dlink.ru D-LINK.
http://wifi-wiki.ru
http://www.wireless.bape3.org
http://www.alpha-teleport.info alpha-teleport.info.
http://www.ixbt.com .
http://www.wireless.ru ,
.
http://www.umd.ru .
http://www.ferra.ru .
http://ru.wikipedia.org ,
.
http://pcweek.ru PCWeek Russian Edition.
http://www.thg.ru Tom's Hardware Guide, .

178