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Patanjalis Yoga-Stra

Compiled by: Trisha Lamb Last Revised: April 27, 2006

2004 by International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT)

International Association of Yoga Therapists


P.O. Box 2513 Prescott AZ 86302 Phone: 928-541-0004 E-mail: mail@iayt.org URL: www.iayt.org
The contents of this bibliography do not provide medical advice and should not be so interpreted. Before beginning any exercise program, see your physician for clearance.

Alix, Paul JJ. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Chapter II. A tutorial. URL: http://www.yogasite.com/Sutras/sutrasII-Intro.htm. The tutorial is on Chapter Two of the Yoga Sutras in which Patanjali describes Kriya Yoga, an action plan for attaining the yogic state of samadhi. On a practical level, the chapter focuses on the causes of personal suffering and how to deal with them. Patanjali also outlines the Eight Limbs of yoga, emphasizing the first five: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara (the other three are dealt with in a later chapter). Translated and chanted by Paul JJ Alix, a Sanskrit scholar and founder of Yoga for All, the tutorial is organized into a number of lessons, each one focusing on several individual sutras. A new lesson will be posted about once a week. Each lesson contains written text, translation, interpretation and three sound files: a slow version in which each word or small word group is pronounced slowly and clearly; a moderate version in which the words begin to flow together; and finally a fast version that shows how the sutra sounds at full chant speed. Studying the Yoga Sutras is important to understanding yoga and creating a deeper practice. The Yoga Sutras are part of an ancient oral tradition, which means you dont learn it by reading and reasoning alone. You have to chant. The sound files included here will help in that regard. In addition to studying and listening to the sutras on your own, you will be able to ask specific questions via email. You will receive an individual response, and all questions and answers will be posted on the site (names will be removed from questions). Aranya, H. Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1983. Atmananda, Swami. Raja Yoga of Patanjali or the science of Yoga. In Swami Atmananda, The Four Yogas: The Four Paths to Spiritual Enlightenment (in the Words of Ancient Rishis). 2d ed. Bombay, India: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1991, pp. 109-158. Baba, Bangali. Yogasutra of Patanjali with the Commentary of Vyasa. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1976, 2002 (reprint). Bahm, Archie J. Yoga: Union with the Ultimate. A New Version of the Ancient Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1961. Bailey, Alice. The Light of the Soul, Its Science and Effects: The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Lucis Publishing, 1998. Ballantyne, J. R., and Govind Sastrideva. Yogasutra of Patanjali. Calcutta, India: Susil Gupta Pr. Ltd., 1960.

Includes translation of original text of Patanjalis Yoga-Sutra and Bhojarajas commentary. Provides the original Sansktrit sutras. Basu, B. D., ed. The Yogasutras of Patanjali. Alahabad, India: Panini Office, 1924. Contains the Yoga-Sutra and Vyasa-Bhashya in Sanskrit, with English translation, along with an English translation of Vachaspati Mishras commentary on the Vyasa-Bhashya. Bennett, Bija. Emotional Yoga: How the Body Can Heal the Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. From a review by Felicia Tomasko, LA Yoga, May/Jun 2003, pp. 26-27: The author focuses on the tools provided by the whole discipline of yoga through the eight limbs of asthanga or raja yoga describe in Patanjalis Yoga Sutras and relates them to our emotional processes. In relating emotions to the limbs of yoga, we can explore the practice in a new way. These limbs are: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Bija described their associated teachings as: intelligent behaviors, personal attitudes, bodily exercise, conscious breathing, sensory awareness, focusing attention, sustaining attention and increasing wholeness and relates them to the emotional qualities of allowance (yama), allegiance (niyama), will and power (asana), love (pranayama), harmony (pratyahara), knowledge (dharana), wisdom (dhyana) and synergy (samadhi) . . . Bharati, Swami Veda (Pandit Usharbudh Arya). Yoga-Stras of Patanjali with the Exposition of Vysa: A Translation and Commentary. Volume I: Samdhi-pda. Honesdale, Pa.: The Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosopy, 1986. ___________. Yoga-Stras of Patanjali with the exposition of Vysa: A Translation and Commentary. Volume II: Sdhana-Pda. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2001. These two volumes contain the most detailed extant commentary to date on the YogaStra. Highly recommended. Bhaskarananda, Swami. Meditation, Mind and Patanjalis Yoga: A Practical Guide to Spiritual Growth for Everyone. Vedanta Press. Bouanchaud, Bernard. The Essence of Yoga: Reflections on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Rudra Press, 1997. An interesting psychological interpretation of the Yoga-Sutra. Brahmananda Saraswati. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali audiotape.

The ancient yoga scriptures come alive as Brahmananda Saraswati (Sri Ramamurti) leads in the Sanskrit chanting of the renowned Sutras of Patanjali (400-300 BC). Brijendra. Essence of Patanjali: Meditations on Yog Darshan 7-CD set. URL: http://www.transformationmeditation.com/about_our_courses_framed.htm. From the website: Each audio CD in this set of seven covers an important topic of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali . . . These seven talks are accessible to beginners as well as to students more familiar with the science and art of Yoga. Basic Sanskrit terms are explained in the course of the discussions leading to an overall understanding of the subject. The emphasis throughout is on the practice and understanding of meditation. The seven topics covered include: vrttis, samadhi, samyoga-viyoga, kleshas, AshtangaYoga, the order of manifestation, and kaivalya. Bryant, Edwin. Samadhipada: Sutras 1 & 2, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Its Commentaries. Namarupa, Spring 2003, pp. 33-38. ___________. Samadhipada: Sutras 3 & 4, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Its Commentaries. Namarupa, Winter 2004, pp. 36-37. ___________. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Its Commentaries. Oxford World Classics, forthcoming. C., S. Meditation in Patanjalis Yoga Sutra. Self-Knowledge, Spring 1997, 48(2):63-67. Carrera, Jaganath. Raja II Course audiotape set (8 tapes). Buckingham, Va.: Shakticom. See the entry in this bibliography for Swami Karunananda for information on the Raja I Course. From the publisher: Through humorous stories and insightful commentary, Rev. Jaganath explains many of the sutras found in Books III and IV of the Yoga Sutras. Youll find this eight-tape set an invaluable aid to your meditation practice and a peaceful, easeful, useful life. Chapple, C., and E. P. Kelly. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Sri SatGuru Publ., 1990. Codd, Clara M. Introduction to Patanjalis Yoga. Theosophical Publishing House, 1966. Coward, Harold. Yoga and Psychology: Language, Memory, and Mysticism. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 2002. Foundational for Hindu, Jaina, and Buddhist thought and spiritual practice, Patanjalis Yoga-Stras, the classical statement of Eastern Yoga, are unique in their emphasis on the nature and importance of psychological processes. Yogas influence is explored in the work of both the seminal Indian thinker Bhartrhari (c. 600 C.E.) and among key figures

in Western psychology: founders Freud and Jung, as well as contemporary transpersonalists such as Washburn, Tart, and Ornstein. Coward shows how the yogic notion of psychological processes makes Bhartrharis philosophy of language and his theology of revelation possible. He goes on to explore how Western psychology has been influenced by incorporating or rejecting Patanjalis Yoga. The implications of these trends in Western thought for mysticism and memory are examined as well. Contents: Agama in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali; The Yoga psychology underlying Bhartrharis Vakyapadiya; Yoga in the Vairagya-Sataka of Bhartrhari; Freud, Jung, and Yoga on memory; Where Jung draws the line in his acceptance of Patanjalis Yoga; Mysticism in Jung and Patanjalis Yoga; The limits of human nature in Yoga and transpersonal psychology Das, Baba Hari. The Yoga Sutras, Chapter One: A Guide to Samadhi Pada. Dasgupta, S. N. The Study of Patanjali. Calcutta, India: University of Calcutta, 1920. Davis, Roy E. Life Surrendered in God: The Kriya Yoga Way of Soul Liberation. 2d ed. CSA Press, 1995. With comprehensive commentary on Patanjalis Yoga-Sutras. De Michelis, Elizabeth. A History of Modern Yoga: Patanjali and Western Esotericism. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. From the publisher: In recent years yoga and meditation have become mass market pursuits in the West. A History of Modern Yoga traces this phenomenon back to its ideological roots in the esoteric circles of late 18th century Bengal, then follows some of its main developments to date. Fully- fledged Modern Yoga, the author argues, started with the publication of Swami Vivekanandas seminal Raja Yoga (1896), in which Patajalis Yoga Sutras were reconfigured along the lines of a then emerging New Age style of secularized and individualistically oriented religiosity. Deshpande, P. Y. The Authentic Yoga: Patanjalis Yoga Sutras with a New Translation, Notes, and Comments. London: Vintage/Ebury (Random House), 1989. An interpretation of 55 of the sutras. Desikachar, T. K. V. Reflections on the Yoga Sutra-s of Patanjali. India: Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram. URL: http://www.kym.org. From Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandirams website: This book comprises the original sutras, their translation and commentary by T. K. V. Desikachar, [and] . . . presents two unique sections: . . . One section presents the Yoga Sutra-s with chant notations that will aid recitation and the other [provides] an index of all the words that appear in the text along with the Sutra-s in which they appear for easy reference.

Dragonetti, Fernando Tola Carmen. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Translated into English from the revised original Spanish by K. D. Prithipaul. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass, 1991. Dvivedi, M. N. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Madras, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1947. (No commentary.) Eliade, Mircea. Patanjali and Yoga. New York: Schocken Books, 1975. (Original French edition, 1962). Feuerstein, Georg. The Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali: A New Translation and Commentary. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International, 1990. The most literal of all the translations; holds very closely to the original Sanskrit. Gitananda Giri, Swami. Answers the question, Did Patanjali really exist or are the Yoga Sutras simply a collection of verses by a group of pandits with vested interest in propagating Yoga at a future time? Yoga Life, Jul 2001, 32(7):5. Govindan, Marshall. Kriya Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Siddhas: Translation, Commentary, and Practice. Kriya Yoga Publications, 2001. Grinshpon, Yohanan. Silence Unheard: Deathly Otherness in Patanjala-Yoga. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2002. From the publisher: Silence Unheard maintains that the reality of Patanjalis Yogasutra is a profound silence barely and variously audible to the scholars and interpreters who approach it. Even the Yoga sutra itself is an approach, a voice articulating an othera silent, beyond-speech yogin. Author Yohanan Grinshpon presents Patanjali as a Sankhyaphilosopher, who interprets silence in accordance with his own dualist metaphysics and Buddhistic sensibilities. The Yogasutra represents an intellectuals conceptualization of utter otherness rather than the yogins verbalization of silence. Silence Unheard focuses on the yogins supra- normal experiences (siddhis) as well as on the classification of silences and the ultimate goal of disintegration through guna balance. The book provides a translation of the Yogasutra divided into two sections: an essential text, concerning the yoga practitioner, and a secondary text, concerning the philosopher. Grinshpon also surveys the encounters of intellectuals, scholars, seekers, devotees, and outsiders with the Yogasutra. Hansaji. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Ongoing series in each issue of Yoga and Total Health, Mar 2003. Hariharananda Aranya, Swami. Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali with Bhsvat. Trans. by P. N. Mukerji. Rev. by Adinath Chatterjee. Kolkata, India: University of Calcutta, 1977, 2000. Also available from Vedanta Press.

A revised and enlarged edition of Patanjala Yoga Darsana, first published in Bengali in 1934 and in Hindi in the 1952. P. N. Mukerji prepared the English version published by the University of Calcutta in 1963. Adinath Chatterjees revised and enlarged edition has many additions and improvements, including a thorough revision of the Mukerjis English translation of the Bhasvati, Swami Hariharananda Aranyas commentary on Vyasa Bhasya. Like the earlier editions, this edition also contains the Sanskrit text of the Yoga-Sutras and the Vyasa Bhasya, with elucidations by Swamiji. Chatterjee has also included seven essays by Swamiji on related topics. Most of these Bengali essays are being published for the first time, all rendered into English by himself and various other scholars. Harvey, Paul. Patanjalis Yoga Sutras (multi-part series). Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga. Begins with the first chapter in the Summer 1981 issue, pp. 18-22. Part 4 appears in the Winter 1981 issue, pp. 20-25. ___________. Learning from life: Guiding the mind with Yoga Sutra. Yoga & Health, Dec 2004, pp. 8-9. Houston, Vyaas. The Yoga Sutra Workbook. Available for purchase online: http://www.sanskritsounds.com/ProductList.html. Indispensable book for studying the Yoga Sutras. Each sutra on its own 8.5x11 page with plenty of room for notes. Includes Sanskrit text, transliteration, grammar and literal translation. Huish, Matt. Break it down: The Yoga Sutras. YOGANorthwest, Jul-Aug 2002, pp. 1617. ___________. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. YOGANorthwest, Sep/Oct 2002, pp. 12-13. Iyengar, B. K. S. Yoga immortal. Yoga Rahasya, 1996, 3(4):11-18. ___________. What is citisakti? Yoga Rahasya, 1998, 5(2):27-29. Discusses the meaning of citisakti, with which Patanjali ends the Yoga-Sutra. ___________. Light on the Yoga Stras of Patanjali. London: Thorsons, 1993/New York: HarperCollins, 2003. ___________. Guruji on citi-sakti. Yoga Rahasya, 2003, 10(4):3-11.

Iyer, Raghavan. The Yoga Sutra. Hermes, Aug 1976. Article available online: http://theosophy.org/tlodocs/YogaSutra.htm. Janacek, Adolf. The methodical principle in Yoga according to Patanjalis Yoga-sutras, Archiv Orientalni, 1951, 19:514-667. Johnston, Charles. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: The Book of the Spiritual Man. Available to read online: http://www.yogamovement.com/texts/patanjali_book1.html. Joshi, K. S. The concept of saiyama [sic] in Patanjalis Yogasutra. Yoga-Mimamsa, 1965, 8(2):1-18. Judge, William Q. The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. Theosophical University Press electronic edition. Originally published in 1889. Available for download online: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/patanjal/patan-hp.htm. Kanjilal, P. Concept of mind in Patanjali Yoga Sutra. Ph.D. dissertation, Lucknow University, 1960. Karunananda, Swami. Raja I Course audiotape set (8 tapes). Buckingham, Va.: Shakticom. See entry in this bibliography for Jaganath Carrera for information on the Raja II Course. From the publisher: This set . . . primarily cove rs Books I and II of Patanjalis Yoga Sutras. Karunananda provides clear and illuminating commentary on the goal of Yoga as well as the ethical practices that form the foundation of the practice . . . These talks are from 2001 Integral Yoga Teachers Training. Lahiri, Yogiraj Shayama Charan. Patanjali Yoga Sutra: Summary of Insight into Spiritual Sadhana. Legget, Trevor. Sankara on the Yoga-Sutras. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981/Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1996. A complete English translation of the Sanskrit sub-commentary Vivarana by Sankara on the Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali. Lorin, Francois. Introduction to the Philosophy of Patanjali. Lectures 1 and 2. Cambridge Yoga Publications, 1977. Martin, Donna. Yoga for Self-Awareness. URL: http://www.donnamartin.net/books.htm#seeing. An introduction to some of the basic principles of yoga and mindfulness, this booklet begins with Donnas interpretation of Patanjalis Yoga Sutras. These are followed with

twenty simple postures and breathing techniques for increasing self-awareness and relaxation. Mehta, Rohit. Yoga, the Art of Integration: A Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Wheaton, Ill.: Theosophical Publishing House, 1990. Miller, Barbara Stoller. Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali. New York: Bantam, 1998. An easily readable interpretation of the Yoga-Sutra. Moll, Vickie M. Whole yoga for whole kids: Teaching Patanjalis ideas. Article available online: http://www. sunandmoonstudio.com/whole.html or http://www.yoga.com/ydc/enlighten/enlighten_document.asp?ID=368&section=9&cat=0. MSI Staff (Dharani Ishaya, ed.) Enlightenment! The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, a New Translation and Commentary. The Pre-Christian Roots of the Ishayas Ascension Teaching. Mountlake Terrace, Wash.: SFA Publications, 1995. Nagaraja, Vidvan Sri S. T., Shri Chandrashekhar Bhatt, and Venkataramana Bhatt. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali audiotape. Available from the Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute. Niranjanananda Saraswati, Swami. Beyond the yoga of Patanjali. Yoga (Australia edition), Feb 1999. Oberhammer, Von Gerhard. Meditation und Mystik im Yoga des Patanjali. Archiv fur indische Philosophie, [date unknown], pp. 98-118. [In German.] Osho. Yoga: The Science of the Soul. New York: St Martins Griffin, 2002. Translation of and commentary on the Yoga-Stra. Phillips, Stephen H. The conflict of voluntarism and dualism in the Yogasutra (or how to get mukti from metaphysics). Journal of Indian Philosophy, 1985, 13:399414. ___________. Vivekanandas translation of the Yogastra. Paper presented at the Fourth International Congress of Vedanta, University of Miami, April 1992. Article available online: http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/phillips/pages/yoga/vivekanandaYS.pdf. ___________. From the Yogastra. In Robert Solomon and Kathleen Higgins, eds., World Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995. Article available online: http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/phillips/pages/yoga/ystranslation.pdf. A translation of part of the Yoga-Stra.

___________. PHL 356: Yoga as Philosophy and as Practice course. University of Texas at Austin. URL: http://link.lanic.utexas.edu/asnic/phillips/pages/356/356syl.html. Professor Phillips email: phillips@uts.cc.utexas.edu. Plasha, Rhadeya Michael. Exploring the Essence of Patanjalis Yoga workshop (three days). Held at Kripalu Center, Lenox, Massachusetts. URL: www.kripalu.org. Pfleuger, Lloyd. Ph.D. dissertation on the Yoga-Sutra. University of California, Santa Barbara, 1990. Good translation, with a translation of Vyasas commentary. Prabhavananda, Swami. The Eight Limbs of Yoga: Steps to Achieving Perfection video. Vedanta Press. Filmed in 1971. 2 videos, each 100 minutes. ___________, and Christopher Isherwood. How to Know God: The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. Hollywood, Calif.: Vedanta Press, 1953/London: Allen & Unwin, 1960/New York: Mentor, 1969. Prasada, Rama. Patanjalis Yoga Sutras with the Commentary of Vyasa and the Gloss of Vachaspati Misra. Delhi, India: Oriental Books, 1978. Contains the Sanskrit, including translations of the individual words of the stras. Pratap, Vijayendra. Yoga Vision: A Selection of Yoga Sutras. SKY Foundation, [date unknown]. From the publisher: Yoga Vision is a selection of 27 sutras from the ancient classical work, Patanjalis Yoga Sutras. These sutras cover the essence of Kriya and Astanga Yoga and their practices. The Sanskrit, transliteration, and a succinct translation are given for each sutra. Premeshananda, Swami. Patanjalis Yoga SutrasAn exposition. Prabuddha Bharata, Sep 2003, pp. 40-44. ___________. Patanjalis Yoga SutrasAn exposition (chapter 3). Prabuddha Bharata, Mar 2004, 109:38-42. Rham, Cat de, and Michelle Gill. The Spirit of Yoga. London:Thorsons. Roach, Geshe Michael, and Christie McNally. New York: Three Leaves Press/Doubleday, 2005. From a review by Phil Catalfo in the Jul/Aug 2005 issue of Yoga Journal: In a bold move, Roach and McNally place this text squarely in the tradition of Buddhism, which

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predates the sutras by some five centuries. Their decision pays off handsomely, in a volume that illuminates the practice of yoga off the mat even more than on it. Rosen, Richard. Surveying the sutras. Yoga Journal, Jan/Feb 2003, pp. 155-157. Reviews several editions of the Yoga-Sutra. Rukmani, T. S. The problem of the authorship of the Yogasutrabhasyavivarana. Journal of Indian Philosophy, 1992, 20:419-423. ___________. Tension between vyutthana and nirodha in the Yoga-Sutras. Journal of Indian Philosophy, 1997, 25:613-628. ___________. Yogavartika of Vijnanabhiksu. 4 Vol. Munshiram Manoharlal. ___________. Yogasutrabhasyavivarana of Sankara. 2 Vol. Munshiram Manoharlal. Excellent. Sahaj Yogi (Shakti Das). The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali in four chapters. Article available online: http://www.rainbowbody.net/HeartMind/Yogasutra1.htm. ___________. Why Patanjalis Yoga Sutras have remained inaccessible: The basis of the muddle. Article available online: http://www.rainbowbody.net/HeartMind/sutramud.htm. Sarbatoare, Octavian. Yoga Sutra of Patanjali. Available online: http://www.geocities.com/awareness88/sutras.htm. Author email: sarbatoare@hotmail.com. Sastri, Polkam Sri Rama, and S. R. Krishnamurthi Sastri, eds. Patanjala-YogasutraBhasya Vivaranam of Sankara Bhagavatpada. Madras, India: Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 1952. Satchidananda, Swami. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Yogaville, Va.: Integral Yoga Publications, 1990. Satyananda Saraswati, Swami. Four Chapters on Freedom: Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Munger, Bihar, India: Yoga Publications Trust. Savitripriya, Swami. Psychology of Mystical Awakening: Patanjali Yoga SutrasA New World Translation. New World Hinduism Volume 1. Sunnyvale, Calif.: New Life Books, 1991. Shearer, Alistair. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Bell Tower, 1982, 2002.

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Shraddhananda, Swami. Yoga Sutras: Chapter 1: On being absorbed in spirit. YOGAChicago, May-Jun 2005. Author email: mdolan1149@aol.com. URL: http://www.yogachicago.com/may05/dolan.shtml. ___________. Yoga Sutras: Chapter 2: Treading the pathway. YOGAChicago, Jul- Aug 2005, pp. 20-23. Author email: mdolan1149@aol.com. URL: www.yogachicago.com. Somerville, Rebecca. Patanjalis divine gift part two: Sadhana Pada. Australian Yoga Life, 2003, no. 6, pp. 58-62. ___________. Patanjalis divine gift part three: Unfolding enlightenment. Australian Yoga Life, 2003, no. 7, pp. 59-62. Stephen, Daniel R. Patanjali for Western Readers: The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali Paraphrased and Modernized from Various English Translations and Recensions. London: Theosophical Publishing House, repr. 1919. Stiles, Mukunda. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: With Great Respect and Love. Boston: WeiserBooks, 2002. Taimni, I. K. The Science of Yoga: A Commentary on the Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali in the Light of Modern Thought. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing, 1961, 1979. Takagi, Shingen. On the kriy- yoga in the Yoga-Stra. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, Dec 1966, 15(1):24-31. S. N. Tandon. A Re-appraisal of Patanjalis Yoga-Sutras in the Light of the Buddhas Teaching. Igatpuri, Maharashtra: Vipassana Research Institute, 1995. Tripath, K. M., and R. H. Singh. Astangika Yoga: Its symmetrical wholeness and mutual interrelations with special reference to Yama, Niyama and Samadhi. The Yoga Review, 1984, 4(1&2):27-40. Abstract: The Yoga, described by Maharshi Patanjali, is eight- limbic; its every constituent part depends upon interrelated equi-development. But often it is misunderstood as sequential and hierarchical levels and the Yama and Niyama are neglected. In present discussion, according to classical Indian psychological perspective with reference to personality and mind, environment and individual response, the symmetrical wholeness and mutual interrelations of Astangika Yoga, significance and exigency of Yama and Niyama, spontaneity and applicability of Samadhi state, have been emphasized with simplified scientific interpretations. TZorba-Krsna, Swami Veet Chintan. Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: Mystic Aphorism of Patanjali. Translation available online: http://www.vedicstore.com/patanjali.html. Varenne, Jean. Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989.

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Venkatesananda, Swami. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. 3d ed. Rishikesh: The Divine Life Society. URL: http://www.dailyreadings.com/chiltern.html. A commentary . . . compiled from the many talks give by Swami Venkatesananda over the years. The third edition contains both the Enlightened Living interpretive translation, as well as commentary by Swami Venkatesananda. There is also a glossary and an appendix containing the verses in Sanskrit. Vivekananda, Swami. Raja-Yoga. Ramakrishna Vivekananda Center, 1982. The first part of the book consists of several lectures delivered over fifty years ago by Swami Vivekananda to his classes in New York, and the second part is, to use his own words, a rather free translation of the Yoga-Stra of Patanjali. Whicher, Ian. The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga. SUNY Press, 1998. Argues that the philosophy Patanjali espouses in the Yoga-Stra is non-dual, whereas the prevailing viewpoint is that it is dualistic. From the book: This study has attempted to counter the radically dualistic, isolationistic, and ontologically oriented interpretations of yoga presented by many scholarswhere the full potentialities of our human embodiment are constrained in a radical, rigid, dualistic metaphysical structureand propose instead an open-ended morally and epistemologically oriented hermeneutic that frees Yoga of the long standing conception of spiritual isolation, disembodiment, self-denial, and world-negation and thus from its pessimistic image . . . Our study suggests that Patanjali has far too often been misinterpreted or misrepresented due to the use of inappropriate methodology; partial and misleading definitions of Sanskrit yogic terms and reductionistic hermeneutics leading to an imposed radical dualistic finality or closure to Patanjalis perspective of Yoga. Many scholars have repeatedly given ontological definitions and explanations for terms that, this study maintains, are more appropriately understood with an epistemological emphasis. Consequently the specialized sense inherent in Yoga soteriology is diminished. The soteriological intent of yoga need not preclude the possibility for an integrated, embodied state of liberated identity. A bias is invariably created within the language encountered in the translations and interpretations of the Yoga Sutra resulting in an over emphasis on content, due consideration not having been given to form, structure, and function. It is crucial to view Yoga contextuallyas it is understood, experienced, and embodied by the yoginand not simply to impute a content system to the whole system of Yoga. Williams, George. An Introduction to the Study of Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. An Adyar Pamphlet, Feb 1933, Issue 170.

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Wood, Ernest. Practical Yoga: Ancient and Modern. N. Hollywood, Calif.: Wilshire Book Co., 1948, 1969. A new, independent translation of Patanjalis Yoga aphorisms, interpreted in the light of ancient and modern psychological knowledge and practical experience. Woods, James Haughton, trans. The Yoga System of Patanjali. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarasidass, 1966. First published by Harvard University Press, 1914. ___________. The Yoga-stras of Patanjali as illustrated by the comment entitled The Jewels Lustre or Maniprabha. [Source unknown.] Yogadarsanam of Patanjali. Varanasi, India: Bharatiya Vidya Prakasana, 1963. Yoga International. Ongoing series in Yoga International magazine on the Yoga-Sutra, bringing one verse per issue, with explanation. Zambito, Salvatore. Unadorned Thread of Yoga: The Yoga-Stra of Patanjali in English. A Compilaton of Translations Arranged with an Original Exposition. Forthcoming. Part I offers a textual analysis of each sutra and a comparison of ten translations. Part II is a series of essays that briefly places the Yoga-Stra in its cultural context and overviews linguistic relativity. The appendixes include biographies of the translators, the authors translation, and a comprehensive glossary.

Accessing the Yoga-Stra Online http://hrih.hypermart.net/patanjali/ (links to many different online translations in 18 different languages) http://www.bindu.freeserve.co.uk/yoga/patanjali.htm (contrasts various translations) http://www.tphta.ws/TPH_YSPA.HTM (translations in English, French, and Spanish) http://www.yiextra.org (to hear the Yoga-Sutra correctly pronounced) http://www.santosha.com/philosophy/yoga-sutras.html http://www.yogamovement.com/texts/patanjali_book1.html http://www.geocities.com/Athens/6709/page6.html http://www.geocities.com/awareness88/sutras.htm http://www.yoga.com/raw/yoga/info/patanjali.html http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/patanjal/patan-hp.htm http://members.aol.com/HZingel/yogadars.htm http://www.ndirect.co.uk/~sol/patan.htm http://www.oneworld.org/globalprojects/7eclyoga.htm#2 http://dailyreadings.com/ys1-1.htm http://www.webb.net/sites/heartmind/yogasutra1.htm

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http://www.yogadarshana.com (Godfrey Devereux)\ http://www.vedicstore.com/patanjali.html http://spinoza.tau.ac.il/shanti/india/yogasutra.html

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