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..

1.
1 9.

:
1. ... 3
2. ..6
3. ....11
4. 14
5. ....24
6. ...29
7. 38
8. .46
9. . 51

1.
, ,
.
.
1. v
x .
, ,
,
Y l ,
u ( u > v ) .
?
2. u = v .
.
3. n n - l
u ,
, , ...
n - . ?
n = 2, n = 4
.
n ?
.
1.

X .

(

, )

v . = u v cos( ) .
(1)

ti .
:
l = ( u v cos( i ))ti ,
(2)
( - l );
, :
( v cos )t = ( u cos i )ti ,
(3)
3

( v sin )t + l = ( u sin i )ti .


(4)
, ,
, ,
(3)-(4)
v cos
(cosi )ti = u t ;
v sin
v
(sin i )ti = u t + l u ;
(2):
l = ( u v cos( i ))ti = ut v (cos cos i + sin sin i )ti =
= ut v cos (cosi )ti v sin (sin i )ti =
v
v
l
= ut v cos ( t cos ) v sin ( t sin + ) =
u
u
u
2
v
v
= ut t l sin ;
u
u

u + v sin
t=l 2
.
(5)
u v2
, , u > v ,
. = / 2 (5)
l
.
t =
umv
2. ,
h
. ,
, (2)-(4)
l h = ( u v cos( i ))ti ,
(6)

( v cos )t ( u cosi )ti = h cos ,

(7)

( v sin )t + l ( u sin i )ti = h sin .


(8)
.1

1 + sin
h=l
,
(9)
2
.

3. ,
n -,
.

.
-
n 2
.
, =
n

v . = v( 1 cos
) = 2v sin 2 .
n
n

l
l
t=
=
(10).
v . 2v sin 2
n
n = 2 , (10)
l
t = .
2v
l
n = 4 , (10) , t = .
v
, ,
,
l
. n ,
v
, (10)
l
t = 2 n 2 , -

2 v
2
n n .

.
,
, , , .
. , ,
.

( , ..)
.
, ,
.
,
.
5

2.
,
,
,
.
(.1)
.
l .

.
1.
.
2. ?
3. ,
?
4. .
.
.
x

( 1 + x ) 1 + x +

( 1)
2

x2

.
1.
x0 , x1 (.2).

x1 = l 2 + x02 l .
(1)

(1),

dx
dx dx
x
v1 = 1 = 1 0 = 2 0 2 v0 , (2)
dt dx0 dt
l + x0
v0 , v1 - , .
(2)

. ,
, .

U = mgx0 + 2mgx1 = mgx0 + 2mg( l 2 + x02 l ) . (3)



mv02
mv12 mv02
x02 mv02 l 2 + 3 x02
Ek =
+2
=
.
(4)
2
1 + 2 2
=
l + x02
l + x02
2
2
2
2
,

mv02 l 2 + 3 x02
2
= mgx0 2mg l 2 + x02 l .
(5)
2
2
l + x0
,

mgx0 2mg

l 2 + x02 l = 0 .

(6)

,
4
x0 ,max = l .
(7)
3

,
(3), U = 0 . ,
(5), , -, ,
, - .

2.
. (3)

x
dU
= mg + 2mg 2 0 2 = 0 .
dx0
l + x0
(8)

l
x0 =
,
(9)
3
x0 -
.
-
,
mg , .

3. (5)

x02 + l 2
v0 = 2 g x 0 2 x + l + 2 l
.
(10)
3 x02 + l 2
(9)
4
v0 =
gl( 2 3 ) .
(11)
3
(10),
,
(5)
d mv02 l 2 + 3 x02 d
=
(12)
mgx0 2mg l 2 + x02 l .
2

2
dt 2
l + x0 dt

( ).

2
0

))

d mv02 l 2 + 3 x02 2mv0 a0 l 2 + 3 x02 mv02 6 x0 ( l 2 + x02 ) 2 x0 ( l 2 + 3 x02 )


2
+

=
2

=
2
2 2
dt 2
l + x02
l + x02
2
2
l + x0

l 2 + 3 x02 mv02
4 x0 l 2
= mv0 a0 2
+

l + x02
2
l 2 + x02

=0

(9) (11),

2 3
a0 = g
.
(13)
3
4.
, .
x ,

mv 2 kx 2
(14)
+
= E,
2
2
dx
v =
- x , E - ,
dt
kx 2
- (
2
, x ,
).
(14),

m
T = 2
,
(15)
k
, .
8


(5) (14).

x0 = x0 + ,
(16)
x0 - , (9), -
, .

,
. , 3
.
(
),
x0
x0

mv02 l 2 + 3 x02 mv02 l 2 + 3 x02 3


v02
2

=
m

.
(17)
2
2
2
2
l + x02
l 2 + x02

,
.
( ,
)
U = mgx0 + 2mg l 2 + x02 = mg( x0 + 2 l 2 + x02 ) .
(16) ,

Ek =

x0 + 2 l 2 + x02 = ( x0 + ) + 2 l 2 + ( x0 + )

( x0 + ) + 2 l 2 + x02 + 2 x0 + 2
2 x0 + 2
+ 2 l + x 1+ 2
l + x02
2

2
0

2
2 2

2
x

2
x

1
1
0
+ 2 l 2 + x02 1 +
20

2
2
2

2
l
+
x
8
l
+
x


0
0

2 x0

l 2 + x02

2 x0 2
1
1
2
2

+ 2

l + x0 2
2
l + x2 8
+
l
x

0
2

;

;

,

;


2 , ,

;

x0
,

;

3 3 2

8l

,
3 3
2
U=
mg ,
(18)
4l
2

3 v2 3 3
2
m +
mg
=E.
(19)
2 2
4l
2
(15),
2l
T = 2
.
(20)
3g
. ,
! ,
( ). ,
,
. , (
) ,
, .

.4


v0 , v1

U ,

(..2). ,

,

.

(5)

l 2 + 3 x02
m = m 2
,
l + x02
*

m ( x0 = 0
,
) 3m ( x0 >> l ).
,
,
.

10

3.

l M .
r
v0 ,

,
m .
x . .
1. : v1 , u ,
.
= M = x .
l
m
2.
?
( , ) .
3.
r
v0 ?
4. = 0 ,333 , = 0 ,330 .
?
.
1. :
-
(1)
mv0 = mv1 + Mu ;
- ( ,
)
(2)
mv0 x = mv1 x + I ;
-
mv02 mv12 Mu 2 I 2
;
(3)
=
+
+
2
2
2
2
Ml 2
I =
- ,
12
.
, v1 , u , ; ,
.
- . ,
11

, ,
. .

m
( v0 v1 )
M
mx
=
( v0 v1 )
I
m( v02 v12 ) = Mu 2 + I 2

(1) (2);

u=

(3) ;
2

m( v v ) = M ( v0 v1 ) +
M

2
0

2
1

mx

+ I ( v0 v1 )
I

( v0 + v1 ) = 12 2 ( v0 v1 ) +
+ ( v0 v1 )


( v0 v1 ) ,
,
;
,

=
12 2 + 1
v1 = v0
;
12 2 + 1 +
2
u = v0
;
2
12 + 1 +
24
l = v0
.
2
12 + 1 +

(4)

M
x
= ;
l
m


,
,

.

(4) .
2.
.
,
O .


l / 2 .
. ,
, v1 u > 0 .
(4) , ,

< 12 2 1 .
(5)
12

,
( CA1 ) ,
A . , CA1

( l / 2 )2 x 2
t1 =
,
v1 u

+ arccos(

2x
)
l . ,

x
) ,
t2 =

l/2
, t 2 > t1 . (4),


AOA1 = + arccos(

12 1 4 2
< 12 1
.
arccos 2
2

(6)

, (6),
(5).
, v1 u < 0 ,

> 12 2 1 .
(7)

, :
-

( l / 2 )2 x 2
t1 =
;
u v1
- A1
2x
arccos( )
l .
t =

, t 2 > t1 . (4),

12 1 4 2
> 12 1 +
.
arccos 2
2

(8)

(8)
(7). , (6) (8)
.
,
, ( , ) .
.
13

4.

(

,
Z
,
k .
1. V0 ,
z0
?
2. , z0 ,
V .
z .
3. z0
.
v ( ).
z
.
4. z0
. v ,
( v << gz0 ).
z
.


( 1 + x ) 2 1 2 x + 3 x 2

14

.
1.
r
: mg - ,
r
- ,
; N

. ,
z0 , ,


V02

,
r
r = z0 tg - , .
, ,
mV02
mg
=
,
(1)
z0 tg tg
,

V0 = gz0 .

(2)

2.

( ,
)
,


.


: z - ,
r - , -
.

Vz ,Vr , V .

m(Vz2 + Vr2 + V2 )

mV 2
(3)
+ mgz =
+ mgz0 .
2
2
r = z tg = kz , Vr = kVz , (3)

15

2
( 1 + k 2 )Vz2 V
V2
+
+ gz =
+ gz0 .
2
2
2

(4)

mrV = mr0V .

(5)

r
, V
.
r z , (5)
z0V
.
(6)
z
(4),
V =

2 2
( 1 + k 2 )Vz2 z0 V
V2
gz
+
+
=
+ gz0 .
2
2z 2
2

(7)


z ,
, z

z02V 2
U . ( z ) =
+ gz .
2z 2

(8)

,

-
. ,

z .
(8)

,
U . ( z ) .

(8), - .
E , z1 , z2

U . = E U . ( z ) . , ,
,
, .

16

, z ,
(7) Vz = 0 ,
( )
. ,
z02V 2
V2
+ gz =
+ gz0
(9)
2z 2
2
, z
. ,
, -
z1 = z0 .
:

V 2 z02 z 2
V 2 z02

= g( z0 z ) ;
1 = g( z0 z )
z2
2 z2
2

V2
V2
z
z
z0 = 0 .
2g
2g
2

gz
V2
z2 ,3 =
1 1 + 8 20 .
4g
V


z = 0 - .
- ,
, (8)
z < 0 (.
).
.
,
z



V2
gz
z z0 , 1 + 1 + 8 20 .
V
4g
, V = V0 =

(10)

(11)

gz0 ,

z0 , , .
. V < V0
( z2 < z0 ), V > V0
.
.
17


E =

V2
+ gz .
2

. ,
,
z (,
).
.
?
r
, : mg ,

r , N , .
F ,
!
, 2 ,

,

r
r
a2 a1 ,

.
r
a
.
r
,

a1 ,

a2 (. ),
, .

3. ,
(2) V0 = gz0 . ,
v ,
. ,
(4)-(5) ,
V = V0 + v .
z (11).
18

gz0
(V0 + v )2
z1 = z0 ; z2 =
1 + 1 + 8

4g
(V0 + v )2
, , v << V0 .

(12)

, , .
,
(V0 + v )2
gz0
,
1 + 1 + 8

(V0 + v )2
4g


V02 ( 1 + v / V0 )2
gz0

1 + 1 + 8 2

4g
V0 ( 1 + v / V0 )2

v / V0


V02

z0
v
v
( 1 + 2 ) 1 + 1 + 8( 1 2 )
4
V0
V0

( 1 + x ) 1 + x
z0
v
(1 + 2
V0
4

v
) 1 + 9 16
V0

z0
v
16 v
( 1 + 2 ) 1 + 3 1

V0
4
9 V0

z0
v
8 v
( 1 + 2 ) 1 + 3( 1
)
4
V0
9 V0

( 1 + x ) 1 + x

2 v
) 1

3 V0

4 v
z0 ( 1 +
)
3 V0

z0 ( 1 + 2

v
V0

,

(

v 2
)
V0

,
( , , ):

z = F (V0 + v ) F (V0 ) + F (V0 ) v .


F ( V0 ) , ,
, .
, .

, z0
4 v
4 v
z0 ( 1 +
) = z0 ( 1 +
).
v

3 V0
3 gz0
,
19


, .
,
,

v2
2

2
2

= const ,

(13)

, - , v - ,

T = 2
. , ,

(13), .

v2
2

2
2

+ = const ,

,
- ,
.

(8),
z = z0 + , << z0 .

U . ( z ) =

z02V 2
+ gz
2z 2

z02 (V0 + v )2
+ g( z0 + )
2( z0 + )2

z02V02 ( 1 + v / V0 )2
+ gz0 + g
2 z02 ( 1 + / z0 )2

,
V02

v
( 1 + )2 ( 1 2( ) + 3( )2 ) + ;
2
V0
z0
z0
-

+ gz0 + g
A + B +

3 V02
v 2 2
(
)
1
+
2 z02
V0

A , B
.

20

A + B +

3 gz0 2

2 z02

V02 ,
v / V0

- ,

.
,
, B
,
.
,

1
U ( z0 + ) U ( z0 ) + U ( z0 ) + U ( z0 ) 2 .
2

, (13)
, .

(7)
, V = Vz :

( 1 + k 2 )V2

3 g 2
+ B = const ,
2
2 z0
, , ,

+

( 1 + k 2 )z0
T = 2
3g

(14)


- : 1-
, E0 . ,

2
E .

.

4. -,
V0 = gz0 .
v ,

21

mv 2
,
,
2
.
(4)-(5)

2
( 1 + k 2 )V z2 V
V02 v 2
+
+ gz =
+
+ gz 0 ,
2
2
2
2

(15)

mrV = mr0V0 .

(16)

V ,

( 1 + k 2 )Vz2 z02V02
V02 v 2
gz
+
+
=
+
+ gz0 .
2
2z 2
2
2

(17)

: Vz = 0
(17) z ,
. (17)
,
. , v << V0 . ,
z .
z = z0 + , << z0 , / z0
(17).
, .

, .
z02V02
V02 v 2

+
(
+
)
=
+
+ gz0 ;
g
z
2( z0 + )2
2
2

z02V02
V02 v 2
+ g( z0 + ) =
+
+ gz0 ;
2 z02 ( 1 + / z0 )2
2
2
V02
V02 v 2

2
+
+ gz0 ;
( 1 2 + 3( ) ) + g( z0 + ) =
z0
z0
2
2
2
V02 2 v 2
3( ) =
;
2
2
z0

22

3 g 2 v2
=
.
2 z0
2
z0 v 2
=
3g
,
:
z1 = z0

z0 v 2
; z2 = z0 +
3g

z0 v 2
3g

(18)

, z0 ,


. ,
,
.


(17),

( 1 + k 2 )V2

3 g 2 v2
=
.
(19)
2
2 z0
2
,

z
T = 2 0 .
(20)
3g
+

, .

. ,

. ,

.

23


.

h = 600 .
, v0 = 800 /
. .
1. .
)
) .

2. .
) .
) ?
)
?

5.

l ,
A1 A2 . x1 x2 .
,
S1 S 2 ( ).
.
.
a .
1.
( S1 ) ( S 2 )
x1 x2 .
2.

a
x1 = .
2
3. x1 , x2 ,
T1
.
( x1 , x 2 )

T1 .
.
24

4. ( x1 , x 2 ) ( x1 , x2 ),

. ,
.
.
1.

I
T = 2
,
(1)
Mgb
M - , I -
, b - .

I = m( a x1 )2 + m( x2 a )2 ,
(2)
m - .

x1 + x 2
( x a ) + ( x2 a )
a= 1
.
(3)
2
2
,
(, M = 2m )
b=

( a x1 ) 2 + ( x 2 a ) 2
T1 = 2
.
g(( x1 a ) + ( x2 a ))

(4)


(4) x2 ( l x2 ), x1 ( l x1 ) :

( a l + x1 )2 + ( l x 2 a )2
T2 = 2
.
g(( l x1 a ) + ( l x2 a ))

(5)

2. T1 ( x2 ) x1 =
(4)

T1 = 2

( a x1 ) + ( x 2 a )
a
= 2

g(( x1 a ) + ( x2 a ))
g
2

25

x2
1
1 )2 +
a
4.
x2 3

a 2

(6)

: x2 / a ;

a
.
g


.

T1 / ,

= 2

3. (4) , ( x1 , x2 ) ,
T1
( a x1 )2 + ( x2 a )2 gT12
.
=
4 2
( x1 a ) + ( x 2 a )

(7)

gT12

= 2 p , (7)
4 2
( x1 a p ) 2 + ( x 2 a p ) 2 = 2 p 2 ,

(8)

2 p ,
x1 = x2 = a + p . T1
p . , (8)
x1 = x2 = a , - ).
, T2 = const ,
,
x2 ( l x2 ), x1 ( l x1 ) .
T2 = const

( l x1 a p ) 2 + ( l x 2 a p ) 2 = 2 p 2 ,

(9)

, x1 = x2 = l a ,
. ).

26

4. ,
,
, .
, x1 = x2 = a x1 = x2 = l a .


.



( x1 l / 2 )2 + ( x2 l / 2 )2 = 2( l / 2 a )2
.
(10)
(4)
x1 = x2 = l a :

( a x1 ) 2 + ( x 2 a ) 2
l 2a
T1 = 2
= 2
.
(11)
g(( x1 a ) + ( x2 a ))
g
(5),
x1 = x2 = a . (11)
.
27

.
,
.
.
, , ,
(11).

2
12 1

[0 ,1 / 2]

( 1).

12 1 4 2
12 1
.
arccos 2
2


(
2).

12 1 4 2
12 1 +
,
arccos 2
2


( 3).
. ,
. ,
:
- I (6),
, ;
- II (5), ,
, (6), ;
- III (7), ,
,
(8);
- , IV (8), ,
, .

3.
, , ,
( C
), .
, . ,

v1 = u ,

= 12 2 1 .

(9)
28

4. , ,
.
, (4) ,
12 2 1
v1 u = v0
2 ,51 10 4 v0 ;
2
12 + 1 +
24
l = v0
3 ,00 v0 .
2
12 + 1 +
l

= 1,05 ,
v0

4
= ( v1 u ) 2 ,63 10 l .
(
.

CC1 ,

). (

7 ,88 10 3 ),
l

v0 = v0 u ( -
, !) ,
. ,
,

12 2 1 +
v = ( v0 u ) = v0
1,96 10 4 v0 .
2
12 + 1 +

,
,
v
= 2 ,0 10 4 .
v0

29

6.
(
m ), ( ).
l ,
, T0 .

1. .
,
.
1.1 0 ,
.
1.2 .
.
1.3
?

1.4 .
.
1.5
<< 0 . ,
c =

, E - ,

- .
1.6 ,
n .
,
.
2. .

, ( x << l ) .

30

2.1 ,
.
2.2 .
2.3
<< 0 . ,
c =

, G -

, - .
2.4 ,
.
2.5 ,
,
.

.
1.
1.1 x .

,
,

T1 = T0 + x
T2 = T0 x .

ma = T2 T1 ,
a - , ,

ma = 2 x .
(1)

2
0 =
.
(2)
m
,

T0 . ,
, T0 ,
31

, -
.

1.2 . ,
k x k ,
a k .

k -
ma k = T1 + T2 ,
, ,
ma k = ( x k x k 1 ) + ( x k +1 x k ) .
m .

a k = x k +

02

02

(3)
x k 1 +
x k +1 .
2
2
,
, .
.
,

, .
(3)
(4)
x k = A cos( t + k ) .
,
, ,
. (3)

x k = A cos( t )
x k 1 = A cos( t ) .
(5)
x k +1 = A cos( t + )
:
2
0

A cos t = A cos t + A

02

02

cos( t ) + A cos( t + )
2
2
,

A 2 cos t = A02 cos t + A02 cos t cos .
2

2
0

32

A cos t ,

cos = 1

2
,
02

(6)

2
= arccos( 1 2 ) .
0

(7)

, ,
.

1.3
,
( (6))

2
1 2 1,
0

20 = 2

(8)

, , (8)
(3), , ,
, .
.

1.4
, (3)

x k = A cos( t + k ) ,
(7). ,
, k
z
z - k = . (, x k
l
,
z ).
:
z
(9)
x( z ,t ) = A cos( t + ) .
l
c
, :
z
t + = const ,
l

33

c=

z l
=
=
t

l
2
arccos( 1 2 )
0

(10)

c( ) ,

<< 1 .
0

( )2
cos = 1
. (6) : =
2.
0
2
(10),

l
(11)
c0 = 0 .
2
(10)
2 ( / 0 )
c
=
,
(12)
c0 arccos( 1 ( / 0 )2 )

/ 0 .
,

20 . / 0 = 2
(12) ,
2 / . ,

1 2 / 0 ,64 .
,
,
, .

. 0 ,
.

1.5
(11), 0 ,

c0 =

0 l

=l

.
(13)
m
2
,
E
c =
. = E , -

,
.
,
34

T = x ,
x
= , T = l . , ,
l
m
l . .
l
,
E

c=
=l
,

m

.
1.6 (3)

a k = x k +

02

02

x k 1 +
x k +1 .
2
2
,
,
. ,
, ,
( n + 1 ) - .
x k = A sin k cos t .
(14)
k = 0 , x0 = 0 .
xn +1 = 0 ,
:
sin( n + 1 ) = 0 , ( n + 1 ) = j ,
2
0

j = j

; j = 1,2... n.
(15)
n+1
(14) j

A 2 sin k j cos t = A02 sin k j cos t +


;
02
02
sin( k 1 ) j cos t + A
sin( k + 1 ) j cos t
+A
2
2

2 sin k j = 02 sin k j + 02 sin k j cos j .
C (15)

j
j = 0 1 cos
; j = 1,2 ,3...
(16)
n+1

35

n = 20 .

,
.
,

(
),



.
(3):
( !) ; . ,
() . ,
,
: .
(
,
).
, ,
, ,
( ).

2. .
2.1 x
.
, , (
x
);
l
,

( x 2 ,
).
x
ma = 2T0 sin = 2T0 .
(17)
l
,

2T0
0 =
.
(18)
ml

36

,
,
3
x .

2.2
.
x x k 1
ma k = T0 k

l
.
(19)

m,

0 , (18)

a k = x k +

02

02

x k 1 +
x k +1 ,
(20)
2
2
(3).
. ,

l
c=
.
(21)
2
arccos( 1 2 )
2
0

,
l
Tl
c0 = 0 = 0 .
m
2

(22)

2.3 = G ( , - ).

F = T0 . ,
G T0 ,
m / l .
,
Tl
G
c0 =
= 0 ,
m

(22).
2.4
c 2c
= =
.

37

(21),
2l
=
.
2
arccos( 1 2 )

(23)

= 0 2 .
min = 2l .
.
,


. ,
,
, .
2.5
, (21)
.
, :
.
, -
.
, .

7.

,
: 1 2 ,
2 1 - .
1. V1 / V0 .
2.
?
3.
1 2 .
4. ,
1 2 , .
5. ... .
38

.
.
( ,
..),
. ,
, . ,
. ,
, ,
, .
P0 , V0 .
P ,V , (
p , v ),

p=

P
V
, v=
.
P0
V0

(1)

.
(1)

T=

PV P0V0
=
pv .
R
R

(2)

t=

TR
.
P0V0

P0V0
,
R

(3)


pv = t .
(4)
, ,
A = PV = ( P0V0 ) pv . ,
, P0V0 .

3
RT
U 2
3
u =
=
= t .
P0V0
P0V0
2

(5)

, .

C=

Q P0V0 q
q
,
=
=R
T P0V0 t
t
R

,
,

c=

C
.
R

(6)

, (1),
(3), (5), (6).

.
39

1.
.

.
2 1
pv = 2 ,
(7)
cp 5
=
=
cV 3
. (

p = 2 , v = 1 ) . (7), p = 1
3

V
v1 = 1 = 2 1/ = 2 5 1,516 .
V0

(8)

2. 1 2

p = 2 a( v 1 ) ,
a
2 :
1 = 2 a ( v1 1 ) ,
1
1,94 ,
, a =
v1 1
v 1 2 v1 1 v
p=2
.
(9)
=
v1 1
v1 1

pv = t (9):
( 2v1 1 v )v
t = pv =
.
(10)
v1 1
1
2v 1
v( 1 ) = 1
(11)
1,016 ,
2

1 2
v
(

)
1
( 2v1 1 v( 1 ) )v( 1 )
2
=
t max =
2 ,00 .
(12)
v1 1
v1 1
1

,
. ,
, (10) .

40

Tmax = 2 ,00

P0V0
R



1 2 . , v( 1 ) 1,016

, ,

.
,

1,
.

3. c =

q
dt

2
q = du + a ,
q - , , du -
, a - . ,
3
a = pdv , du = dt ,
2

dv
q 3
c=
= +p .
(13)
dt 2
dt
(9) dt
dv 2v 1 2v
dt = 1
dv
v1 1
(13)
dv 3 2v 1 v
dv
q 3
c=
= +p = + 1

=
2 v1 1 2 v
dt 2
dt 2
v1 1
dv
v1 1
(14)
10 v1 5 8 v 2 ,54 2v
=
.

2v1 1 2v 1,017 v

du -
, , q ,a 2

41


2v 1
.
v( 1 ) = 1
2
,
,
,
.
10 v1 5
1,27
v( 2 ) =
8

,

.



. ,
v ( 2 ) 1,27 ,

.

4.
1 2 1 v :
q = u + a

3
3 2 v1 1 v
3 ( 2v1 1 )v v 2 2( v1 1 )
u = t = (
2)=
. (15)
2
2
v1 1
2
v1 1

( )
2v 1 v
2+ p
1
a=
( v 1) = ( 2 + 1
)( v 1 ) =
v1 1
2
2
.
(16)
1 ( 4v1 2 )v v 2 ( 4v1 3 )
=
v1 1
2
,
4v 2 + v( 10 v1 5 ) ( 10 v1 9 )
q = u + a =
.
(17)
2( v1 1 )
42


10 v1 5
, v( 2 ) =
1,27 ,
8

( 10 v1 13 )2
0 ,281 ,
q 1 = q ( v( 2 ) ) =
(16)
32( v1 1 )
, ,
1 2 . ,
, .


(17), .. q1 .

, (15)
v = v1 6v 9
a = q ( v1 ) = 1
0 ,047 .
(18)
2
, ,
2 1
,

.
(17)

.
,

(16),

1 2 ,


2 1 .
,
(16) v = v1 ,

a12 =

1 ( 4v1 2 )v1 v 2 ( 4v1 3 ) 3( v1 1 )


=
0 ,77 ,
2
2
v1 1

, .

4.

a
= 0 ,17 .
(18)
q1

43

.
1.
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
,
) ;
) .
.

,

,

).
) v < v( 1 )
,

( c > 0 , t > 0 )
( q = ct > 0 ).
)

v ( 1 ) < v < v( 2 )

( c < 0 , t < 0 ),

( q = ct > 0 ).
,
,
,

. .
) v > v( 2 ) ,
( c > 0 , t < 0 ), ( q = ct < 0 ).

2. , ,
q( v ) ,
q - ,
, 1.
,


( q ,v ) - ,
v .
,
. ,
,
, .
44

3.
(, PV ).
(

):

3
5
R ); 2- ( C = R ); 32
2
( C ); 4- ( C = 0 ).

1-

(C =


.

. P = P0 + k (V V0 ) .

2
RT = ( P0 + k (V V0 ))V = ( P0 kV0 )V + kV .
( (13),
)

C = CV + P

P + k (V V0 )
P0
dV
= CV + R 0
.
= CV + R
dT
P0 kV0 + 2 kV
P0 + kV0


.
.

ABC
AB .


A ,
.

.

4. .
5. ( ),
.

45

8.
,
m .

r
a
b
U ( r ) = 12 6 ,
r
r
a , b - .
F = U 'r , U 'r
r .
.

a , b, m

:
1) .
2) (
) .
3) E .
4)
. .
5) (
, ) - . .
6) .

,
x :
( 1) 2
( 1 + x ) 1 + x +
x ,
2
,
.

46

.
1.

12a 6 b
f = U = 13 7 .
(1)
r
r
(,
, ).
(
) f = 0 ,

1
6

2a
r0 = .
b

(2)

U ( r )

f ( r )
.
r = r0 .

r03 ,
,
m
b
= 3 =m
.
(3)
ro
2a


, .
r0 ,
r0 .

2. , .
n = 6 ,

n
3b 2
u = U ( r0 ) =
,
(4)
2
4a
, U ( r )
.
, ,
,
u 3b 2
= =
.
(5)
m 4am

47

3. ,
.
.
(1) r = r0 + x , x -
.

,

x
x
12a
6b
12a
6b

= 13 ( 1 + )13 7 ( 1 + )7
f =
13
7
r0
r0
r0
r0
( r0 + x )
( r0 + x )
. (6)
36 b x
7
r0 r0
r02 ,
,

f 36 b x 18 b 2 x
= 2= 9 =
b .
(7)
r0
r0 r0
2 a r0
= E ( = x / r0 -
),
=

3
2

3
2

18 b
b
b 12 ,7 b .
a
2 a

(8)


.
,

.

f ( r ) , (1),

~
f ( r0 + x ) kx ,

(6).
,

U ( r )

kx 2
~
U ( r0 + x ) u +
2

(. ). ,


.
48

4.
r1 (
). r1 ,
() , ,
. r1
f = 0 :
f=

12 13a 6 7 b
+ 8 = 0.
r 14
r

(9)

(9) r1 ,

26 a 6
r1 =
.
7b

(10)

,

1

max

r r
13 6
= 1 0 = 1 0 ,11 .
7
r0

(11)


( )

7

max

U ( r1 )
18 7 6 b 2
b 2
b

b
0
48
=
=
,
.

a
r02
13 2 13 a

(12)

5.


.


r1 r2 , .
.
r1 r2
(13)
U ( r ) = U ( r0 ) + kT ,
kT -
( k - , T -
49

). x = r 6 (20),
(13)
b2
ax 2 bx +
(14)
kT = 0 ,
4a

b
4akT
x1,2 =
(15)
1
.
b2
2a
r1 r2 :
1

7
6
r1,2 = r0 ( 1 ) r0 ( 1 m + 2 ) ,
(16)
6 72
4arT
=

b2
.
, r1 r2 :
r +r
7

7 akT
r = 1 2 = r0 1 + 2 = r0 1 +
(17)
.
72

2
18b 2
(17)
l = l0 ( 1 + T ) ,
7 ak
=
.
(18)
18b 2

.
,
.
, ,

.


.

50

9.

,
-,
T
T + T .

.
1. , (
-),
P T
P
q
=
;
T T (V1 V2 )
:
- , V1 V2 -
, .
2. P T , q
, V2 << V1 , ,
.
3. ,
. p
t . ,
.

t , C
p,

10
1226

20
2333

30
4240

50
12330

80
47343

100
101325

4. 1
- .
,

. 332
.

51

.
1. AD
BC ,

.
,
.

3
T
=
,
(1)
T
, , A ,
, Q .
AB
q ,
4 A = P(V1 V2 ) ,
A P(V1 V2 )
= =
.
(2)
Q
q
,
-
P
q
=
.
(3)
T T (V1 V2 )
2.
,
dP
q
=
.
(4)
dT TV1

RT
PV1 =
, ( M - , ,
M
RT
) V1 =
(4) PM
dP qPM
=
.
(5)
dT RT 2
:

T + T , , ,
T << T .
4

.
52

P
dP qM T dT
dP qM dT
=
2
=
2 . P0 -
P
R
P
R T
P
T T
T0 .

P qM 1 1

ln =
(6)
P0
R T0 T

qM 1 1
qM
P = P0 exp
= C exp
(7)

RT
R T0 T
0

3. (6), (7), ,
1
5 ln P 1 / T . ln P = b a ,
T
qM
a =
, b - ,
R
.

t , C
3

10 / T
p,

ln P

10
3,53
1226
7,11

20
3,41
2333
7,75

30
3,30
4240
8,35

50
3,10
12330
9,42

80
2,83
47343
10,77

100
2,68
101325
11,53


. ,

, ,
.
a
,
(ln P )
5 ,2 10 3 K ,
( 1 / T )
,

, ,

ln

p
p0

, ,

ln p

. ,
.

53

, 6.
, 1.

10 3
x=
T

y = ln P

1
2
3
4
5
6

3,53
3,41
3,30
3,10
2,83
2,68

7,11
7,75
8,35
9,42
10,77
11,53

xk
< x >=

x k2

=
< x > 2 9 ,331 10 2 ;

3 ,142 ;
S
N
N
yk
y k2

2
< y >=
9 ,155 ;
Sy =
< y > 2 2 ,521 ;
N
N
x k y k < x > < y > 0 ,4849 ;
Rxy =
N
2

Rxy
1 Sy
a = 2 5 ,197 ;
a = 2
2 a 2 0 ,086 .
N 2 Sx
Sx

2
x

(
10 3 )
a = ( 5 ,20 0 .09 ) 10 3 K .
qM
a =

R

aR

.
q=
= ( 2 ,40 0 ,04 ) 10 6
M

,
,
.

4. - ()
:
- ;
- ,
.

dP
q
=
,
(8)
dT T ( 1 / 1 1 / 2 )
6

1.

54

1 , 2 - , .
,
T
q
P =

11 10 6 .
( 1 / 1 1 / 2 ) T

, T = 1K , T = 273 K .
- !
,
. , ,
(, , ),
.
(8)

dP =

q
dT
;

( 1 / 1 1 / 2 ) T

dP = ( 1 /

q
dT
;

1 / 2 ) T

q
T
ln
( 1 / 1 1 / 2 )
T0
,
,
.
P = P0 +

55