Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 64

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Revised 7-05

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 FUNDAMENTALS OF DRILLING . . . . . 2-1


DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 DRILLING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 DRILLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

Hydraulic Track Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Disc Brake Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Levelling Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5

AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS (option) . . . . . 7-8 WATER INJECTION SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . . 7-9

DRILLING COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 FEED (pulldown) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 ROTATION (torque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Percussive Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2 Rotary Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

CONTROLS, OPTIONS AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 ELECTRONIC DEPTH COUNTER (EDC option) 8-1
The Pipe-In-Hole Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2

PERCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Down the Hole Hammer (DTH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2

FLUSHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Bailing Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3

SURFACE DRILLING METHODS & APPLICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

DRILL MONITORING SYSTEM (DMS option) . . TRAMMING INTERLOCK (option) . . . . . . . . . . . LOADER/ROTARY HEAD INTERLOCK (option) ANGLE DRILLING GROUP (option) . . . . . . . . . REMOTE SERVICE CENTER (option) . . . . . . . LUBRICATOR (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . AUTO LUBE SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO THREAD LUBE (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARTIC COLD HEATERS (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8-2 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-4 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-6 8-6 8-7

BLAST HOLE DRILLING . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 BLAST DESIGN AND DRILL PATTERNS . . . . . 5-1
Bench Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 Hole Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 Burden and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 Movement/Throw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 Blast Damage to New Highwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 Environmental Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 Vertical and Angled Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4 Standoff (Coal Mining) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5

Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Machine Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Drill Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 Cabin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 Special Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8

DRILL STRING COMPONENTS. . . . . . 9-1


DRILL STRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Drill Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Stabilizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Subs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Drill Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

RIG COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


MAST ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTARY HEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRILL STRING TOOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-3

DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS (DTH) . . . . . . . . 9-4


Hammer Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Size of Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Hammer Air Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Hammerdril Rigid Valve Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Recommended Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Bit Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6

Power Wrench (breakout system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3 Holding Wrench (deck wrench) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4 Bit Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4

WINCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POWER UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDERCARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MACHINERY DECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-4 6-4 6-5 6-5

TOOL JOINT THREAD CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8

DRILL SPECIFICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . 10-1


DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Engine Oils (CH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Lubricating Grease (MPGM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Compressor Oils (COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Hydraulic Oils (HYDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Table of Contents

RIG SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Reservoir Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 Pump Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2 Mast Raising and Locking Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3

Page i

Multipurpose - Type Gear Lubricant (MPL) . . . . . . . . 10-2 Refrigeration Oil (REF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HYDRAULIC OILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6 AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7

GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Page ii

Section 1

INTRODUCTION
Welcome to the first series of the new generation training manuals offered by one of the worlds leaders in earth drilling equipment. The purpose of this manual is to introduce blasthole drilling techniques and components to our customer. Successive manuals will give specific system, operating, maintenance, troubleshooting, and repair procedure. Rotary, blasthole and waterwell drills are manufactured in the Alachua, Florida facility. DTH products are manufactured in Mansfield, Texas - Mexico City, Mexico, Poona, India and Sandviken, Sweden. The manufacturing plant in Alachua is also home for the product marketing, testing, engineering research and development, service and training departments on a 68 acre property, with over 168,775 square feet of work space. We are proud to provide a quality product based on customer requirements. Please visit us at our scheduled Drill Schools. Contact the product service secretary for details. (386) 462-4100.

bh81

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 1

REFERENCE MATERIAL: Sandvik Rock Tools - SD and XL hammer operation manuals Sandvik Roller bit manual Sandvik Tamrock - Rock excavation for civil engineers handbook Denison Hydraulic - Application manual Mills Machine Co. Inc. - Drill accessory manual Driltech - Technical publication and service training departments Sullair Corporation

Published by Driltech - USA All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without prior written consent from Driltech.

Part No. 023501-012

Page 2

Section 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF DRILLING
DESCRIPTION
TWISTING/TEARING

Drilling is all about making a hole in the ground. The two fundamental components of making blastholes are: Chip making Chip clearing
CUT SURFACE

CHIP, SWEEP, CHIP, SWEEP!

SKID DISTANCE

GRINDING/ABRADING
THRUST GRINDING

TORQUE

One or more of the following processes can produce chips: Cutting/tearing Twisting/tearing Grinding/abrading Crushing
CUTTING/TEARING
ANGLE OF CUTTING (a) CRUSHING TO FINE (b) ACCUMULATION OF FINE CHIPPING ROCK

GRINDINGS

CRUSHING
PERCUSSION IMPACT BUTTON INDENTION DEPTH PER BLOW FREE SURFACE CRUSHED ROCK POWER

POTENTIAL CHIP LOOSENING CRACK

(c)

CRACKED FORMATION ZONE


Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 2

The four main components of drilling are:: Feed Rotation Percussion Flushing

PERCUSSION ROTATION AND FEED

COMPRESSED AIR

FEED FORCE FLUSHING ROTATION FLUSHING CUTTINGS

ROTARY DRILLING

DRILL BIT

PERCUSSION DRILLING

DRILLING METHODS
Blasthole drilling has been performed by two different methods: Percussive drilling, made up of: Top hammer tools Down-the-hole (DTH) tools Rotary drilling The choice of drilling method is mainly dependent upon the physical and geological properties of the rock to be drilled. Hard formations generally require percussive drilling, while soft or non-consolidated rock may need only rotary drilling. Percussive drilling utilizes all four components, feed, rotation, percussion and flushing. Rotary drilling does not use percussion, but compensates by having increased feed force and rotation torque. Rotation speeds and feed forces will vary according to ground conditions. Each drilling application requires moderate changes in the rotary drilling technique. Hardness and mineral composition of the rock will also be major factors in wear of the drill string components.

DRILLING EQUIPMENT
There are many types of surface drills, which can be grouped according to their operating principles mentioned above: Top hammer drilling DTH drilling Rotary drilling Auger drilling Core drilling Driltech manufactures a range of drill rigs suitable for both DTH and rotary drilling. Driltech does not manufacture top hammer drills. Drill rigs use drill steel equipment (when connected these are called a 'drill string') to drill the hole. The drill steel equipment includes components such as drill pipes, adapter subs, DTH hammers and drill bits.

Page 2

Section 2

DRILL PIPES

DTH HAMMER DRILL BIT

DTH DRILLING

The choice of drill steel equipment should be carefully selected to meet the needs of the machine it is intended to be fitted to. Other factors may be ground condition and hole depth of rock to be excavated. Section 9 gives details to the drill string components utilized for rotary and down the hole percussion drilling.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 2

Page 4

Section 3

DRILLING COMPONENTS
GENERAL
The four components of drilling are: 1. Feed 2. Rotation 3. Percussion 4. Flushing Every formation requires a minimum feed force before the drill bit will penetrate, as the tooth pressure must exceed the rock strength. Soft rock such as shale will require a lower feed force than hard rock such as granite. Rotary drilling will be more efficient, if the feed force is greater than the minimum needed, as the bit will break out rock chips, rather than abrading fine grindings. In practice, a 'pulldown' system is needed on a drill machine, so that feed force additional to that exerted by the weight of the drill string can be placed onto the bit. Effectively, part of the rig weight is added to the drill string weight. The feed force must be capable of being varied. Control valves allow adjustments to be made to suit drilling conditions.

FEED (pulldown)
Feed force is required in order to press the drill bit against the rock. This in itself will only produce minor crushing of the rock immediately under the drill bit. Combined with the forces of rotation and/or percussion, the feed force enables the processes of cuffing, tearing, grinding and abrading to occur. As the bit cuts, it must be fed down to keep the drill bit in constant contact with the rock surface.
TOP SPROCKET HOIST CHAIN

TOO MUCH!!!

NOT ENOUGH!!!

ROTARY HEAD

FEED CHAIN

SPROCKET CARRIER

MAST CHORD Excessive feed force will cause stress, high wear and damage to drill string components. WORK DECK FEED (PULLDOWN) CYLINDER

Insufficient feed force will cause a low drill penetration rate, stress and damage to drill string components.

ROTATION (torque)
The pulldown cylinder moves the rotary head up and down via an arrangement of chains and sprockets.

PULLDOWN SYSTEM

Rotation components are adjustable to suit drilling conditions. Single and twin motor arrangements are available for the many
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 3

different drilling applications. Single motor applications are applicable for DTH percussion drilling, whereas two motors may be required to turn large drill pipe and rotary bits. Percussive Drilling Percussion energy is generated by a moving piston. With each piston impact from the hammer, the tungsten carbide buttons in the bit body penetrate the rock surface. The function of rotation is to turn the drill bit to a new position between percussive impacts, so that the drill bit carbides strike fresh rock surfaces. Slow to medium rotation speeds assist the bit buttons to penetrate new rock with each piston impact. Hammer manufacturers specify applicable rotation speeds. Rotary Drilling Rotation is torque, used to roll the bit around while the feed force holds it firmly against the ground. Rotary bit manufacturers specify maximum rotation speeds and maximum pulldown ratings. The combination of rotary torque and feedforce enables the bit to produce chips by crushing and cutting.

A 'rotary' system is required to turn the drill string and drill bit. The rotation speed must also be variable, so it can be adjusted to produce the largest cuttings possible (to optimize penetration rates), as well as suit either rotary or DTH hammer drilling applications.

PERCUSSION
In general, percussion drilling produces more efficient drilling in medium to hard formations. Rocks that are not easily abraded by drag force of rotary drilling alone may be more efficiently drilled with percussive blows. Two types of percussion methods are the pneumatic or hydraulic top hammers, or a pneumatic down the hole hammer. Down the Hole Hammer (DTH) Down the hole hammer drilling requires highpressure compressed air. Use light to medium feed force for best results. Air pressure is proportional to penetrate rates. In harder rock formations it is essential to maintain the highest recommended air pressure. Specific care should be given to drill bit selection according to the rock material being excavated.

ROTARY DRILL BITS


Page 2

DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS

Section 3

A DTH hammer provides drilling energy right at the bit. It is highly efficient because piston energy is transmitted directly to the bit at the rock surface. DTH hammers are best suited for medium to hard rock materials.

Bailing Air Compressed air is the most common medium used with blasthole drills to clear chips from the hole. It is referred to as 'bailing air', as it bails the chips from the hole. The annular air velocity or 'up-hole velocity' (UHV) determines whether or not there is sufficient bailing air to ensure effective removal of rock cuttings from the hole. Theoretically UHV will depend on these factors; The capacity of the compressor The diameter of the drill bit in the hole The outside diameter of the drill pipe

FLUSHING
Flushing is necessary to remove cuttings from the drill hole. Flushing should be sufficient to clear chips away from the bit immediately. Otherwise the chips will be reground, increasing bit wear and reducing the penetration rate.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Flushing (Bailing Air) Drill Steel Air Passage Drill Bit Bit Flushing Ports Cuttings Removal

The last two factors together determine the volume of the drill hole that needs to be bailed. If the drill pipe diameter is small compared to the hole diameter, then there will be a large volume to be bailed and the UHV will be low. If on the other hand, the diameters are fairly close, there is a small volume to be bailed and the UHV will be greater. If rock is abrasive, rapid drill string wear will occur with the higher UHV. Water, foam or polymer may be injected into the air stream to aid in dust suppression, chip removal or to improve hole stability.

3 4

FLUSHING SYSTEM TYPICAL UP-HOLE VELOCITY (UHV) CHARTS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 3

BIT SIZE
Inch 5 5/8 5 5/8 6 1/4 6 1/4 6 3/4 6 3/4 7 3/8 7 3/8 7 7/8 7 7/8 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 9 9 9 9 7/8 9 7/8 9 7/8 9 7/8 9 7/8 mm 143 143 159 159 171 171 187 187 200 200 216 216 216 216 229 229 229 251 251 251 251 251

PIPE SIZE
Inch 2 7/8 2 7/8 3 1/2 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 6 6 6 5/8 6 5/8 6 5/8 6 5/8 6 5/8 7 3/4 7 3/4 7 3/4 8 5/8 8 5/8 mm 73 73 89 89 102 114 114 114 140 140 152 152 168 168 168 168 168 178 178 178 219 219

COMPRESSOR OUTPUT
cfm cu m/min 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 1,100 31.2 900 25.5 1,000 28.3 1,100 31.2 1,000 28.3 1,100 31.2

UPHOLE VELOCITY
fpm 7,046 7,829 6,143 6,825 5,571 7,230 4,824 5,360 5,185 5,761 4,543 5,048 5,808 6,453 4,438 4,931 5,425 4,397 4,886 5,375 7,914 8,705 m/sec 36 40 31 35 29 37 25 27 27 30 23 26 29 33 22 25 27 17 19 21 40 44

UP-HOLE VELOCITY (UHV) TABLE

Insufficient flushing leads to low penetration (increased recutting), decreased drill pipe life (bit wear and jamming of drill string) and high bit wear. Optimum drilling occurs when dry air flushing up-hole velocity factors can be maintained between 4000 to 9000 FPM depending on rotary or DTH drilling methods. Higher UHV may be acceptable for drilling depending on ground conditions such as consistent and solid low abrasive formations. Select higher UHV when drilling occurs in bad fractured ground, with voids or caverns, high rock density or long hole depths.

Page 4

Section 4

SURFACE DRILLING METHODS AND APPLICATIONS


GENERAL
Selection of the appropriate drill method will depend on factors such as the rock strength, diameter and depth of hole required. Typical applications are shown below.

TONS

TONS

ROLLER BIT ROTARY


1. 2. 3. 4.5 - 15 (114,3 - 381mm) HOLE DIAMETER 15,000 - 60,000 PSI (103.35-413.4 MPa) ROCK ROTARY APPLICATION ROLLER BITS 1. 2. 3.

DRAG BIT ROTARY


1 - 5 (25,4 - 127mm) HOLE DIAMETER 5,000 - 22,000 PSI (34.45-151.58 MPa) ROCK ROTARY APPLICATION DRAG BIT

TOP HAMMER PERCUSSIVE


1. 2. 3. 1 - 6 (25.4 - 152.4mm) HOLE DIAMETER 10,000 - 60,000 PSI (68,9-413,4 MPa) ROCK BUTTON BITS 1. 2. 3.

DOWN - THE - HOLE


3.5 - 40 (89 - 1016mm) HOLE DIAMETER 15,000 - 60,000 PSI (103,35-413,4 MPa) ROCK BUTTON BITS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 4

RELATIVE HARDNESS Extremely soft Soft Medium Medium hard Hard Extremely hard

MOHS HARDNESS 1-2 2-3 3 - 4.5 4.5 - 6 6-7 >7

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH - PSI < 2,000 2,000 - 5,000 5,000 - 10,000 10,000 - 20,000 20,000 - 30,000 > 30,000

INDEX NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5

ROCK TALC GYPSUM CALCITE FLUORITE APATITE ORTHOCLASE QUARTZ TOPAZ CORUNDUM DIAMOND

RELATIVE HARDNESS Extremely soft Soft Medium Medium hard Hard Extremely hard

MOHS HARDNESS 1-2 2-3 3 - 4.5 4.5 - 6 6-7 >7

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH - MPa < 14 14 - 35 35 - 70 70 - 140 140 - 210 > 210

6 7 8 9 10

MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS

ROCK HARDNESS & COMPREHENSIVE STRENGTH TABLE

ROCK TYPE IGNEOUS Andesite IGNEOUS Basalt SEDIMENTARY Congomerate IGNEOUS Diorite SEDIMENTARY Dolomite IGNEOUS Gabbro METAMORPHIC Gneiss IGNEOUS Granite SEDIMENTARY Limerock SEDIMENTARY Limestone METAMORPHIC Marble METAMORPHIC Quartzite IGNEOUS Rhyolite SEDIMENTARY Sandstone METAMORPHIC Schist METAMORPHIC Serpentine SEDIMENTARY Shale METAMORPHIC Slate IGNEOUS Trachyte

Compressive Strength Mpa psi 300 400 42,660 56,880 250 400 35,550 56,880 140 19,908 170 300 24,174 42,660 150 21,330 260 350 36,972 49,770 140 300 19,908 42,660 200 350 28,440 49,770 30 100 4,266 14,220 120 17,064 100 200 14,220 28,440 160 220 22,752 31,284 120 17,064 160 255 22,752 36,261 60 400 8,532 56,880 30 150 4,266 21,330 70 9,954 150 21,330 330 46,926

ROCK COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Page 2

Section 5

BLAST HOLE DRILLING


GENERAL
Blast hole drilling is used in the extraction of rock products and minerals from surface mines and quarries. A blast hole drill produces holes to a predetermined plan. The holes are then charged with explosive and the rock is blasted and broken. A typical drilling sequence involves: Driving or tramming the machine to the required location. Raising the machine on the leveling jacks to provide a stable drilling platform. Raising the mast (from the horizontal) to the desired drilling position. Lock the mast into position. Commence rotation, feed and air flushing, air percussion for DTH applications. Drilling to the required depth. A 'single pass' operation, is a hole depth no more than one drill pipe length. A 'multi-pass' operation, is where drill pipes must be added as the hole is drilled. Retracting the drill string. Lowering the mast (to horizontal if necessary), prior to tramming. Always lower the mast to horizontal with truck mounted drilling equipment prior to moving the machine.
28% 4%

The type of blasted product or 'fragmentation' required from the blast will determine the way in which a blast hole drill will be used. For example: In a quarry, most of the material broken out will be given further treatment. The rock will need to be broken into fragments which are easily dug, fill haulage units to capacity, cause few interruptions to the primary crusher feed and are free from excess fines. Open pit or surface mines differ from quarries in that large quantities of overburden or waste rock may need to be moved quickly and will have no further treatment. Therefore rock may be broken to a lesser degree than quarry rock. Both examples move material by large machinery such as front-end loaders, shovels and/or draglines.

BLAST DESIGN AND DRILL PATTERNS


Take the example of an open cut coal mining operation. The engineer will need to design a 'drill pattern', mark it, so the machine operator can drill it. To produce the desired fragmentation, a number of factors must be taken into account, including: Type of rock or formation Degree of blast movement / 'throw' required Explosive selection Terrain conditions Environmental conditions Damage to the product Factors, which can be varied by the engineer designing the blast, may include:
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

C
%

D (A) (B) (C) (D) A


66% DRILLING LEVELING PIPE HANDLING TRAMMING

TYPICAL DRILLING CYCLE

Page 1

Section 5

APPARENT BURDEN HOLE-TO-CREST

*
APPARENT SPACING

*
BACKBREAK NEW CREST (AFTER MUCKING)

HOLE DIAMETER

STEM HEIGHT

CREST

SIDE BREAK

HOLE DEPTH FLOOR OR FINAL GRADE

EXPLOSIVE COLUMN HEIGHT

FRONT BURDEN BANK FACE

BOTTOM-HOLE BURDEN SUBGRADE (SUB DRILLING)

BANK ANGLE

TOE

*NOTE! TRUE burden and spacing may differ from APPARENT burden and spacing due to
the delay between firing adjacent lines.

BLAST DESIGN TERMINOLOGY

Bench height Hole diameter Type/quantity of explosive Burden Spacing Vertical or angled holes Standoff

0.5 1% face height. Mine location, production rates, rock density, explosive factors for air and ground vibration monitoring may play an important role in what type of machine and related hole diameter best suits the specific mine. Burden and Spacing

These factors are interrelated in their effects. Some of these are discussed below. Bench Height When rock is drilled and blasted to create steps, it is known as bench drilling. The bench height may be determined by factors such as the stability of the rock, the type of drilling equipment available, or the access available. Hole Diameter

Burden and spacing are terms used to describe the dimensions of a drill pattern. Burden is the distance between each row. Spacing is the distance between the holes along a row.
Row 3

Row 1

Row 2

Spacing
en

rd Bu

HIGHWALL

Hole diameter is closely related to bench height and burden, and should be between
Page 2

Section 5

Movement/Throw Drill patterns are designed to obtain a suitable blast profile for loading equipment like shovels or draglines. The most critical factor controlling the movement of a shot is the burden. A throw shot in a coal application may utilize approximately 23ft (7m) of burden for 10 5/8 holes. Likewise a shot to be stood up may utilize approximately 33ft (10m) of burden for the same hole. The selection of burden will also depend on the width of the bench.

COAL
A. SECTION OF STOOD UP SHOT

COAL
B. SECTION OF THROWN SHOT MOVEMENT/THROW

Blast Damage to New Highwall Often the row of holes that create the new highwall will be spaced more closely together. This allows weaker explosives to be used and creates a better highwall. When the row has half the spacing of the rest of the pattern, it is said to be a staggered pattern.

Fragmentation Fragmentation is a general term that describes the size of individual rocks after blasting. Once the burden has been selected, the spacing must be selected to provide sufficient fragmentation. Spacing is calculated using the volume of rock to be blasted and the tonnage of explosives to be put in each hole.

HIGHWALL
SPACING (SP)

Row 4 Row 3 Row 2 Row 1

EN RD BU

) (B

ROCK VOLUME PER BLAST HOLE =

BENCH HEIGHT. (BH)

STAGGERED PATTERN WITH PRE-SPLIT LINE (ROW 4)

VOL = B x SP x BH

Environmental Controls Most mines have limits for noise and vibration produced by blasting, imposed by an environment protection agency. Noise is increased if
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

HOLE DEPTH = BENCH HEIGHT + SUBDRILLING

TONNAGE CALCULATION

Page 3

Section 5

holes blow out because the charge is unconfined. The burden on the highwall row is selected with this in consideration.
Small burden on the highwall row will cause the explosive to blowout and result in high noise.

ANGLED: Better burden is produced on the highwall row. Machine can be set-up away from the highwall. Used where the burden on the highwall row may be too large for vertical holes. Angle drilling may hinder dust suppression systems. Operation set-up time and techniques are affected.

BLOW-OUT

Vertical and Angled Holes Inclined or angled holes, result in more productive blasting than vertical holes however each have advantages and disadvantages. VERTICAL: Movement of the drill is quicker. Less wear to the drill accessories. Easier machine set-up for operators. Greater disturbance to the new highwall.

It is not possible to drill this hole angled, without special tooling, because of the bench behind it.

VERTICAL HOLES

Toe

Burden with angled holes reduces the toe compared to vertical holes, resulting in better floor surfaces.

Angled burden Vertical burden

ANGLED HOLES Page 4

Section 5

Row 4 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3

Drilled to Coal

HIGHWALL

STANDOFF DRILL PATTERN

Standoff (Coal Mining) If holes are drilled to or into coal, the explosives will damage the coal product. Blast damage reduces recovery and increases dilution of the coal. With smaller coal seams a standoff drill pattern may be used to prevent product damage. With this system, not all holes are drilled to the coal. The engineers drill plan may indicate to drill every third hole to the coal. Other holes standoff the coal product 5 feet (1.5 m). In this situation a hole is drilled to find the depth of the coal seam and the next two holes are 5 feet (1.5 m) shallower.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 5

Page 6

Section 6

RIG COMPONENTS

MODEL D90KS SHOWN

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Mast Crown Mast Mast Raising Cylinders Hydraulic Tank Hydraulic Pump Gearbox Water Injection Pump Water Tank Engine Compressor

10. Mast Rest 11. Air Cleaners 12. Cooler 13. Front Levelling Jacks 14. Main Frame 15. Machinery Deck 16. Final Drive Sprocket 17. Track 18. Crawler Axle

19. Crawler Frame 20. Idler 21. Boarding Ladder 22. Rear Levelling Jack 23. Dust Hood 24. Operators Cab 25. Air Conditioner 26. Hydraulic Lines to Rotary Head

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 6

MAST ASSEMBLY
The mast supports the rotary drive and drilling accessories. It may be constructed to allow the machine to drill vertical and/or angle holes. The mast assembly pivots upon a mast pedestal frame. The pedestal is fabricated to the machinery deck. Two hydraulic cylinders are used to raise and lower the mast. Vertical or angle drill positions and horizontal travel position are normal positions. Hydraulic motor(s) and planetary gears mounted to a rotary head provides the drilling torque necessary to rotate the drill string. Hydraulic cylinder(s) with sprockets and chains provides the necessary force to raise and lower the rotary head and drill string. A loader on the mast structure provides drill pipe storage. It can be indexed (rotated) for drill pipe loading/unloading to/ from the rotary head. Compressed air from the air receiver tank is piped up the mast. The air swivel on the rotary head allows air through the drill string to the drill bit. Compressed air is used to bail cuttings from the hole during drilling. The bottom end of the mast supports a table and work deck. Drilling tools to assist in pipe connections are available from the work deck.
CAROUSEL WINCH CABLE

TOP PLATE

HANGER

AIR HOSE

ROTARY HEAD

FEED CHAIN

ROD POCKETS

DRILL PIPE MAST RAISING CYLINDERS SWING CYLINDER

INDEXING SYSTEM

WORK DECK MAST PIVOT BEARING

MAST & LOADER COMPONENTS

LOADER
A loader carries a number of drill pipes, which allows for a multi-pass drilling operation. When the drill rig is equipped with a loader, the operator can change pipes quickly and efficiently from inside the cab. A loader consists of: Hanger - typical hanger arrangements are pivoted, and the carousel is swung in and out of position by operator controlled hydraulic valves and cylinders. Optional sliding hanger arrangements may be fitted for larger drill pipe configurations.

Page 2

Section 6

Carousel - A top latch plate and bottom pods hold up to 6 pieces of drill pipe. Mounted below the bottom pods is an index lock plate which has locating holes used for indexing the pipe position. Indexing System - A hydraulic locking pin moves in and out of the locking plate. A hydraulic cylinder rotates the assembly. When the pin is in the unlock position, only the indexing assembly is rotated. When the pin is in the lock position the hydraulic cylinder rotates the carousel.

DRILL STRING TOOLING


Tooling is necessary to enable joints (connections) in the drill string to be made (tightened) or broken (loosened). Power Wrench (breakout system) The power wrench, is used to break tight pipe joints and drill bit accessories which cannot be broken by reversing the rotation of the drill string. This tool is a hydraulic powered, jaw-type breakout wrench mounted below the pipe loader. The wrench is controlled by the operator from inside the cab.

ROTARY HEAD
Piston-type hydraulic motor(s) provide mechanical torque to reduction gears mounted to the rotary head housing. A large bullgear and shaft transmit rotation directly to the top sub and drill pipe. The bull shaft is hollow to permit compressed air to be passed down the drill pipe to the blast hole. Mounted on top of the bull shaft is an air swivel assembly with seals. This swivel allows oil to remain in the rotary head and air to be supplied to the drill string. Hydraulic cylinders and roller chains raise and lower the rotary head, which is secured to the mast with adjustable wear pieces (guide shoes). The replaceable wear pieces are made of a nylatron fiber. This material protects the sliding areas of the mast.
MOTOR GUIDE SHOES

POWER WRENCH

A tong wrench may be supplied. This is a hydraulic actuated cylinder with a Stilson type wrench. The tong wrench is manually placed onto the pipe during joint breaking.

PLANETARY

GEARBOX

TONG WRENCH ROTARY HEAD


Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 6

Holding Wrench (deck wrench) This sliding wrench is used to hold the drill pipe, while the joint above it is broken (loosened) or pipe-changing procedures take place. The jaw of the wrench is shaped to engage the top flats of the drill pipe, and it is mounted on the mast table. The operator controls the engage and disengage positions of the wrench from inside the cab.
(TABLE BUSHING REMOVED)

When the drill bit is lowered into the bit wrench it is held securely and cannot turn. Reverse rotation or the power wrench can assist thread breaking.

WINCH

WINCH

HOLDING WRENCH

Bit Wrench A special wrench shape is required to hold the drill bit during bit changing procedures. Precut wrenches and blank wrenches are available. The bit wrench tool is put into the mast table in place of the table bushing. It can be held in place with the holding wrench. . The winch is controlled by the operator from inside the cab and is used to lift accessories such as hammers, bits, and subs, to and from the work deck. The winch can also be used to change drill pipes when the mast is in a vertical position. From the spool, a wire rope with a lifting hook attached runs up and over the top of the mast, via a set of sheaves.

POWER UNIT
The engine is the prime source of mechanical power for the entire drill. Driltech Mission blasthole drills use Caterpillar or Cummins diesel engines running at high idle speed of 1800 rpm. Engine power is transmitted to hydraulic pumps via drive shafts and gearboxes. A rotary screw compressor is driven from the engine flywheel. Engines are water cooled with radiator(s) and are temperature protected with safety switches. Caterpillar E

BIT BASKET

Page 4

Section 6

series engines also utilize air-to-air aftercoolers (ATAAC). A hydraulically driven cooling system provides airflow through the radiator(s) and oil coolers.
COMPRESSOR
CFM (m /min) PSI (bar) 750 (21.1) 100 (6.9) 750 (21.1) 100 (6.9) 900 (25.5) 100 (6.9) 900 (25.5) 100 (6.9) 1,050 (29.7) 100 (6.9) 1,050 (29.7) 100 (6.9) 1,300 (36.8) 100 (6.9) 1,300 36.8) 100 (6.9) 900 (25.5) 350 (24.1) 900 (25.5) 350 (24.1) 1,000 (28.3) 350 (24.1) 1,000 (28.3) 350 (24.1)
3

motor drive torque is transmitted to planetary reduction gears in the final drive assembly. Control of these drive motors can provide an infinite range of steering maneuvers, from gradual to radical cornering, by varying the control lever positions in the forward and reverse ranges. Counter steering is possible if one track is placed in forward while the other is placed in reverse.

ENGINE
MODEL 3406E DITA QSK 19C 3406E QSK 19C 3406E QSK 19C 3408E QSK 19C 3406E QSK 19C 3406E QSK 19C HP (Kw) 450 (336) 500 (373) 450 (336) 500 (373) 450 (336) 500 (373) 500 (373) 500 (373) 450 (336) 500 (373) 521 (373) 500 (389) 500 (373) RPM 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800

UPPER ROLLER IDLER

SHOES (PADS)

TYPICAL D40KS, D45KS & D50KS MODEL HORSEPOWER CHART

FINAL DRIVE CHAIN ROCK GUARD FRAME

Each track chain, fitted with triple-lug grouser plates, is supported and guided by track rollers, a front idler and carrier rollers. Large coil springs counter the recoil of the front idler to cushion shocks and maintain track tension.
CATERPILLAR 3408E

Pre-cleaners treat incoming air prior to final filtration through paper elements. An electronic metered ether injection system assists in cold starts.

An adjustable cylinder provides track chain slack adjustment. Track guides protect bottom rollers from rocks. Both track frames are pivoted on an axle and equalizer beam to provide some degree of track oscillation. Both undercarriage members are fitted with hydraulic multi-disc brakes to prevent track movement while the drill is not propelling.

UNDERCARRIAGE
Track undercarriages, manufactured by Caterpillar are the most common track drive systems (Badger and American undercarriages have also been used). Two independently operated crawler units, are driven by bent axis axial piston type hydraulic motors. Hydraulic

MACHINERY DECK
The machinery deck (frame) is steel fabrications which mount and support most machine operating components such as: diesel engine, radiators and oil coolers, mast rest, compresIntroduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 6

sor, air receiver, air/oil separator, hydraulic tank and oil filters, fuel tank, batteries, hydraulic pump drives, water system, mast support structure and cab. Access ladders and railed walkways extend around the deck to facilitate access to machinery for inspection and servicing, while the cab access is ladder or deck. All leveling jacks are mounted securely to the frame.

2 3

24

23 22

6 7

21 8 20 9 10 11 12

19

18

17 16 15
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. FRONT WALKWAY FRONT JACK CYLINDER COOLER COMPRESSOR AIR INLET ENGINE BATTERIES DRIVESHAFT PROPEL PUMP DRIVE HYDRAULIC PUMP DRIVE AIR LUBRICATOR TANK HYDRAULIC TANK REAR

13

14
13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. OPERATORS STATION CAB WORKDECK DUSTHOOD CYLINDER REAR JACK CYLINDER DUST COLLECTOR MAST RAISING CYLINDER WATER INJECTION PUMP WATER INJECTION TANK MUFFLER RECEIVER TANK AIR CLEANER

D55SP MACHINERY DECK


Page 6

Section 7

RIG SYSTEMS
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
The track drive and rotation systems are fully hydrostatic with independent pumps for each circuit. The result is a system that is much cleaner and easier to troubleshoot. These systems are closed loop and equipped with three-micron filtration. Seamless steel tubing is utilized wherever possible to enhance system cooling and decrease the maintenance cost. The hydraulic system has a supercharge supply to assist the rotation and feed pump circuits. This auxiliary replenishment is pressurized to 125-175 psi (8,6-12 bar). The primary function is to keep the feed pump full during cylinder actuations. The secondary is to protect the rotation system from high shock loads during the drilling sequence. Reservoir Tank The hydraulic reservoir tank performs the following functions: Takes up the variations in oil volume, which occur through the operation of actuators. Assists in the cooling of the oil before being recirculated through the system. Serves as a storage vessel for hydraulic oil. Oil is filtered before returning to tank. The D40KS through the D75KS use a two reservoir system, the second being a supercharge manifold.

The reservoir tank supplies oil for the following pumps; propel pumps, rotation pump, feed pump, cooling fan and accessory pumps. Oil returned to the reservoir passes through 10micron return filter(s). The hydrostatic systems use 3-micron loop filtration fitted with service indicators, which warn if the filter becomes clogged.

3 MICRON FILTERS

HYDRAULIC TEST STATION

An optional on-board hydraulic monitoring system allows rapid diagnosis of hydraulic systems.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 7

PROPEL PUMPS
10 MICRON FILTERS

Variable displacement pumps supply oil to propel motors on the undercarriage. The operator may vary the speed at which the machine is propelled by moving the propel control levers. Propel pump volumes vary from machine models. Output flows range from 0 to 65 GPM (246 LPM). Maximum system pressures also vary between models and range from 3000 psi (204 bar) up to 4200 psi (285 bar).

HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR

SHOE RETAINER PLATE ROCKER CRADLE ROCKER CAM

BARREL BRONZE BEARING SLEEVE PISTON SHOE CYLINDER BARREL FACE PLATE AUXILIARY DRIVESHAFT

The reservoir is pressurized by air pressure via a regulator valve to maintain 20 to 33 CPA (3 - 5 psi), which decreases ingress of contaminants and provides pump inlet supercharging. Pump Drives All pumps are direct drive by fixed ratio gearboxes. Engine derivations inputs connect to the first gearbox. Most model machines have a speed increase ratio input gear in the first gearbox. For cold weather conditions a gearbox fitted with disconnecting input shaft may be ordered. This option will allow engine starting without the hydraulic system loads.
AUXILIARY PUMP DRIVE

INPUT SHAFT

PORT A DUAL GEROTER PUMPS IN 11 & 14 PISTON PORT PLATE PORT B

STROKING VANE CONTROL COVER

CONTROL FLOW CHANNELS

AXIAL PISTON PUMP

ROTATION PUMP A variable displacement pump supplies oil to rotation motor(s) positioned on planetary drive gears and the rotary head assembly. The operator controls allow pump volume and system pressure changes for different drilling conditions.

MAIN (PROPEL) PUMP DRIVE

160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4200 HYDRAULIC PRESSURE (PSI)

PUMP DRIVE GEARBOXES


Page 2

TORQUE (IN LBS)

D75KS TORQUE CURVE @ 190 HP

Section 7

Rotation pump volumes will vary from machine model. Output flows range from 0 up to 113 GPM (428 LPN) and pressures are adjustable from 200 up to a range between 3000 - 4200 psi (206.9-289.6 bar). FEED PUMP A variable displacement pump supplies oil through the hydraulic pulldown system. The amount of (pulldown pressure) which is developed in the circuit is operator controlled by the feed pressure control valve. Feed pump systems will have output flows from 0 to 102 GPM (387 lpm) with working pressure of up to 3000 psi (204 bar). All feed systems use a circuit protection called lift-off. This protection limits the machine capacity. In design it will keep the feed force below machine weight limits, protecting the machine from accidental lift-off.

serve the return system and provide a supercharge pressure for the main drilling pumps, (feed and rotation). Some machine applications will use a flow divider to allow multiple use of one vane pump output. OTHER PUMPS Variable displacement pump/motor for system cooling. Fixed displacement vane pump for 240volt generator. Vane pumps for dust collector and water injection options.

Mast Raising and Locking Cylinders Two double acting hydraulic cylinders are pinned and supported to the rear mast chord and machinery deck structure. Operators control the raise and lower mast sequence. Refer to mast locking feature to position the mast for drilling and tram modes. In order to ensure the cylinders actuate together and at the same speed, counterbalance valves are fitted. Should hose failure occur during mast positioning, these same valves prevent the mast from falling.
MAST RAISING CYLINDERS

D40KS FEED PERFORMANCE CURVE


(BASED @ 81% EFFICIENCY)

ACCESSORY PUMP These are fixed displacement vane type pumps. One stage delivers oil to a hydraulic motor, fixed size fan, thermostat and oil cooler. This may be one of two designed cooling systems for engine, compressor and hydraulic fluid cooling. A second stage supplies oil to accessory valve banks for the operator selected features such as drill pipe loader controls, dust control, angle drilling accessories to name a few. These pumps

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 7

Hydraulic actuated controls allow mast-locking pins to secure the mast in a vertical or angled position for drilling.

All track drive motors have a manifold mounted on the motor ports (hot oil shuttle valve) with a spool valve and relief valve fitted. This shuttle allows additional cooled and filtered oil into the closed loop drive circuit. Disc Brake Units

CYLINDER

PIN OUTPUT SHAFT INPUT SHAFT

L.H. MAST LOCKING PIN

BRAKE DISCS

Hydraulic Track Motors Track drive motors convert hydraulic flow and pressure into rotational speed and torque, which is then, modified by the final drive reduction gears.
SPRINGS

CRAWLER BRAKE UNIT

Each final drive unit is provided with a multidisc brake unit connected directly to the hydraulic motor output shaft extension. This spring applied, hydraulically released brake will securely hold the final drive input pinion when the machine is not tramming acting as a park brake. When tram is selected, hydraulic fluid from the propel pump servo system will compress the belville springs, which engage the brake, to release the pack of discs. Optional electronic interlock switches/solenoids may be added to the propel pump circuits. Interlocks will disable tramming until operators have all conditions ready for moving the machine. Refer to jack brake and head interlock options

MOTOR HOT OIL SHUTTLE

L.H. TRACK MOTOR ASSEMBLY

Page 4

Section 7

Levelling Jacks

The hydraulic cylinders are protected inside two wear pieces called the jack boot and jack hanger. A jack pad is attached to the end of the jack-boot to provide firm footing for the machine on stable ground surfaces.

AIR SYSTEM
The rotary screw compressor is driven by a coupling to engine flywheel connection. High volume compressed air provides receiver and working air, which is available for drilling and accessories. Working air is piped up the mast to an air swivel, then into the drill string. The air has two functions; one is to cool the drill bit and bit bearings; the other is to bail the drill cuttings out of the hole.

Hydraulic cylinders are operator controlled to take the machine weight from the undercarriage, level and stabilize the machine during drilling operations. Pilot operated check valves are fitted to the cylinders to prevent cylinder movement in the event of hose failure, and prevent the cylinder from drifting down during drill operation.
SINGLE STAGE AIR END (LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSORS)

HANGER 1st STAGE CYLINDER

2nd STAGE BOOT PAD

LEVELLING JACK

2-STAGE AIR END (HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSORS)


Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 7

Filtered air drawn into the compressor intake system compress by means of a matched set of male and female rotor screws. Oil is injected into the compressor mixing with the air to lubricate loaded components, seal the rotor screws and act as a coolant. Air/oil mixture discharges from the compressor into the receiver tank where the majority of the oil is separated from the air. The air receiver tank serves as the compressor oil sump. refer to diagram on page 7. Oil in the receiver tank flows under air pressure to thermal and bypass valve(s), to oil coolers and main filters back to the compressor. Oil separated in the air/oil separator returns to the compressor via scavenge lines, each fitted with a strainer and a sight-glass. A service indicator will show red if there is an abnormal pressure drop through the separator element. When this occurs, the element(s) should be replaced.

air inlet valve (cylinder type, poppet type or diaphragm) and the compressor inlet will close (unload), reducing the volume of air being compressed. Blow-down valves vent a portion of air from the receiver tank during the run - unloaded mode. A relief valve determines the maximum air pressure in the system. All receiver air pressure will vent to atmosphere through a final (shutdown) blowdown valve when the machine is stopped. The main valves and controls in the air system are: Oil Stop Valve* - Stops the back flow of oil into the compressor at shutdown. (Not used on poppet style inlet valves). Discharge Check Valve* - Stops the reverse flow of air/fluid mixture through the compressor system at compressor shutdown. (Not used on poppet style inlet valves). Thermal Valve Used to regulate flow of fluid to the coolers. Designed to maintain minimum operating temperatures. Various thermostats are available for different ambient and operating conditions. Thermal manifolds have bypass valves fitted to protect the compressor oil cooler. Minimum Pressure Valve - Maintains a minimum receiver air pressure of 60 psi (4.14 bar) for low pressure, and 140 psi (9.65 bar) for high pressure units. This pressure is necessary to ensure proper oil circulation and oil cooling. Pressure Relief Valve - Opens the receiver pressure to the atmosphere should pressure inside the tank become too high. Low pressure machines use (140 psi), high pressure machines use (400 psi) safety valves. Check Valve - Prevents working line pressure back flow into the sump during unload conditions and after shutdown.

POPPET VALVE (AIR INLET)

LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR

A closed inlet system relieves the compressor load, during machine start-up. When sufficient pressure(s) accumulates in the receiver tank, air pressure will signal the

Page 6

Section 7

AIR FILTER

AIR INLET CONTROL VALVE

*(May not be used on poppet style inlet valves)

AIR AIR/OIL OIL DISCHARGE CHECK VALVE

COMPRESSOR

* OIL STOP VALVE *


MAIN OIL FILTER MINIMUM PRESSURE VALVE

AIR CONTROL VALVE WORKING AIR

THERMOSTATS SEPARATOR ELEMENT

AIR/OIL SEPARATOR TANK

OIL COOLING MANIFOLD

PRESSURE BYPASS OIL COOLER

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR OIL LUBRICATION CIRCUIT (HIGH OR LOW PRESSURE APPLICATIONS)

Control Regulators - Opens a pressure line between the receiver tank and the air inlet, cylinder, poppet or sullicon control diaphragm. Regulators control compressor loads according to air demand. Pilot Valve - Bypasses the control regulator. The poppet inlet valve will open, loading the compressor allowing pressure to build in the receiver tank. This feature is used with low pressure poppet inlet valves only. Blow-down Valves - Vents receiver tank pressure to the atmosphere during unload conditions, and after machine shutdown.

High Discharge Temperature Switch - A fast acting temperature switch will shutdown the machine if the air discharge temperatures raise above the switch value.
SHUTDOWN SAFETY SWITCHES

LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSORS 230F (110C) FINAL 240F (115C) FINAL

HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSORS 250F (121C) INTERSTAGE 265F (129C) FINAL

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 7

DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS (option)


When drilling is performed without water, bailing air from the blast hole will be dust laden. This section describes a typical dry dust suppression system. Dust collectors do not perform when contaminated with any means of moisture or ground water. Operator controlled, hydraulic motor driven, exhauster fan draws bailing air from the area

within the dust curtain surrounding the top of the blast hole. The dust laden air passes through numerous dry dust filters within the dust collector housing. Large particulate matter and coarse dust are collected within the dust collector assembly.

Periodic impulse air blasts dislodge the fine trapped dust and enable this material to exit the dropout cone and curtain.

DRIVE MOTOR (HYDRAULIC) BLOWER CLEAN AIR DISCHARGE FILTER BACKFLUSHING MODULE

WORKING AIR FROM COMPRESSOR

BACKFLUSHING PRESSURE REGULATOR BURST of FLUSHING AIR FILTER

DUST LADEN AIR

TABLE BUSHING CUTTING DEFLECTOR

TABLE DUST CURTAIN ROCK CHIPS DUST

245-56

Page 8

Section 7

A dust hood and/or curtain may be lowered and raised by operator controls. Raising the curtain allows ground clearance from drill cuttings prior to tramming machine away from blast holes.

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM (option)


A piston type, positive displacement water pump injects water under pressure into the compressed air system to provide a means of dust suppression. Water tanks are available in 150 to 1000 gallon (568 to 3785 l) capacities. The pump shown, is belt driven by a hydraulic motor.

PUMP

MOTOR

WATER INJECTION PUMP & MOTOR

Water injection can be used for collaring holes in bad, broken ground conditions. Foam injection can be added to the water to stabilize the blast hole and assist in drill cutting removal. Additional attachments can allow for a machine wash option.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 9

Section 7

Page 10

Section 8

CONTROLS, OPTIONS AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT


INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Drills will have different arrangements of the instruments and controls; however, they will generally be grouped as follows: 1. Drilling controls actuate all drill and tooling functions. 2. Air and hydraulic pressure gauges monitor drilling system pressures to allow the most efficient machine operation. 3. Engine and compressor temperature gauges monitor and control these major components. 4. Tram, Mast and Jack hydraulic controls enable these functions. NOTE! Hydraulics may be direct, cable and linkage or electronic controlled.
2 3

ELECTRONIC DEPTH COUNTER (EDC option)


The electronic depth counter has been designed to assist the operator in drilling blast holes.

20.00

The function of the EDC is to supply the operator with information on: Bit Position (6) position Distance From Bottom of hole (7) position Accumulated Depth (8) position Penetration Rate (9) position

A push button panel is used to program the EDC and the readings are displayed on the LED screen. Input to the EDC comes from an ENCODER that is mounted on the pulldown sprocket shaft. Input signals from the encoder are measuring distance moved. From these signals, the EDC computes the depth and rate of penetration.

OPERATOR CONTROLS
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 8

A PROXIMITY SWITCH mounted on the holding wrench is used to stop the counting sequence when a drill pipe is being held. Contact terminals inside the EDC open to stop the counting, and close to start the counting sequence. Stopping the EDC from counting the head distance moved while the pipe changing sequence takes place is essential for accurate hole depth measurements. A preset hole depth indicator light on the front of the EDC cover panel will illuminated when the drill bit reaches or is greater than the programmed depth. Position 1 on the EDC panel can be programmed for drilling depths to suit specific bench heights. The Pipe-In-Hole Alarm This alarm is designed to prevent the operator from propelling the machine away from a hole when drill pipe is in the hole. This system uses the holding wrench proximity switch, a proximity switch mounted on the mast at the rotary head top position, and a pressure switch mounted on the hydraulic valves for the leveling jacks.

are operated, the pipe-in-hole alarm (indicator light and buzzer) will be activated. Stop operation to verify fault.

DRILL MONITORING SYSTEM (DMS option)


The Drill Monitor System provides a warning signal to the operator and/or shuts down the machine (for critical out-of-limit conditions) in the event that the monitored operating conditions are not within safe limits.

DRILL MONITOR SYSTEM

5.35

The system is provided with a thirty second delay for start up, a system test push button, audible alarm, and a first out indication for shutdowns. There are three different levels of fault sensing: Level 1 - Flashing amber light. Level 2 - Flashing amber light and audible alarm. Level 3 - Flashing red light, audible alarm, and machine shut down. The audible alarm can be silenced at any time by means of a silence push button.

When the head is not fully raised, or the holding wrench is out, and the mast or jack valves
Page 2

The light will continue to flash until the fault condition is cleared. Only one level three fault will be indicated at any one time (first out).

Section 8

This will allow the cause of the shut down to be easily determined. The items monitored are: Level 1 Compressor air filter pressure Engine air filter pressure Fuel level Alternator charging Engine radiator coolant level Air/oil separator pressure differential

All leveling jacks are not fully retracted. The rotary head is not retracted to the top of the mast. This allows proper clearance with the drill pipe, drill bit to the ground. The tram foot switch is not depressed.

An additional switch for dust hood may be added in this system. The switch for the rotary head may be part of the electronic depth counter (EDC) system. An indicator lamp will be lit, and a warning buzzer will sound when the operator tries to operate any jack control lever or mast control lever if a drill pipe is still in the ground. (Pipein-hole alarm) If any above systems are not in the proper position to allow the machine to be moved, a visual indicator lamp will not light until the conditions are corrected. Once these systems are corrected, the indicator light will illuminate, indicating the tramming circuit is powered and the machine can be moved. In an emergency case, the tram interlock circuit can be bypassed. A by-pass switch is inside the tram junction box located directly underneath the operator control panel.

Level 2 Hydraulic oil level Hydraulic oil temperature Hydraulic oil filter pressure Engine oil temperature

Level 3 Compressor discharge temperature Compressor interstage temperature (high pressure only) Compressor oil pressure Engine oil pressure (prior to 1996 electronic engines) Engine coolant temperature (prior to 1996 electronic engines) Engine coolant flow

LOADER/ROTARY HEAD INTERLOCK (option)


This system is designed to prevent the rotary head from placing excessive feed force on the loader assembly when making up drill pipe. When the loader is out from its stowed position, proximity switches will cause the feed pump to vent feed pressure as the rotary head approaches the drill pipe in the loader.

NOTE! 1996 and later model engines do not have DMS connected Engine Oil Pressure and Engine Coolant Temperature shutdown switches. Engines manufactured with an ECM and Select computers, monitor these functions and are programmed to shutdown the engine.

TRAMMING INTERLOCK (option)


Several tram interlock systems may be built into the wiring system. The tram circuit for both left and right crawler assemblies will not operate if any of the following conditions exist:

ANGLE DRILLING GROUP (option)


Blast hole drills may be fitted with attachments to give them the ability to drill holes up to 30 from vertical, 20 for most machines.
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 8

Mast position locks are: Mast or frame mounted Holes at the bottom of the mast table are spaced at 5 increments. Hydraulic cylinders with lock pins engage these holes to support the mast at the required angle, or vertical position. Operators select the mast raise position and mast locking sequence.

Pipe guide mechanism: This swing arm will hold drill pipe during the pipe changing sequence. One hydraulic cylinder swings the support arm across the mast; a second cylinder clamps a support around the drill pipe. A sequence valve allows one operator control for this feature.

REMOTE SERVICE CENTER (option)


Diesel fuel, engine coolant, engine crankcase oil and hydraulic oil may be pumped on board the machine via the 'Wiggins' quick-fill couplings. This system provides fast, efficient transfer of fluids and minimizes the risk of contamination. The result is less downtime when servicing equipment in the field.

FRAME MOUNTED MAST LOCKS

Pivoted work deck: The deck is pinned and pivoted under the mast table. Adjustable chains support the position. The work deck can be raised or lowered for angle drilling to maintain a horizontal workspace. Drilling angle indicator: A pendulum pointer pivots on a flat plate positioned on the left side of the mast. As the mast is tilted, the pointer indicates the vertical position in 5 increments, up to 30.

LUBRICATOR (option)
Oil reservoirs in 10 and 30 gallon (38 and 133.5 l) capacities are available for DTH and/ or rotary applications. The lubricator system uses an air regulator, an air assisted pump and manual controls or electronic controls to move oil into the flushing air to lubricate a DTH and drill bit. Use the grade of rock drill oil that is proper for the climactic and operating condition at the machine site.

PIPE POSITIONER/ CENTRALIZER

Page 4

Section 8

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM (option)


30 GALLON LUBRICATOR

PUMP

This option is required for all DTH applications, and is preferred by rotary bit manufacturers.
AUTO LUBE SYSTEM

FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM (option)


A manually actuated (shown) or an electrically sensed system delivers a dry chemical extinguishing agent through hoses to pre-set nozzles in fire prone areas and surfaces.

This is a centralized lube system designed to deliver lubricant automatically to various grease points around the machine. The system uses control air regulation with airline lube, control via central timer assembly to an air operated pump, to deliver lubricant grease at timed intervals. Distribution lines and various sized grease injectors lubricate fixed pins, bearings and bushings only. The cycle is started by the electrical timer, which turns the pump on. The pump builds up pressure in the supply line until the injectors discharge the lubricant. The pump keeps building pressure until the back pressure in the line opens an electrical pressure switch circuit and stops the pump.

FIRE SUPPRESSION ACTUATOR

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 8

THREAD LUBE NOZZLE

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM INJECTORS

A bleed valve opens to allow the pressure in the lines to vent back to the lubricant container. When pressure decreases in the line, the injectors reset ready for the next timed cycle. The reservoir may be as illustrated (30 lb/13.5 kg) grease containers.

When the foot pedal is depressed, the pump is activated and pumps grease directly to the discharge nozzle. The pedal also opens an air valve, which injects air into the distribution tube directly behind the discharge nozzle. This injected air helps to spray the grease directly onto the pipe thread.

ARTIC COLD HEATERS (option)


The arctic cold heater system is designed to heat the following system fluids: Hydraulic tank Water injection tank Pump drive gearbox(es) Batteries Air receiver tank Engine oil, fuel and coolant

AUTO THREAD LUBE (option)


The automatic thread lube system is designed to spray thread grease directly on to the male thread of a drill rod held in the holding wrench tool. This system allows the operator to apply as much thread lubricant as needed. The system consists of an air operated pump, foot pedal or toggle switch, distribution tube, nozzle and a reservoir for the pumpable threadgrease. Use premium quality thread compounds only. Consult a local supplier of lubricating oils and grease for a pumpable drill pipe thread compound.

Page 6

Section 8

Electrical
Remote start group Battery disconnect group High ambient engine switch group Ground level shut-off group Remote tram group Tram control (deadman) Tram/jack/head interlock group Rotary head/loader interlock group Variable speed throttle control Engine timer group (5 minute idle) Strobe light roof mounted (amber, blue or red) Electronic depth counter (EDC) Stratologger 2 data recorder Drill monitor system (DMS Rotation hour meter group CE certification group Premium lighting package Under deck lighting group

RECEIVER TANK HEATER

Hydraulic
Holdback kit for deep holes Hydraulic test station Anti-jam group feed and rotation

Compressor
Air cleaning hose Compressor air volume control Electric operated Manual operated High pressure compressor oil recovery group (tropical)

Tools
WATER INJECTION TANK HEATERS

FLUID HEATERS

Items shown are not the full compliment of arctic weather accessories.

Barber cushion connector Drilco shock sub Foremost cushion connector Barber table bushings Subs Drill pipe DTH hammers Drill bits Break-out tools

Machine Accessories

MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
When placing a machine order, consider optional equipment carefully. Group numbers are assigned to each of the options. Some of these items may not be available for all products and options mentioned herein are subject to change without notice.

Machine wash group (requires water injection system) Self-retracting hose reel - Wash/with wand Self-retracting hose reel - Air cleaning Fluid sampling group (engine, compressor, hydraulic) Magnetic drain plug group Tow bar Shipping lift kit Dry chemical fire extinguishers Fire suppression systems Pin style feed chain adjuster w/port-a-power Larger OD jack pads Ground level service center w/wiggins connections
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 8 Auxiliary fuel tank group Rearview mirror group Front walkway group Right walkway group cab to deck

Special Applications
Hydraulic generator (19kv, 220vac, 50hz) Cold weather group Arctic machinery house - insulated Fabric cold weather curtain Heated water injection tank Insulated/heated water injection tank Insulated water injection pump Centrifugal engine oil filter - Caterpillar engines Prelube engine starter kit Fourth leveling jack Mast ladder assembly Mesabi cooler Auto drill controls Foam injection - used with water injection Australian electrical code group Hydraulic welder 200 amp Vandal cover groups Swing cab - T40KS

Drill Accessories
Power-tong breakout group Automatic thread lube system Hammer lubricator tank standard or heated (10 or 30 gallon capacity) Angle drill group Angle drill workdeck Dust hood with spotting door Dry dust collection system - Drilplex Dry dust collection system - Tipton Extended mast lengths Hammer holder Bit storage boxes at workdeck

Cabin
2-way radio Lap belt Auxiliary heater Nameplate groups for operator controls

Page 8

Section 9

DRILL STRING COMPONENTS


DRILL STRING
Drill Pipe A drill pipe is a steel pipe through which air is passed to the bit. It has a female thread (box) at the bottom and a male thread (pin) at the top. Machined flats at the top of the pipe are used to hold the pipe while threads are being made. Typical DTH drilling threads are API regular and API IF - internal flushing. RH right hand or Beco are most common for rotary drilling (refer to the thread tables at the end of this section). The diameter of the pipe must be smaller than the bit diameter to allow the cuttings to pass to the top of the hole. Stabilizers Because of the feed forces exerted on the drill string during rotary drilling drill pipe may tend to bend under compression. This will cause the drill bit to tilt slightly, placing unequal stress on the cones of a rotary type drill bit. Stabilizing the bit will improve performance and service life by preventing misalignment of the bit to the surface.

PIN THREAD TOOL JOINT

FLAT

PIPE

DRILL PIPE

STRAIGHT BLADE

SPIRAL BLADE

REPLACEABLE ROLLER

STABILIZERS A stabilizer resembles a short length of heavy pipe. Male (pin) or female (box) thread may be cut for either end. This tool may be hard surfaced to resist wear.
BOX THREAD TOOL JOINT

On the outside diameter of the stabilizer, straight, spiral blades, or rollers, project to match the circumference of the bit. These blades or rollers wear or roll on the sides of
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 9

the hole and keep the drill bit aligned with in the hole. Subs Subs are drill string connectors, available in a variety of length, OD, and threads to suit different purposes. Some examples are: TOP SUBS (saver sub) are connected to the rotary head. Thread type and overall length are factors in selecting a top sub. It is preferred for the sub thread to wear verses the rotary head API threads. BYPASS TOP SUB (not shown) is a special sub used with a DTH in bad ground conditions. It allows a restricted amount of air to bypass the hammer case. The unused air will be directed upwards to assist in hole cleaning. This is a special order sub. BIT SUBS adapter subs in various lengths and cross over subs with differing thread configurations are used to connect rotary bits, and DTH hammers that have API thread to drill pipes. The short sub is a wear item and is easier to replace than a full-length drill pipe. SHOCK SUBS are an after market tool, designed to absorb shock and vibration from the drilling application. A resilient rubber element(s) prevents metal to metal contact from the drill string to the rotary head. Rotation speed, bit weight and ground formation can cause unexpected uphole vibration frequencies from the bottom of the hole to a rotary head. When adequate down pressure cannot be maintained to the drill bit, or when rotation torque is high due to ground conditions a shock sub will be required. LIFTING PLUGS screw onto drill string components so that a winch may be used to maneuver them.
BIT BIT SUB LIFTING PLUG

DRILLING TOOLS

TOP SUB

DRILL PIPE

STABILIZER SUB

STABILIZER

BUSHING

HAMMER

BIT

BIT BASKET ROTARY

DTH

TONG WRENCH J WRENCH

PETOL WRENCH

PIPE & BIT BREAKERS Page 2

Section 9

API REGULAR THREAD

Carbide inserts are distributed over the three rollers in such a manner that the entire bottom of the hole is worked on when the drill bit is rotated. Roller bits for hard and abrasive rock have spherical cemented carbide inserts closely spaced. Roller bits for softer rock may have the chisel cemented carbide teeth or quality milled steel teeth as the cutters. Three types of cemented carbide inserts used for roller type drill bits are shown.

CHISEL

CONICAL

HEMISHPERICAL

CEMENTED CARBIDE INSERT SHAPES

SHOCK SUB

Drill Bits ROLLER BITS A roller bit consists of a bit body with three moveable conical rollers equipped with cemented carbide inserts or steel teeth. The idea is to crush the rock by rolling the inserts against the rock with appropriate rotation speed and feed force.
SCREEN TUBE BIT LEG NOZZLE SHIRT TAIL PROTECTION COOLING AIR CHANNEL BALL PLUG

A roller bit will utilize nozzles from which the compressed air escapes to lift cuttings from the bottom of the hole. Nozzle dimensions need to be selected carefully with production rates and drill string wear being the concerns. Additional air passages in the bit allow air to pass through to the bearings for cooling and lubricating purposes. DRAG BITS A drag bit is used in clay or very soft material where a roller bit will tend to clog or bind. These bits have good flushing characteristics and are economical, but they are limited in size and carbide inserts are not designed for hardrock material.

ROLLER BEARING BALL BEARING GAUGE PROTECTION THRUST BUTTON REAR AXIAL BEARING TOP BEARING 4 - WAY 3 - WAY

CONE

DRAG BITS
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 9

CLAW BITS A claw bit is used in soft to medium material where the driller may encounter alternating layers of soft clay then sand rock or hard shale formations that would cause a a drag bit to over-torque and stall. These bits have a design which allows drilling as fast as a drag bit while being as tough as a roller bit. They feature inexpensive replaceable conical shaped self-sharpening cutters which rotate in their blocks. Claw bits range in size from 3-1/2 to 24 in diameter.

8 1 5 9

10

2 3

11

4 12

CLAW BIT

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

TOP SUB DART SPRING RIGID VALVE PISTON PISTON CASE

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

RETAINER RING GUIDE SLEEVE BIT RETAINER DRIVER SUB FOOT VALVE HAMMERBIT

DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS (DTH)


NOTE! High pressure compressed air is required. Hammer Selection There are many factors involved in selecting the right hammer for the job. These factors include the size of the hammer, the hammer's air consumption and, with the Driltech Mission Hammerdril series, the correct rigid valve. Size of Hammer A hammer size should be selected as close to the intended size of the hole drilled. The bigger the hammer diameter, the bigger the pisPage 4

HAMMERDRIL XL

ton diameter, the bigger the performance. It is important to keep the hammer diameter and bit diameter as close as possible, while still maintaining enough clearance around the hammer for cuttings to pass. For example, an XL 6 hammer should be chosen when drilling a 6 1/2" hole rather than an XL 4 with a 6 1/2" bit. An oversized bit on a small hammer drops hammer performance. A larger diameter hammer allows a larger bit shank, better energy transfer resulting in greater strength and lower stresses, more reliability and a lower operating cost per foot.

Section 9

Hammer Air Consumption It is best to select a hammer nearest the maximum operating conditions of the compressor. The higher the hammer operating pressure, the better the performance. Use the following altitude correction chart for applications above 4000 ft (1200 m) to assist in calculating the proper compressor output and hammer selection.
Feet 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Meters 1,200 1,500 1,800 2,100 2,400 2,700 3,000 3,400 3,700 Correction Factor .86 .82 .79 .76 .73 .70 .68 .65 .63

mer to run at the highest operating pressure and use all of the available air. -BC rigid valve for low volumes of air. This rigid valve option can be used to increase operating pressure and performance with small compressors. Although each rigid valve option comes with 3 integral chokes (1/8", 1/4" and 3/8"), it will always be more efficient to select the next higher volume rigid valve rather than use chokes to increase air consumption. Recommended Lubrication Correct lubrication during drilling operation is extremely important. Inadequate lubrication is a major cause of hammer wear and failure.

900 CFM @ 5,000 Feet Compressor Output = 900 x .82 = 738 SCFM 850 CFM @ 8,000 Feet Compressor Output = 850 x .73 = 620 SCFM

ALTITUDE CORRECTION TABLE

Hammerdril Rigid Valve Selection The Hammerdril series hammers can be customized to a particular air compressor by a simple change of the rigid valve. The descriptions below provide a guide for the selection of rigid valves. -BA rigid valve for maximum air, maximum flushing. The BA rigid valve should be used with a large capacity compressor. This rigid valve/ hammer combination requires maximum air to run efficiently. This is the rigid valve to select if you need to efficiently pass maximum air to flush the hole or to obtain maximum penetration rates with low pressure, high volume compressors. -BB rigid valve for average air. In most cases, this rigid valve is designed for the most popular size of compressor allowing the hamBA BB BC

RIGID VALVES

Rock drill oil is the only lubricant recommended by Driltech Mission for use in the Hammerdril XL. Use the grade of rock drill oil that is proper for the climactic and operatIntroduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 9

ing conditions at the drill site. Use the chart below as a guide for selecting the proper grade rock drill oil to use. When using new drill pipe or pipe that has not previously been coated with oil, pour a quart/ liter of rock drill oil down the drill pipe each time a new joint of drill pipe is added. The recommended amount of rock drill oil for efficient operation of the hammers is shown below. An alternative method is to calculate the oil requirements using the general rule .15 -.25 quarts of oil per hour divided by 100 CFM". Example: XL 6/BA with a 3/8" choke uses 1335 SCFM. 1335 X .2 100 = 2.7 qts/hr

Bit Design Choosing a percussive bit is not a simple matter of requesting a bit with a particular shank and head diameter. Many options are available and some of these options can have a dramatic effect on how a bit performs. If you are not sure about which particular bit is suited for an application, Driltech Mission recommends testing that bit at the application site before commitments are made for large project purchases. Several of the options of the bit design are: Bit face design Carbide button shape and hardness grade Wing design Number of flushing air holes

This method is more accurate, especially when using chokes or high/low operating pressures. Check oil levels each shift. Monitor the oil delivery to the hammer by looking at oil dripping from the bit after each hole is drilled. NOTE! When drilling with water injection, use the next higher grade of Rock Drill oil. The hammer will not be damaged by too much oil, but it will be damaged by not enough oil.

FLAT

Good in hard and abrasive formations May cause hole deviation in broken formations Large bits not collaring friendly Easy to sharpen buttons

Most resistant to steel wash Collars well Reduces load and wear on gauge buttons May need faster rotation to run smoothly

CONVEX

Most popular design Good in soft to medium hard formations Often drills the straightest holes More difficult to resharpen

RECOMMENDED ROCK DRILL OIL

CONCAVE

BIT FACE SHAPES


Page 6

Section 9

CARBIDE BUTTON SELECTION


BUTTON SHAPE & GRADE SPHERICAL DRILLING APPLICATIONS All applications ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES AVAILABILITY

Easy to sharpen Strong and wear resistant Higher penetration rate Straighter holes

Slower than ballistic penetration rate

All grades and sizes

BALLISTIC

All applications except fractured formations

More sensitive to breakage in broken ground Can develop snakeskinning in soft, nonabrasive formations Higher purchase price than Grade 40

Only DP55, 11-18mm

40

All applications where GRADE long button life is 40 expected Any application where good wear resistance and extra toughness are needed

Higher wear resistance than competitors standard grades Good wear resistance, similar to Grade 40 Superior toughness Longer life Good toughness, similar to Grade 40 Superior wear resistance Practically infinite wear resistance

Spherical, 10-18mm

Spherical, 12-26mm Ballistic, 11-18mm

55

55

GRADE DP55 65

GRADE Highly abrasive formaDP65 tions

More expensive than Grade 50 Susceptible to snake skinning in non-abrasive formations Eventually fails from fatigue Expensive

Spherical, 12-26mm

Diamond

Special applications requiring exceptional wear resistance

Spherical, 18-22mm

Long Wing Length


Preferable in most applications Increases bit life in unstable ground (back reaming)

TWO AIR-HOLES THREE AIR-HOLES

Short Wing Length


May reduce steel wash on hammer Increases risk of getting stuck only in solid ground formations

Works well in most applications Allows for good layout of face buttons Normally has 8 gauge buttons; 7 gauge buttons in smaller bit sizes More difficult to resharpen face

Wear Protection
Very effective when back reaming is severe Protects the steel holding the gauge buttons in place (back reaming) Only available with long wing length

Fishing Thread
Commonly selected when deep drilling Makes it possible to recover a shanked bit and save the hole Available for 152 mm bits & up Available only with long wing length

Preferable in soft rock conditions Reduces steel wash on bit Improves hole cleaning May increase penetration rate More difficult to measure bit diameter Normally has 9 gauge buttons or 12 buttons in larger bit sizes

BIT AIR-HOLES

WING DESIGN

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 9

TOOL JOINT THREAD CHARTS


PIN DIMENSIONS MATERIAL BASE MAKE O.D LENGTH DIAMETER O.D. BOX DIMENSIONS THREAD LENGTH MAX. O.D. TAPER PER IN. FORM

CHART COURTESY OF MILLS MACHINE CO., INC.

Page 8

Section 10

DRILL SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION Driltech blasthole drills are identified by an alphanumeric name. Each element of which provides information on the drill specifications. Driltech machines are defined by pulldown pressure of which they are capable. The numeric part of the name relates to this. The D40KS has a pulldown pressure capable of 40,000 lbs (18144 kg). Letters in the name have the following meaning: MARKETING DESCRIPTION: Example D40KS D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Driltech D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . .1000X numeric name D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . . S series (after 1988) MACHINE SPECIFIC DATA: C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crawler mounted T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck mounted S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skid mounted L . . . . . . . . . . . . Low pressure compressor H. . . . . . . . . . . . High pressure compressor E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Electric motor drive SP. . . . . . . . Single- pass (cylinder and motor applications) F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation Application D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deep Hole Application W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water well X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploration The relationship between pulldown pressure and hole diameter is shown in the table below.
6-3/4 (171) 7-7/8 (200) 9 (230) 9-7/8 (251) 10-5/8 (270) 12-1/4 (311) 15 (381)

Pulldown -Pounds-

HOLE DIAMETER (mm)


3-3/4 (95) 4-3/4 (121) 5-1/2 (140) 6 (152)

10,000 25,000 40,000


Crawler Mounted Drills

GATOR D25KS D40KS


UP TO 7-7/8

45,000 50,000 55,000 60,000 75,000 90,000 110,000 30,000

D245S

D45KS D50KS D55SP D60KS D75KS D90KS 1190D&E T35KS T40KS T60KS
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Truck Mounted Drills

40,000 60,000

Page 1

Section 10

LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS

decal on the receiver tank specifies otherwise. NOTE! Compressor oil change intervals will change depending on the type of oil used. The oil manufacturers recommendations supersede the recommended interval suggested in this manual.

General The classifications listed below follow S.A.E. J183 classifications. The MIL specifications are USA Military Specifications. The following definitions will be of assistance in purchasing lubricants. The specific classifications for this machine are found on the Lubricant Chart.

Hydraulic Oils (HYDO) Engine Oils (CH) Only use oils that meet Engine Service Classification CH (MIL-L-2104D). At the factory, this machine was filled with BP 15W - 40. Consult the Caterpillar form SEBU5939 for a listing of CH oil brands. NOTE! The engine oil and filter should be changed after the first 50 hours of service on new and reconditioned engines. Use Engine Service Classification CC (MIL-L2104B), CC/SF (MIL-L-46152B), CD (MIL-L2104D) or industrial-type hydraulic oils that are certified by the oil supplier to have antiwear,-foam, -rust, and -oxidation additive properties for heavy duty usage. At the time of shipment this machine was filled with Citgo 32 AW hydraulic oil.

Multipurpose - Type Gear Lubricant (MPL) Use Gear Lubricant Classification GL-5 (MILL-2105B) EP140. Use SHC 75 x 90 in cold ambient conditions and SHC 5 x 90 in arctic conditions.

Lubricating Grease (MPGM) Use only multi-purpose grease (MPGM) which contains 3 to 5% molybdenum disuphide. NLGI No, 2 Grade is suitable for most temperatures. Use NLGI No. 1 or No. 0 Grade for extremely low temperatures.

Refrigeration Oil (REF) Use an ISO 100 refrigeration oil.

Compressor Oils (COMP) As with any oil Do not mix different types of oils. Contamination of synthetic oils with traces of AFT may lead to foaming or plugging of orifices. When operating between 80 and 100F (27 and 38C) and with relative humidity above 80%, a synthetic hydrocarbon type fluid is recommended. Currently Shell Corena PAO oil is used in the compressor system unless the
Page 2

Section 10

RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT VISCOSITIES


OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE
F C -22 -30 -4 -20 +14 -10 +32 0 +50 +10 +68 +20 +86 +30 +104 +40 +122 +50

SAE 5W -20(SPC) SAE 5W-20 SAE 10W SAE 10W-30 SAE 15W-40 SAE 30 SAE 40

ENGINE CRANKCASE CH

COMPRESSOR COMP
Note oil change intervals

-40F

ISO 32 ISO 46 ISO 68

CD SAE 10W

UNDERCARRIAGE, FINAL DRIVE GEARBOX MPL

CD SAE 30 CD SAE 40W CD SAE 50W

32AW

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM HYDO

46AW 68AW 100AW

WATER INJ. PUMP - CH ROTARY HEAD, WINCH and PUMP DRIVE GEARBOXES MPL

SAE 30 SAE 10W-30 GL-5 EP 90 SHC 75W-90 SHC 5W-90 ISO46-100 ISO 100-220 220-460 SAE 10W

HAMMER OIL RDO AUTOLUBE PUMP CH

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 10

EQUIVALENT HYDRAULIC OILS

LUBRICANT BRAND NAME ACCITE HIDRAULICO MH AMOCO AW OIL AMOCO RYDON OIL MV ANTECH ASHLAND VG BARTRAN HV BRESLUBE VG CANADIAN OIL MOXY T CANVIS AW CHAMPION SUPER GRADE CHEVRON AW CITGO AW D-A WEAR GUARD II VG DECOL ANTI-WEAR DTE 24-25-26 DURO AW EAL SYNDRAULIC ELF OLNA DS ENERGOL HLP-HD SERIES EPPCO UNIVIVERSAL GP GULF HARMONY AW GULF SYNFLUID SL H__AW HIDRALUB EP HARMONY AW HYDRAFLOW HYDRALUBE AW HYDRELF DS HYSPIN AWS-AD HYTAC KENOIL R&O AW LUSCON HD MARATHON MULTI. VG MOBIL HYD. OIL NZ MOBIL HYD. OIL ZF MYSTIK AW/AL NERVOL FLUID SH2

MANUFACTURER PETROLEOS MEXICANOS AMOCO OIL CO. AMOCO OIL CO. EXXON/ESSO ASHLAND OIL CO. BP OIL CO. BRESLUBE LTD.-CANADA OIL CANADA BP OIL CO. LOWE OIL CHEVRON CITGO D-A LUBRICANT CO.-USA SHELL CANADA MOBIL OIL CORP. ARCO MOBIL OIL CO. ELF/ANTAR BP OIL CO. EPPERT OIL CO. GULF R&D GULF USA MARAVAN S.A. GULF CANADA LTD. PETRO CANADA LUSCON IND. ELF CASTROL INC. DISTAC LUBRICANTS KENDALL REFINING CO. LUSCON IND. MARATHON PETROLEUM MOBIL OIL CO. MOBIL OIL CO. CATO OIL & GREASE CO. NERVOL

ISO 22

ISO 32-46-68 X X X X 32 46 & 68 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 46 & 68 X X X X X X X X X

ISO 100 X

ISO 150

X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X

Page 4

Section 10
LUBRICANT BRAND NAME NUTO-H NUTO-HP NUTO-H PLUS NYCO HYD. OIL ORLY AGENA ORLY GALA ORLY HYDRO PACER POWER V PARADENE ANTI-WEAR AW PEAK HYDRA AW SERIES PEN PREMIUM EP PENNZBELL AW PENNZOIL AW PENNZOIL AWX RANDO OIL HD ROL ANTELITTERAM HVI ROYAL AW ROYAL PREMIUM VG RYKON OIL SELCO SF 330 SHARLU HYDROFLUIDS AW ISO 22 ISO 32-46-68 X 32 & 46 X X X X X X X 46 & 68 32 & 68 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ISO 100 X ISO 150 X

MANUFACTURER EXXON/ESSO EXXON/ESSO EXXON/ESSO NYCO LUBRICANT CORP. ORLY INTERNATIONAL ORLY INTERNATIONAL ORLY INTERNATIONAL PACER LUBRICANT INC. DRYDEN OIL CO. - USA PEAK OIL CO. PENTAGON CORP. PENNZOIL PROD. CO. PENNZOIL PROD. CO. PENNZOIL PROD. CO. TEXACO INC. - USA ROL RAFFINERIA EPPERT OIL CO. EPPERT OIL CO. AMOCO OIL CO. SELCO SHARJAH NATIONAL LUBE OIL CO. LTD. SHOWA OIL LTD.-JAPAN EPPERT OIL CO. SUNCOR or SUNTECK AUTOLINE OIL CO. CONOCO SHELL CANADA LTD. SHELL CO. - USA AUTOLINE OIL CO. J.W.LANE TEXACO REFINERY UNION OIL - USA EXXON/ESSO EXXON/ESSO EXXON/ESSO YUKONG LTD.

SHOSEKI W-R STAR PREMIUM VG SUNVIS 8__ WR SUPER BLUE HYD. OIL SUPER HYD. OIL VG TELLUS TELLUS TERRAPIN IND. OIL TOTAL AZOLI A ZS TRC HYD. OILS VG UNION UNAX AW VG UNIVIS N UNIVIS N PLUS UNIVIS SHP YUKONG SUPERVIS

32, 46 & 56 X X X X X X X 46 & 68 X 32 & 46 X X 32 & 46 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

(Page 2 of 2)

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 10

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HYDRAULIC OILS The following are typical properties of hydraulic oils for use in severe duty applications of axial piston and vane pumps. Any oil which meets these or similar properties or which is listed in the approved list of Equivalent Hydraulic Oils may be used.
ISO VISCOSITY GRADE
ASTM Viscosity Grade No. (Saybolt) Gravity: API Viscosity, Kinematic: cSt 104F (40.0C) 212F (100.0C) Viscosity, SSU 100F (37.8C) 210F (98.9C) Viscosity Index, ASTM D 2270 Interfacial Tension, D 971 77F:dyn/cm Flash, P-M: F (C) Flash, OC: F (C) Fire, OC: F (C) Pour: F (C) Color, ASTM D 1500 Carbon Residue, Ramsbottom: % Rust Preventive Test, ASTM D 665 Procedure A, 24 hr Procedure B, 24 hr Neutralization No. ASTM D 974 Total Acid No. Oxidation Test, ASTM D 943 Time Oxidized Hr. to 2.0 Acid No. Emulsion, FTMS 791 3201, 180F Dist. Water: Minutes Aniline Point, ASTM D 611: F (C)

32 (32AW)
150 31.1 30.04 5.26 155 43.9 106

46 (46AW)
215 30.3 42.70 6.57 220 48.2 105

68 (68AW)
315 29.5 62.9 8.43 325 54.6 104

100 (100AW)
465 28.9 96 11.03 500 64 99

31 400 (205) 425 (219) 455 (235) -25 (-32) L0.5 0.30

31 405 (208) 430 (222) 470 (244) -25 (-32) L0.5 0.30

31 450 (233) 470 (244) 500 (260) -20 (-29) L1.0 0.36

32 465 (241) 490 (255) 545 (285) +5 (+15) L1.5 0.37

Passes Passes

Passes Passes

Passes Passes

Passes Passes

0.68

0.68

0.68

0.68

2000+

2000+

2000+

1500+

40-40-0 (3) 217 (103)

40-40-0 (3) 220 (105)

40-40-0 (4) 228 (109)

40-40-0 (6) 234 (113)

Page 6

Section 10

AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS Driltech encourages the user to participate in an oil analysis program with the oil supplier. This could result in an oil change interval differing from what is stated in these tables. NOTE! Mixing synthetic oils with an ATF may lead to operational problems, foaming, or plugging of orifices. Do not mix different types of fluids.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE -40F to +95F (-40C to +35C) -40F to +95F (-40C to +35C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) -40F to +100F (-40C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +30F to +100F (-1C to +38C) +80F to +120F (+27C to +49C) +80F to +120F (+27C to +49C)

CHANGE INTERVAL 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours 1000 Hours

ISO 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 68 68

LUBRICANT DESCRIPTION Mobil SHC-624, 924 & 1024 Mobil Rarus 424 Chevron HiPerSYN Chevron Tegra Synthetic Shell Corena PAO Royco 432 Conoco Syncon R&O Texaco Cetus PAO Valvoline Syn Guard CP Petro-Canada Super SCF32 Chevron HiPerSYN Citgo CompressorGuard Conoco Syncon R&O Mobil Rarus 425 Petro-Canada Super SCF46 Royco 446 Texaco Cetus PAO Valvoline Syn Guard CP Conoco Syncon R&O Mobil SHC-626, 926 & 1026

Low and High Pressure Compressors When operating between +80 and 100F (+27 and 38C) with a relative humidity above 80%, synthetic hydrocarbon type fluid Mobil SHC or equivalent as recommended above should be used. All lubricant recommendations are based on 1200 rpm maximum WARM-UP speed.
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 10

Page 8

Section 11

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Air Swivel
The joint between the fixed air pipe from the compressor and the rotating drill head.

Box Thread
The female side of API, IF, Beco or RH thread.

Carbide Bit Annulus


The clearance in the drill hole between the drill pipe and the walls of the hole. A steel bit which contains inserts of tungsten carbide.

Carousel
The rotating components of a loader.

API
American Petroleum Institute.

Centralizer
A device to assist in alignment of drill steel in the mast. Primarily used for angle drilling applications or single pass machines.

Auxiliary Pump Drive


The gearbox second in line from the engine. It transfers drive to pumps for feed and rotation, cooling fan, and machine accessories such as water injection.

Choke
An adjustable restrictor for a DTH that sets the division of air flows between the hammer mechanism and the bailing air.

Balling Air
Is compressed air, which has passed down inside the drill string to lift drill cuttings to the surface.

Collaring Bit
The part of a drill which cuts the rock or soil. Carbide A bit having inserts of tungsten carbide. Coring A bit that grinds the outside ring of the hole, leaving an inner core intact for sampling. Roller A drill bit consisting of a pin shank, pin shoulder, bit leg including shirttail, three separate cones with cutter teeth, nozzles, and a stamped description. The three cones with rotating cutters roll as the bit is rotated. Starting a drill hole. When the hole is deep and solid enough to hold the bit from moving about, it is said to be collared.

Deck Bushing
See Table Bushing.

Deck Wrench
See Holding Wrench.

Diamond Drill
A light rotary drill, most often used for exploratory work.

Drill Bit
One of a number of different types of detachable cutting tools used to cut a circular hole in rock, wood, metal, etc.

Bit Break-Out
See Bit Wrench.

Bit Wrench
A plate used to hold a drill bit while it is being joined to or removed from other drill string components.

Drill
Blast Hole A machine capable of drilling holes 4 inches or more in diameter to a depth of 100 or more feet. Percussion A pneumatic or hydraulic powered device used to break rock.

Blast Hole
A vertical drill hole 4 or more inches in diameter, used for a charge of explosives.

Box
The female end of a drill pipe.

Drill Collar
Thick walled drill pipe used immediately above a rotary bit to provide extra weight on top of the drill bit
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 11

Drill Pipe
The sections of a rotary drilling string used to advance the drill bit or DTH into the ground.

J Wrench
A stilson type wrench used to loosen tight drill pipe joints. This tool is manually placed.

Drill Steel
Hollow steel connecting a percussion drill with the bit. May be referred to as drill rods

Kelly
A stationary rotary table turns a square and/or round pipe with flutes and kelley drive pins. The kelley is free to move up and down through the rotary table.

Drill String
All rotating components connected together between the rotary head and drill bit.

Lift Plug
Lifting plugs are used to handle heavy equipment such as hammers, stabilizers, and subs. Lifting plugs are manufactured with box or pin type connections.

Drilling
Rock drilling is used in many applications and is carried out in many different ways. Within such a wide sphere of activity, an extensive range of equipment has been developed and many special expressions and terms have come into use.

Loader
A rotating rack designed to hold drill pipes, positioned inside or outside the mast.

Main Pump Drive Bench Drilling


Is drilling of blast holes for bench blasting, which is the simplest form of blasting. Characteristic for a bench is that it has a free surface at the front towards which the rock is blasted. Bench drilling can be carried out both over and under ground and drilling can be directed upwards, downwards or horizontally. The pump drive gearbox first in line from the engine. It normally drives the propel pumps plus sometimes the feed and rotation pumps.

Mud
Additives to water for making a drilling fluid to improve performance in hole cutting, hole cleaning, hole stability and productivity. Trade names: Bentonite, Slurry, and Grout.

Down-The-Hole-Hammer (DTH)
Pneumatic powered rock drill. A chuck driver, drill bit, retaining rings and a foot valve for this type of rock tool make a very efficient drilling method.

Multi Pass Drilling


Drilling to such depth as requires the use of more than one drill pipe.

Feed Cylinders
Hydraulic cylinder(s) used to feed and retract the drill string by means of a chain and sprocket or cable and sheave arrangement.

Pin
The male end of a drill pipe.

Flushing Medium
Water, mud, air or foam used to flush drilled-out material out of the hole.

Pin Thread
The male side of API, IF, Beco and RH tapered thread.

Pipe Support
Mechanisms to support drill pipe in the mast during pipe changing operations when angle drilling.

Holding Wrench
A wrench tool fixed to the drill platform and used to hold drill pipe and subs to prevent them from turning when making and breaking joints.

Power Tong
The hydraulic tool fixed at the bottom of a drill mast, used to clamp and turn tight drill string components.

Jacks
A three-piece assembly used to support a blast hole drill. A typical blast hole machine has three leveling jacks. Optional fourth jack available for unstable ground conditions. Four leveling jacks are standard on Water well and D90KS machines.

Power Wrench
See Power Tong.

Propel Gearbox
See Main Pump Drive

Page 2

Section 11

Propelling
The act of driving a crawler mounted drill in either direction. Also may be referred to as tramming.

Sub
Bit Subs Used to connect bits, which have an API thread, to the drill pipes, which may have API, IF, RH, Beco threads. Bypass Top Sub Is an option sub and will bypass compressed air from a DTH. Used when bad ground conditions warrant extra flushing. Saver Subs Connectors between drill pipes, drill bits and the rotary head that save the thread of these components from the effects of constant use. Shock Subs Tools that absorb shock and vibration with a resilient rubber element, preventing metal to metal contact in the drill string. Top Sub A saver sub used on the rotary head.

Pulldown
The force used to press the drill string and bit against the bottom of the hole. It is controlled by the hydraulic pressure in the feed cylinders (up to the relief valve setting), and is related to the overall weight of the drill rig. The pressure at the bit will be the sum of the pulldown force plus the force exerted by the weight of the drill string. The term is also used to specify the pulldown force, which is available from a particular drill. A D90KS can produce 90,000-lbs. pulldown.

Pulldown Cylinders
See Feed Cylinders.

Receiver
The air tank or reservoir in a compressor system.

Rotary Head
The hydraulically driven gearbox that turns the drill string.

Swivel Head
Allows compressed air to be delivered to a drill bit on a diamond drill, reverse circulation, and kelly drive system.

Rotary Table
The part of a rotary drill which turns a square or round kelly bar.

Table Bushing
A replaceable bushing located in the mast table. A fixed bushing for vertical drilling and a bearing type for angle drilling. This bushing centralizes the drill pipes as they passing through it.

Round Trip
The process of pulling the drill string from a borehole, performing an operation on the string (such as changing bit, emptying core barrel, etc.) and then returning the drill string into the borehole.

Thread Protectors
Threaded covers which prevent damage and contamination of the threads on drill string components.

Single Pass Drilling


Drilling which is completed using only one drill pipe.

Tooling
Tools used to make and break drill string joints, e.g. auto tong, holding wrench.

Stabilizers
A device to assist centering the bit in the hole, preventing hole deviation and providing equal weight distribution to each rotary cone. It is normally placed immediately behind the bit. Several stabilizers may be used in a long drill string.

Top Hammer
A rock drill which works on a feed slide. As the top hammer cannot enter into the hole, the distance between it and the drill bit increase, as the hole becomes deeper.

Stacker Valves
This is a slang term for hydraulic spool valves. One inlet section, three sections up to eight sections and an outlet section may be used. The inlet section will have a relief valve for circuit protection.

Torque
A hydraulic motor and planetary reduction gears mounted on a rotary head develop rotary torque. The torque is specified in inch-pounds.

Stroke
Total rotary head travel.

Travelling Carrier
Is a support for the feed and hoist chains. Sprockets slide up and down by the feed (pulldown) cylinder(s) motion.
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 11

UHV Up-Hole Velocity


The upward speed of the bailing air in the annulus of the drill hole. Refer to air water velocity charts.

Water Injection
Addition of a small quantity of water to the bailing air in order to suppress dust.

Work Deck
A deck at the base of the mast which gives access to components in the drilling area.

Page 4