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M|rpur| vs CA

C8 114308

lacLs
8arblzon Corp (forelgn corp) has adopLed Lhe Lrademark 8arblzon" 1hus upon flndlng LhaL
Mlrpurl (domlclled ln Lhe hll) seeks Lo reglsLer Lhe same Lrademark ln Lhe hlllpplnes 8arblzon
Corp flled lLs opposlLlon 8arblzon Corp alleges lLs Lrademark ls quallfled as wellknown and ls
Lherefore proLecLed by Lhe ConvenLlon of arls for Lhe roLecLlon of lnLellecLual roperLy whlch
Lhe hlllpplnes has bound Lo enforce 1he ulrecLor of aLenLs rendered a declslon glvlng due
course Lo Lhe paLenL appllcaLlon of Mlrpurl 1he CA however reversed Lhls declslon

lssue WheLher or noL Lhe ConvenLlon of arls for Lhe roLecLlon of lnLellecLual roperLy affords
proLecLlon Lo a forelgn corporaLlon agalnsL a hlllpplne appllcanL for Lhe reglsLraLlon of a slmllar
Lrademark

Peld AfflrmaLlve 1he hlllpplnes and Lhe unlLed SLaLes of Amerlca have acceded Lo Lhe W1C
AgreemenL x x x Conformably Lhe SLaLe musL reafflrm lLs commlLmenL Lo Lhe global communlLy
and Lake parL ln evolvlng a new lnLernaLlonal economlc order aL Lhe dawn of Lhe new
mlllennlum
1hus Lhe flrsL paragraph of ArLlcle 6bls of Lhe arls ConvenLlon ls appllcable ln Lhe lnsLanL case
1hls ArLlcle governs proLecLlon of wellknown Lrademarks under Lhe flrsL paragraph each
counLry of Lhe unlon bound lLself Lo underLake Lo refuse or cancel Lhe reglsLraLlon and prohlblL
Lhe use of a Lrademark whlch ls a reproducLlon lmlLaLlon or LranslaLlon or any essenLlal parL of
whlch Lrademark consLlLuLes a reproducLlon llable Lo creaLe confuslon of a mark consldered by
Lhe compeLenL auLhorlLy of Lhe counLry where proLecLlon ls soughL Lo be wellknown ln Lhe
counLry as belng already Lhe mark of a person enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs of Lhe ConvenLlon and
used for ldenLlcal or slmllar goods
lL ls a selfexecuLlng provlslon and does noL requlre leglslaLlve enacLmenL Lo glve lL effecL ln Lhe
member counLry

*****************
1rademark ln 8A no 8293 Lhe lnLellecLual roperLy Code of Lhe hlllpplnes deflnes as any
vlslble slgn capable of dlsLlngulshlng goods" ln hlllpplne [urlsprudence Lhe funcLlon of a
Lrademark ls Lo polnL ouL dlsLlncLly Lhe orlgln or ownershlp of Lhe goods Lo whlch lL ls afflxed Lo
secure Lo hlm who has been lnsLrumenLal ln brlnglng lnLo Lhe markeL a superlor arLlcle of
merchandlse Lhe frulL of hls lndusLry and sklll Lo assure Lhe publlc LhaL Lhey are procurlng Lhe
genulne arLlcle Lo prevenL fraud and lmposlLlon and Lo proLecL Lhe manufacLurer agalnsL
subsLlLuLlon and sale of an lnferlor and dlfferenL arLlcle as hls producL
earl uean (hll) lncorporaLed v ShoemarL lncorporaLed
C8 no 148222 AugusL 13 2003
fns earl uean (u) ls engaged ln Lhe manufacLure of adverLlslng dlsplay unlLs referred Lo
as llghL boxes 1hese
unlLs uLlllze speclally prlnLed posLers sandwlched beLween plasLlc sheeLs and lllumlnaLed wlLh
backllghLs lL was able Lo secure reglsLraLlon over Lhese lllumlnaLed dlsplay unlLs 1he
adverLlslng llghL boxes were markeLed under Lhe Lrademark osLer Ads"
ln 1983 u negoLlaLed wlLh defendanL ShoemarL lnc (SMl) for Lhe lease and
lnsLallaLlon of Lhe llghL boxes ln SM norLh Ldsa Powever slnce SM norLh Ldsa was under
consLrucLlon SMl offered as alLernaLlve SM MakaLl and Cubao uurlng Lhe slgnlng of Lhe
ConLracL SMl only reLurned Lhe ConLracL wlLh SM MakaLl Manager of peLlLloner remlnded SMl
LhaL Lhelr agreemenL lncludes SM Cubao Powever SMl dld noL boLher Lo reply lnsLead
respondenL lnformed peLlLloner LhaL Lhey are resclndlng Lhe conLracL for SM MakaLl due Lo
nonperformance
1wo years laLer SMl engaged Lhe servlces of L?u 8alnbow AdverLlslng Lo make Lhe
llghL boxes 1hese wer edellvered ln a sLaggered basls and lnsLalled aL SM Megamall and SM
ClLy ln 1989 peLlLloner recelved reporLs LhaL exacL copy of lLs llghL boxes was lnsLalled by SMl
lL furLher dlscovered LhaL norLh Ldsa MarkeLlng lnc (nLMl) slsLer company of SMl was seL up
prlmarlly Lo sell adverLlslng space ln llghLed dlsplay unlLs locaLed ln SMl's dlfferenL branches
eLlLloner senL leLLers Lo respondenLs asklng Lhem Lo cease uslng Lhe llghL boxes and Lhe
dlsconLlnued use of Lhe Lrademark osLer Ads"
Clalmlng LhaL SMl and nLMl falled Lo meeL lLs demand peLlLloner flled a case for
lnfrlngemenL of Lrademark and copy rlghL unfalr compeLlLlon and damages SMl malnLalned
LhaL lL lndependenLly developed lLs posLer panels uslng commonly known Lechnlques and
avallable Lechnology wlLhouL noLlce of or reference Lo u's copyrlghL ln addlLlon lL sald LhaL
reglsLraLlon of osLer Ads" obLalned by peLlLloner was only for sLaLlonerles such as
leLLerheads envelopes and Lhe llke osLer Ads" ls a generlc Lerm whlch cannoL be
approprlaLed as Lrademark and as such reglsLraLlon of such mark ls lnvalld lL also sLressed
LhaL u ls noL enLlLled Lo Lhe rellefs soughL because Lhe adverLlslng dlsplay unlLs conLalned no
copyrlghL noLlce as provlded for by law
81C found SMl and nLMl [olnLly and severally llable for lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghL and
Lrademark CA reversed saylng LhaL lL agreed wlLh SMl LhaL whaL was copyrlghLed was Lhe
Lechnlcal drawlngs only and noL Lhe llghL boxes LlghLboxes cannoL be consldered as elLher
prlnLs plcLorlal lllusLraLlons adverLlslng coples labels Lags or box wraps Lo be properly
classlfled as copyrlghLable class C" work ln addlLlon CA sLressed LhaL Lhe proLecLlve manLle of
Lhe 1rademark Law exLends only Lo Lhe goods used by Lhe flrsL user as speclfled ln lLs cerLlflcaLe
of reglsLraLlon 1he reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark osLer Ads" covers only sLaLlonerles such as
leLLerheads envelopes and calllng cards and newsleLLer
D (1) lf Lhe englneerlng or Lechnlcal drawlngs of an adverLlslng dlsplay unlL are granLed
copyrlghL proLecLlon ls Lhe
llghL box deplcLed ln such drawlngs lpso facLo also proLecLed by such copyrlghL? (2) Should Lhe
llghL box be reglsLered separaLely? (3) Can Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered Lrademark legally
prevenL oLhers from uslng such mark lf lL ls mere abbrevlaLlon of a Lerm descrlpLlve of hls
goods servlces or buslness?
Peld
1no CopyrlghL ls purely sLaLuLory As such Lhe rlghLs are llmlLed Lo whaL Lhe sLaLuLe confers lL
may be obLalned
and en[oyed only wlLh respecL Lo Lhe sub[ecLs and by Lhe persons and on Lhe Lerms and
condlLlons speclfled ln Lhe sLaLuLe Accordlngly lL can cover only Lhe works falllng wlLhln Lhe
sLaLuLory enumeraLlon or descrlpLlon eLlLloner secured copyrlghL under classlflcaLlon class
C" work 1hus copyrlghL proLecLlon exLended only Lo Lhe Lechnlcal drawlngs and noL Lo Lhe
llghL box lLself because Lhe laLLer was noL aL all ln Lhe caLegory of prlnLs plcLorlal lllusLraLlons
adverLlslng coples labels Lags and box wraps
WhaL Lhe law does noL lnclude lL excludes and for Lhe good reason Lhe llghL box was
noL a llLerary or arLlsLlc plece whlch could be copyrlghLed under Lhe copyrlghL law And no less
clearly nelLher could Lhe lack of sLaLuLory auLhorlLy Lo make Lhe llghL box copyrlghLable be
remedled by Lhe slmpllsLlc acL of enLlLllng Lhe copyrlghL cerLlflcaLe lssued by Lhe naLlonal
Llbrary as AdverLlslng ulsplay unlLs"
lL musL be noLed LhaL copyrlghL ls conflned Lo llLerary and arLlsLlc works whlch are orlglnal
lnLellecLual
creaLlons ln Lhe llLerary and arLlsLlc domaln proLecLed from Lhe momenL of Lhelr creaLlon
2?es eLlLloner never secured a paLenL for Lhe llghL boxes lL Lherefore acqulred no paLenL rlghLs
whlch could have proLecLed lLs lnvenLlon lf ln facL lL really was And because lL had no paLenL
peLlLloner could noL legally prevenL anyone from manufacLurlng or commerclally uslng Lhe
conLrapLlon 1o be able Lo effecLlvely and legally preclude oLhers from copylng and proflLlng
from Lhe lnvenLlon a paLenL ls a prlmordlal requlremenL no paLenL no proLecLlon 1he
ulLlmaLe goal of a paLenL sysLem ls Lo brlng new deslgns and Lechnologles lnLo Lhe publlc
Lhrough dlsclosure ldeas once dlsclosed Lo Lhe publlc wlLhouL proLecLlon of a valld paLenL are
sub[ecL Lo approprlaLlon wlLhouL slgnlflcanL resLralnL
1he aLenL Law has a Lhreefold purpose flrsL paLenL law seeks Lo fosLer and reward
lnvenLlon second lL promoLes dlsclosures of lnvenLlons Lo sLlmulaLe furLher lnnovaLlon and Lo
permlL Lhe publlc Lo pracLlce Lhe lnvenLlon once Lhe paLenL explres Lhlrd Lhe sLrlngenL
requlremenLs for paLenL proLecLlon seek Lo ensure LhaL ldeas ln Lhe publlc domaln remaln Lhere
for Lhe free use of Lhe publlc lL ls only afLer an exhausLlve examlnaLlon by Lhe paLenL offlce LhaL
paLenL ls lssued 1herefore noL havlng gone Lhrough Lhe arduous examlnaLlon for paLenLs
peLlLloner cannoL exclude oLher s from Lhe manufacLure sale or commerclal use of Lhe llghL
boxes on Lhe sole basls of lLs copyrlghL cerLlflcaLe over Lhe Lechnlcal drawlngs
3CourL agrees wlLh CA LhaL Lhe cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon lssued by Lhe ulrecLor of aLenLs can
confer Lhe excluslve rlghL Lo use lLs own symbol only Lo Lhose goods speclfled ln Lhe cerLlflcaLe
sub[ecL Lo any condlLlons and llmlLaLlons speclfled ln Lhe cerLlflcaLe Cne who has adopLed and
used a Lrademark on hls goods does noL prevenL
Lhe adopLlon and use of Lhe same Lrademark by oLhers for producLs whlch are of a dlfferenL
descrlpLlon
Assumlng arguendo LhaL osLer Ads" could valldly quallfy as a Lrademark Lhe fallure
of peLlLloner Lo secure a Lrademark reglsLraLlon for speclflc use on Lhe llghL boxes meanL LhaL
Lhere could noL have been any Lrademark lnfrlngemenL slnce reglsLraLlon was an essenLlal
elemenL Lhereof
1here ls no evldence LhaL peLlLloner's use of posLer Ads" was dlsLlncLlve or well
known As noLed by CA peLlLloner's experL wlLness hlmself had LesLlfled LhaL osLer Ads" was
noL Loo generlc a name SC lL was dlfflculL Lo ldenLlfy lL wlLh any company 1hls facL also
prevenLed Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe docLrlne of secondary meanlngosLer Ads" was generlc and
lncapable of belng used as a Lrademark because lL was used ln Lhe fleld of posLer adverLlslng
Lhe very buslness engaged ln by peLlLloner Secondary meanlng means LhaL a word or phrase
orlglnally lncapable of excluslve approprlaLlon wlLh reference Lo an arLlcle ln Lhe markeL mlghL
neverLheless have been used for so long and so excluslvely by one producer wlLh reference Lo
hls arLlcle LhaL ln Lhe Lrade and Lo LhaL branch of Lhe purchaslng publlc Lhe word or phrase has
come Lo mean LhaL Lhe arLlcle was hls properLy
L1l1lCn WAS uLnlLu













A81 1WC 1he Law on aLenLs uLlllLy Models and lndusLrlal ueslgns

l aLenLablllLy

aLenLable lnvenLlons Any Lechnlcal soluLlon of a problem ln any fleld of human acLlvlLy whlch
ls new lnvolves an lnvenLlve sLep and ls lndusLrlally appllcable shall be aLenLable lL may be or
may relaLe Lo a producL or process or an lmprovemenL of any of Lhe foregolng (Sec 21 lC)

1he elemenLs of paLenLablllLy are as follows

(A) lL musL be new (novel) An lnvenLlon shall noL be consldered new lf lL forms parL of a prlor
arL (Sec 23 lC)

WhaL ls prlor arL?
rlor arL shall conslsL of
LveryLhlng whlch has been made avallable Lo Lhe publlc anywhere ln Lhe world before Lhe flllng
daLe or Lhe prlorlLy daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon clalmlng Lhe lnvenLlon and 1he whole conLenLs of
an appllcaLlon for a paLenL uLlllLy model or lndusLrlal deslgn reglsLraLlon publlshed ln
accordance wlLh Lhls AcL flled or effecLlve ln Lhe hlllpplnes wlLh a flllng or prlorlLy daLe LhaL ls
earller Lhan Lhe flllng or prlorlLy daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon rovlded 1haL Lhe appllcaLlon whlch
has valldly clalmed Lhe flllng daLe of an earller appllcaLlon under SecLlon 31 of Lhls AcL shall be
prlor arL wlLh effecL as of Lhe flllng daLe of such earller appllcaLlon rovlded furLher 1haL Lhe
appllcanL or Lhe lnvenLor ldenLlfled ln boLh appllcaLlons are noL one and Lhe same (Sec 24
lC)
WhaL ls nonpre[udlclal dlsclosure? 1he Lype of dlsclosure Lo Lhe publlc LhaL wlll noL affecL or
pre[udlce Lhe novelLy requlremenL of a parLlcular lnvenLlon 1he law sLaLes LhaL Lhe dlsclosure
of lnformaLlon conLalned ln Lhe appllcaLlon durlng Lhe Lwelve (12) monLhs precedlng Lhe flllng
daLe or Lhe prlorlLy daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon shall noL pre[udlce Lhe appllcanL on Lhe ground of
lack of novelLy lf such dlsclosure was made by 2 1he lnvenLor A paLenL offlce and Lhe
lnformaLlon was conLalned (a) ln anoLher appllcaLlon flled by Lhe lnvenLor and should noL have
been dlsclosed by Lhe offlce or (b) ln an appllcaLlon flled wlLhouL Lhe knowledge or consenL of
Lhe lnvenLor by a Lhlrd parLy whlch obLalned Lhe lnformaLlon dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from Lhe
lnvenLor or A Lhlrd parLy whlch obLalned Lhe lnformaLlon dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from Lhe
lnvenLor (Sec 23 lC)
(8) lnvolves an lnvenLlve sLep An lnvenLlon lnvolves an lnvenLlve sLep lf havlng regard Lo prlor
arL lL ls noL obvlous Lo a person skllled ln Lhe arL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng daLe or prlorlLy daLe of
Lhe appllcaLlon clalmlng Lhe lnvenLlon (Sec 26 lC)

A person skllled ln Lhe arL an ordlnary pracLlLloner aware of whaL was common general
knowledge ln Lhe arL aL Lhe relevanL daLe Pe ls presumed Lo have knowledge of all references
LhaL are sufflclenLly relaLed Lo one anoLher and Lo Lhe perLlnenL arL and Lo have knowledge of
all arLs reasonably perLlnenL Lo Lhe parLlcular problems wlLh whlch Lhe lnvenLor was lnvolved
1hus one who merely draws obvlous concluslons from already exlsLlng lnvenLlons and Lhen
acLuallzes Lhem does noL make any slgnlflcanL conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe sLaLe of Lhe arL and ls noL
ellglble for paLenL proLecLlon

(C) lndusLrlally appllcable An lnvenLlon LhaL can be produced and used ln any lndusLry shall be
lndusLrlally appllcable (Sec 27 lC)

An lnvenLlon ls lndusLrlally appllcable when lL can be produced and used ln any lndusLry
1hus under Lhe law Lhe appllcanL of a paLenL shall dlsclose Lhe lnvenLlon ln a manner
sufflclenLly clear and compleLe for lL Lo be carrled ouL by a person skllled ln Lhe arL
1hese crlLerla may apply Lo
(a) producLs
(b) processes
(c) lmprovemenLs of elLher producLs and processes

nonpaLenLable lnvenLlons 1he followlng shall be excluded from paLenL proLecLlon
(a) ulscoverles sclenLlflc Lheorles and maLhemaLlcal meLhods
(b) Schemes rules and meLhods of performlng menLal acLs playlng games or dolng buslness
and programs for compuLers
(c) MeLhods for LreaLmenL of Lhe human or anlmal body by surgery or Lherapy and dlagnosLlc
meLhods pracLlced on Lhe human or anlmal body 1hls provlslon shall noL apply Lo producLs and
composlLlon for use ln any of Lhese meLhods
(d) lanL varleLles or anlmal breeds or essenLlally blologlcal process for Lhe producLlon of planLs
or anlmals 1hls provlslon shall noL apply Lo mlcroorganlsms and nonblologlcal and
mlcroblologlcal processes rovlslons under Lhls subsecLlon shall noL preclude Congress Lo
conslder Lhe enacLmenL of a law provldlng sul generls proLecLlon of planL varleLles and anlmal
breeds and a sysLem of communlLy lnLellecLual rlghLs proLecLlon
(e) AesLheLlc creaLlons and
(f) AnyLhlng whlch ls conLrary Lo publlc order or morallLy (Sec 22 lC)

1he elemenL of novelLy ls an essenLlal requlslLe of Lhe paLenLablllLy of an lnvenLlon or
dlscovery lf a devlce or process has been known or used by oLhers prlor Lo lLs appllcaLlon or
dlscovery by Lhe appllcanL an appllcaLlon for a paLenL Lherefore should be denled and lf Lhe
appllcaLlon has been granLed Lhe courL ln a [udlclal proceedlng ln whlch Lhe valldlLy of Lhe
paLenL ls drawn ln quesLlon wlll hold lL vold and lneffecLlve lL has been repeaLedly held LhaL
an lnvenLlon musL possess Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of novelLy orlglnallLy and precedence and
for Lhe paLenLee Lo be enLlLled Lo Lhe proLecLlon Lhe lnvenLlon musL be new Lo Lhe world
(Manzano vs CA C8 no 113388 SepLember 3 1997)

lL has been repeaLedly held LhaL an lnvenLlon musL possess Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of
novelLy orlglnallLy and precedence and for Lhe paLenLee Lo be enLlLled Lo proLecLlon Lhe
lnvenLlon musL be new Lo Lhe world Accordlngly a slngle lnsLance of publlc use of Lhe
lnvenLlon by a paLenLee for more Lhan Lwo years (now for more Lhan one year only under Sec 9
of Lhe aLenL Law) before Lhe daLe of hls appllcaLlon for hls paLenL wlll be faLal Lo Lhe valldlLy
of Lhe paLenL when lssued (Maguan vs CA 146 SC8A 107 1986)

ll 8lghL Lo aLenL

1he rlghL Lo paLenL belongs Lo Lhe lnvenLor hls helrs or asslgns (Sec 28 lC)
1he llrsLLoflle 8ule ln case Lwo or more lnvenLors of Lhe same lnvenLlon Lhe paLenL shall
belong Lo Lhe person who flrsL flled an appllcaLlon lf Lhere are Lwo or more appllcaLlons Lhe
paLenL shall belong Lo Lhe appllcanL who has Lhe earllesL flllng daLe or Lhe earllesL prlorlLy daLe
(Sec 29 lC)

llllng uaLe 1he flllng daLe of a paLenL appllcaLlon shall be Lhe daLe of recelpL by Lhe Cfflce of aL
leasL Lhe followlng elemenLs (a) An express or lmpllclL lndlcaLlon LhaL a hlllpplne paLenL ls
soughL
(b) lnformaLlon ldenLlfylng Lhe appllcanL and
(c) uescrlpLlon of Lhe lnvenLlon and one (1) or more clalms ln llllplno or Lngllsh
lf any of Lhese elemenLs ls noL submlLLed wlLhln Lhe perlod seL by Lhe 8egulaLlons Lhe
appllcaLlon shall be consldered wlLhdrawn (Sec 40 lC)

1he rlorlLy rlghL An appllcaLlon for paLenL flled by any person who has prevlously applled for
Lhe same lnvenLlon ln anoLher counLry whlch by LreaLy convenLlon or law affords slmllar
prlvlleges Lo llllplno clLlzens shall be consldered as flled as of Lhe daLe of flllng Lhe forelgn
appllcaLlon rovlded 1haL
(a) Lhe local appllcaLlon expressly clalms prlorlLy
(b) lL ls flled wlLhln Lwelve (12) monLhs from Lhe daLe Lhe earllesL forelgn appllcaLlon was flled
and (c) a cerLlfled copy of Lhe forelgn appllcaLlon LogeLher wlLh an Lngllsh LranslaLlon ls flled
wlLhln slx (6) monLhs from Lhe daLe of flllng ln Lhe hlllpplnes (Sec 31 lC)

Commlssloned lnvenLlon 1he person who commlsslons Lhe work shall own Lhe paLenL unless
oLherwlse provlded ln Lhe conLracL (Sec 301) nC1L LhaL ln copyrlghL ln Lhe case of a work
commlssloned by a person oLher Lhan an employer of Lhe auLhor and who pays for lL Lhe
copyrlghL remalns wlLh Lhe creaLor unless Lhere ls wrlLLen sLlpulaLlon Lo Lhe conLrary (Sec
1784 lC)
lnvenLlons ln Lhe course of employmenL ln case Lhe employee made Lhe lnvenLlon ln Lhe
course of hls employmenL conLracL Lhe paLenL shall belong Lo (a) 1he employee lf Lhe
lnvenLlve acLlvlLy ls noL a parL of hls regular duLles even lf Lhe employee uses Lhe Llme faclllLles
and maLerlals of Lhe employer
(b) 1he employer lf Lhe lnvenLlon ls Lhe resulL of Lhe performance of hls regularlyasslgned
duLles unless Lhere ls an agreemenL express or lmplled Lo Lhe conLrary (Sec302 lC)
lll aLenL AppllcaLlon
1he AppllcaLlon 1he paLenL appllcaLlon shall be ln llllplno or Lngllsh and shall conLaln Lhe
followlng (a) A requesL for Lhe granL of a paLenL (Sec 34)
(b) A descrlpLlon of Lhe lnvenLlon (Sec 33)
(c) urawlngs necessary for Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe lnvenLlon
(d) Cne or more clalms (Sec 36) and
(e) An absLracL (Sec 37)
unlLy of lnvenLlon 1he appllcaLlon shall relaLe Lo one lnvenLlon only or Lo a group of lnvenLlons
formlng a slngle general lnvenLlve concepL (Sec 381lC) 1he facL LhaL a paLenL has been
granLed on an appllcaLlon LhaL dld noL comply wlLh Lhe requlremenL of unlLy of lnvenLlon shall
noL be a ground Lo cancel Lhe paLenL (Sec 383) lv
rocedure for CranL of aLenL
1
Where Lo llle

1he appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of a hlllpplne aLenL ls flled wlLh Lhe 8ureau of aLenLs (8C)
of Lhe lnLellecLual roperLy Cfflce (lC) Lhrough Lhe 8ecelvlng SecLlon/CounLer of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlve llnanclal and Puman 8esource uevelopmenL Servlces 8ureau (AlP8uS8)
locaLed aL Lhe ground floor of Lhe lC 8ulldlng


2
WhaL Lo llle

1o obLaln a flllng daLe a 8equesL lorm for a CranL of hlllpplne aLenL musL be flled conLalnlng
Lhe name address and slgnaLure of Lhe appllcanL lf Lhe appllcanL ls a nonresldenL Lhe name
and address of lLs resldenL agenL musL also be lndlcaLed A descrlpLlon of Lhe lnvenLlon and one
or more clalms musL accompany Lhe appllcaLlon lncludlng any drawlngs explalnlng Lhe
lnvenLlon 1PL Su8MlSSlCn Cl 1PL lC8LCClnC 8LCul8LMLn1S AL8LAu? Ln1l1LLS 1PL
ALlCAn1 1C C81Aln A llLlnC uA1L

Powever Lhere are sLlll addlLlonal formal requlremenLs for Lhe appllcaLlon such as Lhe
paymenL of Lhe flllng fee whlch may be pald durlng appllcaLlon flllng or wlLhln one monLh from
Lhe daLe of flllng llllng fees shall be 1380 for Small LnLlLles and 2760 for 8lg LnLlLles
AlLhough Lhe paymenL of flllng fees ls noL necessary Lo obLaln a flllng daLe Lhe appllcaLlon shall
be deemed auLomaLlcally cancelled/wlLhdrawn ln case lL ls noL pald on Llme 1he absLracL of Lhe
lnvenLlon musL also be submlLLed and ln case Lhe prlorlLy of an earller flled appllcaLlon ls belng
clalmed Lhe flllng daLe flle number and counLry of orlgln of Lhe clalm musL also be lndlcaLed


3
LxamlnaLlon rocess


(a)
lormal LxamlnaLlon

1he purpose of Lhls examlnaLlon ls Lo deLermlne lf Lhe appllcaLlon saLlsfles Lhe formal
requlremenLs for Lhe granL of a flllng daLe uurlng examlnaLlon Lhe examlner shall check lf
proper fees have been pald and shall proceed Lo classlfy Lhe lnvenLlon as Lo Lhe fleld of
Lechnology lL belongs A search ls conducLed Lo deLermlne prlor arL and ldenLlfy slmllar or
ldenLlcal lnvenLlons pendlng wlLh Lhe lC


(b)
ubllcaLlon of AppllcaLlon

1he appllcaLlon ls publlshed ln Lhe lC CazeLLe afLer 18 monLhs from Lhe flllng or prlorlLy daLe
ln order Lo allow Lhe publlc Lo lnspecL Lhe appllcaLlon documenLs and submlL Lhelr wrlLLen
observaLlons and commenLs regardlng Lhe paLenLablllLy of Lhe lnvenLlon 1he appllcanL ls glven
Lhe opporLunlLy Lo defend Lhe paLenLablllLy of hls agalnsL Lhese commenLs and ob[ecLlons A
paLenL appllcaLlon whlch has noL yeL been publlshed and all relaLed documenLs shall noL be
made avallable for lnspecLlon wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe appllcanL (Sec 46 lC) 1he appllcanL
shall have all Lhe rlghLs of a paLenLee under SecLlon 76 agalnsL any person who wlLhouL hls
auLhorlzaLlon exerclsed any of Lhe rlghLs conferred under SecLlon 71 of Lhls AcL ln relaLlon Lo
Lhe lnvenLlon clalmed ln Lhe publlshed paLenL appllcaLlon as lf a paLenL had been granLed for
LhaL lnvenLlon1he appllcanL shall have all Lhe rlghLs of a paLenLee under SecLlon 76 agalnsL any
person who wlLhouL hls auLhorlzaLlon exerclsed any of Lhe rlghLs conferred under SecLlon 71
of Lhls AcL ln relaLlon Lo Lhe lnvenLlon clalmed ln Lhe publlshed paLenL appllcaLlon as lf a paLenL
had been granLed for LhaL lnvenLlon (Sec 46)


(c)
SubsLanLlve LxamlnaLlon

1he appllcanL should requesL for a subsLanLlve examlnaLlon wlLhln slx (6) monLhs from Lhe daLe
of publlcaLlon oLherwlse Lhe appllcaLlon shall be deemed wlLhdrawn and all fees shall be
forfelLed uurlng Lhe subsLanLlve examlnaLlon Lhe examlner deLermlnes lf Lhe appllcaLlon
meeLs Lhe requlremenLs of SecLlons 21 27 and SecLlons 32 39 of Lhe lnLellecLual roperLy
Code 1he rlghL Lo subsLanLlal examlnaLlon ls only avallable for lnvenLlons and nC1 for
appllcaLlon for uLlllLy model and lndusLrlal deslgn


(d)
AmendmenL of AppllcaLlon

8ased on Lhe flndlngs of Lhe examlner Lhe appllcanL ls allowed Lo amend hls appllcaLlon ln
order Lo comply wlLh requlremenLs of or clarlfy paLenLablllLy lssues wlLh Lhe examlner


(e)
CranL of aLenL

lf Lhe appllcaLlon meeLs all Lhe requlremenLs and Lhere ls no reason for Lhe examlner Lo deny
Lhe appllcaLlon Lhe examlner lssues a declslon Lo granL Lhe paLenL reglsLraLlon


(f)
ubllcaLlon of aLenL

1he granL of a paLenL lncludlng relaLed lnformaLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe lC CazeLLe wlLhln
slx (6) monLhs Any lnLeresLed parLy may lnspecL Lhe compleLe descrlpLlon clalms and
drawlngs of Lhe paLenL on flle wlLh Lhe Cfflce


4
ConLenLs of aLenL

1he paLenL ls lssued ln Lhe name of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes under Lhe seal of Lhe lC and
shall be slgned by Lhe ulrecLor and reglsLered LogeLher wlLh Lhe descrlpLlon clalms and
drawlngs ln Lhe records of Lhe lC


3
Annual lees

An annual fee shall be pald upon explraLlon of four (4) years from Lhe daLe Lhe appllcaLlon was
publlshed and on each subsequenL annlversary of such daLe oLherwlse Lhe paLenL appllcaLlon
or Lhe paLenL as Lhe case may be shall be deemed wlLhdrawn or cancelled respecLlvely (Sec
331 332)


6
aLenL 1erm

1he Lerm of a paLenL shall be LwenLy (20) years from Lhe flllng daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon (Sec 34)


7
Appeals

Appeals may be dlrecLed Lo Lhe ulrecLor of aLenLs wlLhln Lwo (2) monLhs from Lhe malllng daLe
of Lhe flnal refusal by Lhe examlner Lo granL Lhe paLenL 1he declslon or order of Lhe ulrecLor
shall become flnal and execuLory flfLeen (13) days afLer recelpL of a copy by Lhe appellanL
unless wlLhln Lhe same perlod a moLlon for reconslderaLlon ls flled wlLh Lhe ulrecLor or an
appeal Lo Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral ls flled 1he declslon of Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral may be appealed Lo
Lhe CourL of Appeals and flnally Lo Lhe Supreme CourL dlrecLor Lo dlrecLor gen Lo ca Lo sc

v CancellaLlon of aLenLs SubsLlLuLlon of aLenLee

Crounds for cancellaLlon Any lnLeresLed person may upon paymenL of Lhe requlred fee
peLlLlon Lo cancel Lhe paLenL or any clalm Lhereof or parLs of Lhe clalm on any of Lhe followlng
grounds (a) 1haL whaL ls clalmed as Lhe lnvenLlon ls noL new or aLenLable
(b) 1haL Lhe paLenL does noL dlsclose Lhe lnvenLlon ln a manner sufflclenLly clear and compleLe
for lL Lo be carrled ouL by any person skllled ln Lhe arL or
(c) 1haL Lhe paLenL ls conLrary Lo publlc order or morallLy (Sec 61 lC)
(d) ln Lhe case provlded under Sec 67 68 of lC (paLenL appllcaLlon by persons noL havlng
Lhe rlghL Lo a paLenL)

Where Lhe grounds for cancellaLlon relaLe Lo some of Lhe clalms or parLs of Lhe clalm
cancellaLlon may be effecLed Lo such exLenL only (Sec 612 lC)
eLlLlon for cancellaLlon musL be flled wlLh Lhe lC parLlcularly wlLh Lhe 8ureau of Legal Affalrs
(Sec 101 lC)
1he rlghLs conferred by Lhe paLenL or any speclfled clalm or clalms cancelled shall LermlnaLe
noLlce of Lhe cancellaLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe lC CazeLLe unless resLralned by Lhe
ulrecLor Ceneral Lhe declslon or order Lo cancel by ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs shall be
lmmedlaLely execuLory even pendlng appeal (Sec 66lC)
CancellaLlon of aLenL ln an lnfrlngemenL AcLlon ln an acLlon for lnfrlngemenL lf Lhe courL
shall flnd Lhe paLenL or any clalm Lo be lnvalld lL shall cancel Lhe same and Lhe ulrecLor of Legal
Affalrs upon recelpL of Lhe flnal [udgmenL of cancellaLlon by Lhe courL shall record LhaL facL ln
Lhe reglsLer of Lhe Cfflce and shall publlsh a noLlce Lo LhaL effecL ln Lhe lC CazeLLe (Sec 82
lC)
v l 8lghLs of aLenLees and lnfrlngemenL of aLenLs

8lghLs conferred by aLenL A paLenL shall confer on lLs owner Lhe followlng excluslve rlghLs
(a) Where Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a paLenL ls a producL Lo resLraln prohlblL and prevenL any
unauLhorlzed person or enLlLy from maklng uslng offerlng for sale selllng or lmporLlng LhaL
producL
(b) Where Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a paLenL ls a process Lo resLraln prevenL or prohlblL any
unauLhorlzed person or enLlLy from uslng Lhe process and from manufacLurlng deallng ln
uslng selllng or offerlng for sale or lmporLlng any producL obLalned dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from
such process (Sec 71 lC)

A person or enLlLy who has noL been granLed paLenL over an lnvenLlon and has noL acqulred any
rlghL or LlLle LhereLo elLher as asslgnee or as llcensee has no cause of acLlon for lnfrlngemenL
whlch depends on Lhe exlsLence of Lhe paLenL (Creser reclslon SysLems vs CA 286 SC8A 13
1998)
When a paLenL ls soughL Lo be enforced Lhe quesLlons of lnvenLlon novelLy or prlor use and
each of Lhem are open Lo [udlclal examlnaLlon 1he burden of proof Lo subsLanLlaLe a charge
of lnfrlngemenL ls wlLh Lhe plalnLlff Where however Lhe plalnLlff lnLroduces Lhe paLenL ln
evldence lf lL ls Lhe due form lL affords a prlma facle presumpLlon of lLs correcLness and
valldlLy 1he declslon of Lhe Commlssloner of aLenLs ln granLlng Lhe paLenL ls always presumed
Lo be correcL 1he burden Lhen shlfLs Lo Lhe defendanL Lo overcome by compeLenL evldence Lhls
legal presumpLlon WlLh all due respecLs Lherefore for Lhe crlLlcal and experL examlnaLlon of
Lhe lnvenLlon by Lhe unlLed SLaLes aLenL Cfflce Lhe quesLlon of Lhe valldlLy of Lhe paLenL ls
one for [udlclal deLermlnaLlon and slnce a paLenL has been submlLLed Lhe exacL quesLlon ls
wheLher Lhe defendanL has assumed Lhe burden of proof as Lo anyone of hls defenses (vargas
vs Chua C8 no L36630 !anuary 27 1933)
aLenLs or appllcaLlons for paLenLs and lnvenLlon Lo whlch Lhey relaLe shall be proLecLed ln Lhe
same way as Lhe rlghLs of oLher properLy under Lhe Clvll Code (Sec 1031 lC)
aLenL owners shall also have Lhe rlghL Lo asslgn or Lransfer by successlon Lhe paLenL and Lo
conclude llcenslng conLracLs for Lhe same (Sec 712 lC)
AsslgnmenL of lnvenLlons or any rlghLs and lnLeresLs perLalnlng musL be ln wrlLlng and musL be
properly recorded wlLh Lhe lC ln order Lo be blndlng Lo Lhlrd persons (Sec 103 lC)
!olnLowners lf Lwo (2) or more persons [olnLly own a paLenL and Lhe lnvenLlon covered
Lhereby elLher by Lhe lssuance of Lhe paLenL ln Lhelr [olnL favor or by reason of Lhe asslgnmenL
of an undlvlded share ln Lhe paLenL and lnvenLlon or by reason of Lhe successlon ln LlLle Lo such
share each of Lhe [olnL owners shall be enLlLled Lo personally make use sell or lmporL Lhe
lnvenLlon for hls own proflL rovlded however 1haL nelLher of Lhe [olnL owners shall be
enLlLled Lo granL llcenses or Lo asslgn hls rlghL LlLle or lnLeresL or parL Lhereof wlLhouL Lhe
consenL of Lhe oLher owner or owners or wlLhouL proporLlonally dlvldlng Lhe proceeds wlLh
such oLher owner or owners (Sec 107 lC)
LlmlLaLlons of aLenL 8lghLs 1he owner of a paLenL has no rlghL Lo prevenL Lhlrd parLles from
performlng wlLhouL hls auLhorlzaLlon Lhe acLs referred Lo ln SecLlon 71 hereof ln Lhe followlng
clrcumsLances (a) uslng a paLenLed producL whlch has been puL on Lhe markeL ln Lhe
hlllpplnes by Lhe owner of Lhe producL or wlLh hls express consenL lnsofar as such use ls
performed afLer LhaL producL has been so puL on Lhe sald markeL
(b) Where Lhe acL ls done prlvaLely and on a noncommerclal scale or for a noncommerclal
purpose rovlded 1haL lL does noL slgnlflcanLly pre[udlce Lhe economlc lnLeresLs of Lhe owner
of Lhe paLenL
(c) Where Lhe acL conslsLs of maklng or uslng excluslvely for Lhe purpose of experlmenLs LhaL
relaLe Lo Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon
(d) Where Lhe acL conslsLs of Lhe preparaLlon for lndlvldual cases ln a pharmacy or by a
medlcal professlonal of a medlclne ln accordance wlLh a medlcal prescrlpLlon or acLs
concernlng Lhe medlclne so prepared
(e) Where Lhe lnvenLlon ls used ln any shlp vessel alrcrafL or land vehlcle of any oLher counLry
enLerlng Lhe LerrlLory of Lhe hlllpplnes Lemporarlly or accldenLally rovlded 1haL such
lnvenLlon ls used excluslvely for Lhe needs of Lhe shlp vessel alrcrafL or land vehlcle and noL
used for Lhe manufacLurlng of anyLhlng Lo be sold wlLhln Lhe hlllpplnes (Sec 72 lC)
(f) rlor user any prlor user who ln good falLh was uslng Lhe lnvenLlon or has underLaken
serlous preparaLlons Lo use Lhe lnvenLlon ln hls enLerprlse or buslness before Lhe flllng daLe or
prlorlLy daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon on whlch a paLenL ls granLed shall have Lhe rlghL Lo conLlnue Lhe
use Lhereof as envlsaged ln such preparaLlons wlLhln Lhe LerrlLory where Lhe paLenL produces
lLs effecL (Sec 73 lC)

(g) use of lnvenLlon by CovernmenL A CovernmenL agency or Lhlrd person auLhorlzed by Lhe
CovernmenL may explolL Lhe lnvenLlon even wlLhouL agreemenL of Lhe paLenL owner where
1he publlc lnLeresL ln parLlcular naLlonal securlLy nuLrlLlon healLh or Lhe developmenL of
oLher secLors as deLermlned by Lhe approprlaLe agency of Lhe governmenL so requlres or A
[udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve body has deLermlned LhaL Lhe manner of explolLaLlon by Lhe owner of
Lhe paLenL or hls llcensee ls anLlcompeLlLlve (Sec 74 lC) vll
8emedles of erson wlLh aLenL

AppllcaLlon by persons noL havlng rlghL Lo paLenL lf a person referred Lo ln Sec 29 oLher Lhan
Lhe appllcanL ls declared by flnal courL order or declslon as havlng Lhe rlghL Lo Lhe paLenL such
person may wlLhln Lhree monLhs afLer Lhe declslon has become flnal
(a) prosecuLe appllcaLlon as hls own ln place of appllcanL
(b) flle new paLenL appllcaLlon ln respecL of Lhe same lnvenLlon
(c) requesL LhaL appllcaLlon be refused or
(d) seek cancellaLlon of paLenL lf already been lssued (Sec 67 lC)

8emedles of 1rue and AcLual lnvenLor When Lrue and acLual lnvenLor ls deprlved of paLenL
wlLhouL hls consenL or Lhrough fraud and so declared by flnal courL order courL shall order for
hls subsLlLuLlon as paLenLee or aL Lhe opLlon of Lhe Lrue lnvenLor cancel Lhe paLenL and award
acLual and oLher damages ln hls favor as warranLed (Sec 68 lC)
1he acLlons lndlcaLed ln Secs 67 and 68 shall be flled wlLhln one year from daLe of publlcaLlon
(Sec 70 lC)
vlll lnfrlngemenL of aLenL

WhaL consLlLuLes aLenL lnfrlngemenL? 1he maklng uslng offerlng for sale selllng or
lmporLlng a paLenLed producL or a producL obLalned dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from a paLenLed
process or Lhe use of a paLenLed process wlLhouL Lhe auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe paLenLee consLlLuLes
paLenL lnfrlngemenL (Sec 761 lC)
roLecLlon agalnsL lnfrlngemenL 1he law wlll proLecL a paLenLee agalnsL lmlLaLlon of hls paLenL
by oLher forms and proporLlons lf Lwo devlces do Lhe same work ln subsLanLlally Lhe same way
and accompllsh subsLanLlally Lhe same resulL Lhey are Lhe same even Lhough Lhey dlffer ln
name form or shape (Codlnes vs CA 226 SC8A 338)
roof of lnfrlngemenL 1o esLabllsh an lnfrlngemenL lL ls noL essenLlal Lo show LhaL Lhe
defendanL adopLed Lhe devlce or process ln every parLlcular roof of an adopLlon of Lhe
subsLance of Lhe Lhlng wlll be sufflclenL (Codlnes vs CA 226 SC8A 338)
Clvll AcLlon for lnfrlngemenL Any paLenLee or anyone possesslng any rlghL LlLle or lnLeresL ln
and Lo Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon whose rlghLs have been lnfrlnged may brlng a clvll acLlon before
a courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon Lo recover from Lhe lnfrlnger such damages susLalned
Lhereby plus aLLorneys fees and oLher expenses of llLlgaLlon and Lo secure an ln[uncLlon for
Lhe proLecLlon of hls rlghLs (Sec 762 lC)
uamages lf Lhe damages are lnadequaLe or cannoL be readlly ascerLalned wlLh reasonable
cerLalnLy Lhe courL may award by way of damages a sum equlvalenL Lo reasonable royalLy
(Sec 763 lC) 1he courL may accordlng Lo Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe case award damages ln a
sum above Lhe amounL found as acLual damages susLalned rovlded 1haL Lhe award does noL
exceed Lhree (3) Llmes Lhe amounL of such acLual damages (Sec 764 lC)
LlmlLaLlon on uamages no damages can be recovered for acLs of lnfrlngemenL commlLLed
more Lhan four (4) years before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe acLlon for lnfrlngemenL (Sec 79 lC)
8equlremenL of noLlce uamages cannoL be recovered for acLs of lnfrlngemenL commlLLed
before Lhe lnfrlnger had known or had reasonable grounds Lo know of Lhe paLenL lL ls
presumed LhaL Lhe lnfrlnger had known of Lhe paLenL lf on Lhe paLenLed producL or on Lhe
conLalner or package ln whlch Lhe arLlcle ls supplled Lo Lhe publlc or on Lhe adverLlslng maLerlal
relaLlng Lo Lhe paLenLed producL or process are placed Lhe words hlllpplne aLenL wlLh Lhe
number of Lhe paLenL (Sec 80 lC)
CLher rellef 1he courL may ln lLs dlscreLlon order LhaL Lhe lnfrlnglng goods maLerlals and
lmplemenLs predomlnanLly used ln Lhe lnfrlngemenL be dlsposed of ouLslde Lhe channels of
commerce or desLroyed wlLhouL compensaLlon (Sec 763 lC)
ConLrlbuLory lnfrlnger Anyone who acLlvely lnduces Lhe lnfrlngemenL of a paLenL or provldes
Lhe lnfrlnger wlLh a componenL of a paLenLed producL or of a producL produced because of a
paLenLed process knowlng lL Lo be especlally adopLed for lnfrlnglng Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon and
noL sulLable for subsLanLlal nonlnfrlnglng use shall be llable as a conLrlbuLory lnfrlnger and shall
be [olnLly and severally llable wlLh Lhe lnfrlnger (Sec 766 lC)
lnfrlngemenL AcLlon by lorelgn naLlonal Any forelgn naLlonal or [urldlcal enLlLy who meeLs Lhe
requlremenLs of SecLlon 3 and noL engaged ln buslness ln Lhe hlllpplnes Lo whlch a paLenL has
been granLed or asslgned under Lhls AcL may brlng an acLlon for lnfrlngemenL of paLenL
wheLher or noL lL ls llcensed Lo do buslness ln Lhe hlllpplnes under exlsLlng law (Sec 77 lC)
uefenses ln AcLlon for lnfrlngemenL ln an acLlon for lnfrlngemenL Lhe defendanL ln addlLlon
Lo oLher defenses avallable Lo hlm may show Lhe lnvalldlLy of Lhe paLenL or any clalm Lhereof
on any of Lhe grounds on whlch a peLlLlon of cancellaLlon can be broughL under SecLlon 61
hereof (Sec 81 lC)
aLenL lound lnvalld for lnfrlngemenL ln an acLlon for lnfrlngemenL lf Lhe courL shall flnd Lhe
paLenL or any clalm Lo be lnvalld lL shall cancel Lhe same and Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs upon
recelpL of Lhe flnal [udgmenL of cancellaLlon by Lhe courL shall record LhaL facL ln Lhe reglsLer of
Lhe Cfflce and shall publlsh a noLlce Lo LhaL effecL ln Lhe lC CazeLLe (Sec 82 lC)
Crlmlnal AcLlon for 8epeLlLlon of lnfrlngemenL lf lnfrlngemenL ls repeaLed by Lhe lnfrlnger or
by anyone ln connlvance wlLh hlm afLer flnallLy of Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe courL agalnsL Lhe
lnfrlnger Lhe offenders shall wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of a clvll acLlon for damages
be crlmlnally llable Lherefor and upon convlcLlon shall suffer lmprlsonmenL for Lhe perlod of
noL less Lhan slx (6) monLhs buL noL more Lhan Lhree (3) years and/or a flne of noL less Lhan Cne
hundred Lhousand pesos (100000) buL noL more Lhan 1hree hundred Lhousand pesos
(300000) aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL 1he crlmlnal acLlon hereln provlded shall prescrlbe ln
Lhree (3) years from daLe of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme (Sec 84 lC)
WhaL ls Lhe docLrlne of paLenL exhausLlon? 1he paLenLee havlng ln Lhe acL of sale recelved
all Lhe royalLy or conslderaLlon whlch he clalms for Lhe use of hls lnvenLlon ln LhaL parLlcular
machlne or lnsLrumenL lL ls open Lo Lhe use of Lhe purchaser wlLhouL furLher resLrlcLlon on
accounL of Lhe monopoly of Lhe paLenLee
WhaL ls Lhe docLrlne of equlvalenLs? lL provldes LhaL an alLeraLlon ln a paLenLed comblnaLlon
whlch merely subsLlLuLes anoLher old lngredlenL for one of Lhe lngredlenLs ln Lhe paLenLed
comblnaLlon ls an lnfrlngemenL of Lhe paLenL lf Lhe subsLlLuLe performs Lhe same funcLlon as
well known aL Lhe daLe of Lhe paLenL as a proper subsLlLuLe for Lhe omlLLed lngredlenL (Codlnes
vs CA 226 SC8A 338)
8urden of proof on rocess aLenLs lf Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a paLenL ls a process for obLalnlng
a producL any ldenLlcal producL shall be presumed Lo have been obLalned Lhrough Lhe use of
Lhe paLenLed process lf Lhe producL ls new or Lhere ls subsLanLlal llkellhood LhaL Lhe ldenLlcal
producL was made by Lhe process and Lhe owner of Lhe paLenL has been unable desplLe
reasonable efforLs Lo deLermlne Lhe process acLually used ln orderlng Lhe defendanL Lo prove
LhaL Lhe process Lo obLaln Lhe ldenLlcal producL ls dlfferenL from Lhe paLenLed process Lhe
courL shall adopL measures Lo proLecL as far as pracLlcable hls manufacLurlng and buslness
secreLs (Sec 78 lC)
AdmlnlsLraLlve acLlon for lnfrlngemenL 8efore Lhe 8ureau of Legal Affalrs (Sec 102 lC)

lx volunLary Llcenslng

volunLary llcenslng ls Lhe granL by Lhe paLenL owner Lo a Lhlrd person of Lhe rlghL Lo explolL Lhe
paLenLed lnvenLlon (Sec 83lC) l search nlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
1he law requlres cerLaln provlslons Lo be sLaLed ln volunLary llcense conLracLs as follows
(a) 1haL hlllpplne law shall govern Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe conLracL
(b) 1haL ln Lhe evenL of llLlgaLlon Lhe venue shall be Lhe proper courL ln Lhe place where Lhe
llcensee has lL prlnclpal offlce
(c) 1haL conLlnued access Lo lmprovemenLs ln Lhe llcensed Lechnology shall be made avallable
Lo Lhe llcensee durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe conLracL
(d) 1haL arblLraLlon lf sLlpulaLed shall be conducLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe procedure
provlded ln Lhe ArblLraLlon law of Lhe hlllpplnes or Lhe rules of Lhe unlLed naLlons
Commlsslon on lnLernaLlonal 1rade Law (unCl18AL) or Lhe rules of conclllaLlon and arblLraLlon
of Lhe lnLernaLlonal Chamber of Commerce (lCC)
(e) 1haL Lhe place of arblLraLlon shall be Lhe hlllpplnes or any neuLral counLry and
(f) 1haL hlllpplne Laxes due on all paymenLs under Lhe conLracL shall be borne by Lhe
llcensor (Sec 88 lC)

CerLaln clauses are also prohlblLed ln volunLary llcense because Lhey are deemed prlma facle Lo
have an adverse effecL on compeLlLlon and Lrade Lxamples are
(a) Cbllglng Lhe llcensee Lo acqulre goods maLerlals and oLher Lechnology only from a speclflc
source
(b) Cbllglng Lhe llcensee Lo permanenLly employ personnel lndlcaLed by Lhe llcensor
(c) Where Lhe rlghL Lo flx Lhe selllng prlces of Lhe llcensed producLs ls reserved by Lhe llcensor
(d) Where Lhe volume and sLrucLure of producLlon of Lhe llcensed producLs are resLrlcLed
(Sec 87 lC)

LffecL of nonconformlLy of Lhe provlslons of Secs 87 88 lL wlll auLomaLlcally render Lhe
Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL unenforceable unless Lhe same ls approved and reglsLered
wlLh Lhe uocumenLaLlon lnformaLlon and 1echnology 1ransfer 8ureau as an excepLlonal or
merlLorlous case under SecLlon 91 (when subsLanLlal beneflLs wlll accrue Lo Lhe economy)
volunLary llcense conLracLs are noL requlred Lo be reglsLered wlLh ul11 unless Lhey do noL
conform wlLh Secs 87 88
ln Lhe absence of any provlslon Lo Lhe conLrary ln Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL Lhe
granL of a llcense shall noL prevenL Lhe llcensor from granLlng furLher llcenses Lo Lhlrd person
nor from explolLlng Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL hlmself (Sec
89 lC)
1he llcensee shall be enLlLled Lo explolL Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer
arrangemenL durlng Lhe whole Lerm of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL (Sec 90 lC)

x Compulsory Llcenslng

Compulsory Llcenslng ls Lhe granL by Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs of a llcense Lo explolL a
paLenLed lnvenLlon even wlLhouL Lhe agreemenL of Lhe paLenL owner ln favor of any person
who has shown hls capablllLy Lo explolL Lhe lnvenLlon under any of Lhe followlng
clrcumsLances (a) When Lhere ls a naLlonal emergency or oLher clrcumsLances of exLreme
urgency or
(b) Where Lhe publlc lnLeresL ln parLlcular naLlonal securlLy nuLrlLlon healLh or Lhe
developmenL of oLher vlLal secLors of Lhe naLlonal economy as deLermlned by Lhe approprlaLe
agency of Lhe CovernmenL so requlres or
(c) Where a [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve body has deLermlned LhaL Lhe manner of explolLaLlon by
Lhe owner of Lhe paLenL or hls llcensee ls anLlcompeLlLlve or
(d) ln case of publlc noncommerclal use of Lhe paLenL by Lhe paLenLee wlLhouL saLlsfacLory
reason
(e) lf Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon ls noL belng worked ln Lhe hlllpplnes on a commerclal scale
alLhough capable of belng worked wlLhouL saLlsfacLory reason rovlded 1haL Lhe lmporLaLlon
of Lhe paLenLed arLlcle shall consLlLuLe worklng or uslng Lhe paLenL Cr
(f) Crounds of compulsory llcense based on lnLerdependence of paLenLs lf Lhe lnvenLlon
proLecLed by a paLenL wlLhln Lhe counLry (Lhe second paLenL") cannoL be worked wlLhouL
lnfrlnglng anoLher paLenL (Lhe flrsL paLenL") granLed on a prlor appllcaLlon or beneflLlng from
an earller prlorlLy sub[ecL Lo cerLaln condlLlons (Sec 93 and 97 lC)

1he leglslaLlve lnLenL ln Lhe granL of a compulsory llcense was noL only Lo afford oLhers an
opporLunlLy Lo provlde Lhe publlc wlLh Lhe quanLlLy of Lhe paLenLed producL buL also Lo
prevenL Lhe growLh of monopolles (SmlLh kllne vs CA C8 no 12167 CcLober 23 2001)
Compulsory llcense ls noL LanLamounL Lo deprlvaLlon of properLy wlLhouL [usL compensaLlon
Lven lf oLher enLlLles llke prlvaLe respondenL are subsequenLly allowed Lo manufacLure use and
sell Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon by vlrLue of a compulsory llcense peLlLloner as owner of Lhe paLenL
would sLlll recelve remuneraLlon for Lhe use of such producL ln Lhe form of royalLles (SmlLh
kllne vs CA C8 no 12167 CcLober 23 2001)
8equlremenL Lo CbLaln a Llcense on 8easonable Commerclal 1erms 1he llcense wlll only be
granLed afLer Lhe peLlLloner has made efforLs Lo obLaln auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe paLenL owner on
reasonable commerclal Lerms and condlLlons buL such efforLs have noL been successful wlLhln a
reasonable perlod of Llme (Sec 931 lC) Powever Lhls requlremenL shall noL apply ln Lhe
followlng cases (a) Where Lhe peLlLlon for compulsory llcense seeks Lo remedy a pracLlce
deLermlned afLer [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve process Lo be anLlcompeLlLlve
(b) ln slLuaLlons of naLlonal emergency or oLher clrcumsLances of exLreme urgency
(c) ln cases of publlc noncommerclal use (Sec 932 lC)
Llcensee's LxempLlon from LlablllLy Any person who works a paLenLed producL subsLance
and/or process under a compulsory llcense shall be free from any llablllLy for lnfrlngemenL
rovlded 1haL ln case of volunLary llcenslng no colluslon wlLh llcensor ls proven 1hls ls
wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo rlghLful paLenL owner Lo recover from llcensor whaLever he may recelve as
royalLles under Lhe llcense (Sec 102 lC)


A81 lCu8 1he Law on 1rademarks Servlce Marks and 1rade names

l ueflnlLlons rlnclples

Mark ls any vlslble slgn capable of dlsLlngulshlng Lhe goods (Lrademark) or servlces (servlce
mark) of an enLerprlse and shall lnclude a sLamped or marked conLalner of goods (Sec 1211
lC)
Mark could be a word mark (Lhe use of Lhe name of a person or any fanclful or arblLrary word)
composlLe mark (conslsLlng of a comblnaLlon of a word or leLLer and a devlce) devlce mark
(whlch may be a geomeLrlcal flgure a sLyllzed renderlng of Lhe alphabeL or a represenLaLlon of
any ob[ecL)
Marks may be creaLlvely deslgned or colned
CollecLlve mark means any vlslble slgn deslgnaLed as such ln Lhe appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon
and capable of dlsLlngulshlng Lhe orlgln or any oLher common characLerlsLlc lncludlng Lhe
quallLy of goods or servlces of dlfferenL enLerprlses whlch use Lhe slgn under Lhe conLrol of Lhe
reglsLered owner of Lhe collecLlve mark (Sec1212lC)
Same as cerLlflcaLlon mark here ln Lhe hll used Lo lndlcaLe LhaL seller ls parL of a deflned group
lSC ls an example/ CL meL Lurope consumer
1rade name ls Lhe name or deslgnaLlon ldenLlfylng or dlsLlngulshlng an enLerprlse (Sec
121333 lC) A Lrade name refers Lo Lhe buslness and lLs goodwlll a Lrademark refers Lo Lhe
goods (Canon kabushlkl kalsha vs CA C8 no 120900 !uly 20 2000)
Cld deflnlLlon of Marks A Lrademark has been generally deflned as any word name symbol
or devlce adopLed and used by a manufacLurer or merchanL Lo ldenLlfy hls goods and
dlsLlngulsh Lhem from Lhose manufacLured and sold by oLhers (SocleLe des rodulLs vs CA
C8 no 112012 Aprll 4 2001)
luncLlons of a Lrademark (1) Lhey lndlcaLe orlgln or ownershlp of Lhe arLlcles Lo whlch Lhey are
aLLached (2) Lhey guaranLee LhaL Lhose arLlcles come up Lo a cerLaln sLandard of quallLy and
(3) Lhey adverLlse Lhe arLlcles Lhey symbollze (Mlrpurl vs CA C8 no 114308 nov 19 1999)

lndlcaLe orlgln/ownershlp
CuaranLee sLandard quallLy
adverLlse

1he rlghLs ln a mark shall be acqulred Lhrough reglsLraLlon made valldly ln accordance wlLh Lhe
provlslons of Lhe law (Sec 122 lC)
1he rlghL Lo reglsLer Lrademarks Lradenames and servlce marks by any person corporaLlon
parLnershlp or assoclaLlon domlclled ln Lhe hlllpplnes or ln any forelgn counLry ls based on
ownershlp and Lhe burden ls upon Lhe appllcanL Lo prove such ownershlp (Marvex
Commerclal Co lnc v eLra Pawpla Co eL al L16297 uec 22 1926) Where Lhe appllcanL
was noL Lhe owner of Lhe Lrademark belng applled for he had no rlghL Lo apply for reglsLraLlon
of Lhe same 1he rlghL Lo reglsLer Lrademarks Lradenames and servlce marks ls based on
ownershlp (CperaLors lnc vs ulrecLor of aLensL L17901 CcL 29 1963)
Powever reglsLraLlon ls noL a mode of acqulrlng ownershlp When Lhe appllcanL ls noL Lhe
owner of Lhe Lrademark belng applled for he has no rlghL Lo apply for reglsLraLlon of Lhe same
8eglsLraLlon merely creaLes a prlma facle presumpLlon of Lhe valldlLy of Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe
reglsLranLs ownershlp of Lhe Lrademark and of Lhe excluslve rlghL Lo Lhe use Lhereof Such
presumpLlon [usL llke Lhe presumpLlve regularlLy ln Lhe performance of offlclal funcLlons ls
rebuLLable and musL glve way Lo evldence Lo Lhe conLrary (Shangrlla lnL'l PoLel vs uCC C8
no 139938 March 31 2006) Such LhaL a cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon of a mark shall be prlma
facle evldence of Lhe valldlLy of Lhe reglsLraLlon Lhe reglsLranLs ownershlp of Lhe mark and of
Lhe reglsLranLs excluslve rlghL Lo use Lhe same ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe goods or servlces and
Lhose LhaL are relaLed LhereLo speclfled ln Lhe cerLlflcaLe (Sec 138 lC)
Cwnershlp of a mark or Lrade name may be acqulred noL necessarlly by reglsLraLlon buL by
adopLlon and use ln Lrade or commerce
As beLween acLual use of a mark wlLhouL reglsLraLlon and reglsLraLlon of Lhe mark wlLhouL
acLual use Lhereof Lhe former prevalls over Lhe laLLer lor a rule wldely accepLed and flrmly
enLrenched because lL has come down Lhrough Lhe years ls LhaL acLual use ln commerce or
buslness ls a prerequlslLe Lo Lhe acqulslLlon of Lhe rlghL of ownershlp (Lmerald CarmenLs Mfg
Corp v CourL of Appeals C8 no 100098 uecember 29 1993 231 SC8A 600 SLerllng
roducLs lnLernaLlonal lnc v larbenfabrlken 8ayer AkLlengesellschafL C8 no L19906 Aprll
30 1969 27 SC8A 1214)
More of use Lhan adopLlon use can sLand alone buL adopLlon cannoL (case of sLerllng
producLs)
1hus Lhe rlghL Lo reglsLer Lrademark ls based on ownershlp and a mere dlsLrlbuLor of a producL
bearlng a Lrademark even lf permlLLed Lo use sald Lrademark has no rlghL Lo and cannoL
reglsLer Lhe sald Lrademark (Cabrlel vs erez C8 no L24073 !an 31 1974) 1he Lerm
owner does noL lnclude Lhe lmporLer of Lhe goods bearlng Lhe Lrademark Lrade name servlce
mark or oLher mark of ownershlp unless such lmporLer ls acLually Lhe owner Lhereof ln Lhe
counLry from whlch Lhe goods are lmporLed A local lmporLer however may make appllcaLlon
for Lhe reglsLraLlon of a forelgn Lrademark Lrade name or servlce mark lf he ls duly auLhorlzed
by Lhe acLual owner of Lhe name or oLher mark of ownershlp (unno vs Ceneral Mllllng C8
no L28334 leb 28 1983)
1rademark vs Lradename Marks are proLecLed upon reglsLraLlon whlle Lrade name may be
proLecLed even wlLhouL reglsLraLlon (Sec 163 lC) 1hus any subsequenL use of Lhe Lrade
name by a Lhlrd parLy wheLher as a Lrade name or a mark or collecLlve mark or any such use of
a slmllar Lrade name or mark llkely Lo mlslead Lhe publlc shall be deemed unlawful (Sec
1632 lC)
lL ls a properLy rlghL 1he ownershlp of a Lrademark or Lradename ls a properLy rlghL whlch Lhe
owner ls enLlLled Lo proLecL slnce Lhere ls damage Lo hlm from confuslon or repuLaLlon or
goodwlll ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe publlc as well as from confuslon of goods 1he modern Lrend ls Lo
glve emphasls Lo Lhe unfalrness of Lhe acLs and Lo classlfy and LreaL Lhe lssue as fraud
(Converse 8ubber vs unlversal 8ubber C8 no L27906 !an 8 1987)
1he proLecLlon of Lrademarks ls Lhe law's recognlLlon of Lhe psychologlcal funcLlon of symbols
lf lL ls Lrue LhaL we llve by symbols lL ls no less Lrue LhaL we purchase goods by Lhem A Lrade
mark ls a merchandlslng shorLcuL whlch lnduces a purchaser Lo selecL whaL he wanLs or whaL
he has been led Lo belleve whaL he wanLs 1he owner of a mark explolLs Lhls human propenslLy
by maklng every efforL Lo lmpregnaLe Lhe aLmosphere of Lhe markeL wlLh Lhe drawlng power of
a congenlal symbol WhaLever Lhe means employed Lhe alm ls Lhe same Lo convey Lhrough
Lhe mark ln Lhe mlnds of poLenLlal cusLomers Lhe deslrablllLy of Lhe commodlLy upon whlch lL
appears Cnce Lhls ls aLLalned Lhe Lrademark owner has someLhlng of value lf anoLher
poaches upon Lhe commerclal magneLlsm of Lhe symbol he has creaLed Lhe owner can obLaln
legal redress (hlllp Morrls lnc vs lorLune 1obacco Corp C8 no 138389 !une 27 2006)
ls prlor use a requlremenL for reglsLraLlon? no prlor use ls no longer a condlLlon for flllng or
reglsLraLlon Powever Lhe appllcanL or reglsLranL shall flle a declaraLlon of acLual use of Lhe
mark wlLh evldence Lo LhaL effecL wlLhln 3 years from Lhe flllng of Lhe appllcaLlon oLherwlse
Lhe appllcaLlon shall be refused or Lhe mark shall be removed from Lhe 8eglsLer (Sec 1242
lC)
ll 8eglsLrablllLy of a Mark

Who may apply for reglsLraLlon? Any person may apply for reglsLraLlon who ls domlclled or has
a real and effecLlve lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL ln a counLry (a) whlch ls a parLy Lo any
convenLlon LreaLy or agreemenL relaLlng Lo lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs or Lhe represslon of
unfalr compeLlLlon Lo whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls also a parLy or (b) exLends reclprocal rlghLs Lo
naLlonals of Lhe hlllpplnes by law (Sec 3 lC)
Whlch marks can be reglsLered? Any mark can be reglsLered excepL Lhose LhaL
(a) ConslsLs of lmmoral decepLlve or scandalous maLLer or maLLer whlch may dlsparage or
falsely suggesL a connecLlon wlLh persons llvlng or dead lnsLlLuLlons bellefs or naLlonal
symbols or brlng Lhem lnLo conLempL or dlsrepuLe
(b) ConslsLs of Lhe flag or coaL of arms or oLher lnslgnla of Lhe hlllpplnes or any of lLs pollLlcal
subdlvlslons or of any forelgn naLlon or any slmulaLlon Lhereof
(c) ConslsLs of a name porLralL or slgnaLure ldenLlfylng a parLlcular llvlng lndlvldual excepL by
hls wrlLLen consenL or Lhe name slgnaLure or porLralL of a deceased resldenL of Lhe
hlllpplnes durlng Lhe llfe of hls wldow lf any excepL by wrlLLen consenL of Lhe wldow
(d) ls ldenLlcal wlLh a reglsLered mark belonglng Lo a dlfferenL proprleLor or a mark wlLh an
earller flllng or prlorlLy daLe ln respecL of (apply Lhe flrsL Lo flle rule)
(l) 1he same goods or servlces or
(ll) Closely relaLed goods or servlces or
(lll) lf lL nearly resembles such a mark as Lo be llkely Lo decelve or cause confuslon (confuslng
slmllarlLy)
(e) ls ldenLlcal wlLh or confuslngly slmllar Lo or consLlLuLes a LranslaLlon of a mark whlch ls
consldered by Lhe compeLenL auLhorlLy of Lhe hlllpplnes Lo be wellknown lnLernaLlonally and
ln Lhe hlllpplnes wheLher or noL lL ls reglsLered here as belng already Lhe mark of a person
oLher Lhan Lhe appllcanL for reglsLraLlon and used for ldenLlcal or slmllar goods or servlces
rovlded 1haL ln deLermlnlng wheLher a mark ls wellknown accounL shall be Laken of Lhe
knowledge of Lhe relevanL secLor of Lhe publlc raLher Lhan of Lhe publlc aL large lncludlng
knowledge ln Lhe hlllpplnes whlch has been obLalned as a resulL of Lhe promoLlon of Lhe mark
(f) ls ldenLlcal wlLh or confuslngly slmllar Lo or consLlLuLes a LranslaLlon of a mark consldered
wellknown ln accordance wlLh Lhe precedlng paragraph whlch ls reglsLered ln Lhe hlllpplnes
wlLh respecL Lo goods or servlces whlch are noL slmllar Lo Lhose wlLh respecL Lo whlch
reglsLraLlon ls applled for rovlded 1haL use of Lhe mark ln relaLlon Lo Lhose goods or servlces
would lndlcaLe a connecLlon beLween Lhose goods or servlces and Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered
mark rovlded furLher 1haL Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark are llkely Lo be
damaged by such use
(g) ls llkely Lo mlslead Lhe publlc parLlcularly as Lo Lhe naLure quallLy characLerlsLlcs or
geographlcal orlgln of Lhe goods or servlces
(h) ConslsLs excluslvely of slgns LhaL are generlc for Lhe goods or servlces LhaL Lhey seek Lo
ldenLlfy
(l) ConslsLs excluslvely of slgns or of lndlcaLlons LhaL have become cusLomary or usual Lo
deslgnaLe Lhe goods or servlces ln everyday language or ln bona flde and esLabllshed Lrade
pracLlce
([) ConslsLs excluslvely of slgns or of lndlcaLlons LhaL may serve ln Lrade Lo deslgnaLe Lhe klnd
quallLy quanLlLy lnLended purpose value geographlcal orlgln Llme or producLlon of Lhe goods
or renderlng of Lhe servlces or oLher characLerlsLlcs of Lhe goods or servlces
(k) ConslsLs of shapes LhaL may be necesslLaLed by Lechnlcal facLors or by Lhe naLure of Lhe
goods Lhemselves or facLors LhaL affecL Lhelr lnLrlnslc value
(l) ConslsLs of color alone unless deflned by a glven form or
(m) ls conLrary Lo publlc order or morallLy (Sec 1231 lC) nC1L 1he naLure of Lhe goods Lo
whlch Lhe mark ls applled wlll noL consLlLuLe an obsLacle Lo reglsLraLlon (Sec 1233 lC)
ldenLlcal wlLh prlor marks When one applles for Lhe reglsLraLlon of a Lrademark or label whlch
ls almosL Lhe same or very closely resembles one already used and reglsLered by anoLher Lhe
appllcaLlon should be re[ecLed and dlsmlssed ouLrlghL even wlLhouL any opposlLlon on Lhe parL
of Lhe owner and user of a prevlously reglsLered label or Lrademark Lhls noL only Lo avold
confuslon on Lhe parL of Lhe publlc buL also Lo proLecL an already used and reglsLered
Lrademark and an esLabllshed goodwlll (Chuanchow Soy Cannlng Co vs ulrecLor of aLenLs
108 hll 833 836)
colorable lmlLaLlon 1he phrase colorable lmlLaLlon denoLes such a close or lngenlous
lmlLaLlon as Lo be calculaLed Lo decelve ordlnary persons or such a resemblance Lo Lhe orlglnal
as Lo decelve an ordlnary purchaser glvlng such aLLenLlon as a purchaser usually glves and Lo
cause hlm Lo purchase Lhe one supposlng lL Lo be Lhe oLher (LLepha vs ulrecLor of aLenLs L
20633 March 31 1966)

Cenerlc Lerms and descrlpLlve Lerms deflned Cenerlc Lerms are Lhose whlch consLlLuLe Lhe
common descrlpLlve name of an arLlcle or subsLance or comprlse Lhe genus of whlch Lhe
parLlcular producL ls a specles or are commonly used as Lhe name or descrlpLlon of a klnd of
goods or lmply reference Lo every member of a genus and Lhe excluslon of lndlvlduaLlng
characLers or refer Lo Lhe baslc naLure of Lhe wares or servlces provlded raLher Lhan Lo Lhe
more ldlosyncraLlc characLerlsLlcs of a parLlcular producL and are noL legally proLecLable Cn
Lhe oLher hand a Lerm ls descrlpLlve and Lherefore lnvalld as a Lrademark lf as undersLood ln
lLs normal and naLural sense lL forLhwlLh conveys Lhe characLerlsLlcs funcLlons quallLles or
lngredlenLs of a producL Lo one who has never seen lL and does noL know whaL lL ls or lf lL
forLhwlLh conveys an lmmedlaLe ldea of Lhe lngredlenLs quallLles or characLerlsLlcs of Lhe
goods or lf lL clearly denoLes whaL goods or servlces are provlded ln such a way LhaL Lhe
consumer does noL have Lo exerclse powers of percepLlon or lmaglnaLlon (SocleLe des rodulLs
vs CA C8 no 112012 Aprll 4 2001) Why are generlc and descrlpLlve Lerms noL reglsLrable?
1hese Lypes of marks cannoL be suscepLlble for excluslve approprlaLlon as lL ls open Lo Lhe
publlc for Lhelr use Words and phrases ln common use and whlch merely lndlcaLe Lhe
characLer klnd quallLy and composlLlon of Lhe Lhlng may noL be approprlaLed by anyone Lo hls
excluslve use nor Lhose whlch are decepLlvely mlsdescrlpLlve of Lhe producL (LasL aclflc
Merchandlslng Corp vs ulrecLor of aLenLs C8 no L14377 uec 29 1960) A dealer ln shoes
cannoL reglsLer LeaLher Shoes as hls Lrademark because LhaL would be merely descrlpLlve and
lL would be un[usL Lo deprlve oLher dealers ln leaLher shoes of Lhe rlghL Lo use Lhe same words
wlLh reference Lo Lhelr merchandlse no one may approprlaLe generlc or descrlpLlve words
1hey belong Lo Lhe publlc domaln (Masso Permanos vs ulrecLor of aLenLs C8 no L3932
uec 29 1933)

lL ls evldenL LhaL CAMlA as a Lrademark ls far from belng dlsLlncLlve 8y lLself lL does noL
ldenLlfy peLlLloner as Lhe manufacLurer or producer of Lhe goods upon whlch sald mark s used
as conLradlsLlngulshed Lo Lrademarks derlved from colned words such as 8olex kodak or
koLex lL has been held LhaL lf a mark ls so commonplace LhaL lL cannoL be readlly
dlsLlngulshed from oLhers Lhen lL ls apparenL LhaL lL cannoL ldenLlfy a parLlcular buslness and
he who flrsL adopLed lL cannoL be ln[ured by any subsequenL approprlaLlon or lmlLaLlon by
oLhers and Lhe publlc wlll noL be decelved (hll 8eflnlng Co vs ng Sam C8 no L26676
!uly 30 1982)
1he words pale pllsen may noL be approprlaLed by SMC for lLs excluslve use even lf Lhey are
parL of lLs reglsLered Lrademark SAn MlCuLL ALL lLSLn any more Lhan such descrlpLlve
words as evaporaLed mllk LomaLo keLchup cheddar cheese corn flakes and cooklng
oll may be approprlaLed by any slngle manufacLurer of Lhese food producLs for no oLher
reason Lhan LhaL he was Lhe flrsL Lo use Lhem ln hls reglsLered Lrademark (Asla 8rewery lnc vs
CA C8 no 103343 !uly 3 1993) AlLhough a comblnaLlon of words may be reglsLered as a
Lradename lL ls no [usLlflcaLlon for noL applylng Lhe prlnclple LhaL Lhe use of a descrlpLlve or
generlc Lerm ln a Lradename ls always sub[ecL Lo Lhe llmlLaLlon LhaL Lhe reglsLranL cannoL
acqulre Lhe excluslve rlghL Lo Lhe descrlpLlve or generlc Lerm or word (Cng Al Cul vs ulrecLor
of aLenLs C8 no L6233 March 28 1933)
SuggesLlve Lerms on Lhe oLher hand can be reglsLered SuggesLlve Lerms are Lhose whlch ln Lhe
phraseology of one courL requlre lmaglnaLlon LhoughL and percepLlon Lo reach a concluslon
as Lo Lhe naLure of Lhe goods Such Lerms whlch subLly connoLe someLhlng abouL Lhe
producL are ellglble for proLecLlon ln Lhe absence of secondary meanlng Whlle suggesLlve
marks are capable of sheddlng some llghL upon cerLaln characLerlsLlcs of Lhe goods or servlces
ln dlspuLe Lhey neverLheless lnvolve an elemenL of lncongrulLy flguraLlveness or
lmaglnaLlve efforL on Lhe parL of Lhe observer (SocleLe des rodulLs vs CA C8 no 112012
Aprll 4 2001)
uocLrlne of Secondary meanlng As regards slgns or devlces menLloned ln paragraphs ([) (k)
and (l) of Sec 1231 noLhlng shall prevenL Lhe reglsLraLlon of any such slgn or devlce whlch has
become dlsLlncLlve ln relaLlon Lo Lhe goods for whlch reglsLraLlon ls requesLed as a resulL of Lhe
use LhaL have been made of lL ln commerce ln Lhe hlllpplnes (Sec 1232 lC) 1he docLrlne of
secondary meanlng was elaboraLed ln Lhe followlng Lerms a word or phrase orlglnally
lncapable of excluslve approprlaLlon wlLh reference Lo an arLlcle on Lhe markeL because
geographlcally or oLherwlse descrlpLlve mlghL neverLheless have been used so long and so
excluslvely by one producer wlLh reference Lo hls arLlcle LhaL ln LhaL Lrade and Lo LhaL branch
of Lhe purchaslng publlc Lhe word or phrase has come Lo mean LhaL Lhe arLlcle was hls
producL (hll nuL lndusLry vs SLandard L23033 !uly 31 1973) 1hus even lf Ang 1lbay
Lherefore were noL capable of excluslve approprlaLlon as a Lrademark Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe
docLrlne of secondary meanlng could neverLheless be fully susLalned because ln any evenL by
respondenLs long and excluslve use of sald phrase wlLh reference Lo hls producLs and hls
buslness lL has acqulred a proprleLary connoLaLlon 1hls docLrlne ls Lo Lhe effecL LhaL a word or
phrase orlglnally lncapable of excluslve approprlaLlon wlLh reference Lo an arLlcle on Lhe
markeL because geographlcally or oLherwlse descrlpLlve mlghL neverLheless have been used so
long and so excluslvely by one producer wlLh reference Lo hls arLlcle LhaL ln LhaL Lrade and Lo
LhaL branch of Lhe purchaslng publlc Lhe word or phrase has come Lo mean LhaL Lhe arLlcle was
hls producL (Ang vs 1eodoro 74 hll 30 1942)
AlLhough Lhe word SLLLC1A may be an ordlnary or common word ln Lhe sense LhaL lL may be
used or employed by any one ln promoLlng hls buslness or enLerprlse once adopLed or colned
ln connecLlon wlLh ones buslness as an emblem slgn or devlce Lo characLerlze lLs producLs or
as a badge or auLhenLlclLy lL may acqulre a secondary meanlng as Lo be excluslvely assoclaLed
wlLh lLs producLs and buslness ln Lhls sense lLs use by anoLher may lead Lo confuslon ln Lrade
and cause damage Lo lLs buslness (Arce Sons and Co vs SelecLs 8lsculLs 1 SC8A 233 1961)
uocLrlne of Secondary Meanlng appllcable Lo Lrade names 1he docLrlne of secondary meanlng
orlglnaLed ln Lhe fleld of Lrademark law lLs appllcaLlon has however been exLended Lo
corporaLe names slne Lhe rlghL Lo use a corporaLe name Lo Lhe excluslon of oLhers ls based
upon Lhe same prlnclple whlch underlles Lhe rlghL Lo use a parLlcular Lrademark or Lradename
Powever whlle Lhe appellanL may have proved LhaL lL had been uslng Lhe word Lyceum for a
long perlod of Llme Lhls facL alone dld noL amounL Lo mean LhaL Lhe sald word had acqulred
secondary meanlng ln lLs favor because Lhe appellanL falled Lo prove LhaL lL had been uslng Lhe
same word all by lLself Lo Lhe excluslon of oLhers (Lyceum of Lhe hlllpplnes vs CourL of
Appeals C8 101897 March 3 1993)

Confuslng SlmllarlLy 1he slmllarlLy musL be such as ls llkely Lo mlslead purchasers of ordlnary
cauLlon and prudence lnLo Lhe bellef LhaL Lhe arLlcles are Lhose of anoLher producer or
manufacLurer WheLher Lhe mark or label of one compeLlLor resembles anoLher ls Lo be
deLermlned by an lnspecLlon of Lhe polnLs of dlfference and resemblance as a whole and noL
merely Lhe polnLs of resemblance (Amerlcan Cyanlmld vs ulrecLor of aLenLs C8 23934
Aprll 29 1977)
1esL of confuslng slmllarlLy of marks (a) phoneLlc slmllarlLy 1he followlng random llsL of
confuslngly slmllar sounds ln Lhe maLLer of Lrademarks culled from nlms unfalr CompeLlLlon
and 1rade Marks 1947 vol 1 wlll relnforce our vlew LhaL SALCnAS and LlCnAS are
confuslngly slmllar ln sound Cold uusL and Cold urop !anLzen and !assSea Sllver
llash and Supper llash CascareLe and CelborlLe Cellulold and CellonlLe
CharLreuse and Charseurs CuLex and CuLlclean Pebe and Me[e koLex and
lemeLex Zuso and Poo Poo Leon Amdur ln hls book 1radeMark Law and racLlce pp
419421 clLles as comlng wlLhln Lhe purvlew of Lhe ldem sonans rule ?usea and uCA
SLelnway lanos and SLelnberg lanos and Sevenup and Lemonup ln Co 1long vs
ulrecLor of aLenLs Lhls CourL unequlvocally sald LhaL Celdura and Cordura are confuslngly
slmllar ln sound Lhls CourL held ln Sapolln Co vs 8almaceda 67 hll 793 LhaL Lhe name
Lusolln ls an lnfrlngemenL of Lhe Lrademark Sapolln as Lhe sound of Lhe Lwo names ls
almosL Lhe same (Marvex Commerclal Co lnc v eLra Pawpla Co eL al L16297 uec 22
1926)
(b) PollsLlc 1esL Lhe person who lnfrlnges a Lrade mark does noL normally copy ouL buL only
makes colorable changes employlng enough polnLs of slmllarlLy Lo confuse Lhe publlc wlLh
enough polnLs of dlfferences Lo confuse Lhe courLs WhaL ls undenlable ls Lhe facL LhaL when a
manufacLurer prepares Lo package hls producL he has before hlm a boundless cholce of words
phrases colors and symbols sufflclenL Lo dlsLlngulsh hls producL from Lhe oLhers When as ln
Lhls case Sunshlne chose wlLhouL a reasonable explanaLlon Lo use Lhe same colors and leLLers
as Lhose used by uel MonLe Lhough Lhe fleld of lLs selecLlon was so broad Lhe lnevlLable
concluslon ls LhaL lL was done dellberaLely Lo decelve (uel MonLe Corp vs CA C8 no L
78332 !an 23 1990)
(c)
(d) uomlnancy 1esL lL has been conslsLenLly held LhaL Lhe quesLlon of lnfrlngemenL of a
Lrademark ls Lo be deLermlned by Lhe LesL of domlnancy SlmllarlLy ln slze form and color whlle
relevanL ls noL concluslve lf Lhe compeLlng Lrademark conLalns Lhe maln or essenLlal or
domlnanL feaLures of anoLher and confuslon and decepLlon ls llkely Lo resulL lnfrlngemenL
Lakes place uupllcaLlon or lmlLaLlon ls noL necessary noL lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe lnfrlnglng label
should suggesL an efforL Lo lmlLaLe 1he domlnanL feaLure of SMCs Lrademark ls Lhe name of
Lhe producL SAn MlCuLL ALL lLSLn wrlLLen ln whlLe CoLhlc leLLers wlLh elaboraLe serlfs aL
Lhe beglnnlng and end of Lhe leLLers S and M on an amber background across Lhe upper
porLlon of Lhe recLangular deslgn Cn Lhe oLher hand Lhe domlnanL feaLure of A8ls Lrademark
ls Lhe name 8LL8 ALL lLSLn wlLh Lhe word 8eer wrlLLen ln large amber leLLers larger Lhan
any of Lhe leLLers found ln Lhe SMC label 1he Lrlal courL percepLlvely observed LhaL Lhe word
8LL8 does noL appear ln SMCs Lrademark [usL as Lhe words SAM MlCuLL do noL appear ln
A8ls Lrademark Pence Lhere ls absoluLely no slmllarlLy ln Lhe domlnanL feaLures of boLh
Lrademarks nelLher ln sound spelllng or appearance can 8LL8 ALL lLSLn be sald Lo be
confuslngly slmllar Lo SAn MlCuLL ALL lLSLn no one who purchases 8LL8 ALL lLSLn can
posslbly be decelved LhaL lL ls SAn MlCuLL ALL lLSLn no evldence whaLsoever was
presenLed by SMC provlng oLherwlse (Asla 8rewery lnc vs CA C8 no 103343 !uly 3 1993)
lnexpllcable use 8espondenLs wlLness had no ldea why respondenL chose unlvL8SAL
CCnvL8SL as Lrademark and Lhe record dlscloses no reasonable explanaLlon for respondenLs
use of Lhe word CCnvL8SL ln lLs Lrademark Such unexplalned use by respondenL of Lhe
domlnanL word of peLlLloners corporaLe name lends lLself open Lo Lhe susplclon of fraudulenL
moLlve Lo Lrade upon peLlLloners repuLaLlon Lhus 'A boundless cholce of words phrases and
symbols ls avallable Lo one who wlshes a Lrademark sufflclenL unLo lLself Lo dlsLlngulsh hls
producL from Lhose of oLhers When however Lhere ls no reasonable explanaLlon for Lhe
defendanLs cholce of such a mark Lhough Lhe fleld for hls selecLlon was so broad Lhe lnference
ls lnevlLable LhaL lL was chosen dellberaLely Lo decelve (Converse 8ubber vs unlversal 8ubber
C8 no L27906 !an 8 1987) We do noL see why appllcanL could noL have sLreLched hls
lmaglnaLlon even a llLLle and exLended hls cholce Lo oLher members of Lhe anlmal klngdom as a
brand Lo dlfferenLlaLe hls producL from slmllar producLs ln Lhe markeL ln a slmllar case declded
by Lhls 1rlbunal whereln alLhough one brand conslsLlng of Lhe represenLaLlon of a roosLer was
already belng used by one parLy anoLher parLy wanLed Lo reglsLer a slmllar brand conslsLlng of
Lwo roosLers on a slmllar producL (Llm Poa vs ulrecLor of aLenLs C8 no L6233 March 28
1933)
Crdlnary purchaser ln order LhaL Lhere may be decepLlon of Lhe buylng publlc ln Lhe sense
necessary Lo consLlLuLe unfalr compeLlLlon lL ls necessary Lo suppose a publlc accusLomed Lo
buy and Lherefore Lo some exLenL famlllar wlLh Lhe goods ln quesLlon 1he LesL of fraudulenL
slmulaLlon ls Lo be found ln Lhe llkellhood of Lhe decepLlon of persons ln some measure
acqualnLed wlLh an esLabllshed deslgn and deslrous of purchaslng Lhe commodlLy wlLh whlch
LhaL deslgn has been assoclaLed 1he LesL ls noL found ln Lhe decepLlon or posslblllLy of Lhe
decepLlon of Lhe person who knows noLhlng abouL Lhe deslgn whlch has been counLerfelLed
and who musL be lndlfferenL as beLween LhaL and Lhe oLher 1he slmulaLlon ln order Lo be
ob[ecLlonable musL be such as appears llkely Lo mlslead Lhe ordlnarlly lnLelllgenL buyer who
has a need Lo supply and ls famlllar wlLh Lhe arLlcle LhaL he seeks Lo purchase (Asla 8rewery
lnc vs CA C8 no 103343 !uly 3 1993) Accordlngly Laken as Lhey wlll appear Lo a
prospecLlve cusLomer Lhe Lrademarks ln quesLlon are noL apL Lo confuse lurLhermore Lhe
producL of Lhe appllcanL ls expressly sLaLed as dlspensable only upon docLors prescrlpLlon
whlle LhaL of opposlLor does noL requlre Lhe same 1he chances of belng confused lnLo
purchaslng one for Lhe oLher are Lherefore all Lhe more rendered negllglble AlLhough opposlLor
avers LhaL some drugsLores sell 8lClL8ln wlLhouL asklng for a docLors prescrlpLlon Lhe same
lf Lrue would be an lrregularlLy noL aLLrlbuLable Lo Lhe appllcanL who has already clearly sLaLed
Lhe requlremenL of a docLors prescrlpLlon upon Lhe face of Lhe label of lLs producL (8rlsLol
Myers vs ulrecLor of aLenLs 17 SC8A 128 1966)
1he relaLed goods prlnclple Coods are relaLed when Lhey belong Lo Lhe same class or have Lhe
same descrlpLlve properLles or physlcal aLLrlbuLes or Lhey serve Lhe same purpose or flow
Lhrough Lhe same channel of Lrade 1he reglsLranL of Lhe mark Lsso" for peLroleum producLs
may noL valldly prevenL oLhers from uslng Lsso" for clgareLLes because Lhere ls a marked
dlfference beLween oll and Lobacco Lhe respecLlve goods flow Lhrough dlfferenL channels of
Lrade and Lhe buslness of one ls beyond Lhe zone of poLenLlal or naLural and loglcal expanslon
of Lhe oLher (Lsso SLandard LasLern lnc vs CA C8 no L29971 Aug 31 1982) 1he use of
ldenLlcal marks on noncompeLlng buL relaLed goods may llkely cause confuslon 1hus Lhe
Lrademark Ang 1lbay" for shoes and sllppers was noL allowed Lo be used for shlrLs and panLs
because Lhey belong Lo Lhe same general class of goods (Ang vs 1eodoro 74 hll 30 1942)
lll 8eglsLraLlon of a Mark
lormal requlremenL for appllcaLlon of reglsLraLlon 1he appllcaLlon for Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe
mark shall be ln llllplno or ln Lngllsh and shall conLaln Lhe followlng (a) A requesL for
reglsLraLlon
(b) 1he name and address of Lhe appllcanL
(c) 1he name of a SLaLe of whlch Lhe appllcanL ls a naLlonal or where he has domlclle and Lhe
name of a SLaLe ln whlch Lhe appllcanL has a real and effecLlve lndusLrlal or commerclal
esLabllshmenL lf any
(d) Where Lhe appllcanL ls a [urldlcal enLlLy Lhe law under whlch lL ls organlzed and exlsLlng
(e) 1he appolnLmenL of an agenL or represenLaLlve lf Lhe appllcanL ls noL domlclled ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
(f) Where Lhe appllcanL clalms Lhe prlorlLy of an earller appllcaLlon an lndlcaLlon of
l) 1he name of Lhe SLaLe wlLh whose naLlonal offlce Lhe earller appllcaLlon was flled or lf flled
wlLh an offlce oLher Lhan a naLlonal offlce Lhe name of LhaL offlce
ll) 1he daLe on whlch Lhe earller appllcaLlon was flled and
lll) Where avallable Lhe appllcaLlon number of Lhe earller appllcaLlon
(g) Where Lhe appllcanL clalms color as a dlsLlncLlve feaLure of Lhe mark a sLaLemenL Lo LhaL
effecL as well as Lhe name or names of Lhe color or colors clalmed and an lndlcaLlon ln respecL
of each color of Lhe prlnclpal parLs of Lhe mark whlch are ln LhaL color
(h) Where Lhe mark ls a Lhreedlmenslonal mark a sLaLemenL Lo LhaL effecL
(l) Cne or more reproducLlons of Lhe mark as prescrlbed ln Lhe 8egulaLlons
([) A LransllLeraLlon or LranslaLlon of Lhe mark or of some parLs of Lhe mark as prescrlbed ln Lhe
8egulaLlons
(k) 1he names of Lhe goods or servlces for whlch Lhe reglsLraLlon ls soughL grouped accordlng
Lo Lhe classes of Lhe nlce ClasslflcaLlon LogeLher wlLh Lhe number of Lhe class of Lhe sald
ClasslflcaLlon Lo whlch each group of goods or servlces belongs and
(l) A slgnaLure by or oLher selfldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe appllcanL or hls represenLaLlve (Sec 124
lC)
llllng daLe 1he flllng daLe of an appllcaLlon shall be Lhe daLe on whlch Lhe Cfflce recelved Lhe
followlng lndlcaLlons and elemenLs ln Lngllsh or llllplno (a) An express or lmpllclL lndlcaLlon
LhaL Lhe reglsLraLlon of a mark ls soughL
(b) 1he ldenLlLy of Lhe appllcanL
(c) lndlcaLlons sufflclenL Lo conLacL Lhe appllcanL or hls represenLaLlve lf any
(d) A reproducLlon of Lhe mark whose reglsLraLlon ls soughL and
(e) 1he llsL of Lhe goods or servlces for whlch Lhe reglsLraLlon ls soughL (Sec 127 lC)
noLe no flllng daLe shall be accorded unLll Lhe requlred fee ls pald (Sec 1272
lC)
rlorlLy rlghL An appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of a mark flled ln Lhe hlllpplnes by a person
referred Lo ln SecLlon 3 and who prevlously duly flled an appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of Lhe
same mark ln one of Lhose counLrles shall be consldered as flled as of Lhe day Lhe appllcaLlon
was flrsL flled ln Lhe forelgn counLry (Sec 1311 lC) Powever no reglsLraLlon of a mark ln Lhe
hlllpplnes by a person descrlbed ln Lhls secLlon shall be granLed unLll such mark has been
reglsLered ln Lhe counLry of orlgln of Lhe appllcanL (Sec 1312 lC) 1hls rlghL does noL enLlLle
Lhe owner of a reglsLraLlon granLed under Lhls secLlon Lo sue for acLs commlLLed prlor Lo Lhe
daLe on whlch hls mark was reglsLered ln Lhls counLry excepL for wellknown marks (Sec
1313 lC) rocedure for reglsLraLlon (a) LxamlnaLlon Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhe appllcaLlon
saLlsfles Lhe requlremenLs for Lhe granL of a flllng daLe under SecLlon 127 (Sec 132 lC)
(b) LxamlnaLlon Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhe appllcaLlon meeLs Lhe requlremenLs of SecLlon 124
and Lhe mark ls reglsLrable under SecLlon 123 (Sec 133 lC)
(c) uenlal of Lhe appllcaLlon or amendmenL Lhereof or publlcaLlon of Lhe appllcaLlon (Sec
1332 and Sec 1333 lC)
(d) CpposlLlon Lo Lhe appllcaLlon noLlce hearlng declslon by examlner appeal Lo Lhe ulrecLor
of Lhe 8ureau of 1rademarks appeal Lo Lhe lC ulrecLor Ceneral appeal Lo Lhe CourL of
Appeals
(e) lssuance of cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon (Sec 136 lC)
(f) ubllcaLlon ln Lhe lC CazeLLe of Lhe facL of reglsLraLlon (Sec 136 lC)
uuraLlon of reglsLraLlon 1he duraLlon of a Lrademark reglsLraLlon ls 10 years renewable for
perlods of 10 years each renewal 1he requesL for renewal musL be made wlLhln 6 monLhs
before or afLer Lhe explraLlon of Lhe reglsLraLlon (Sec 143 lC) osLreglsLraLlon requlremenL
1he reglsLranL ls requlred Lo flle a declaraLlon of acLual use and evldence Lo LhaL effecL wlLhln
1 year from Lhe flfLh annlversary of Lhe daLe of reglsLraLlon of Lhe mark oLherwlse Lhe mark
shall be removed from Lhe 8eglsLer (Sec 143 lC) 8u1 nonuse of a mark may be excused lf
caused by clrcumsLance arlslng lndependenLly of Lhe wlll of Lhe Lrademark owner Lack of funds
ls noL an accepLable excuse (Sec 132 lC) CancellaLlon of reglsLraLlon A peLlLlon Lo cancel a
reglsLraLlon of a mark under Lhls AcL may be flled wlLh Lhe 8ureau of Legal Affalrs by any person
who belleves LhaL he ls or wlll be damaged by Lhe reglsLraLlon of a mark under Lhls AcL as
follows (a) WlLhln flve (3) years from Lhe daLe of Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe mark under Lhls AcL
(b) AL any Llme lf Lhe reglsLered mark becomes Lhe generlc name for Lhe goods or servlces or
a porLlon Lhereof for whlch lL ls reglsLered or has been abandoned or lLs reglsLraLlon was
obLalned fraudulenLly or conLrary Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcL or lf Lhe reglsLered mark ls belng
used by or wlLh Lhe permlsslon of Lhe reglsLranL so as Lo mlsrepresenL Lhe source of Lhe goods
or servlces on or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch Lhe mark ls used lf Lhe reglsLered mark becomes Lhe
generlc name for less Lhan all of Lhe goods or servlces for whlch lL ls reglsLered a peLlLlon Lo
cancel Lhe reglsLraLlon for only Lhose goods or servlces may be flled A reglsLered mark shall noL
be deemed Lo be Lhe generlc name of goods or servlces solely because such mark ls also used
as a name of or Lo ldenLlfy a unlque producL or servlce 1he prlmary slgnlflcance of Lhe
reglsLered mark Lo Lhe relevanL publlc raLher Lhan purchaser moLlvaLlon shall be Lhe LesL for
deLermlnlng wheLher Lhe reglsLered mark has become Lhe generlc name of goods or servlces on
or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch lL has been used
(c) AL any Llme lf Lhe reglsLered owner of Lhe mark wlLhouL leglLlmaLe reason falls Lo use Lhe
mark wlLhln Lhe hlllpplnes or Lo cause lL Lo be used ln Lhe hlllpplnes by vlrLue of a llcense
durlng an unlnLerrupLed perlod of Lhree (3) years or longer (Sec 131 lC)
1here belng no evldence of use of Lhe mark by oLhers before 1932 or LhaL appellee abandoned
use Lhereof Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe mark was made ln accordance wlLh Lhe 1rademark Law
CranLlng LhaL appellanL used Lhe mark when appellee sLopped uslng lL durlng Lhe perlod of Llme
LhaL Lhe CovernmenL lmposed resLrlcLlons on lmporLaLlon of respondenLs brasslere bearlng Lhe
Lrademark such Lemporary nonuse dld noL affecL Lhe rlghLs of appellee because lL was
occasloned by governmenL resLrlcLlons and was noL permanenL lnLenLlonal and volunLary 1o
work an abandonmenL Lhe dlsuse musL be permanenL and noL ephemeral lL musL be
lnLenLlonal and volunLary and noL lnvolunLary or even compulsory 1here musL be a
Lhoroughgolng dlsconLlnuance of any Lrademark use of Lhe mark ln quesLlon (Callman unfalr
CompeLlLlon and 1rademark 2nd Ld p 1341) 1he use of Lhe Lrademark by oLher
manufacLurers dld noL lndlcaLe an lnLenLlon on Lhe parL of appellee Lo abandon lL (8omero vs
Malden lorm C8 no L18289 March 31 1964 ) 1he nonuse of a Lrademark or an arLlcle of
merchandlse due Lo legal resLrlcLlons or clrcumsLances beyond ones conLrol ls noL Lo be
consldered as an abandonmenL Sald rule was correcLly applled Lo Lhe case aL bar where Lhe use
of Lhe Lrademark was lnLerrupLed durlng Lhe !apanese occupaLlon and ln facL was dlsconLlnued
when Lhe lmporLaLlon of Lhe producL covered by Lhe Lrademark was prohlblLed by Lhe CenLral
8ank 8egulaLlons (hll nuL lndusLry vs SLandard L23033 !uly 31 1973) AsslgnmenL and
1ransfer of AppllcaLlon and 8eglsLraLlon An appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon or lLs reglsLraLlon may
be asslgned or Lransferred wlLh or wlLhouL Lhe Lransfer of Lhe buslness uslng Lhe mark
Powever lL wlll be null and vold lf lL would mlslead Lhe publlc especlally as regards Lhe naLure
source manufacLurlng process characLerlsLlcs or sulLablllLy for Lhelr purpose of Lhe goods or
servlces Lo whlch Lhe mark ls applled Such asslgnmenL or Lransfer shall be ln wrlLlng and wlLh
Lhe slgnaLures of Lhe conLracLlng parLles lL shall be recorded wlLh Lhe lC oLherwlse lL shall
have no effecL agalnsL Lhlrd parLles (Sec 149 lC) Llcense conLracLs Any llcense conLracL
concernlng Lhe appllcaLlon of a mark or lLs reglsLraLlon shall provlde for effecLlve conLrol by Lhe
llcensor of Lhe quallLy of Lhe goods or servlces of Lhe llcensee ln connecLlon wlLh whlch Lhe
mark ls used lf Lhe conLracL shall noL provlde Lhe foregolng lL shall noL be valld Sald conLracLs
musL be recorded wlLh Lhe lC oLherwlse lL shall noL blnd Lhlrd parLles (Sec 1301 lC) lv
Wellknown Marks
A wellknown mark ls one whlch a compeLenL auLhorlLy of Lhe hlllpplnes has deslgnaLed Lo be
wellknown lnLernaLlonally and ln Lhe hlllpplnes ln deLermlnlng wheLher a mark ls well
known accounL shall be Laken of Lhe knowledge of Lhe relevanL secLor of Lhe publlc raLher
Lhan Lhe publlc aL large lncludlng knowledge ln Lhe hlllpplnes whlch has been obLalned as a
resulL of Lhe promoLlon of Lhe mark (Sec 1231e and flC) AddlLlonal rlghL of owner 1he
excluslve rlghL of Lhe owner of a wellknown mark whlch ls reglsLered ln Lhe hlllpplnes shall
exLend Lo goods and servlces whlch are noL slmllar Lo Lhose ln respecL of whlch Lhe mark ls
reglsLered provlded LhaL (l) Lhe use of Lhe mark ln relaLlon Lo Lhose goods or servlces would
lndlcaLe a connecLlon beLween Lhose goods or servlces and Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark
and (ll) Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark are llkely Lo be damaged by such use
(Sec 1472 lC) v lnfrlngemenL of 1rademark unfalr CompeLlLlon
8lghLs conferred on Lrademark (a) 1he owner of a reglsLered mark shall have Lhe excluslve
rlghL Lo prevenL all Lhlrd parLles noL havlng Lhe owners consenL from uslng ln Lhe course of
Lrade ldenLlcal or slmllar slgns or conLalners for goods or servlces whlch are ldenLlcal or slmllar
Lo Lhose ln respecL of whlch Lhe Lrademark ls reglsLered where such use would resulL ln a
llkellhood of confuslon ln case of Lhe use of an ldenLlcal slgn for ldenLlcal goods or servlces a
llkellhood of confuslon shall be presumed (b) 1he excluslve rlghL of Lhe owner of a wellknown
mark deflned ln SubsecLlon 1231(e) whlch ls reglsLered ln Lhe hlllpplnes shall exLend Lo goods
and servlces whlch are noL slmllar Lo Lhose ln respecL of whlch Lhe mark ls reglsLered rovlded
1haL use of LhaL mark ln relaLlon Lo Lhose goods or servlces would lndlcaLe a connecLlon
beLween Lhose goods or servlces and Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark rovlded furLher 1haL
Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark are llkely Lo be damaged by such use
LlmlLaLlons on such rlghL uuraLlon of reglsLraLlon (10 years) and 1errlLorlal llmlLaLlons (rlghLs
can be enforced wlLhln Lhe LerrlLory of reglsLraLlon excepL wellknown marks) When ls Lhere
lnfrlngemenL? 1here ls lnfrlngemenL lf a reglsLered mark ls used ln commerce by a person
wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe reglsLered owner Lhereof Such lnfrlngemenL may lnvolve (a) use
ln commerce any reproducLlon counLerfelL copy or colorable lmlLaLlon of a reglsLered mark or
Lhe same conLalner or a domlnanL feaLure Lhereof ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe sale offerlng for sale
dlsLrlbuLlon adverLlslng of any goods or servlces lncludlng oLher preparaLory sLeps necessary Lo
carry ouL Lhe sale of any goods or servlces on or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch such use ls llkely Lo
cause confuslon or Lo cause mlsLake or Lo decelve or
(b) 8eproduce counLerfelL copy or colorably lmlLaLe a reglsLered mark or a domlnanL feaLure
Lhereof and apply such reproducLlon counLerfelL copy or colorable lmlLaLlon Lo labels slgns
prlnLs packages wrappers recepLacles or adverLlsemenLs lnLended Lo be used ln commerce
upon or ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe sale offerlng for sale dlsLrlbuLlon or adverLlslng of goods or
servlces on or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch such use ls llkely Lo cause confuslon or Lo cause
mlsLake or Lo decelve shall be llable ln a clvll acLlon for lnfrlngemenL by Lhe reglsLranL for Lhe
remedles herelnafLer seL forLh (Sec 133 lC)
ln order Lo brlng a clvll acLlon for lnfrlngemenL lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhere be an acLual sale of
Lhe goods or servlces uslng Lhe lnfrlnglng maLerlal lnfrlngemenL Lakes place upon Lhe mere use
or reproducLlon of Lhe reglsLered mark (Sec 133 lC) 8emedles avallable Lo Lhe owner whose
reglsLered mark was lnfrlnged (a) Sue for damages (Sec 1361)
(b) Pave Lhe lnfrlnglng goods lmpounded (Sec 1362)
(c) Ask for double damages (Sec 1363)
(d) Ask for ln[uncLlon (Sec 1364)
(e) Pave Lhe lnfrlnglng goods dlsposed of ouLslde Lhe channels of commerce (Sec 1371)
(f) Pave Lhe lnfrlnglng goods desLroyed (Sec 1371)
(g) llle crlmlnal acLlon (Sec 170)
(h) AdmlnlsLraLlve sancLlons
Cwners of a reglsLered mark ls requlred Lo glve noLlce of Lhe facL LhaL hls mark ls reglsLered ln
order Lo recover proflLs or damages ln case of lnfrlngemenL Powever knowledge of Lhe facL of
reglsLraLlon ls presumed lf Lhe words 8eglsLered Mark" or Lhe symbol (8eglsLered) ls dlsplayed
LogeLher wlLh Lhe mark LlmlLaLlons Lo acLlons for lnfrlngemenL (a) no acLlon for lnfrlngemenL
could be Laken agalnsL a person who ln good falLh and before Lhe flllng daLe or prlorlLy daLe
was uslng Lhe mark for Lhe purposes of hls buslness or enLerprlse noLe however LhaL such
person may asslgn or Lransfer hls rlghL Lo use Lhe reglsLered mark only LogeLher wlLh hls
buslness or enLerprlse
(b) Cnly an ln[uncLlon agalnsL fuLure prlnLlng may be lmposed upon an lnnocenL lnfrlnglng
prlnLer
(c) Slmllarly only an ln[uncLlon agalnsL Lhe presenLaLlon of lnfrlnglng adverLlslng maLLer ln
fuLure lssues may be lmposed on lnnocenL lnfrlnglng newspapers and magazlnes (Sec 139
lC)
8lghL of lorelgn CorporaLlon Lo Sue ln 1rademark or Servlce Mark LnforcemenL AcLlon Any
forelgn naLlonal or [urldlcal person who meeLs Lhe requlremenLs of SecLlon 3 of Lhls AcL and
does noL engage ln buslness ln Lhe hlllpplnes may brlng a clvll or admlnlsLraLlve acLlon
hereunder for opposlLlon cancellaLlon lnfrlngemenL unfalr compeLlLlon or false deslgnaLlon of
orlgln and false descrlpLlon wheLher or noL lL ls llcensed Lo do buslness ln Lhe hlllpplnes under
exlsLlng laws (Sec 160 lC) A forelgn corporaLlon whlch has never done any buslness ln Lhe
hlllpplnes and whlch ls unllcensed and unreglsLered Lo do buslness here buL ls wldely and
favorably known ln Lhe hlllpplnes Lhrough Lhe use Lhereln of lLs producLs bearlng lLs corporaLe
and Lradename has a legal rlghL Lo malnLaln an acLlon ln Lhe hlllpplnes Lo resLraln Lhe
resldenLs and lnhablLanLs Lhereof from organlzlng a corporaLlon Lhereln bearlng Lhe same name
as Lhe forelgn corporaLlon when lL appears LhaL Lhey have personal knowledge of Lhe exlsLence
of such a forelgn corporaLlon and lL ls apparenL LhaL Lhe purpose of Lhe proposed domesLlc
corporaLlon ls Lo deal and Lrade ln Lhe same goods as Lhose of Lhe forelgn corporaLlon (La
Chemlse LacosLe vs lernandez C8 no 63639 May 21 1984) unfalr compeLlLlon ls Lhe use
by a person of decepLlon or oLher means conLrary Lo good falLh by whlch he passes off Lhe
goods manufacLured by hlm or ln whlch he deals or hls buslness or servlces for Lhose of
anoLher person who has esLabllshed goodwlll ln Lhe goods such person manufacLures or deals
ln or hls buslness or servlces or who shall commlL any acLs calculaLed Lo produce sald resulL
Some acLs of unfalr compeLlLlon are as follows (a) Clvlng one's goods Lhe general appearance
of goods of anoLher manufacLurer
(b) lnduclng Lhe false bellef LhaL one ls offerlng Lhe servlces of anoLher who has ldenLlfled such
servlces ln Lhe mlnds of Lhe publlc
(c) Maklng any false sLaLemenL calculaLed Lo dlscredlL Lhe goods buslness or servlces of
anoLher
lnfrlngemenL of Lrademark vs unfalr compeLlLlon (a) lnfrlngemenL of Lrademark ls Lhe
unauLhorlzed use of a Lrademark whereas unfalr compeLlLlon ls Lhe passlng off of ones goods
as Lhose of anoLher
(b) ln lnfrlngemenL of Lrademark fraudulenL lnLenL ls unnecessary whereas ln unfalr
compeLlLlon fraudulenL lnLenL ls essenLlal
(c) ln lnfrlngemenL of Lrademark Lhe prlor reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark ls a prerequlslLe Lo Lhe
acLlon whereas ln unfalr compeLlLlon reglsLraLlon ls noL necessary (uel MonLe Corp vs CA
C8 no L78332 !an 23 1990)
Crlmlnal enalLles lndependenL of Lhe clvll and admlnlsLraLlve sancLlons lmposed by law a
crlmlnal penalLy of lmprlsonmenL from Lwo (2) years Lo flve (3) years and a flne ranglng from
llfLy Lhousand pesos (30000) Lo 1wo hundred Lhousand pesos(200000) shall be lmposed on
any person who ls found gullLy of commlLLlng any of Lhe acLs menLloned ln SecLlon 133 SecLlon
168 and SubsecLlon 1691 (Sec 170 lC)
Lnd