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PILEDPILED FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION DESIGNDESIGN && CONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTION

FOUNDATION DESIGN DESIGN & & CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION By Ir. Dr. Gue See Sew http://www.gnpgeo.com.my

By Ir. Dr. Gue See Sew

http://www.gnpgeo.com.my

ContentsContents Overview Preliminary Study Site Visit & SI Planning Pile Design Pile Installation Methods
ContentsContents
Overview
Preliminary Study
Site Visit & SI Planning
Pile Design
Pile Installation Methods
Types of Piles
ContentsContents (Cont(Cont’’d)d) Piling Supervision Pile Damage Piling Problems Typical Design and
ContentsContents (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
Piling Supervision
Pile Damage
Piling Problems
Typical Design and Construction Issues
Myths in Piling
Case Histories
Conclusions

Overview

What is a Pile Foundation

It is a foundation system that transfers loads to a deeper and competent soil layer.

When To Use Pile Foundations

• Inadequate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

• To Prevent Uplift Forces

• To Reduce Excessive Settlement

PILEPILE CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION

Friction Pile

Load Bearing Resistance derived mainly from skin friction

End Bearing Pile

Load Bearing Resistance derived mainly from base

Friction Pile

Friction Pile Overburden Soil Layer
Overburden Soil Layer
Overburden Soil Layer

End Bearing Pile

End Bearing Pile     Overburden Soil Rock / Hard Layer
   
    Overburden Soil Rock / Hard Layer

Overburden Soil

Overburden Soil
Overburden Soil

Rock / Hard Layer

Rock / Hard Layer
Preliminary Study
Preliminary Study
PreliminaryPreliminary StudyStudy Type & Requirements of Superstructure Proposed Platform Level (ie CUT or FILL)
PreliminaryPreliminary StudyStudy
Type & Requirements of Superstructure
Proposed Platform Level (ie CUT or FILL)
Geology of Area
Previous Data or Case Histories
Subsurface Investigation Planning
Selection of Types & Size of Piles
PreviousPrevious DataData && CaseCase HistoriesHistories Existing Proposed Development Existing Development
PreviousPrevious DataData && CaseCase
HistoriesHistories
Existing
Proposed
Development
Existing
Development
B
Development
A
Only Need Minimal
Number of Boreholes
Bedrock
Profile
Challenge The Norm Thru Innovation To Excel
Challenge The Norm Thru
Innovation To Excel
SELECTIONSELECTION OFOF PILESPILES Factors Influencing Pile Selection – Types of Piles Available in Market (see
SELECTIONSELECTION OFOF PILESPILES
Factors Influencing Pile Selection
– Types of Piles Available in Market (see Fig. 1)
– Installation Method
– Contractual Requirements
– Ground Conditions (eg Limestone, etc)
– Site Conditions & Constraints (eg Accessibility)
– Type and Magnitude of Loading
– Development Program & Cost
– etc
TYPE OF PILES DISPLACEMENT PILES NON-DISPLACEMENT PILES TOTALLY PREFORMED PILES (A ready-made pile is driven
TYPE OF PILES
DISPLACEMENT PILES
NON-DISPLACEMENT PILES
TOTALLY PREFORMED PILES
(A ready-made pile is driven or jacked
into the ground)
DRIVEN CAST IN-PLACE PILES
(a tube is driven into ground to
form void)
Bored piles
Micro piles
Concrete Tube
Steel Tube
Hollow
Solid
Small displacement
Closed ended
tube concreted
with tube left in
position
Closed ended tube
Steel Pipe
Concrete Spun Piles
Open ended tube
extracted while
concreting (Franki)
Concrete
Steel H-piles
(small displacement)
Bakau piles
Treated timber pile
Precast R.C.
Precast prestressed
piles
piles

FIG 1: CLASSIFICATION OF PILES

TYPE OF PILE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
TYPE OF PILE
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
 

PREFORMED PILES

       

BAKAU PILES

TIMPER PILES

RC PILES

PSC PILES

SPUN PILES

STEEL H PILES

STEEL PIPE PILES

JACKED PILES

BORED PILES

MICROPILES

AUGERED PILES

   

<100 KN

 

aaa

   

????

   

a

x

?

a

100-300

 

aaa

 

?

?

 

aaa

 

x

a

a

 

SCALE OF LOAD (STRUCTURAL)

 

300-600

?

           

aaaaaaaaaa

     

COMPRESSIVE LOAD PER COLUMN

600-1100

x

?

   

aaaaa

   

?

a

 

a ?

1100-2000

x

?

   

aaaaa

   

?

a

 

a ?

2000-5000

x

x

   

aaaaa

   

?

a

 

a ?

 

5000-10000

x

x

   

aaaaa

   

x

a

 

a x

>10000

 

xx?

   

aaaa

   

x

a

 

? x

     

<5m

       

???????x

     

a

 

a ?

 

BEARING TYPE

 

5-10m

       

aaaaaaa

   

?

 

aaa

 

MAINLY END -BEARING (D=Anticipated depth of bearing)

10-20m

?

?

         

aaaaaaaaa

     

20-30m

x

x

         

aaaaaaaaa

     

30-60m

x

x

         

aaaaaaa

 

?

a

MAINLY FRICTION

 

aaaaa

     

?

 

aaa

 

?

a

 

PARTLY FRICTION + PARTLY END BEARING

             

aaaaaaaaa

 

?

a

TYPE OF

BEARING

 

LIMESTON FORMATION

 

?????

       

aaa

   

? a

a

LAYER

WEATHERED ROCK / SOFT ROCK

 

x

x

   

aaaaa

   

?

 

a a

?

ROCK (RQD > 70%)

 

xx???

     

a

a

?

 

a a

?

GEOTECHNICAL

 

DENSE / VERY DENSE SAND

 

x

?

         

aaaaaaaaa

     
   

SOFT SPT < 4

             

aaaaaaaaa

 

?

a

 

TYPE OF INTERMEDIATE LAYER

COHESIVE SOIL

M.

STIFF SPT = 4 - 15

             

aaaaaaaaaaa

     

V.

STIFF SPT = 15 - 32

?

           

aaaaaaaaaa

     

HARD SPT > 32

x

?

         

aaaaaaaaa

     
   

LOOSE SPT < 10

             

aaaaaaaaaaa

     

COHESIVELESS SOIL

M.

DENSE SPT = 10 - 30

?

           

aaaaaaaaaa

     

DENSE SPT = 30 - 50

x

?

         

aaaaaaaaa

     

V.

DENSE SPT > 50

x

x

   

aaaaa

   

?

a

a

?

 

S < 100 mm

x

?

         

aaaaaaaa

   

?

SOIL WITH SOME BOULDERS / COBBLES (S=SIZE)

100-1000mm

 

xx???

     

a

a

?

a

 

a x

1000-3000mm

             

xx???????

   

a x

   

>3000mm

             

xx???????

   

a x

GROUND

ABOVE PILE CAP

             

aaaaaaaaaaa

     

WATER

BELOW PILE CAP

x

           

aaaaaaaaaa

     

ENVIRONME

NOISE + VIBRATION; COUNTER MEASURES REQUIRED

a

a

   

?????

       

aaaa

 
 

NT

PREVENTION OF EFFECTS ON ADJOINING STRUCTURES

       

???????

   

a

?

a

a

UNIT COST

 

(SUPPLY & INSTALL) RM/TON/M

 

0.5-2.5

 

0.3-2.0

1.0-3.5

1-2

0.5-2

1.5-3

1-2.5

LEGEND :

   
 

8

INDICATES THAT THE PILE TYPE IS SUITABLE

   

INDICATES THAT THE PILE TYPE IS

x

NOT SUITABLE

   

INDICATES THAT THE USE OF PILE

?

TYPE IS DOUBTFUL OR NOT COST

EFFECTIVE UNLESS ADDITIONAL

   

MEASURES TAKEN

FIG 2 : PILE SELECTION CHART

Pile Selection Based on Cost
Pile Selection Based on Cost

Details:

250mm Spun Piles

300mm Spun Piles

Micropile

Total Points

83

70

70

Average Length

9m

9m

9m

Average Rock Socket Length

-

-

2.5m

Indicative Rates :

     

Mob & Demob

RM 50,000.00

RM 50,000.00

RM 20,000.00

Supply

RM 33.00 / m

RM 42.00 / m

-

Drive

RM 30.00 / m

RM 32.00 / m

-

Cut Excess, Dispose + Starter Bars

RM 200.00 / Nos

RM 200.00 / Nos

-

Movement

-

-

RM 200.00 / Nos

Drilling in Soil

-

-

RM 110.00 / m

Drilling in Rock

-

-

RM 240.00 / m

API Pipe

-

-

RM 120.00 / m

Grouting

-

-

RM 85.00 / m

Pile Head

-

-

RM 150.00 / Nos

Est. Ave. Cost Per Point

RM 967.00 / Nos

RM 1,066.00 / Nos

RM 4,297.50 / Nos

Est. Foundation Cost

RM 190,261.00

RM 184,620.00

RM 380,825.00

   

 
Site Visit and SI Planning
Site Visit and SI Planning

SiteSite VisitVisit

Things To Look For … Accessibility & Constraints of Site

Adjacent Structures/Slopes, Rivers, Boulders, etc

Adjacent Activities (eg excavation)

Confirm Topography & Site Conditions

Any Other Observations that may affect Design and Construction of Foundation

SubsurfaceSubsurface InvestigationInvestigation (SI)(SI) PlanningPlanning

Provide Sufficient Boreholes to get Subsoil Profile

Collect Rock Samples for Strength Tests (eg UCT)

In-Situ Tests to get consistency of ground (eg SPT)

Classification Tests to Determine Soil Type Profile

Soil Strength Tests (eg CIU)

Chemical Tests (eg Chlorine, Sulphate, etc)

TypicalTypical CrossCross--SectionSection atat HillHill SiteSite

Ground Level Hard Material Level Very Hard Material Level Bedrock Level Groundwater Level
Ground Level
Hard Material Level
Very Hard Material Level
Bedrock Level
Groundwater Level

2 , ø

2

C’

Perched WT

Clayey Layer

CROSS SECTION

Seepage

Water Table

BH

BH

EXISTING

GROUND

LEVEL

BH

C’ 1 , ø’ 1

C’ 3 , ø’ 3

Placing Boreholes in Limestone Areas

Stage 1 : Preliminary S.I.

- Carry out geophysical survey (for large areas)

Stage 2: Detailed S.I. - Boreholes at Critical Areas Interpreted from Stage 1

Stage 3: During Construction - Rock Probing at Selected Columns to supplement Stage 2

Pile Design
Pile Design
PILEPILE DESIGNDESIGN Allowable Pile Capacity is the minimum of : 1) Allowable Structural Capacity 2)
PILEPILE DESIGNDESIGN
Allowable Pile Capacity is the minimum of :
1) Allowable Structural Capacity
2) Allowable Geotechnical Capacity
a. Negative Skin Friction
b. Settlement Control
PILEPILE DESIGNDESIGN Structural consideration • Not overstressed during handling, installation & in service for
PILEPILE DESIGNDESIGN
Structural consideration
• Not overstressed during handling, installation & in
service for pile body, pile head, joint & shoe.
• Dimension & alignment tolerances (common
defects?)
• Compute the allowable load in soft soil (<10kPa)
over hard stratum
• Durability assessment
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign StructuralStructural CapacityCapacity Concrete Pile QQ allall == 0.250.25 xx ff
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
StructuralStructural CapacityCapacity
Concrete Pile
QQ allall == 0.250.25 xx ff cucu xx AA cc
Steel Pile
QQ allall == 0.30.3 xx ff yy xx AA ss
Q all = Allowable pile
capacity
f cu = characteristic strength
of concrete
f s = yield strength of steel
A c = cross sectional area of
concrete
A s = cross sectional area of
steel
Prestressed Concrete Pile
QQ allall == 0.250.25 ((ff cucu –– PrestressPrestress afterafter loss)loss) xx AA cc
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity CollectionCollection ofof SISI DataData
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity
CollectionCollection ofof SISI DataData
Depth Vs SPT-N Blow Count
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0
0
2
4
2
6
8
Upper Bound
4
10
12
6
14
16
8
18
20
Design Line
10
22
Lower
(Moderately
Bound
Conservative)
24
26
12
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SPT Blow Count per 300mm Penetration
Depth (m)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity CollectionCollection ofof SISI DataData
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity
CollectionCollection ofof SISI DataData
Depth Vs SPT-N Blow Count
Depth Vs SPT-N Blow Count
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0
0
0
0
2
2
4
4
2
2
6
6
8
8
Upper Bound
4
4
10
10
12
12
6
6
14
14
16
16
8
8
18
Design Line
18
Upper Bound
Lower
20
20
Bound
Lower
10
10
22
22
Bound
Design Line
24
24
26
12
26
12
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SPT Blow Count per 300mm Penetration
SPT Blow Count per 300mm Penetration
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity •• PilesPiles installedinstalled
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity
•• PilesPiles installedinstalled inin aa groupgroup maymay fail:fail:
• Individually
• As a block
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity • Piles fail individually • When
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity
• Piles fail individually
• When installed at large spacing
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity • Piles fail as a block • When
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
GeotechnicalGeotechnical CapacityCapacity
• Piles fail as a block
• When installed at close spacing
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile CapacityCapacity
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile CapacityCapacity
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS) Factor of Safety (FOS) is required for
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS)
Factor of Safety (FOS) is required
for
Natural variationsvariations inin soilsoil strengthstrength &&
compressibilitycompressibility
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS) Factor of Safety is (FOS) required for
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS)
Factor of Safety is
(FOS) required for
DifferentDifferent degreedegree ofof
mobilisationmobilisation forfor shaftshaft
&& forfor tiptip
q
q
smob
smob
q
q
bmob
bmob
5mm
5mm
Settlement
Settlement
Load
Load
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS) PartialPartial factorsfactors ofof
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS)
PartialPartial factorsfactors ofof safetysafety forfor shaftshaft && basebase
capacitiescapacities respectivelyrespectively
ForFor shaft,shaft, useuse 1.51.5 (typical)(typical)
ForFor base,base, useuse 3.03.0 (typical)(typical)
ΣQ su + Q bu
Q all =
1.5
3.0
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS) GlobalGlobal factorfactor ofof
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS)
GlobalGlobal factorfactor ofof safetysafety forfor totaltotal ultimateultimate
capacitycapacity
UseUse 2.02.0 (typical)(typical)
ΣQ su + Q bu
Q all =
2.0
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS) CalculateCalculate usingusing BOTHBOTH
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS)
CalculateCalculate usingusing BOTHBOTH approachesapproaches
(Partial(Partial && Global)Global)
ChooseChoose thethe lowerlower ofof thethe QQ allall valuesvalues
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile CapacityCapacity QQ uu == QQ ss ++ QQ bb Q
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile CapacityCapacity
QQ uu == QQ ss ++ QQ bb
Q u = ultimate bearing capacity
Q s = skin friction
Q b = end bearing
Overburden Soil Layer
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile CapacityCapacity :: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil Q su Q
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile CapacityCapacity :: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
Q su
Q bu
Q u = α.s us .A s + s ub .N c .A b
Q u = Ultimate bearing capacity of the pile
a = adhesion factor (see next slide)
s us = average undrained shear strength for shaft
A s = surface area of shaft
s ub = undrained shear strength at pile base
N c = bearing capacity factor (taken as 9.0)
A b = cross sectional area of pile base
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
AdhesionAdhesion factorfactor ((αα)) –– ShearShear strengthstrength (S(S uu ))
(McClelland,(McClelland, 1974)1974)
1.0
Preferred
Design Line
0.8
0.6
C α /S u
0.4
Adhesion
Factor
0.2
0
25
50 75
100
125
150
175
Su (kN/m 2 )
Meyerhof Fukuoka s u = f f SPT N su =2.5N (kPa) (0.1+0.15N)*50 α su
Meyerhof
Fukuoka
s u =
f
f
SPT N
su =2.5N
(kPa)
(0.1+0.15N)*50
α
su =α.s u
(kPa)
(kPa)
0
0
5
1
5
1
2.5
12.5
1
12.5
5
12.5
42.5
0.7
29.75
10
25
80
0.52
41.6
15
37.5
117.5
0.4
47
20
50
155
0.33
51.15
30
75
230
0.3
69
40
100
305
0.3
91.5
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
CorrelationCorrelation BetweenBetween SPTSPT NN andand ff susu
f su vs SPT N
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
SPT N
Meyerhof
Fukuoka
fsu
(kPa)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil Values
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
Values of undrained shear strength, s u can be
obtained from the following:
Unconfined compressive test
Field vane shear test
Deduce based on Fukuoka’s Plot (minimum s u )
Deduce from SPT-N values based on Meyerhof
NOTE: Use only direct field data for shaft friction prediction
instead of Meyerhof
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil Modified
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
Modified Meyerhof (1976):
Ult. Shaft friction = Q su ≅ 2.5N (kPa)
Ult. Toe capacity = Q bu ≅ 250N (kPa)
or 9 s u (kPa)
(Beware of base cleaning for bored piles –
ignore base capacity if doubtful)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesionlessCohesionless SoilSoil
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
SingleSingle PilePile Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesionlessCohesionless SoilSoil
ModifiedModified MeyerhofMeyerhof (1976):(1976):
UltUlt ShaftShaft FrictionFriction == QQ susu ≅≅ 2.0N2.0N ((kPakPa))
UltUlt ToeToe Capacity=Capacity= QQ bubu ≅≅ 250N250N –– 400N400N
((kPakPa))

PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign

Load (kN) Load (kN) Load (kN) Load (kN) Load (kN) 0 0 0 0 0
Load (kN)
Load (kN)
Load (kN)
Load (kN)
Load (kN)
0
0
0
0
0
100
100
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
300
300
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
500
500
500
500
500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
ΣQ su
8
8
8
8
8
Q
8
8
8
8
8
bu
ΣQ su + Q bu
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
ΣQ su + Q bu
1.5
3.0
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
200
200
200
400
400
400
400
400
600
600
600
600
600
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign BlockBlock CapacityCapacity
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
BlockBlock CapacityCapacity
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign BlockBlock Capacity:InCapacity:In CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil Q u = 2D(B+L) s +
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
BlockBlock Capacity:InCapacity:In CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
Q u = 2D(B+L) s + 1.3(s b .N c .B.L)
Where
Q u = ultimate bearing capacity of pile group
D
= depth of pile below pile cap level
B
= width of pile group
L
= length of pile group
s = average cohesion of clay around group
s b = cohesion of clay beneath group
N c = bearing capacity factor = 9.0
(Refer to Text by Tomlinson, 1995)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign BlockBlock Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesionlessCohesionless SoilSoil No risk of
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
BlockBlock Capacity:Capacity: InIn CohesionlessCohesionless SoilSoil
No risk of group failure
if FOS of individual pile is
adequate
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign BlockBlock Capacity:Capacity: OnOn RockRock No risk of block failure if the
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
BlockBlock Capacity:Capacity: OnOn RockRock
No risk of block failure
if the piles are properly
seated in the rock
formation
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction (NSF)(NSF)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction (NSF)(NSF)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction Compressible soil layer consolidates
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
Compressible soil layer consolidates
with time due to:
Surcharge of fill
Lowering of groundwater table
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction H f Fill OGL 0 123 Month ρ s
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
H f
Fill
OGL
0
123 Month
ρ s
Clay
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction Pile to length (floating pile) Pile
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
Pile to length (floating pile)
Pile settles with consolidating soil
NO NSF
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction Pile to set at hard stratum (end-
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
Pile to set at hard stratum (end-
bearing pile)
Consolidation causes downdrag forces on
piles as soil settles more than the pile
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction WARNING: No free fill by the
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
WARNING:
No free fill by the contractor to avoid
NSF
EffectEffect ofof NSFNSF …… Reduction of Pile Carrying Capacity
EffectEffect ofof NSFNSF ……
Reduction of Pile Carrying Capacity
EffectEffect ofof NSFNSF ……
EffectEffect ofof NSFNSF ……
NSFNSF PreventivePreventive MeasuresMeasures Avoid Filling Carry Out Surcharging Sleeve the Pile Shaft Slip
NSFNSF PreventivePreventive MeasuresMeasures
Avoid Filling
Carry Out Surcharging
Sleeve the Pile Shaft
Slip Coating
Reserve Structural Capacity for NSF
Allow for Larger Settlements
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction Q all = (Q su /1.5 + Q bu
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
Q all = (Q su /1.5 + Q bu /3.0)
Q all = (Q su /1.5 + Q bu /3.0) - Q neg
FL
OGL
Sand
OGL
Clay
Clay
Q neg
Q su
Q su
Sand
Sand
Q ba
Q ba
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction IncreasedIncreased PilePile AxialAxial
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
NegativeNegative SkinSkin FrictionFriction
IncreasedIncreased PilePile AxialAxial LoadLoad
Check:Check: maximummaximum axialaxial loadload << structuralstructural pilepile
capacitycapacity
SPT-N (Blows/300mm)
Settlement (mm)
Axial Compression Force (kN)
0
10
20
30
40
50
100
0
-100 -200-300-400-500-600 -700 -800 -900-1000
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
Settlement Curves &
Axial Compression Force
14
May 98
15
May 98
18
May 98
25
21
May 98
04
Jun 98
09
Jun 98
30
19
Jun 98
02
Jul 98
Maximum
13
Jul 98
Borehole
35
axial load
Datum = 36.300m
BH-1
BH-2
40
Depth (m, bgl)
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS) Without Negative Skin Friction: Q ult
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
FactorFactor ofof SafetySafety (FOS)(FOS)
Without Negative Skin Friction:
Q ult
Allowable working load
FOS
With Negative Skin Friction:
Allowable working load
Q ult
(Q neg + etc)
FOS
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign StaticStatic PilePile LoadLoad TestTest (Piles(Piles withwith NSF)NSF) •
PilePile CapacityCapacity DesignDesign
StaticStatic PilePile LoadLoad TestTest (Piles(Piles withwith NSF)NSF)
• Specified Working Load (SWL) = Specified foundation
load at pile head
• Design Verification Load (DVL) = SWL + 2 Q neg
• Proof Load: will not normally exceed
DVL + SWL
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil DesignDesign forfor total settlementsettlement
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
DesignDesign forfor total settlementsettlement &&
differential settlementsettlement forfor designdesign
tolerancetolerance
InIn certaincertain cases,cases total settlementsettlement notnot anan
issueissue
Differential settlementsettlement cancan causecause
damagedamage toto structuresstructures
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil Pile Group Settlement in Clay = Immediate /
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
Pile Group Settlement in Clay
=
Immediate /
Elastic Settlement
Consolidation
+
Settlement
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil IMMEDIATEIMMEDIATE SETTLEMENTSETTLEMENT μμ
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
IMMEDIATEIMMEDIATE SETTLEMENTSETTLEMENT
μμ
q B
1
0
n
p
=
i
byby JanbuJanbu,, BjerrumBjerrum andand
KjaernsliKjaernsli (1956)(1956)
E
u
Where
p i = average immediate settlement
q n= pressure at base of equivalent raft
B = width of the equivalent raft
E u = deformation modulus
μ 1, μ 0 = influence factors for pile group width, B at depth D
below ground surface
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil IMMEDIATEIMMEDIATE SETTLEMENTSETTLEMENT μ 1
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
IMMEDIATEIMMEDIATE SETTLEMENTSETTLEMENT
μ
1
μ
0
Influence factors (after
Janbu, Bjerrum and
Kjaernsli, 1956)
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil CONSOLIDATIONCONSOLIDATION
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
InIn CohesiveCohesive SoilSoil
CONSOLIDATIONCONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENTSETTLEMENT
As per footing (references given later)
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign OnOn RockRock No risk of excessive settlement
PilePile SettlementSettlement DesignDesign
OnOn RockRock
No risk of excessive
settlement
Pile Installation Methods
Pile Installation Methods
PILEPILE INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION METHODSMETHODS •Diesel / Hydraulic / Drop Hammer Driving •Jacked-In •Prebore
PILEPILE INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION
METHODSMETHODS
•Diesel / Hydraulic / Drop Hammer
Driving
•Jacked-In
•Prebore Then Drive
•Prebore Then Jacked In
•Cast-In-Situ Pile
DieselDiesel Diesel DropDrop Drop HammerHammer Hammer HydraulicHydraulic Hydraulic HammerHammer Hammer DrivingDriving
DieselDiesel Diesel DropDrop Drop HammerHammer Hammer
HydraulicHydraulic Hydraulic HammerHammer Hammer
DrivingDriving Driving
DrivingDriving Driving
JackedJacked--InIn PilingPiling
JackedJacked--InIn
PilingPiling
JackedJacked--InIn PilingPiling (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
JackedJacked--InIn PilingPiling (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
CastCast--InIn--SituSitu Cast-In-Situ PilesPiles Piles ((MicropilesMicropiles)) (Micropiles)
CastCast--InIn--SituSitu Cast-In-Situ
PilesPiles Piles
((MicropilesMicropiles)) (Micropiles)
Types of Piles
Types of Piles
TYPESTYPES OFOF PILESPILES •Treated Timber Piles •Steel Piles •Boredpiles •Bakau Piles •Micropiles
TYPESTYPES OFOF PILESPILES
•Treated Timber
Piles
•Steel Piles
•Boredpiles
•Bakau Piles
•Micropiles
•R.C. Square Piles
•Caisson Piles
•Pre-Stressed
Concrete Spun
Piles
R.C.R.C. SquareSquare PilesPiles Size : 150mm to 400mm Lengths : 3m, 6m, 9m and 12m
R.C.R.C. SquareSquare PilesPiles
Size : 150mm to 400mm
Lengths : 3m, 6m, 9m and 12m
Structural Capacity : 25Ton to 185Ton
Material : Grade 40MPa Concrete
Joints: Welded
Installation Method :
–Drop Hammer
–Jack-In
RCRC SquareSquare PilesPiles
RCRC
SquareSquare
PilesPiles
PilePile MarkingMarking
PilePile MarkingMarking
PilePile LiftingLifting
PilePile LiftingLifting
PilePile FittingFitting toto PilingPiling MachineMachine
PilePile FittingFitting toto PilingPiling MachineMachine
PilePile PositioningPositioning
PilePile
PositioningPositioning
PilePile JoiningJoining
PilePile JoiningJoining
ConsiderationsConsiderations inin UsingUsing RCRC SquareSquare PilesPiles …… •Pile Quality •Pile Handling
ConsiderationsConsiderations inin UsingUsing RCRC
SquareSquare PilesPiles ……
•Pile Quality
•Pile Handling Stresses
•Driving Stresses
•Tensile Stresses
•Lateral Loads
•Jointing
PrePre--stressedstressed ConcreteConcrete SpunSpun PilesPiles Size : 250mm to 1000mm Lengths : 6m, 9m and 12m
PrePre--stressedstressed ConcreteConcrete SpunSpun
PilesPiles
Size : 250mm to 1000mm
Lengths : 6m, 9m and 12m (Typical)
Structural Capacity : 45Ton to 520Ton
Material : Grade 60MPa & 80MPa Concrete
Joints: Welded
Installation Method :
–Drop Hammer
–Jack-In
SpunSpun PilesPiles
SpunSpun PilesPiles

SpunSpun PilesPiles vsvs RCRC SquareSquare PilesPiles

Spun Piles have … Better Bending Resistance Higher Axial Capacity Better Manufacturing Quality Able to Sustain Higher Driving Stresses Higher Tensile Capacity Easier to Check Integrity of Pile Similar cost as RC Square Piles

SteelSteel HH PilesPiles Size : 200mm to 400m Lengths : 6m and 12m Structural Capacity
SteelSteel HH PilesPiles
Size : 200mm to 400m
Lengths : 6m and 12m
Structural Capacity : 40Ton to 1,000Ton
Material : 250N/mm 2 to 410N/mm 2 Steel
Joints: Welded
Installation Method :
–Hydraulic Hammer
–Jack-In
SteelSteel HH PilesPiles
SteelSteel HH
PilesPiles
SteelSteel HH PilesPiles (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
SteelSteel HH PilesPiles (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
SteelSteel HH PilesPiles NotesNotes…… •Corrosion Rate •Fatigue •OverDriving
SteelSteel HH PilesPiles NotesNotes……
•Corrosion Rate
•Fatigue
•OverDriving
OverDrivingOverDriving ofof SteelSteel PilesPiles
OverDrivingOverDriving
ofof SteelSteel PilesPiles
LargeLarge DiameterDiameter CastCast--InIn--SituSitu PilesPiles (Bored(Bored Piles)Piles) Size : 450mm to 2m Lengths
LargeLarge DiameterDiameter CastCast--InIn--SituSitu
PilesPiles (Bored(Bored Piles)Piles)
Size : 450mm to 2m
Lengths : Varies
Structural Capacity : 80Ton to 2,300Tons
Concrete Grade : 20MPa to 30MPa (Tremie)
Joints : None
Installation Method : Drill then Cast-In-Situ
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Drilling Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Drilling
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Advance Drilling Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Advance Drilling
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Drilling & Advance Casing Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Drilling & Advance
Casing
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Drill to Bedrock Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Drill to Bedrock
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Lower Reinforcement Cage Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Lower
Reinforcement
Cage
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Lower Tremie Chute Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Lower Tremie
Chute
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Pour Tremie Concrete Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Pour Tremie
Concrete
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction Completed Borepile Overburden Soil Layer Bedrock
BorepileBorepile ConstructionConstruction
Completed
Borepile
Overburden Soil Layer
Bedrock
Bored Pile Construction BOREDBORED PILINGPILING MACHINEMACHINE BG22
Bored Pile Construction
BOREDBORED PILINGPILING MACHINEMACHINE
BG22
Rock Reamer Rock Auger Cleaning Bucket
Rock Reamer
Rock Auger
Cleaning Bucket
Rock Chisel Harden Steel
Rock Chisel
Harden Steel
Bored Pile Construction DRILLINGDRILLING EQUIPMENTEQUIPMENT Coring bucket Soil auger Cleaning bucket
Bored Pile Construction
DRILLINGDRILLING EQUIPMENTEQUIPMENT
Coring
bucket
Soil auger
Cleaning
bucket
Bored Pile Construction BENTONITEBENTONITE PLANTPLANT Desanding Machine Water Tank Mixer Slurry Tank
Bored Pile Construction
BENTONITEBENTONITE PLANTPLANT
Desanding
Machine
Water
Tank
Mixer
Slurry
Tank
DrillingDrilling
DrillingDrilling
LowerLower ReinforcementReinforcement
LowerLower
ReinforcementReinforcement
PlacePlace TremieTremie ConcreteConcrete
PlacePlace
TremieTremie
ConcreteConcrete
CompletedCompleted BoredpileBoredpile
CompletedCompleted BoredpileBoredpile
BorepileBorepile CosiderationsCosiderations…… •Borepile Base Difficult to Clean •Bulging / Necking •Collapse
BorepileBorepile CosiderationsCosiderations……
•Borepile Base Difficult to Clean
•Bulging / Necking
•Collapse of Sidewall
•Dispute on Level of Weathered Rock
MicropilesMicropiles Size : 100mm to 350mm Diameter Lengths : Varies Structural Capacity : 20Ton to
MicropilesMicropiles
Size : 100mm to 350mm Diameter
Lengths : Varies
Structural Capacity : 20Ton to 250Ton
Material : Grade 25MPa to 35MPa Grout
N80 API Pipe as Reinforcement
Joints: None
Installation Method :
–Drill then Cast-In-Situ
–Percussion Then Cast-In-Situ
CastCast--InIn--SituSitu PilesPiles ((MicropilesMicropiles))
CastCast--InIn--SituSitu
PilesPiles
((MicropilesMicropiles))
TYPESTYPES OFOF PILEPILE SHOESSHOES •Flat Ended Shoe •Oslo Point •Cast-Iron Pointed Tip •Cross Fin Shoe
TYPESTYPES OFOF PILEPILE SHOESSHOES
•Flat Ended Shoe
•Oslo Point
•Cast-Iron Pointed Tip
•Cross Fin Shoe
•H-Section
CrossCross FinFin ShoeShoe
CrossCross FinFin ShoeShoe
OsloOslo PointPoint ShoeShoe
OsloOslo PointPoint ShoeShoe
CastCast IronIron TipTip ShoeShoe
CastCast IronIron TipTip ShoeShoe
HH--SectionSection ShoeShoe
HH--SectionSection ShoeShoe
Piling Supervision
Piling Supervision
UniformUniform BuildingBuilding ByBy LawLaw (UBBL)1984(UBBL)1984
UniformUniform BuildingBuilding ByBy
LawLaw (UBBL)1984(UBBL)1984
PILINGPILING SUPERVISIONSUPERVISION •Ensure That Piles Are Stacked Properly •Ensure that Piles are Vertical During
PILINGPILING SUPERVISIONSUPERVISION
•Ensure That Piles Are Stacked Properly
•Ensure that Piles are Vertical During Driving
•Keep Proper Piling Records
•Ensure Correct Pile Types and Sizes are Used
•Ensure that Pile Joints are Properly Welded with
NO GAPS
•Ensure Use of Correct Hammer Weights and Drop
Heights
PILINGPILING SUPERVISIONSUPERVISION (Cont(Cont’’d)d) •Ensure that Proper Types of Pile Shoes are Used. •Check
PILINGPILING SUPERVISIONSUPERVISION
(Cont(Cont’’d)d)
•Ensure that Proper Types of Pile Shoes are Used.
•Check Pile Quality
•Ensure that the Piles are Driven to the Required
Lengths
•Monitor Pile Driving
FAILUREFAILURE OFOF PILINGPILING SUPERVISIONSUPERVISION Failing to Provide Proper Supervision WILL Result in Higher
FAILUREFAILURE OFOF PILINGPILING
SUPERVISIONSUPERVISION
Failing to Provide Proper Supervision
WILL Result in
Higher Instances of Pile Damage
& Wastage
Pile Damage
Pile Damage
DrivenDriven concreteconcrete pilespiles areare vulnerablevulnerable toto damagesdamages byby overdriving.overdriving.
DrivenDriven concreteconcrete pilespiles areare vulnerablevulnerable
toto damagesdamages byby overdriving.overdriving.
DamageDamage toto TimberTimber PilePile
DamageDamage toto TimberTimber PilePile
WeakWeak TimberTimber JointJoint
WeakWeak
TimberTimber
JointJoint
DamageDamage ToTo RCRC PilePile ToeToe
DamageDamage ToTo RCRC PilePile ToeToe
DamageDamage toto RCRC PilePile HeadHead
DamageDamage toto
RCRC PilePile
HeadHead
DamageDamage toto RCRC PilesPiles
DamageDamage toto
RCRC PilesPiles
DamageDamage toto RCRC PilesPiles –– contcont’’dd
DamageDamage toto RCRC PilesPiles –– contcont’’dd
TiltedTilted RCRC PilesPiles
TiltedTilted RCRC
PilesPiles
DamageDamage toto SteelSteel PilesPiles
DamageDamage toto SteelSteel PilesPiles
DamagedDamaged SteelSteel PipePipe PilesPiles
DamagedDamaged SteelSteel PipePipe PilesPiles
DetectionDetection ofof PilePile DamageDamage ThroughThrough PilingPiling RecordsRecords
DetectionDetection ofof PilePile DamageDamage
ThroughThrough PilingPiling RecordsRecords

Piling Problems

Piling Problems – Soft Ground
Piling Problems – Soft Ground
Piling Problems – Soft Ground Ground heave due to pressure relief at base & surcharge
Piling Problems – Soft Ground
Ground heave due to
pressure relief at base &
surcharge near
excavation
Pile tilts & moves/walks
Piling Problems – Soft Ground
Piling Problems – Soft Ground
PilingPiling inin KualaKuala LumpurLumpur LimestoneLimestone Important Points to Note: • Highly Irregular Bedrock
PilingPiling inin KualaKuala LumpurLumpur LimestoneLimestone
Important Points to Note:
• Highly Irregular Bedrock Profile
• Presence of Cavities & Solution Channels
• Very Soft Soil Immediately Above Limestone
Bedrock
Results in …
• High Rates of Pile Damage
• High Bending Stresses
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems inin TypicalTypical LimestoneLimestone BedrockBedrock
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems inin TypicalTypical LimestoneLimestone
BedrockBedrock
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– UndetectedUndetected ProblemsProblems
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– UndetectedUndetected
ProblemsProblems
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems – Coastal Alluvium
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems – Coastal Alluvium
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles Seriously damaged pile due to severe driving stress
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles
Seriously damaged
pile due to severe
driving stress in soft
ground (tension)
Defect due to poor
workmanship of pile
casting
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles Defective pile shoe Problems of defective pile head
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles
Defective pile shoe
Problems of
defective pile head
& overdriving!
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles Non- chamfered corners Cracks& fractured
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles
Non-
chamfered
corners
Cracks&
fractured
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles Pile head defect due to hard driving or and poor
PilingPiling ProblemsProblems –– DefectiveDefective PilesPiles
Pile head defect due to
hard driving or and poor
workmanship
Piling Problem - Micropiles Sinkholes caused by installation method- dewatering?
Piling Problem - Micropiles
Sinkholes caused by
installation method-
dewatering?
PilingPiling inin FillFill GroundGround Important Points to Note: •High Consolidation Settlements If Original Ground
PilingPiling inin FillFill GroundGround
Important Points to Note:
•High Consolidation Settlements If Original Ground is
Soft
•Uneven Settlement Due to Uneven Fill Thickness
•Collapse Settlement of Fill Layer If Not Compacted
Properly
Results in …
•Negative Skin Friction (NSF) & Crushing of Pile Due
to High Compressive Stresses
•Uneven Settlements
TypicalTypical DesignDesign andand ConstructionConstruction IssuesIssues #1#1 Issue #1 Pile Toe Slippage Due to Steep
TypicalTypical DesignDesign andand
ConstructionConstruction IssuesIssues #1#1
Issue #1
Pile Toe Slippage Due to Steep Incline Bedrock
Solution #1
Use Oslo Point Shoe To Minimize Pile Damage
PilePile BreakageBreakage onon InclinedInclined RockRock SurfaceSurface No Proper Pile Shoe
PilePile BreakageBreakage onon InclinedInclined
RockRock SurfaceSurface
No Proper Pile
Shoe
Extension Pile Pile Joint
Extension Pile
Pile
Joint
First Contact B/W Toe and Inclined Rock
First Contact
B/W Toe and
Inclined Rock
Pile Joint Breaks Pile Body Bends Toe “Kicked Off” on Driving
Pile Joint Breaks
Pile Body Bends
Toe “Kicked Off”
on Driving
PilePile BreakageBreakage onon InclinedInclined RockRock SurfaceSurface Continue “Sliding” of Toe
PilePile BreakageBreakage onon InclinedInclined
RockRock SurfaceSurface
Continue
“Sliding” of
Toe
UseUse OsloOslo PointPoint ShoeShoe toto MinimizeMinimize DamageDamage
UseUse OsloOslo PointPoint ShoeShoe toto MinimizeMinimize
DamageDamage
DesignDesign andand ConstructionConstruction IssuesIssues #2#2 Issue #2 Presence of Cavity Solution #2 Detect
DesignDesign andand ConstructionConstruction
IssuesIssues #2#2
Issue #2
Presence of Cavity
Solution #2
Detect Cavities through Cavity Probing then
perform Compaction Grouting
PresencePresence ofof CavityCavity Pile Sitting on Limestone with Cavity
PresencePresence ofof CavityCavity
Pile Sitting on
Limestone
with Cavity
Application of Building Load
Application of
Building Load
Application of Building Load Roof of Cavity starts to Crack …
Application of
Building Load
Roof of Cavity
starts to Crack …
Building Collapse Pile Plunges ! Collapse of Cavity Roof
Building Collapse
Pile Plunges !
Collapse of
Cavity Roof
DesignDesign andand ConstructionConstruction IssuesIssues #3#3 Issue #3 Differential Settlement Solution #3 Carry out
DesignDesign andand ConstructionConstruction
IssuesIssues #3#3
Issue #3
Differential Settlement
Solution #3
Carry out analyses to check the settlement
compatibility if different piling system is adopted
Differential Settlement of Foundation Link SAFETY House of Construction Original Building Cracks!! Not Compromised
Differential Settlement of Foundation
Link SAFETY House of
Construction Original Building
Cracks!!
Not Compromised
Renovation:
Original House
on Piles
Construct
Extensions
Piling in Progress
No
Settlement
Settlement
No
Soft
Piles
transfer
pile
Layer
Load to
Hard
Layer
Hard Layer
SPT>50

EliminateEliminate DifferentialDifferential SettlementSettlement

Soft

Layer

Piling in Progress
Piling in Progress

All Load transferred to Hard Layer – No Cracks!

Construct Extension with Suitable Piles

Progress All Load transferred to Hard Layer – No Cracks! Construct Extension with Suitable Piles Hard

Hard Layer

SPT>50

ProblemProblem ofof ShortShort PilesPiles Cracks!! Piling in Progress Construct Extensions with Short Piles Soft
ProblemProblem ofof ShortShort PilesPiles
Cracks!!
Piling in Progress
Construct
Extensions
with Short
Piles
Soft
Soft!
Layer
Load
transferred to
Soft Layer,
Extension
still Settles
Hard Layer
Load from Original House
transferred to Hard Layer
SPT>50
CracksCracks atat ExtensionExtension
CracksCracks atat ExtensionExtension
TypicalTypical DesignDesign andand ConstructionConstruction IssuesIssues #4#4 Issue #4 Costly conventional piling
TypicalTypical DesignDesign andand
ConstructionConstruction IssuesIssues #4#4
Issue #4
Costly conventional piling design – piled to set to
deep layer in soft ground
Solution #4
-Strip footings / Raft
-Floating Piles

“Conventional” Foundation for

Low Rise Buildings

“Conventional” Foundation for Low Rise Buildings

Foundation for

Foundation for Low Rise Buildings ( Soil Settlement )

Low Rise Buildings (Soil Settlement)

Foundation for Low Rise Buildings ( Soil Settlement )
Settling Platform Detached from Building Settlement Exposed Pile
Settling Platform Detached from Building
Settlement
Exposed Pile
ConceptualConceptual DesignDesign ofof FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION SYSTEMSYSTEM 1. Low Rise Buildings :- (Double-Storey
ConceptualConceptual DesignDesign ofof
FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION SYSTEMSYSTEM
1. Low Rise Buildings :-
(Double-Storey Houses)
= Strip Footings or Raft or
Combination.
2. Medium Rise Buildings :-
= Floating Piles System.

Low Rise Buildings on

Low Rise Buildings on Piled Raft/Strips Fill Strip / Raft System 25-30m Soft Clay Stiff Stratum

Piled Raft/Strips

Low Rise Buildings on Piled Raft/Strips Fill Strip / Raft System 25-30m Soft Clay Stiff Stratum
Fill Strip / Raft System 25-30m Soft Clay Stiff Stratum Hard Layer
Fill
Strip / Raft
System
25-30m
Soft Clay
Stiff
Stratum
Hard Layer

Comparison

Comparison Building on Piles Building on Piled Strips Fill 25-30m Soft Clay Strip System Stiff Stratum

Building on Piles

Building on Piled Strips

Fill 25-30m Soft Clay Strip System Stiff Stratum Hard Layer
Fill
25-30m
Soft Clay
Strip
System
Stiff
Stratum
Hard Layer

Comparison (after settlement)

Comparison (after settlement) Building on Piles Building on Piled Strips Fill 25-30m Soft Clay Strip System

Building on Piles

Building on Piled Strips

Fill 25-30m Soft Clay Strip System Stiff Stratum Hard Layer
Fill
25-30m
Soft Clay
Strip
System
Stiff
Stratum
Hard Layer

AdvantagesAdvantages ofof

Advantages Advantages of of Floating Floating Piles Piles System System 1. Cost Effective. 2. No Downdrag
Advantages Advantages of of Floating Floating Piles Piles System System 1. Cost Effective. 2. No Downdrag

FloatingFloating PilesPiles SystemSystem

of of Floating Floating Piles Piles System System 1. Cost Effective. 2. No Downdrag problems on
of of Floating Floating Piles Piles System System 1. Cost Effective. 2. No Downdrag problems on

1. Cost Effective.

2. No Downdrag problems on the Piles.

3. Insignificant Differential Settlement between Buildings and Platform.

Bandar Botanic
Bandar Botanic
Bandar Botanic

Bandar Botanic at Night

Bandar Botanic at Night

Soft Ground Engineering

Soft Ground Engineering
Myths in Piling
Myths in Piling
MYTHSMYTHS ININ PILINGPILING #1#1 Myth: Dynamic Formulae such as Hiley’s Formula Tells us the Capacity
MYTHSMYTHS ININ PILINGPILING #1#1
Myth:
Dynamic Formulae such as Hiley’s Formula
Tells us the Capacity of the Pile
Truth:
Pile Capacity can only be verified by using:
(i) Maintained (Static) Load Tests
(ii)Pile Dynamic Analyser (PDA) Tests
MYTHSMYTHS ININ PILINGPILING #2#2 Myth: Pile Achieves Capacity When It is Set. Truth: Pile May
MYTHSMYTHS ININ PILINGPILING #2#2
Myth:
Pile Achieves Capacity When It is Set.
Truth:
Pile May Only “Set” on Intermediate Hard
Layer BUT May Still Not Achieve Required
Capacity within Allowable Settlement.
CASECASE HISTORIESHISTORIES Case 1: Structural distortion & distresses Case 2: Distresses at houses
CASECASE HISTORIESHISTORIES
Case 1: Structural distortion & distresses
Case 2: Distresses at houses
CASECASE HISTORYHISTORY 11 Distortion & Distresses on 40 Single/ 70 Double Storey Houses Max. 20m
CASECASE HISTORYHISTORY 11
Distortion & Distresses on 40
Single/ 70 Double Storey Houses
Max. 20m Bouldery Fill on
Undulating Terrain
Platform Settlement
Short Piling Problems
Downdrag on Piles
Distresses on Structures
Distresses on Structures
Void
Void
70 PilingContractorA Building Offset 13.1m Offset36.2m Offset 13.1m Platform 60 Offset 13.1m Original Ground
70
PilingContractorA
Building
Offset 13.1m
Offset36.2m
Offset 13.1m
Platform
60
Offset 13.1m
Original
Ground Profile
50
N=34
?
?
N=30
?
40
?
N=5
N=40
?
?
?
?
?
N=25
?
30
N=29
? ?
Profile with SPT 'N'≅30
ProfilewithSPT'N'>50
Filled ground
Original Ground
Hard Stratum
Borehole
Pile Toe
Pile Toe of Additional
Piles
20
0
40000
80000
120000
160000
200000
Reduced Level (m)

Coordinate-X (mm)

Piling 80 Contractor A PilingContractorB 70 Offset9.1m Offset9.1m 60 N=34 Profile with SPT 'N'≅30
Piling
80
Contractor A
PilingContractorB
70
Offset9.1m
Offset9.1m
60
N=34
Profile with SPT 'N'≅30
Building Platform
N=28
N=41
50
?
?
N=30
Original Ground Profile
?
?
40
N=5
N=29
?
Filled ground
Original Ground
Hard Stratum
Borehole
Pile Toe
Pile Toe of Additional
Piles
Profile with SPT 'N'>50
30
0
40000
80000
120000
160000
200000
Reduced Level (m)

Coordinate-X (mm)

PreventionPrevention MeasuresMeasures Design: – Consider downdrag in foundation design – Alternative strip system
PreventionPrevention MeasuresMeasures
Design:
– Consider downdrag in foundation design
– Alternative strip system
Construction:
– Proper QA/QC
– Supervision
CASECASE HISTORYHISTORY 22 Distresses on 12 Double Storey Houses & 42 Townhouses Filled ground: platform
CASECASE HISTORYHISTORY 22
Distresses on 12 Double Storey
Houses & 42 Townhouses
Filled ground: platform settlement
Design problem: non-suspended floor
with semi-suspended detailing
Bad earthwork & layout design
Short piling problem
Diagonal cracks due to differential settlement between columns Larger column settlement
Diagonal cracks due
to differential
settlement between
columns
Larger column
settlement
Sagging Ground Floor Slab
Sagging
Ground
Floor Slab
SAGGING PROFILE OF NON- SUSPENDED GROUND FLOOR SLAB NON-SUSPENDED GROUND FLOOR SLAB BEFORE SETTLEMENT V
SAGGING PROFILE OF NON-
SUSPENDED GROUND FLOOR SLAB
NON-SUSPENDED GROUND FLOOR
SLAB BEFORE SETTLEMENT
V c < V e
ρ s
V e > V c
V c
PILECAP
PILE
BUILDING PLATFORM PROFILE AFTER
SETTLEMENT
ρ s
ACTUAL FILLED PLATFORM SETTLEMENT
Distorted Car Porch Roof
Distorted Car Porch Roof
Poor Earthwork Layout Silt trap BLOCK 2 Temporary earth drain BLOCK 1
Poor Earthwork Layout
Silt trap
BLOCK 2
Temporary
earth drain
BLOCK 1
PreventionPrevention MeasuresMeasures Planning: – Proper building layout planning to suit terrain (eg. uniform fill
PreventionPrevention MeasuresMeasures
Planning:
– Proper building layout planning to suit terrain
(eg. uniform fill thickness)
– Sufficient SI
Design:
– Consider filled platform settlement
– Earthwork layout
Construction:
– Supervision on earthwork & piling
SUMMARYSUMMARY Importance of Preliminary Study Understanding the Site Geology Carry out Proper Subsurface
SUMMARYSUMMARY
Importance of Preliminary Study
Understanding the Site Geology
Carry out Proper Subsurface Investigation
that Suits the Terrain & Subsoil
Selection of Suitable Pile
Pile Design Concepts
SUMMARYSUMMARY Importance of Piling Supervision Typical Piling Problems Encountered Present Some Case Histories
SUMMARYSUMMARY
Importance of Piling Supervision
Typical Piling Problems Encountered
Present Some Case Histories
54 PEOPLE TOOK PART IN THIS CONCERTED ACROBATIC JUMP. FERRARI ‘S PITSTOP WAS COMPLETED BY
54 PEOPLE TOOK PART IN THIS
CONCERTED ACROBATIC JUMP.
FERRARI ‘S PITSTOP WAS COMPLETED BY
15 MECHANICS (FUEL AND TYRES) IN 6.0
SECONDS FLAT.