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PC

HACKS
100 Industrial-Strength
Tips & Tools

Jim Aspinwall

O'REILLY*
Beijing Cambridge Farnham Koln Paris Sebastopol Taipei Tokyo

100

-
--

2005

.
100
.




.
.
.
.

. , .
.

32.973.23-04
004.3
.
8 5 . . 100 . .: ,
2005. 256 : .
ISBN 5-469-00871-1
,
Intel AMD.
, .
, BIOS,
,
, .
,
.

2005 O'Reilly Media, Inc.


, , 2005
, , , 2005

O'Reilly.
.
.
, , , .
, ,
, .

ISBN 5-469-00871-1
ISBN 0-596-00748-5 (.)

. I94044, -, . . , 29.
' 05784 07.09.01.

005-93, 2; 953005
.
17.06.05. 70100/16. . . . 20,64. 5000 . 1906.
. . .
, .
197110, -, ., 15.

13

1.

17

2.

37

56

3.

4.

5.

89
112

6.

145

162

7.

8. /

172

9.

197

10.

235

252

1.
1.
2. BIOS
3. BIOS
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. Legacy USB
9. BIOS
10. BIOS -

2.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16. SCSI
17.
18. Plug and Play

0
10
11
13
13
14
16

17
18
19
21
23
25
27
28
29
30
33

37
39
40
46
49
51
52
53
54

3.

56

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25. BIOS . . . .
26.
27.
28.
29.
4.
30.
31. ,
32. ,

33. Windows 95 98
34.
35. Windows
36. Windows 98 Me
37.
38.

58
62
63
66
67
70
78
81
83
84
85
89
89
90

92
96
97
101
104
105
107

39. Via . . . . 109


5.
112
40.
112
41.
119
42. NT, 2000, 2003
120
43. PartitionMagic . . 123
44. PartitionMagic . . . . 126
45. FAT NTFS
128
46. NTFS

129
47.
FAT
130
48.
NTFS
131

49. NTFS . . 132


50. GRUB LILO
133
51.
133
52.
136
53. DOS
137
54.
Windows 2000
138
55. Windows 95
139
56.
141
57.
143

145

58.
146
59. 80-
149
60. IDE
149
61. Serial ATA
150
62. IDE Intel . . 152
63. IDE Via . . . 152
64. RAID
154
65. DOS SMARTDRV
155
66. Windows VCACHE
157
67. Linux
158
7.

162

68. AGP
163
69.
164
70. AGP . 165
71. AGP
166
72. nVidia
167
73. ATI Radeon
170
74.
170
8. /
75.
Windows
76.
77. - . . .
78. -
79. -

172
178
180
181
184
186

80.
81. USB
82. USB
83.
84.

189
189
190
192
194

9.

197

85.
86.
87.

88.

89. NTFS

90.

91. DOS Windows 95/98/
92. CONFIG.SYS
93. AUTOEXEC.BAT
94. Windows NT/2000/XP
10.
95.
96.

97.
98. PC
99.
100.

201
206
210
217
218
219
220
225
226
229
235
236
239
241
241
247
250

252


( ) ,
. - ,
-,
Computer User, PC World CNET.com. . , 1970- ,
, 8008 .
, -
. Turbo XT 1986 , DOS
PC, .
PC 1990 , COMDEX , PC, DiagSoft
( ).
( ).
PC,
, ( ).
PC TuneUp.com (Quarterdeck),
RescueMe (Computer Support Technologies) Attune (Aveo). , , , (, - , ).
-
, , ,
.

,
, .
- : ,
.
,
- ( ),
, :

(Scott Spanbauer) PC World . ,


.
(
), ,
. PC World !
(Lincoln Spector), ,
Windows,
, . , ; . , , , ,
. ,
Gigglebytes!
(Brian Jepson) O'Reilly - ,
. , ,
- .
, ... .
, , ,
, . ;
, .

, - . ,
PC , ,
.
PC, The PC Users Survival Guide, M & T Books (,
: - ?).
, Troubleshooting Your PC, Wiley. ,
.
, , - !
(Mike Todd), , - PC.
The Source
PC. ,
,
PC. ,
PC .


, . ,
.
, (Gordon Kraft),
DiagSoft. ,
PC. ,

.
. ,
PC, .
, . , .
.,
- IRQ, DMA & I/O (MIS:Press), PC Installing, Troubleshooting and Repairing Wireless
Networks (McGraw-Hill). -,
, ,
.
, PC , , : DiagSoft Quarterdeck, ; TuneUp.com, CST
Aveo; , , ,
Phoenix Technologies/Award Software -
, PC;
, Acronis Xircom.
PC. ,
, , PC (
- , , , , , ), , .
; .
(Robert Luhn),
Computer User CNET; ,
. , ,
, ( )
. , !
. , , ,
, . ,
, PC, , ,
.
, , !


, , , , , . , PC.
, , - PC . , ,
PC .


, , , ,
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- - , , PC: ,
! , . PC, ,
, , . ,
, ,
-
.
,
. PC . ,
- - , .
- ,
, , , , . ., -
.
. SiSoftware Sandra http://www.sisoftware.net. , ,
.

- , ,
. , - , .
, , PC, (
, , ,
/), .


, ,
, , , , D, - . PC:
, .
.
- PC , , .
PC; , , , ( ) .
PC.
1, .
. - , BIOS, ,
BIOS, , .
2, .
BIOS , ? , BIOS
. , /, Plug and Play .
3, . - .
, ; ,
. , .
4, . , .
,

16

. , . , , ; ,
.
5, . - .
;
, , , . , , .
6, .
PC - . , ,
, , .
7, . PC
, .
(FPS); -
, . ,
- ;
, , , . ,
.
8, /.
( ,
) -
. , BIOS Windows ,
BIOS Plug and Play
.
9, . ,
, . .
10, .
. , , .
( , , ) . , , .

16


, ,
comp@piter.com ( , ).
!
- http://www.piter.com .

1-10
, ,
PC .
: , , /
, .
BIOS (Basic Input/Output
System), , ,
.
LCD-, . BIOS, . :
/
. BIOS

,
.
, .
(, ) BIOS
PC, , . BIOS, DIP- . , .
,
PC. .

18

, , BIOS, , - . BIOS
: . , .
, PC .
, , , ( ).

.

,
BIOS .

PC BIOS ; , BIOS ( ,
) ( ,
); . , BIOS
(. 1.1).

. 1.1. BIOS

(User Password), . BIOS - .


, , BIOS
. ,
, BIOS (. 2).
,
.

N8 2. BIOS

18

BIOS
CMOS-
,
BIOS .
PC , POST
(Power-On Self Test).
(. 1), POST
BIOS .
IBM PC (1981) , BIOS; POST.
.
BIOS IBM PC/AT (1984), . BIOS 1986;
PC.
.
PC , ,
. ,
,
BIOS.
BIOS?

, ,

. , ,
.

(
). ; . ,
; , . , .

PC. ,
.
, , , ( ),
!

20

1.

. ,

, ,
.
, PC.

:
;
, ;
.
, :
1. ( , ), .
2. . .
3. ,
( reset CMOS). ,
.
4. , .
5. 20-30 , -
.
6. 20-30 .
7. . ,
BIOS .
8. , , . .
9. BIOS . , , .

CMOS-, :
CMOS- - ( PC - ).
1 2 , .
20-30 , .
CMOS- .
CMOS- , . POST , , BIOS :
;

3, BIOS

21


IDE ( );
- ,
CD-ROM . .

. 1.2. , CMOS-

, ,
, , , , : ,
( ) , . , PC .

, - , BIOS. - http://www.labmice. techtarget.com/articles/BIOS_hacks.html http://www.pwcrack.com/bios.shtml.

BIOS

BIOS , BIOS.
POST .

1.

99

PC
, ,
Plug and Play, USB, . BIOS
, ,
.
POST , ,
, , BIOS - . ,
, (, ) , CMOS-.
BIOS
, , . . . 2,
BIOS
.

BIOS BIOS
. POST
Press F2 to enter Setup, PC. ; . 1.1
BIOS.

. ,
, . . 1.1 BIOS -

1 . 1 . BIOS
/ BIOS

American Megatrends/AMI BIOS

<ESC>

Award BIOS

<DEL>

COMPAQ

<F10>

Dell

<F2>

Gateway
HP
IBM

BIOS
<F1>
<F1>

Intel
Phoenix

<F2>
<F1>

<Ctrl>+S, <Ctrl> + <Alt>+S

4.

23

BIOS
. Award BIOS F5 F6. . 1.3 Phoenix BIOS,
F9.

. 1.3. F9 BIOS
()

BIOS ,
: . BIOS , . -
,
- . ,
, (. 2).
, BIOS
. ,
, -
. \


, , . .
POST BIOS .
, BIOS . , POST,
. Intel, AMD, AMI, Award/
Phoenix PC ,
, aaqiysKH. BIOS , .

. (
), .
,

24

1.
; Plug and Play (Windows , , Linux),
, . . 1.4; ( , ) ,
LPT, . .

. 1.4. POST

. BIOS , IDE Serial ATA.


AUTO IDE. AUTO
IDE Serial ATA, BIOS . , ,
, NONE (. 1.5).

. 1.5. IDE

BIOS. , , BIOS DOS ( 640 1 ) BIOS. SCSI


, . PC SCSI, , .

5.

26



. ,
Intel ,
.
, 1.6. , .
, BIOS,
.
, .

. 1.6. ,

BIOS - ( ), BIOS . BIOS , BIOS


-.
Award BIOS 4.5 .
:
BMP 640 480 16 ;
AWDFLASH.EXE ( - );

28

1.

BIOS - CBROM (http://www.stormpages.com/crazyape/cbrom.html) AwardMod (http://sourceforge.net/projects/


awardmod/).
, (
CBROM):
1. DOS Windows 95-.
2. AWDFLASH.EXE ( 28 ),
CBROM (78 ) ( 16 ). BIOS 256 .
3. 1. DOS, 2.
4. AWDFLASH
BIOS . AWDFLASH .
5. BIOS,
.
6. CBROM
BIOS (
):
cbrom bios.avid /logo .bmp [ E n t e r ]

7. AWDFLASH -.
AwardMod,
Windows, 1-5, :
1. Windows AwardMod (. 1.7).

. 1.7. AwardMod
BIOS,

6.

27

2. BIOS ( ) Load,
.
3. .
, BMP- . .
. Store . .
5. DOS.
6. AWDFLASH BIOS.
7. AWDFLASH BIOS -.

8. . ,
-.


- BIOS. ,
,
.
(UPS) ,
; BIOS (. 10).
,
BIOS ( , ). BIOS, .

-
CD-ROM .
BIOS , , .
BIOS ,
, -. BIOS, .
, (. 1.8), BIOS
-
, BIOS. CD-ROM .

1.

28

. 1.8. IDE

,
- .
,
Symantec GHOST ,

(. 1.9).

. 1.9.

(ZIP, FDD, HDD .),


USB, BIOS
.



.
,
, .

. ,
(, )
, .

, Windows ,

. ,

, - ,
, / iipiiiviaiiie-

8. Legacy USB

29

DOS Windows. ,
.
;
BIOS,
BIOS. ( , ),
.
Windows / ,
Windows , BIOS.
Windows:
1. .
2. .
3. Windows.
, .
4. .
5. , .
6. , BIOS
. .

Legacy USB
Windows.
Legacy USB USB
, PS/2.
, USB
, Windows DOS OS/2, /, Linux.
Legacy USB , ,
PS/2, Windows 95 98
USB. ,
.
, (
PS/2), . Windows 98SE, Me , USB,
Legacy USB No, Off Disabled
(. 1.10).

1.

30

Legacy USB Support

[Disabled]

1 10. USB
USB DOS, OS/2 Linux

-Legacy USB . USB


USB 2.0, , USB 2.0 USB 1.1 .

BIOS
BIOS
-.
, ,
BIOS. BIOS , BIOS
.
, BIOS.
, BIOS, , PC. , ,
- .
OEM (, Compaq,
Dell, Gateway, HP, IBM, NC, Sony Toshiba) - , , BIOS
.
: -
,
. , - , BIOS. PC ,
.
! ,
( ). , HP Pavilion -ASUS A7V-M;
Asus A7V, . HP Pavilion A7V-M Award BIOS, a BIOS

9. BIOS

31

.
, (.
25 27).
BIOS ,
, (, ). , -,
.
POST AMI, Award,
MR Phoenix (. 1.11), , , . BIOS , , ,
BIOS Unicore http://www.unicore.com.

. 1.11. Award BIOS.


BIOS

Unicore , BIOS Agent, BIOS. ,


BIOS, . Award BIOS
, (. 1.12).
Pause/Break , . Unicore ,
BIOS .

1.

32

. 1.12. BIOS Award BIOS

, BIOS Unicore BIOS -, BIOS . Unicore BIOS ,


. BIOS ,
. 1.13, , . 1.14, , BIOS Unicore.

. 1.13. AMIBIOS -,
, ( )

, , Award Phoenix BIOS


, . ,
BIOS (4.51, 6.0PG . .).
, BIOS
. Award BIOS
, Phoenix BIOS , .

Ng 10. BIOS -

33

. 1.14.
Award BIOS,
( CMOS-,
)

BIOS -
10

BIOS .

, - - . , ,
BIOS .

, ,
. , , BIOS.
- ( Unicore) BIOS , . ,
,
.

BIOS BIOS,
AMI Award/Phoenix , PC BIOS
.

34

1.

Microsoft, Visual Studio, Adobe,


Intuit, Symantec -, Visual Studio. - BIOS.

http://www.motherboards.org.

( BIOS Unicore) BIOS


- PC. , ,
, BIOS
, ,
,
Plug and Play .
readme BIOS
.

BIOS BIOS, .
, . BIOS ,
BIOS .
BIOS
BIOS . , BIOS .
-,
. Intel BIOS
,
Intel BIOS. http://downloadfinder.intel.com,
BIOS, .

BIOS 128 256 ,


2 .
BIOS 1,44 . (, , PC),
- BIOS .

BIOS Windows.
,
, Windows. DOS.

10. BIOS -

35

BIOS ,
. BIOS ( .BIN) BIOS BIOS.

, (UPS). BIOS,
.

1. DOS.
,
DOS 6.22, Windows 95,98 Me. MSDOS Windows XP, http://www.bootdisk.com.
2. Windows, , :.
3. DOS Windows ,
BIOS:
ASPtaxr.SYS
BTxrair.SYS
OAKCDROM.SYS
RAMDRIVE.SYS
EBD.CAB
SMARTDRV.EXE

4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.

CONFIG.SYS
AUTOEXEC.BAT
BIOS ( .BIN).
BIOS.
, . ,

(. 6).
DOS
BIOS Enter. .

- BIOS . BIOS
.
BIOS -.
BIOS
, .

36

1.

10. . ,
BIOS -.
11. , PC. BIOS , .
12. BIOS. , , . BIOS .

F5

- , USB , BIOS
.


11-18
,
BIOS, ,
PC, / ,
. , / .
PC, . PC ,
.
/
, , . , ,
.
XT AT (. 2.1), , Intel Celeron, Pentium I, II, III 4, AMD Athlon Duron.
/: PS/2, USB, ()
(LPT) .
USB FireWire (IEEE 1394). , Ethernet
, , , .
AT / (COM, LPT, , , ) ,
8- 16- , PCI.

38

2.

. 2 . 1 . -
,
/

BIOS
( , , . 2.2) .
,
.

. 2.2.
/: PS/2, USB, COM, LPT,

Ne 11.

39

BIOS, OEM-, . , ,
, - Plug and Play .


11

; .

, ... . . ,
. ISA ; ,
,
PC.

,
PCI, PC1-X, AGP,
USBHIEEE-1394.

8- 16- ISA ISA , IRQ ( , Interrupt Request)


, .
ISA (
). , PCI , (, , ) . PCI IRQ, ISA:
IRQ,
IRQ ( ISA ).
8- 16- ISA
. . PCI,
USB IEEE-1394, PCI
.
/
PC Card (
PCMCIA) USB IEEE-1394. . ,
USB/ USB/LPT,
, .

2,
, PCI PCI-X AGP.
, CD-RW DVD. 40-
IDE Serial ATA. , , .
- PCI USB.


12

BIOS / , .
, ,
, /. BIOS
, , ,
/ (, , USB / FireWire).
, :
;
IRQ (Interrupt Request),
, ;
DMA ( , Direct Memory Access)
,
.
.
BIOS ,
, .
/, PC , , PC
. PC , PC -.
, , PC , . , /
, PC BIOS -
.
,
, PC -

12.

41

. ; PC :
, ISA
( 11);
;
,
;
, IRQ DMA;
.
VLB
(VESA Local Bus), IBM MCA (MicroChannel Architecture) EISA (Enhanced
Industry Standard Architectire). . / PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect), AGP (Advanced Graphics Port), USB
(Universal Serial Bus) IEEE-1394 ( FireWire iLink), Serial ATA PCI-X.
(
) BIOS
Plug and Play.
Plug and Play - Microsoft
(http://download.microsoft.eom/download/whistler/hwdev3/1.0/WXP/EN-US/pnpbios.exe).
, . : BIOS
Plug and Play
( , ) , Plug and Play.
Plug and Play BIOS Plug and Play. ;
,
,
.

Plug and Play ,


( Plug and Play).

(. 75, 76 77).
, Windows Plug
and Play BIOS.

2,
Plug and Play , ug
and Play Plug and Play. Plug
and Play - - . BIOS , .

Plug and Play . , ( ,


). , .
Plug and Play, , .
BIOS .
PCI , PCI, ,
. :

(, ).

Plug and Play .


- BIOS . Plug and Play .
, / PC, , Plug and Play
.
Plug and Play BIOS . Plug and Play BIOS
, ,
. , Plug and Play BIOS ,
( ,
, - , , , ). ,
Plug and Play :

, Plug and Play.

.

12.

43


, , - Plug and Play - (, ). -
13, IRQ, -. , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
. Plug and Play (
75) Plug and Play
(. 18).


7 /,
, IRQ DMA. / , . ISA ( , ),
, 1 . . - .
PCI, PCI-X, AGP, IEEE-1394
/, ISA (8 16 ) (32 64 ) . Plug and Play ,
.
/, : IRQ (Interrupt Request) DMA (Direct Memory Access).
ISA ,
PCI . ,
, , 16 IRQ 8 DMA.
16- ISA ,
ISA, IRQ
: , , /, ,
.
DMA ,
DMA .

44

2.

, IRQ,
/ - - LPT-, SCSI, , .
IRQ ( Plug and Play).
PCI IRQ .
PCI ISA ,
PCI ISA IRQ
DOS. , PCI
ISA (, Plug and Play PCI -) ,
ISA .


, Zip - LPT-
, . LPT- , IBM PC.
LPT . - ,
. , IRQ 1 , . - ,
-, 1
COM2 . LPT-; ,
( : :,
: . .).
, BIOS, DOS, Windows , 1 IRQ 4,
COM2 IRQ3. IRQ, . , LPT IRQ , - , , ,
- , IRQ.

Windows, :
1. , .
2. .

12.

45

. ( :
, ,
.)
, (. 2.3).

. 2.. 8

Linux
. , Ispci, PCI:
[root@rh9-lt root]# Ispci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corp. 440BX/ZX/DX 0 82443BX/ZX/DX Host bridge
(rev 03)
00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corp. 440BX/ZX/OX 0 82443BX/ZX/DX AGP bridge
(rev 03)
00:02.0 CardBus bridge: Texas Instruments PCI1450 (rev 03)
00:02.1 CardBus bridge: Texas Instruments PCI1450 (rev 03)
00:03.0 Communication Controller: Lucent Microelectronics WinModem 56k
(rev 01)
00:06.0 Multimedia audio controller: Cirrus Logic CS 4614/22/24
[CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio Accelerator] (rev 01)
00-07 0 Bridge- Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ISA (rev 02)
00-07 1 IDE interface: Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PI 1X4 IDE (rev 01)
00-07 2 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 USB (rev 01)
00:07.3 Bridge: Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI (rev 03)
01:00.0 VGA Compatible controller: Neomagic Corporation NM2360 [MagicMedia
256ZX]
05:00.0 Ethernet controller: Xircom Cardbus Ethernet 10/100 (rev 03)

46

2.

, , / ioports interrupts:
[root@rh9-lt
root]# cd
cd /
/proc
[root@rh9-lt root]#
[root@rh9-lt
proc]# cat ioports
[root@rh9-lt proc]#

0000-OOlf : dmal
0020-003f : picl
0040-005f : timer
0060-006f : keyboard
0070-007f : rtc
0080-008f : dma page reg
OOaO-OObf : pic2
OOcO-OOdf : dma2
00f0-01f7 : fpu
01f0-01f7 : ideO
03c0-03df : vga+
03f6-03f6 : ideO
03f8-03ff : serial(auto)
0cf8-0cff : PCI confl
4000-401f : Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 USB
4000-401f : usb-uhci
4400-44ff : Lucent Microelectronics WinModem 56k
4500-4507 : Lucent Microelectronics WinModem 56k
4800-48ff : PCI CardBus #02
4c00-4cff : PCI CardBus #02
5000-50ff : PCI CardBus #05
5000-507f : PCI device 115d:0003
5000-507f : xircom_cb
5400-54ff : PCI CardBus #05
dOOO-dfff : PCI Bus #01
efOO-ef3f : Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI
efaO-efbf : Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PI 1X4 ACPI
fcfO-fcff : Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 IDE
fcfO-fcf7 : ideO
[root@rh9-lt proc]#cat interrupts
CPUO
0:
7292143
XT-PIC timer
1:
705
XT-PIC keyboard
2:
0
XT-PIC cascade
8:
1
XT-PIC rtc
11:
9534
XT-PIC usb-uhci. Texas Instruments PCI1450 Texas
Instruments PCI1450 (#2). ethO
12:
32040
XT-PIC PS/2 Mouse
14:
650116
XT-PIC ideO
NMI:
0
ERR:
80


13

, ,
.

- PC , GPS,
, - ,

13.

47

-
.
.
:
1

PC
,
, , 25 (13+12). 1
DB -9 DB-25 .
,
, -,
- .
, ,
ISA PCI, - . ,
, ( -).
BIOS - . , 9- 25- ,
, - .
BIOS -, , , - , .
, a BIOS , , - .
Windows ,
-. ,
- , ,
, .

SiSoft
Sandra (http://www.sisoftware.net), Windows (.
12)
. , , ( ).

- BIOS,
, Plug and Play
. IRQ - . 2.1.
COMPAQ HP - .
(male
.

ector) *. .

48

2,

2.1. IRQ

3F8

2F8

COM4

28

IRQ

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. 2.9. Plug and Play

19-29
? , ,
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, Intel Pentium III 4,
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Intel ; . -

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www.sysopt.com, :
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Intel , Intel , , . Intel . . 3.2
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( )

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, , , , BIOS .
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| ,
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Award BIOS . Award BIOS,


,
.

Ns 23.

67

, ( ).
, / (FSB),
.
:

Google overclock .

overclockers.com, motherboards.org, sysopt.com, tweaktown.com, ocia.net,


anandtech.com, pcguide.com .
.

,

.
,
, .


23

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, ,
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, (. 3.13).
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,
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, (. 23) ,
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AMD Athlon XP 1,9 , 166 11,5(166 11,5=1,91 ),


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133

AMD Thunderbird ( ), Intel Pentium II ( )


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200
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26.

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.

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Copyright () 1984-2888, fluard Software, Inc.
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AMD Duron, Socket : 1,85 ;


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27.
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27


, .

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http://www.tomshardware.com,
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:
;
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, 32 , . : , .

,
31

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BIOS .
? , ,
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Microsoft

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, . 33, Windows .
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. 4.1. , , .

. 4 . 1 . ,


(. 4.2).
, .

. 4.2. ,


, , - (
, ).

.

35. Windows

103


, Windows
( ).
Windows. , , .

,
. ,
.
, , RAM Idle, RAM Booster,
MemTurbo, Mem Free, FreeMem . . , , ,
. ,
. .
. Windows 95/98/, :
.
; , .
, .
, , . ,
.

(, Windows 2000 ), .
( ).
, , .

Windows Me
Windows 9x,
Windows Me Microsoft .

4.

104


(64 ),
( 64 ). , 16 , . Windows Me
( ) ,
.
, , ,
-
, Me.
Me, , . , , Windows,
95 98
,
. Windows Me .

. Windows 95 98 8 16 32 64 , , 50 % . Windows Me, 32 , 32 ,
100 % ( ) ,
100- . , , , ,
. , .
- Microsoft Windows Me . Microsoft, - ,
. ,
. Windows NT, 2000, Windows Server 2003 , Windows 9 Me, NT .


36 Windows 98 Me
.
Windows 98 Me ,
. [386Enh] C:\WINDOWS\
SYSTEM.INi . ,

37.

106

, 4.1 2-3 .
.

, (. 34).

:
1. C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI , edit .
2. [386Enh].
:
[386Enh]
Conservati veSwapFi1eUsage=l

3. , .
Windows , , , .


37

Windows NT .

Wi ndows 2000,2003 . .

(512 ),
Windows .
256 , 30.
,
:
1. .
2. regedit, .
3. :
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session ManagerAMemory
Management

4. DisablePagingExecutive 1. :
: DisablePagingExecutive
: REGJMIRD
: 0 1

5. .

106

4.

1,
. ; , - / .
,
X-Setup X-Setup Pro X-Teq
Systems (http://www.xteq.com) - , Windows (. 4.3).
X-Setup, :
1. .
2. X-Teq Systems X-Setup.
3. X-Setup Default Ul.
4. System.
5. Memory.
6. Memory Settings.
7. Allow paging of kernel.
8. Apply Settings, X-Setup .

. 4.. X-Setup Windows

. , .

38.

107

,
. , .

38


BIOS
.

, .
, . 10-20 %.
BIOS . , , , -.


.
.
: ,
.

, ,
. BIOS
,
CMOS- (. 2).
SPD (Serial
Presence Detect) BIOS, . 4.4.

Fast Data

0 Recoveru l i .

1 Apertuf
',' .. C e *
Support',

. 4 . 4 . Award BIOS

SPD
. .

4.

, . , ,
.

, . ; ,
, , . , BIOS , .
.
SPD (Serial Presence Detect), Auto (Automatic Configuration).
, .
Bank Interleaving, Bank Interleave. ; 4. .
Burst Length, Block Transfers. , ;
8,4 2 .
.
CAS (Column Address Select), CAS Latency Time, CAS Timing Delay.
. ,
, , . , .
Command Rate, Address Cycles. , . , ,
. ,

.

RAS (Row Address) Precharge Time.


, .
,
.

RAS-to-CASDelay, tRCD. . ,
.
Row Active Time, tRAS, Active to Precharge Delay, Precharge Wait State, Row Active
Delay, Row Precharge Delay.
.
, .
Memory Clock, DRAM Clock. .
SDRAM (FSB).
DDR .

Ng 39. Via

109

:
BIOS , , , L1 L2 , , , .
,
SiSoftware Sandra (. 4.5) http://www.sisoftware.net.
Sandra , PC. .

. 4.5. SiSoft Sandra

-
(. 9) (, DDR200), , : BIOS SPD,
(133 DDR333
DDR266). 2-3 %, PC 133 20-30 % - .


39 Via

Memory Interleave Enabler Via .


- , ,

4.

, , .
Via () , . BIOS, .
, Via, , http://
www.cpuid.com/cpuz.php CPU-Z.
(George Breese) Memory Interleave Enabler Via (http://www.georgebreese.com/sites/georgebre8se_com/software/) , Windows . . 4.6
SiSoft Sandra Memory Interleave Enabler.

. 4.6. Sandra

Memory Interleave Enabler (. 4.7). ,


,
.

39. Via

111

. 4.7. Sandra

0,5 % , 5-10 %.
- (http://www.georgebreese.com/net/software/readmes/
venabler_vO15_readme.htm).


40-57
.
,
. , ,
, . .


.
, ? Windows 95, 98, 98SE Me ( 2000 NTFS)
, , 10 % 30 %.
(partition) ,
.
, . ,

.
, ( ), . , .
, - .
,
, .

40,

113


PC
. 86
:

- ( , ).
DOS Windows 9x-Me, Windows NT Linux . . .

- , .
; NTFS (non-DOS) . .

DOS Windows
,

. , , .
NTFS NTFS Windows NT, 2000, 2003. DOS Windows
9- NTFS .
NTFS .
, DOS Windows.
Linux, FreeBSD, SunOS
.
,
.

FDISK, MS-DOS Windows 95, 98


Me, (, Linux FreeBSD)
(non-DOS partitions).
IBM, HP, Compay Dell , ; (MBR)
, , .
,
.

, . ; .

5.

BIOS , .
, BIOS
(, NTFS ), . , - , .

, BIOS . ,
(MBR) ,
. . DOS Windows 9x-Me
, .

BootMagic, LILO, GRUB


System Commander .
NT DOS Windows,
.

Windows 2000 Windows Server 2003 : . . ,


Windows, MS-DOS Windows NT. , , .
,
Windows NT 4.0 , ,
,
. Windows 2000 , , RAID-5 .
, , , , , , RAID-5. , .
,
NTFS .

,
.
. :
DOS FAT-12, FAT-16, FAT-32. DOS, FAT-12, FAT-16 FAT-32 ( DOS
FAT-32), PC

40.

116

( )
. FAT File Allocation
Table, ;
,
DOS.
, : 12 4096 / ( ), 16 65 536 /, 32 - 4,2 /
. FAT ,
( , , ).
DOS/FAT .
NTFS.
NTFS , .
NTFS ; , . NTFS
. -,
(MFT, Master File Table) ()
; -, . ,
MFT, . NTFS
, . NTFS , , . NTFS
, MFT
, .
ext, ext2 ext3. ext Linux. Ext 2 , ext2 4 2 (Linux 2.2) 2 Linux 2.4
. ext3
, ext2.
, .

reiserfs. reiserfs
. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency). reiserfs http://www.namesys.com.

jfs. jfs IBM


Linux. jfs http://oss.software.ibm.com/developerworks/opensource/jfs/.
FAT NTFS
. 512- . FAT-16
16-
512- . FAT-16 , - ,

5.
- FAT-16 DOS (6.22 ).
- FAT-16 65 536 . 64 , 32 768 . FAT-16
2048 (2 ); , DOS FAT-12 32 . . 5.1
FAT-16 . , ,
FAT-16 65 536.
5.1. FAT-16

FAT-16

0-127
128-255

2 = 2048 (4 )
4 = 4096 (8 )

256-511

8 = 8192 (16 )

512-1023

16 = 16 384 (32 )

1024-2047

32 = 32 768 (64 )

FAT
, . , ,
.

FAT-32, Windows 95 OEM


SR2, 98, 98SE, Me, NT (SP4 ), 2000 , 4 (32 Windows 2000), 4 / 32 . (512-)
. ,
. FAT-32 2 ,
, (, ) - NTFS. . 5.2
FAT-32.
5.2. FAT-32

FAT-32

0-259

512 (1 )

260-511
512-8191

4 (8 )
8 (16 )

8192-16 383

16 (32 )

32 768 -2

32 (64 )

40,

117

NTFS ,
512 ( ). FAT, , NTFS , ,
512- . ( ) NTFS
, . , , . . 5.3, NTFS ,
, FAT-16 FAT-32. NTFS ,
.
5.3. Windows NTFS

NTFS

0-512

512 (1 )

512-1024

1024 (2 )

1024-2048

2048 (4 )

2048-4096

4096 (8 ); 8192

409&-8192

8192 (16 )

8192-16 384

16 384 (32 )

16 384-32 768

32 768 (64 )

>32 768

65 536 (128 )

, ( )
,
. ,

( , , ). (
- ) - -, ,
.

1- NTFS 1 000 1- ,
4- 250 . , - 1-2 2-4 , . , 2-4 - ,
512 , 256 -,
. 5.1 NTFS

118

5.

8192 , 16 (483 512- , 30,1875 8 192 ) (488 512- ,


30,5 8 192- ). , 0,5 , 4096 . (
8,16, 32 64 ) .

. 5 . 1 . Windows

,
,
. , , , ( ) ( ).
, .
; ,
.
, .
, , ,

4 1 ,

118

. , - , , ;
, , .

NTFS . 4

41

,
?

Windows ,
. , . 5.2. , NTFS. NTFS Windows NT, 2000

FAT-16 FAT-32 DOS, Windows 3.x, 9 Me.

. 5 . 2 .

120

5.

mount Linux (ext3 :


[root@rh9-lt root]# mount
/dev/hda2 on / type ext3 (rw)
/dev/hdal on /boot type ext3 (rw)

42

NT, 2000,
2003

.


Windows PartitionMagic. 20- NTFS .
, (Administrative Tools), (Computer Management), (Disk Management) (Storage) :
1. , (Unallocated). (New Partition)
(. 5.3).

. 5..

2. (Next).
3.

- (. 5.4).
(Next).

42. NT, 2000, 2003

121

. 5.4. { )

( ,
, ).
Windows .

4. (. 5.5) . 20 .

. 5.5.

5. . : (. 5.6).

122

5.

, .
D:, CD-ROM.
.

. 5.6. ,

6. . . 5.7
. (, ) . ,
NTFS.

. 5.7.

(NTFS FAT-32), . , (Next).

43. PartitionMagic

7. , . , . (Finish) .
.

Windows
Windows NT, 2000, Windows Server
2003 ,
.

, , , , . 20 30 .
, ,
,
. ,
, . .

43


PartitionMagic

PartitionMagic
.
PartitionMagic Windows. ,
, , . PartitionMagic
, ,
, ,
.
. PartitionMagic http://www.symantec.com PC. PartitionMagic
. , :
1. PartitionMagic Create a new partition (. 5.8).
2. , (. 5.9). , PartitionMagic; , .
: , .
.

5.

124

FAT *FAT32 -smrs ^

UUKSVMP

Ertendwl KUiulocated aUntarnatiett

fflbei

Uwd

. 5.8. PartitionMagic

. 5.9. ,

3. , (. 5.10).
(17 ) . ,
, - , .
4. (. 5.11). , . , ,
(. 52) .

N8 43. PartitionMagic

126

. 5.10. PartitionMagic

. 5 . 1 1 .

5. (. 5.12).
Back, ,
Next, .
6 Apply, . , (. 5.13).

126

5.

. 5.12.

. 5.13.


44 PartitionMagic

PartitionMagic .
PartitionMagic , .
(. 43)
. PartitionMagic :

44. PartitionMagic

127

1. Merge Partitions Pick a Task? .


2. , (. 5.14).

. 5.14. ,

3. (. 5.15).

. 5.15. ,

4. ,
. (. 5.16).

5.

128

. 5.16.

Windows
- ? PartitionMagic Drive Mapper,
.

5. , PartitionMagic.
Apply, .
, . ,
, ,
, FDISK .

FAT IMTFS
45

CONVERT NT/2000/XP/2003
FAT NTFS.

CONVERT : FAT NTFS. CONVERT ,


/NoSecurity , FAT.
: NTFS
:
1. CMD. .

N 46. , NTFS

128

2.
convert C:\ /fS:ntfS
3. , .
4. Y, . , ,
.
5. . CONVERT CHKDSK , . .


Microsoft , NTFS FAT-16 FAT-32, FDISK/FORMAT
. , FAT-16 FAT-32,
, . NTFS FAT PartitionMagic (Symantec)
Partition Commander (V-Com). NTFS ,
NTFS, .
NTFS
FAT, NTFSDOS,
NTFSDOS Professional NTFS for Windows 98 http://www.sysinternals.com.

46

NTFS

NTFS DISKPART .

Windows NT Windows Server 2003 FDISK DISKPART,


Windows. DISKPART / NTFS .
1. (Recovery Console).
DOS, CD-ROM, :
\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons
2. DISKPART .
,
diskpart /delete \Device\HardDiskO\Partition3
diskpart /delete F:

130

5.

2048 :
diskpart /add \Oevice\HardOiskO 2048
3. exit, .
DISKPART /add /delete:
/add - .
.
/delete | \ .
, . MAP (, \Device\HardDiskO). (, D:).
(, \Device\HardDiskO\Partition1).


47 FAT

FDISK FAT-16 FAT-32.

DOS FDISK
,
Windows 9x DOS.
, . ,
BIOS .

OnTrack,
, GRUB LILO
Linux,
.

MBR FDISK, :
1. DOS, -, - USB , DOS FDISK. Windows 98 Me.
2.
FDISK /MBR

FDISK /CMBR

3. , . *
,
.

48, NTFS

131

FDISK /MBR , . .
FDISK /CMBR ( - 1),
(* - 2), (. - 3) ( - ) .

I
48 I NTFS
Windows NT, 2000, Windows Server 2003 NTFS ,

MBR.
FIXMBR Windows
NT, 2000, Windows Server 2003. , ,
, -. FIXMBR , DOS FDISK /MBR: (MBR).

DOS FDISK MBR NTFS. .

MBR FIXMBR :
1. . (Recovery Console).
2. / ( :).
3. MAP,
( \Device\HardDiskO).
4. FIXMBR :
fixmbr \Device\HardDiskO
5. exit, .


, GRUB LILO (. 50). , NTFS.

, MBR
(, ).

132

5.

111 , , .
, .
, .

MBR , .


NTFS
FIXBOOT
NTFS.
Windows NT, 2000, 2003,
NTFS,
FIXBOOT .
FIXBOOT Windows
NT, 2000, Windows Server 2003. , ,
, -. FIXBOOT , DOS SYS:; .


, GRUB LILO (. 50). , NTFS.

FIXBOOT
:
1. . (Recovery Console).
2. / ( 1 C:\WINNT).
3. FIXBOOT :
fixboot :
4. exit, .
, FIXBOOT
, .

51.

133


50 GRUB LILO
SystemRescueCD GRUB LILO.
Linux . SystemRescueCD http://www.sysrescd.com. SystemRescueCD ISO-, CD-R -
.
Linux, :

GNU Parted Linux;


QtParted Partition Magic Linux;

Partimage Ghost/Drive Linux, ;


Sfdisk .
,
; e2fs, reiserfs, xfs, jfs, ntfs DOS.
, Linux.


51

FORMAT , ,
Zip- LS-120.

, . DOS FORMAT, Windows 9x-2003


Windows NT-2003. FORMAT :
, () . FORMAT NTFS,
FAT-16 FAT-32 . 3,5- , Zip- LS-120
FAT-16.

(, Zip- 100 250, LS-120) FORMAT


, 512 .

FORMAT , . FORMAT

134

5.

, .
FORMAT, DOS .
:
1. DOS, -, - USB . Windows 98 Me.
2. FORMAT ,
. :
FORMAT : /S
3. ,
( ), ,
. Y Enter.
4.
.
( ). .
,
, . FORMAT FAT . NTFS
FORMAT ; ( Windows NT, 2000, 2003).
FORMAT:
FORMAT : [/V[:]] [/Q] [IT-.] [/ | /S] [/]
FORMAT : [/[:]} [/Q] [/: /^-.] [/ | /S] [/]
FORMAT : [/V[:]] [/Q] [ / 1 ] [ / 4 ] [/ | /S] [/]
FORMAT : [/Q] [ / 1 ] [ / 4 ] [ / 8 ] t/B | /S] [/]

:
/[:] ;
/Q ;
/f-. - , (160,180,320,360,720,
1.2, 1.44 2.88);
/ ;
/S ;
/: ;
/ ;
/1 ;

/4 - 5,25- 360 ;

/8 8 ;
/ , .

51.

136

Windows 2000 FORMAT :


/FS-. - (FAT, FAT32 NTFS);
/ ( NTFS) - , , , ;
/X - , . ;
/. .
:
NTFS: 512, 1024, 2048, 4096 8192 , 16, 32 64.
FAT: 512,1024, 2048, 4096 8192 , 16, 32 64 (128 256,
512 ).
FAT-32: 512, 1024, 2048, 4096 8192 , 16, 32 64 (128
256, 512 ).
FORMAT:
format a: .
, ,
;
format a: /q ;
format a: /s ;
format : . ,
, , ( );
format d: /FS:NTFS/A:2048 D: NTFS
2 . Windows 2000, 2003.

DOS
BIOS . , DOS ,
. ,
.
: , , DOS :.
, D:, : . .
, .
, :;
D:. , :, F: . . .

13

5.

, (. . 5.4).
:, D: .
:, F: . ., .
! ,
, ,
, .
5.4.


(
)


(
)

D:

F:

G:

Windows NT/2000/XP
, (. 52).

52


Windows NT-2003 .


Windows NT/2000/XP/Windows Server 2003.
, ,
:. CD-ROM D:.
, , :. , , . DOS , D:, CD-ROM :.
.
CD-ROM ,
(
).

53. DOS

137

(, - USB, ) - ,
.

CD-ROM DVD - ,
- DVD.
-
,
.

CD-ROM , :
1. (Start Control Panel Administrative Tools Computer Management).
2. (Disk Management).
3. ,
(, CD-ROM). (Change Drive Letter and Paths).
4. (Change) -
, R:. .
5. , (Change Drive Letter and Paths).
6. (Change), D:.
.

, , , .

DOS
53
, FDISK /MBR (. 47) MBR . SYS.COM
, , -
, . DOS Windows 9x-Me, - DOS IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS COMMAND.COM, FDISK /MBR.

139

5.

, ,

SYS :
SYS IO.SYS,
MSDOS.SYS COMMAND.COM - ( :). .


54 Windows 2000

Windows 2000, 2003 .

Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003,


Windows,
, . FDISK /MBR SYS :

DOS Windows 9x-Me, NT NTFS.

-,
.

. ... , .
,
, ,
Backup My PC (Stomp)
Symantec Ghost, Drive Image Acronis True Image.

:
1. - .
2. :
Windows.
.
(F3).
R, .
3. :
( ).
( R).
(F3).
R.

Ns 55, Windows 95

138

4. :
( ).
( F).
( Esc).
(F3).
, : ( ), Windows . , F.
5. :
, Enter.
, L.
Windows .
( Esc).
(F3).

NT 2000
. , , .
, , .

, ; L
, Enter.
6.
Windows. Enter,
.
.
, FDISK /MBR SYS : DOS Windows 9x-Me,
. , .


Windows 9S
, Windows 95.
Windows 95/98/ ,

5.

140

(Hard Disk) /
(My Computer/Properties), . 5.17. , ;
.

Ftrippy Disk j CD-fiOM | R e n v o b l o M | Tmibb.-hnultng


g* to npnmiru
hard dbk drive' aKach^d tuyuur rnmputei

. 5.17. Windows 9x-Me

,
, . 5.5.
5.5.
Windows 95/98/

(Desktop)

(Mobile/Docking)

(Network Server)

32

677

10

16

337

64

2729

40

Microsoft Windows 95
(http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us; 138012) . . , . ,
Windows:

56,

141

1. .
REGEDIT Enter.
2. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.
3. Software, Windows CurrentVersion.
4. FSJTemplates.
5. , NameCache PathCache. (
), Network. ( )
Mobile:
Network

NameCache 9 00 00
PathCache 40 00 00 00
Mobile
NameCache 51 01 00 00
PathCache 10 00 00 00
6. , .

, ,
.


56
Windows
, . .
Windows ( )
, . ,
, . : , , . ,
, . ,
- , .
( , Windows , ), , .

142

5.

( )
Windows. , , . :
1. (Start),
(Settings Control Panel) (System).
2. (System Properties)
(Troubleshooting).
3. (File System).
(. 5.18).

. 5.18.
(Troubleshooting)

4. , (Disable write-behind caching


for all drives).
5. .
Windows 2000, 2003,
:
1. (My Computer),
(Properties).
2. (Hardware).
3. (Properties).
4. (Policies)
(. 5.19).
5. (Enable write caching on the
disk) ; , .

Na 57.

143

6. .
11*1

L.
. 5.19. Windows 2000

, , ,
Windows. BIOS S.M.A.R.T. (. 57).


57

, ,
.

60 % .
,
.
( , , ,
. .), S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology)
/ -
, .
S.M.A.R.T. , , .

144

5.

S.M.A.R.T. BIOS . -.
S.M.A.R.T. DiskCheck (http://www.passmark.com/products/diskcheckup.htm). DiskCheck ,
S.M.A.R.T. -
- ActiveSMART Ariolic Software (http://www.ariolic.com/activesmart/),
. S.M.A.R.T. , .


. ,
: ?! , , ,
. , - . , - ,

.
,
. Norton Utilities
Norton Disk Doctor , , , S.M.A.R.T. , .
, :
SpinRite (http://www.spinrite.com), (Steve Gibson).
FAT, NTFS, Linux, Novell, Macintosh TiVo.

OnTrack Easy Data Recovery (http://www.ontrack.com).


.
Symantec GHOST (http://www.symantec.com).
. Ghost Explorer.

Dd_rescue (http://www.garloff.de/kurt/linux/ddrescue/),
(Kurt Garloff). Linux . http://
www.oreilly.com/pub/wlg/5205.

,
OnTrack (http://www.ontrack.com) ActionFront (http://
www.actionfront.com).


58-67

. ,
, . , , , .
,
. SiSoft Sandra (http://www.sisoftware.net).

; , .
,
. , ,
. , 13 (http://t13.org/), .
UltraATA, UltraDMA, ATA33 . . , -3 -5, .
, . -5 44-133 / /
DMA-4 UDMA-5.
. -1 (Programmed Input-Output Mode 1) 4 /. /
.
-2 (-16). DMA-2
16 /. DMA ,

>

148

6,

/. , / .
-3 (-16). DM A-2 16 /. -3 -2 S.M.A.R.T. .
ATA/ATAPI-4 (-33, DMA-33 UDMA-33). UDMA-2 33 /.
ATA/ATAPI-5 (-66, DMA-66 UDMA-66).
DMA.
UDM -4 44 66 /.
80-
(. 59).

ATA/ATAPI-5 (-100 UDMA-100). -5


100 /
UDMA-5.

ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA-133 UDMA-133). -5


133 /
UDMA-5.
,
(DMA),
. : , (. 58).
DMA / . DMA .


58

-
.
.

, X, , X. PC ,
, . , OEM-, ( ,
).

58.

147

. , , , .
,

, (
).

OEM ,
Hewlett-Packard Dell, . ,
- Dell
Dell, a Sony, NEC, Nokia
Dell.
PC ; -
. PC , .
OEM , Newegg (http://www.newegg.com).
OEM-
. , , . , , OEM- ,
.

, ,
, . ,
Western Digital (http://www.wdc.com) HighPerformance EIDE, Mainstream EIDE Value EIDE , .
,
. , ,
, , .
:
: 7200 /;
( ): 8 ;

( , , - , ): 4,20 ;

148

6,

( ,
):
8,9 ;
( ,
): 10,9 ;
( , ): 2,0 ;
( , ): 21 ;
(
): 737 /.
- :
: 5400 / ( 25 % );
: 2 ( 75 % );
: 5,00 ( 25 % );
: 8,9 ;
: 10,9 ;
: 2,0 ;
: 21 ;
: 506 / ( 30 % ).
,
UDMA Mode 4 -100, , , , - .
- ?
. ,
; ,
, ?

. . ,
. , ,
( ). , .
, , , .
, .

60, IDE

148

80-
59

,
.
,
, , , ,
. IDE 40-
, .
, 3-4 ,
80- , 40-
. : . 40 , ,
40 .
UDMA/ATA-100
UDM-/-133, 40- .
,
. 40- 80- UDMA-/
-66, , . -33
( CD-ROM
, 500 ); .
80- (. 6.1) IDE 5 . , , .

. 6 . 1 . IDE: 40- () 80- ()

IDE
60

IDE .

-133,



-33, -66 -100?

10

6,

IDE,
80- .
Promise Technologies (http://www.promise.com) Ultra ATA: UltralOO TX2 Ultral33 TX2. (, Belkin http:/
/www.belkin.com) $50 .
66- PCI, Pentium I
Pentium II, PCI 33 .
EIDE
:
1. , .
2. , .
3. . , .
4. ,
. , :
, ,
Symantec Ghost
(. 95) ;
,
( ).
; BIOS .
,
( , ).

Serial ATA
61

Serial ATA UDMA-5 .

, Serial ATA (SATA), 12%, 125% 350% UltraIDE-133. (+125-350 %), SATA
PCI, SATA
. 12 % Serial -150 - SATA150 4 SATA150
TX2Plus Promise Technologies.
Serial ATA 7200 / 8,5 .

6 1 . Serial ATA

161

SATA 10 000 15 000 /


4,7 3,6 SCSI Fibre Channel, . ,
, SATA 20 % - .

Intel 865PE . , 865 Serial ATA 150 /.

SATA
RAID-1 - RAID-5, SATA . SATA , ,
USB - Windows XP (Windows 2000

), .
, , 7- SATA . 8 , ;
, .
SATA
SATA
SATA PCI.
SATA, :
1. - . ,
BIOS - SATA (
, ).
2. PCI-SATA
( ).
3. SATA.
4. SATA ( )
4- .
5. ( , ). , Windows
.
6. . , Windows
.
7. Windows 95/98/ DOS FDISK FORMAT. Windows 2000

162

6.

(
(Control Panel Administrative
Tools Computer Management)).

62

IDE
Intel
Intel
.

IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics),


CD-ROM, PC; , , . IDE ,
.
Intel, , IDE . Intel (http://downloadfinder.intel.com), IDE Bus Master ;
. (.
63), ;
.
, Intel , http://www.intel.com/support/chipsets/sb/cs-009245.htm
http://downloadfinder.intel.com/scripts-df/Product_Filter.asp?ProductlD=861.
, Microsoft, http://www.intel.com/support/
chipsets/inf/sb/CS-009270.htm. Intel (System Devices) Windows .

(, SiSoft Sandra http://www.sisoftware.net)


, IDE.

IDE
63 Via

.
Via (http://www.viatech.com)
,

63. IDE Via

163

. , IDETool Via
. IDETool , Via. Windows
/ CD-ROM.
AMD Via, Via
Intel. Via (System Devices) Windows , .
Windows DMA,
IDE. IDETool ; VIA,
:
http://www.rettesoft.hu/ftpdir/DriversMK/via/Drv/IDE/open/IDE_MPD3014/

http://www.rettesoft.hu/ftpdir/DriversMK/via/Drv/IDE/open/IDE_MPD3014/IDETOOL/

http://www.tools.atrcomputers.com/drivers/Motherboards/GB-7VTXH/Chipset/VIA/
IDE/IDETOOL/

IDETool
Windows. . 6.2
IDETool /, .

. 6.2. Via IDETool

154

6,

RAID
64

,
.

RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)


. RAID, . RAID
.
RAID-0
RAID. , ,
.
, ,
. , RAID-0
.
RAID-0, RAID-1
. ,

.
RAID-5 RAID-0 RAID-1: , .
,
.
RAID, RAID-0 + 1. RAID FastTrak TX4000 Promise
Technologies (http://www.promise.com) , .
30 %!
RAID . ,
RAID ( ), BIOS RAID. RAID .
1. RAID
RAID . RAID IDE Promise Technologies.
2. RAID-0 1. RAID:
,
. RAID
0 + 1 .


65. DOS SMARTDRV

3. , DOS RAID. RAID


BIOS, . , RAID
IDE, .
4. , RAID.
5. . DOS,
RAID, BIOS RAID.
6. RAID - 0, 1 0 + 1 .
7. BIOS. , RAID.
8. DOS FORMAT, , RAID .
9. ( RAID 1 .) RAID
,
. , RAID
.

DOS
65 SMARTDRV

DOS SmartDrive .

,
, . ;
; DOS
Windows . DOS SmartDrive ( SMARTDRV.EXE)
DOS. SmartDrive Windows 95-98, Windows VCACHE
(. 66). Windows Me
VCACHE.
SmartDrive DOS DOS . SmartDrive , ,
, . SMARTDRV ,
, .

6.

SMARTDRV [ / X ] [ [ [ + | - ] ] . . . ] [ / U ] [ / |

/R] [/F |

/N] [ / L ] [/V |

/Q |

/S]

[_ [(']] [/:] [/:]


SmartDrive:
/X .
(-). , + -.
/U CD-ROM.
/ .
/R SmartDrive.
/F ( ).
/N .
/L SmartDrive .
/V SmartDrive.
/Q .
/S , .
_ XMS ( ), .
Win_K3iu XMS ( ),
Windows. , .
/. , ( ).
/: .

SMARTDRV.EXE, CONFIG.SYS HIMEM.SYS. :


DEVICE=\...\...\HIMEM.SYS
:
DEVICE=C:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS

SmartDrive :
1. C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT , edit .
2. AUTOEXEC.BAT
CD-ROM MSCDEX:
c:\dos\smartdrv.exe /
SmartDrive ,
. SmartDrive:
c:\dos\smartdrv.exe + 1024 512

66. Windows VCACHE

167

u c c

c
' 1
DOS 512 Windows; ,
:, ( ).
3. C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT . SMARTDRV DOS.

Windows
66 VCACHE
Windows 9x Me,

.
Windows
. ,
Windows VCACHE. , C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI .

, , , . , , Windows , .
,
Windows , .
: Windows , ? ,
, , Windows.
,
256 8 . , IDE, SCSI SATA ( ,
/).
Windows.

Windows 98 : VCACHE
512 .
.
VCACHE.

6.

158

Windows VCACHE, SYSTEM.INI :


1. C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI edit. [vcache] :
[vcache]
minfilecache-256
maxfi1ecache=256
2. , , .
256 ,
: . ,
512 1024 , - Windows
.

Microsoft VCACHE 40 (40 000),


.
VCACHE ( 256 8 )
.


67 Linux
HDPARM Linux , Intel Bus Master Via
IDETool Microsoft Windows. He
Linux.
Linux ( DMA-33),
50-150 % . ( ) , .

HDPARM ( ,
)
.
HDPARM
, - . ,
, HDPARM .

HDPARM (
).
, .

67. Linux

19

HDPARM (HD PARaMeters)


. , .
HDPARM (
).

HDPARM root.
, sudo HDPARM root.

, /dev/hda (
IDE; SATA /dev/
hde, IDE). :
hdparm -1 /dev/hda
:
/dev/hda:
Model -QUANTUM FIREBALLlct. FwRev=APL.1234, SerialNo=1234567
Config={ HardSect NotMFM HdSw>15uSec Fixed DTR>10Mbs }
RawCHS=12383/16/63. TrkSize=32256. SectSize=21298. ECCbytes=4
BuffType=DualPortCache, BuffSize=418kB. MaxMultSect=8. M u l t S e c t - o f f
CurCHS=16383/16/63. CurSects=-66060037. LBA=yes. LBAsects=39876478
IORDY=on/off. tPIO{min:120.w/I0RDY:120}. tDMA={min:120.rec:120}
PIO modes: pioO p i o l pio2 pio3 pio4
DMA modes: mdmaO mdmal mdma2 udmaO udmal udma2 udma3 udma4 *udma5
AdvancedPM=no
Drive Suppors : ATA/ATAPI-5 T13 13210 r e v i s i o n 1 : ATA-1 ATA-2
ATA-3 ATA-4 ATA-5

, :

MaxMultSect - ,
.
MultSect , .
PIO modes DMA modes - , . ,
, (*).

AdvancedPM - .

:
hdparm /dev/hda

:
/dev/hda:
multcount - 0 (on)
I/O support = 0 (16-bit)
unmaskirq - 0 ( o f f )
using_dma = 0 ( o f f )
keepsettings - 0 ( o f f )
nowerr = 0 ( o f f )

160

6.

readonly - 0 (off)
readahead - 8 (on)
geometry - 2482/255/63. sectors =

39876480. s t a r t - 0

:
Multcount , .
I/O support (16/32/32sync).
Using_dma DMA. ,
Linux DMA .
Keepsettings (
).
Readonly . CD-ROM.
Readahead , .
HDPARM ,
, .

hdparm -Tt /dev/hdal

:
/dev/hdal:
Timing b u f f e r - c a c h e reads: 128 in 5.97 seconds = 21.43 MB/sec
Timing b u f f e r e d d i s k reads: 64 MB in 17.97 seconds = 3.56 MB/sec
:
Timing buffer-cache reads: 128 MB in 0.91 seconds = 140.66 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads: 64 MB in 3.78 seconds - 16.93 MB/sec


/.
, , , .
, Linux .

:
hdparm -cO /dev/hda # 16-
hdparm -cl /dev/hda # 32-
hdparm - /dev/hda # 32-

1 (-1). 3 (-) .
, -I ( 8):
hdparm -m8 /dev/hda

67, Linux

181

DMA :
hdparm -dl
( 32; UDMA-5 69):
hdparm -32 /dev/hda

hdparm -69 /dev/hda


, , multcount (8):
hdparm -a8 /dev/hda
- ,
,
. , ,
. :
hdparm -cl
hdparm -m8 /dev/hda
hdparm - d l
hdparm -X34 /dev/hda
hdparm -a8 /dev/hda

,
:
hdparm -66 -dl -ul -ml6 -c3 /dev/hda
( ) , Linux.
:
1. /etc/init.d/
hdparm.local.
2. 5
In -s /et/init.d/hdparm.local /etc/rc5.d/S20hdparm.local
3. rc5.d 5
Linux.
, /etc/inittab initdefault:
id:5:initdefault:
dmesg /var/log/syslog.
;
-. ,
, - .

68-74
, -
( ). 1024 768
32 (4 ), 60 , (
).
, ,
. ,
Windows
.
, ( ,
), , / ISA, PCI AGP ( , ).
ISA PCI /, .
. 16- (2-)
ISA 16 ; , 32 . 32- (4-) PCI
33 , 133 /.
AGP ( , ),
! 64- (8-) AGP 66 ,
266 /.
AGP 2 533 /; AGP 4 1,1 /. ,
AGP 8 2,1 /, .
ISA, PCI,
AGP.

68. AGP

163


; , .
- ,
- , .
50 %, 10-20 % .
- FutureMark (http://www.futuremark.com). ,
, .
3DMark
. , ( ), , ( ),
. , .
(pixel) , (, ). , ,
( ) . , , 8 (256 ) 32/24
(16,8 8 32
, -) .
. (texel) , . , ,
.
.
- 24 - . ( ) 60 . , 30 .
, (
, !).

AGP
68

AGP .

AGP, PCI.
, 1 (. 7.1)
, ; , PCI .

164

7.

AGP, nVidia GeForce ATI Radeon,


, . AGP 15 PCI! ,
,
.

. 7 . 1 . VGA PCI

AGP , , AGP AGP . , - AGP 1?


AGP 2, 4 8? AGP 8x fie , AGP 8 AGP 1, 2 4
, 8. , AGP 2 1
2, 2. , 4 2 .


69

AGP

,
, -

70, AGP

166

. , , . (dual-ported) ,
( ) ( ) ; . , ,
.
AGP, , AGP ( . 7.2) . ,
AGP .
AGP (. 68) .

. 7.2. AGP

I
70 AGP

AGP , AGP .
AGP BIOS (. 7.3). ,
. :

;
.

16

7.
System BIOS cacheable
Uideo BIOS Cacheable
Uideo RflH cactteable
ftCP flpertur-e Size
- Mode
ftGP Driuing Control

Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
6'iM
Enabled
Outo

. 7.3. AGP BIOS

, ,
.
AGP
4- .
, ,
, .
,
, . , AGP ,
AGP, AGP .
, (http://www.tweak3d.net/articles/aperture-size/, http://www.cybercpu.net/howto/basic/AGP_aperture_2/ http:/
/www.adriansrojakpot.com/Speed_Demonz/New_BIOS_Guide/AGP_Aperture_Size.htm), , 64 128 . 3DMark , AGP 64 .

AGP . AGP 32
128 . , , - .

AGP
71

BIOS AGP.

AGP 4 8,
. AGP 1 2 3,3 ,
AGP 4 8 1,5 . AGP 4 8 , , AGP 1 2.
AGP, .

72. nVidia

187

, AGP 8, BIOS 4, AGP . BIOS (


),
. BIOS 1,
2, .
BIOS 4, 8, 8.
AGP BIOS (. . 1.1, 3), Advanced
Settings Advanced Chipset Features.

72

nVidia
nVidia Detonator, nVidia, RivaTuner .

nVidia
Windows. geforce_overclock.reg
geforce_overclock.zip http://www.softpedia.eom/public/cat/12/
1/12-1-31 .shtml ( ). :
1. geforce_overclock.zip.
2. reg.
, .
3. . .

( ),
regedit.exe, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Sottware\NVIDIA Corporation\Global\NVTweak DWORD
CoolBits 3.

, nVidia Detonator RivaTuner, :


1. (Properties).
2. (Settings).
3. (Advanced).
4. .

. 7.4.
5.
nVidia.

168

7.

. 7.4. nVidia

nVidia , . ,
,
.
,
. .

nVidia Riva Detonator,


RivaTuner (. 7.5) http://www.guru3d.com/
rivatuner/. RivaTuner , .

Detonator
, nVidia GeForce Quadro
Riva Riva TNT,
1998 . ,
.

Na 72. nVidia

169

. 7 . 5 . RivaTuner

. ,
10 % 8-12 % . Riva TNT, 90 , 12-13 100 .
, . , ,
. ,
, . Diamond Viper 770 Riva TNT ,
. , 3DMark2001
30 %
8-10 %
.

170

7.

ATI Radeon
73

,
ATI.

ATI ,
ATITool (. 7.6).

. 7.6. ATITool

ATITool http://www.techpowerup.com/atitool/.
, ATITool ATI Radeon 9000, 9200, 9500,
9600, 9700 9800,
ATI. ATITool , . , .
ATI Radeon 7000, 183 , 533- Pentium III 13,6 fps.
10,3 % 202 12 %.


74

PowerStrip
, .

PowerStrip (. 7.7) .

74.

171

. 7.7. PowerStrip

PowerStrip http://www.entechtaiwan.net/
util/ps.shtm. ;
, , . PowerStrip 2.78 , 3dfx, Number Nine, Cirrus Logic
Rendition, S3 Tseng Labs.
PowerStrip ATI Radeon 7000 AMD Athlon 2,1 , , 10 /
2 %. ,
-
.

/
75-84
PC
( ), /: , , , USB IEEE-1394.
: , ,
.
, . ,
, .
/,
.
, , , , , ,
PC , . . Linux.
,
- USB.

? / PC -
, ? , ,
,
.
, , ,
(, ).

, DOS,
Windows, Linux, Solaris x86, BeOS . . DO , , , , . , .

8. /

173

( ) PC , ,
, .


, PC IBM
, ,
. PC ,
, .
IBM PC
( )
- 400 . , (Interrupt
Request, IRQ), . ,
(DMA);
DMA.
PC ,
, , , , . ,
, / .

PC IBM
, PC . -
, . . 8.1
, .
PC/AT (286 ) , , PC
PCI Plug and Play. : /, , .
8 . 1 . PC
/

IRQ
0

40h


(. )
IRQ 8-15

60h

DMA

0
1
2

>

8. /

174
8.1 {)
/

IRQ

COM2

2F8h

COM4

2E8h

3F8h

COM3

2F8h

LPT2

278h

220h

1, 3 5

3F0h

LPT1

3BCh 378h

70h

16-
ISA

DMA

280h

10

SCSI

330h

11

PS/2

64h

12
13

lFOh

14

170h

15

VGA

3B0

ISA
3 5
*
*

IRQ 2 , IRQ 8-15 IRQ 2 . IRQ 2


Plug and Play
.

PC,
, : / IRQ, , ,
- 16 IRQ 6 DMA
IRQ (0, 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 13) , (12 , 14 15 ). , . -

8. /

17S

1 2, , IRQ 3 4 ;
.
PC-AT IRQ 2 9
16- ISA. IRQ 2 8 16- ISA,
. , IRQ 9
,
- , IRQ BIOS IRQ 2. , ,
IRQ 9 16- ISA,
. . ,
IRQ , .
-
IRQ ( IRQ 5 10),
(IRQ 7, 9 11). 4 -
(. 77), , , .
SCSI, IRQ 11 ,
.
: VESA, PCI, AGP
,
(-, . .) IRQ , . Intel
Microsoft , -
. : 16- ISA 16 .
-, IBM,
VESA (Video Electronics Standard Association), , PC. PC PCI (Peripheral Component
Interconnect), PC ( i80386 i80486)
IBM MCA (MicroChannel Architecture), EISA (Enhanced
Industry Standard Architecture) VESA VLB (VESA Local Bus).
Intel, Microsoft PCI, Plug and Play BIOS .
PCI ,
. PCI IRQ, /, (,
) . , PCI , ,

17

8. /

; Plug and Play.


PCI , PC IRQ DMA.
, 33
. , .
PCI . , ISA, MicroChannel EISA , PCI ,
PCI-X 266 533 .
PCI USB (Universal Serial Bus) Texas
Instruments IEEE-1394, FireWire (Apple) iLink
(Sony), PC
Apple Macintosh.
USB , . USB 1.0 2.0 PCI, , ; 256
/. USB 2.0 57 /,
IEEE-1394.
IEEE-1394 USB 1.1,
,
50 /.
IEEE-1394 ; , , .
USB IEEE-1394 /, PC -
AGP
(Advanced Graphics Port),
. AGP
800 /. , AGP
/ (), / PCI-X.
PCI, USB, IEEE-1394 AGP , ISA... , , , ISA.
/
. 8.2 / . , PCI, USB IEEE-1394, (

8. /

177

IDE) : I R Q H () DMA.
8.2.

() 8250

9,6 /

() 16 550

115 /

(LPT)

115 / ( 10 )

Ethernet

10 /

USB l . l

12 /

3 /

8- ISA

8 /

16- ISA

16 /

IDE

3,316,7 /

SCSI-1

5 /

SCSI-2 (Fast SCSI, Fast Narrow SCSI)

10 /

100BaseT Ethernet

100 /

Fast Wide SCSI (Wide SCSI)

20 /

Ultra SCSI (SCSI-3, Fast-20, Ultra Narrow)

20 /

UltralDE

33 /

PCI

33 /

Wide Ultra SCSI (Fast Wide 20)

40 /

Ultra2 SCSI

40 /

Ultra ATA (IDE)

66-133 /

IEEE-1394

100^00 /

USB 2.0

480 /

Wide Ultra2 SCSI

80 /

Ultra3 SCSI

80 /

lOOOBaseT Ethernet

1000 /

Wide Ultra3 SCSI

160 /

FC-AL Fiber Channel

100-400 /

AGP

2,1 / (AGP 8)

8 2 ,
. , , , , , , .

178

8. /


AGP, . (,
PC) ,
,
.


75 Windows

( /, IRQ DMA, ).

SCSI PC . IBM PC;


, , ,
. , , .
, SCSI
( , 220h 330h).
, .
, SCSI,
.
;
. , SCSI, SCSI 330h,
220h.
, ,
. , Windows.
, ,
. , . . 8.1 , . , ,
, (Resources).
.
,
.
, , 300h , ,
.

75. Windows

178

. 8 . 1 . /

300h
/ ,
: Prototype Card. IBM . ,
PC PC, ,
. IBM
/ 300h Prototype Card BIOS;
DOS Windows. , .
,
- , " ISA, 300h ( ).
S S IBM ,
^ Token Ring ,
300h, IBM ,
Prototype Card.
90-
,

18D

8. /

Prototype Card : . ( ) , ,
. ,
. ;
.
,
/ .
, , .
/
8- 16- ISA 340h.
, , 340h
. / ,
, LPT1 278h (. 76). .
,
( 300) . 280h.

,
.


76


IRQ.

LPT-
IRQ, Windows , IRQ 7 5
LPT- (
), IRQ . , .
IRQ :
LPT- EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) (Extended
Capabilities Port), USB.

77, -

181

, LPT-, .

,
, , IRQ. , , IRQ, .
USB , , LPT- . LPT- ;
, IRQ (. 14). LPT- Windows
:
1. (My Computer) (Properties).
2. (Hardware) (Device Manager).
3. + (
LPT) (Ports (COM & LPT)).
4. (Printer Port) (Disable).
5. .
6.
IRQ ( IRQ 7), LPT-.


77 -

- IRQ .
- , , USB
. - , : , , .
PC IBM
-, . IRQ
1 COM3 ( IRQ 4) COM2 COM4
( 1RQ3). , IBM , . (1 COM3
COM2 COM4).

182

8. /

, (BBS) . BIOS
/,
. , BIOS , - IRQ.
, BIOS . , BIOS
. ,
.
PC
IRQ -.
. IRQ, , .
-
IRQ , -
IRQ COM3 COM4.

, , -, USB/,
. - .

IRQ LPT- (. 76)


. IRQ 7
-. , IRQ 5,
. IRQ 5, 9, 10 11, :
- 8- ISA,
IRQ 8-15 . , - IRQ 5, 16- ISA PCI.
, 8- IRQ 5 7, IRQ ( . 8.2).
, . 8.2, Startech.com
ISA2S500. 16-

77. -

183

ISA IRQ 9,10,11,12 15. Startech - PCI


PC.

. 8.2. - IRQ

- IRQ
USB/COM. USB
-, - IRQ.
, USB - (5 ),
, -.
USB/COM (,
PC) -, , .
. , -.

IRQ Windows
- - ( ,
USB/COM):

184

8. /

1. (My Computer) (Properties).


2. (Hardware) (Device Manager).
3. + (
LPT) (Ports (COM & LPT)).
4. (COM Port)
(Properties).
5. (Resources).
6. (Use automatic settings).
7. / (I/O Range) IRQ, .
8. ,
, (Port
Settings) (Advanced).
- (COM Port Number) .
9. . .


78 -

- IRQ .

IRQ 8- - , COM3 COM4 IRQ 5 7.


/ .
. 8.3 IRQ. ,
IRQ 3 4, IRQ 5 7 ,
IRQ 3 4.
, :
21 = IRQ 7
23 = IRQ 5
24 = IRQ4
25 = IRQ 3
( . 8.3).
( ) .

78. -

18

:
'

700-

5-8 ;

;
.

. 8.3. IRQ -

:
1. , .
2. , 24 25 ( , ).
, ,
IRQ.
3. . , , .
4. . , , IRQ3 4.
3-4
( ).
5. 21 23.
6. .
7. , IRQ 3 4.

186

8. /

? 1 IRQ 4,
COM2 IRQ 3, IRQ 7
, IRQ 4,
COM3 ( ). IRQ 5
COM4.

8. ; .
9. .
10. Windows
. BIOS Windows -,
Windows , ,
COM3 COM4 IRQ 4 IRQ 3 .
. - Windows :
.
(My Computer),
(Properties),
(Hardware) (Device Manager);
+ ( LPT) (Ports (COM & LPT));

(Resources);
(Use automatic settings) (Settings based on). / IRQ
(Resource Settings). COM3 3E8-3EF 7, ;
COM4 2E8-2EF 5 ( , ). .
. Windows
.


79 -
-,
UARfX Windows.
PC
CompuServe, Delphi The Source 300
1200 . Telnet ,
( ) XMODEM 300- .
2400 ( 9600)

79, -

187

, , . , 1990 , 9 600 /.
- , (Universal Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter, UAR/T 8250). UAR/T 8250 9 600 /, 960 ASCII- . - UAR/T 16450,
19 200 /.

, . ; , . DOS , Windows.
, - UAR/T 16- FIFO (First In First Out). , . UAR/T 16550.
, 16550 :
! 16550 .
-,
115 /, 11,5 (8 , 2 ). SMC
- LPT- ,
, .
UAR/T:
16650 UAR/T 32- FIFO, 16750 UAR/T 64- 16950 UAR/T 128- .
: ISDN,
53 /,
- 256-512 / . Ethernet, ISDN, DSL , USB .
UAR/T,
Microsoft UAR/T . - Procomm Plus - COM-AND - Windows 95
UAR/T . 16550 UAR/T DOS :

. , Windows

188

8. /

, Windows.
. 8.4 Windows.
(/) (Bits per second) 9600.
115 200.

. 8.4. Windows XP

. 8.5 . Windows (Receive buffer)


, Windows.
, Windows, Hyperterm Procomm
Plus CompuServe AOL, . 38 400 57 600 14,4, 28,8 56, .

. 8.5.

n o p i a Windows XP

8 1 . USB

189

, (. 8/i) .
U AR/T (Advanced) (. 8.5)
.

80


LPT-
.


. (Iomega .)
. (Traveling
Software, Symantec, AlohaBob .) . , , Microsoft, .
(, Belkin F3B207 F3D508)
Windows (DCC, Direct Cable Connection).
DCC Microsoft: http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;305621. , DCC
(
. 96) Symantec GHOST
(. 95).
BIOS ,
Ethernet lOBaseT (10 /). Windows
. , IRQ
DMA (. 75); ,
.

USB
81

USB
,
' .
,
,
USB. Belkin, Traveling Software
USB .
TCP/IP
.
USB/USB , , .

190

8. /

$30-40 , .

USB
. ,
.

USB
82

USB .

USB 12 (USB 1.1) 480 (USB 2.0) /,


.
USB,
USB, .
USB 1.1 ,
USB 2.0 /
USB.
, USB, Windows USB (Universal Serial Bus Controllers). , , . 8.6.

. 8.6. USB

82. USB

191

USB (, , , ),
, . ,
(hub) USB - PCI PC Card .
USB PCI, USB 2.O.
USB, USB (Advanced). . 8.7,
USB.

. 8.7. USB

USB, , (, USB) .
USB
USB 500 (). , USB
500 USB, -
. (, ) , , .
USB ,
- USB.

192

8. /

( )
500 , USB, - .
USB , , ;:
. USB -,
, USB . 20 USB,
. . , , , 2
( 500 ).


83

, Plug and Play .

Plug and Play (. 18),


, . , : , , .
? , PC Windows
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; ( ) .

. , , , ,
(Unknown Device) Windows. USB , Plug and Play , , .
Windows , .
, ,
, .
, .
, , , . :
1. , -

83.

193

2. Windows. , (. 8.8).

. 8.8.

3. (Unknown Device) (Uninstall).


, , .

Windows , . HP LaserJet.
LaserJet PCL (Printer
Control Language), LaserJet 4100
LaserJet 4.
, Adobe PostScript (PS), PostScript.

, , . , .
, ISA, SCSI, Plug and Play, PCI, USB AGP.

, Windows
.

184

8. /

, Windows . , ,
, - .

- , - .

Windows, .
Microsoft . , .


84

,
.

, . 8.9, - . !
- .
i Haidwaie Installation

. 8.9.

, , Windows, .
, . WHQL Certified
(. 8.10).

84.

196

. 8.10. - nVidia

- ,
, ,
Microsoft.
: -, Windows,
,
, , . , - ,
. -
, Microsoft. Microsoft
Windows 95 98, Windows ,
.
, - Microsoft ,
Windows. , ...
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. ,
, , .
,
Windows XP Windows Server 2003, -

198

8. /

, ( )
. Microsoft , ; -
, , .

Microsoft Authenticode

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, .
, ,
; ,
.
(Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools).

-
20 .
- . , Windows
Me , .
,
, - .

85-94
,
DOS Windows 9x. ,

.

, DOS, Linux Windows.
, , .
,
DOS NT, Linux 2000 . Windows 98 Me ,
.

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, ,

( , FAT-32). , DOS ( 256 ); , Microsoft.txt DOS
MICROS~1.TXT. . 9.1
; .
9 . 1 .

FAT-16 FAT-32

NTFS 1.2
(4.0)

NTFS 3.0
(5.0)

NTFS 3.1
(5.1)

Linux

DOS 6.22
Windows NT 4

/cSP4

Windows 95
Windows 95 OSR-2

&

198

9.

9.1 {)

FAT-16 FAT-32

Linux

Windows 2003

SP3+

Windows XP
Linux

NTFS 3.1
(5.1)

Windows 2000
Windows Me

NTFS 3.0
(5.0)

Windows 98
Windows 98SE

NTFS 1.2
(4.0)

ext2,
ext3,
reiserfs,
jfs .

9.1 ,
, , FAT-16
FAT-32. FAT-16
(. 40) ,
FAT-32. , FAT-32
; FAT-16 . FAT-16 DOS . ,
DOS/Windows 95 FAT-32.
,
;
, .

NTFS Linux.
Windows NT, 2000, 2003 . , FAT-32
(, ). NTFS , ,
. Linux
GRUB LILO.
V-Com (http://www.v-com.com)
System Commander PoweiQuest, Symantec (http://
www.symantec.com), PartitionMagic BootMagic.
Smart BootManager

9.

199

(http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/) Gujin (http://gujin.sourceforge.net/) ( BootMagic) , , .


,
- .
, . DOS, , Windows
Linux, DOS, . : .
,
, .
CD-RW .
( )
:

. , DOS ,
DOS 2-4 ,
(, , )
Windows, Windows .
, , VMware (http://www.vmware.com) , ( )
Windows NT, 2000, Linux. VMware , DOS, Windows
Linux . , , ( ), VMware .
, , VMware
PQBoot PartitionMagic, :

, ( ). , , (
Windows NT, 2000, GRUB/
LILO). ,
.
- . DOS FDISK,

200

9.

, DOS. , FDISK .
Windows ,
. ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, .
: !

, . , , .


Symantec Ghost, Acronis Truelmage , . CD DVD,
. , ;
. ,
, .
,
. , , DOS
Windows 9x, Windows 2000.
, VMware

: DOS Windows, Linux, Windows 98 Windows 2000, , Windows XP.
!

: ,
.
, , , .

85.

201


. ?
Microsoft - DOS FDISK.EXE, Windows NT, 2000 .
FDISK ,
. FDISK,
.
DOS Windows 9x
Windows NT, 2000 ,
DOS: Windows , .
FDISK Microsoft 11://.181.:80/5//115/255/8/67.5. FDISK
http://www.fdisk.com/fdisk.
:

, DOS/Windows 9,
Windows . 2 4
.

FDISK
,
Windows 2000, Linux
.
, FAT-32, NTFS (
Linux).

. ,
.
, , - 10-30 Windows 2000 10-30
Windows . , 2000
FAT-32 NTFS,
- 4-6
. , .

.

202

9.

FDISK
, . , .
1. DOS - FDISK.EXE. MS-DOS
FDISK FORMAT FAT-32,
Windows 98 Me. FDISK
DOS. ,
. 9.1. , 2 , .
hu;liuies improved support for larg disKs r<?M*!Umj hi ** 1'*|
is-.-.; of i\isk spu:e on htr&e <h*iuei;, und allowim* disks - 2. (<Y> to be
orwatted as a sintfle drive.
iMPORTrtHT: If you enable large disk support arid create tiny neu drives on t
U:>k, you will wit b able to cress the new driu(s) u^hujr other ttparnt iw
ystens, including sotie versions of Uhttiows 95 and Uhxttiiar, HX, as well as
xvrtier versions of Uimlows and IIS-DDS. In addiUoib d i s k u t i l i t i e s that
;ere not desiipKtd e x p l i c i t l y for Ut FfiT37. f i l e systen u t l l not he* <\
. uork ttith t i n s lisK. If uou ced to access t h i s disk with tber apf.nxti
y,\v*.pu> r (.Uder* disk utiliHe.v, do mtt eiwbl litrfjt: drive ^!.

. 9 . 1 . FAT-32

2. FDISK, . 9.2, 4 ( ). DOS


, .

- , GHOST (Symantec) Nero (Ahead) - DOS, .


http://www.bootdisk.com DOS. http://www.ultimatebooted, com, .

3. , .
FDISK Esc; 3 (
). . 9.3.
,
.

, FDISK ,
(. 50) . DOS.

Ns 85.

203

nicrosolt
Fixed Disk Setup Program
(OCojiyricjlit Microsoft Corp." 1983 - 199(J
FDISK Options
Current fixed disk driue: 1
"biTOse one of the follouinrj:
1.
2.
3.
1.

Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drige


Set active partition
Delete partition or Logical DOS Drive:
Display partition infernal ion

KiHer choice: 111

. 9.2. FDISK
U U D rarxinou or LOyical uuo ur
Current fixed disk driue: 1
Choose one of the following:
1. Delete Primary BOS Partition
2. Delete Extended DOS Partition
3. Delete Logical BOS Priue(s) in the Extended DOS Pa
1. Delete Non-DOS Partition

:aiter choice: [ 1
i'piss Esc (o

to FDISK Options
. 9..

DOS 1.
( , ), (. 9.4). FDISK
.
DOS FDISK.

DOS Windows 9-, .

204

9.
ureate rrinary UIK> rarxnion
itrrent fixed disk driue: 1

Total disk space is 10Z3? Mbytes (I Mbyte = 1018576 htjU-s)


laxrmuw spiici; iivAilublc for- jwrtitlori 'is 1GZ37 Mbyte's (
filter partition size in fribytiis or- percent of disk sp^ec: (/) to
1
create a Primary DOS' Partition
: [1023?

I'ress Esc to return to F14SK Options


. 9.4. DOS
5. 2 /,
. 9.5. FDISK Windows Linux.
.
set nctiue r a n it ion
fixed disk drive: 1
m Status

Type
Uolune Label Mbytes System
PI DOS
1023? LINKNOUN

Us<tflt:

rotnl disk space is 10Z37 bytes (1 Mbyte = bytes)


Cuter the nunber of the p a r t i t i o n you want to make a c t i v e . .
'ess Esc to return to FDISK Options
. 9.5.
6. Windows 9x-Me , 1 .
( . .) Windows
NT, 2000, Linux,
.
7. . , FD1SK.

1!
85.

206

8. FDISK , .

// , .
DOS FORMAT (. 9.6). :
FORMAT : /S
IWiUt (,: U1LL 1.031!
Proceed with Format (^)?
Foromtting 2,OSS.15H
Format complete.
Jritinij out f Me allocation table
"onplete.
r;.ik:t>)tinij free space (this may take several minutes).
Complete.
System transferred
Jolune label (11 characters, ENTER for none)'? DOS-PftRT.
'MS, 768,640 bytes total disk space
3Z3.584 bytes used by system
1,1M,445,056 bytes available on disk
4 , 0 % bytes in each allocation unit.
525,010 allocation units available on disk.
Jolune Serial Number is 1C6S--15DB

. 9.6. 2- DOS

: ( /S). , :,
, DOS COMMAND.COM.
/S :

,
;
Windows ;
Windows (. 88);
Windows , ( DOS).

2DB

9.

, DOS Windows 95, 98 98SE


.
(, Windows NT, 2000, Linux) .

, DOS/Windows 9x,
Windows NT, 2000 .
, . , . , (-) .


86
Windows NT DOS Windows.
Windows NT, 2000 . DOS Windows, Windov/s NT, 2000
. DOS
Windows, NT, 2000 ( ) FAT16 FAT-32, DOS (6.22 7.0
Windows 95/98/) Windows 95/98/ (, ).

Windows - NTLDR .
NTLDR , ;
BOOT.INI. BOOT.INI NTLDR .

NT/2000/XP, ( ) CD-ROM , . , CD-ROM D:; :


D:\i386\winnt
NT/2000/XP, .

. Windows NT/2000/XP ,
(. 9.7).

86,

207

. 9.7. Windows

Windows NT, 2000 , - DOS Windows. , NT/2000/XP


DOS Windows 9x, \WINNT
(NT, 2000) \WINDOWS ( ).
Microsoft
NT :
- NTFS NTFS Windows Windows NT , NT Service Pack. NTFS /
;
Windows XP, Windows NT 4.0
Service Pack.
NT/2000 Windows
:
NT/2000 ;
, , ;
. , . , ,
, " ^ ~ ^
, .

==

208

9.

. , , .
,
.

Windows 2000 RAID,


, .
> > (Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Computer Management Disk
Management). , .

1B23V ' Dick 8 t Id 0 cm


J cm a t a p i {.1.
the UP and 0tfN ftHROU KBS to stJ.*M::f; t3nst f i l
t, antt then p r e s s NFER If you irant to eeixfKereitt <>.*4. it ion i\>r UimUw
t t h e p a r t i t i o n uplr.f/ t h e
t t h e j>r*rj:iS;i<:'Fti u s i n ^ 1:h
ftt; t h e p a r t k u m us inj tl>B
at t h e p a r t i t i o n usin<f t h e
c c t t h e uai>tii:itin tu NTTS

. 9 . 8 . I

IM-I

i , i

WIFS f i l e ^systen
J'ftT filfj aysfcem
HTFS f i b :;y:;t^m
FftI f i l e c-ystont

.'.i i .. _

. ii 1 . i,

BOOT.INI (. 94)
. BOOT.INI NTLDR ,
.

(. 9.9).
.

Microsoft Uindous Professtonail

Microsoft Uindous

Llse the up and doun arrou keys to noue the highlight to your choice
Press EHIEJi to choose.
Seconds until highlighted choice uill be started autonatically: 2S
For trmibleshootinn and ndunnced stnrtu options for Uindous
. 9.9.

86.

209


. NTLDR
, .

Windows , DOS Windows 9x-Me


, a NT/2000/XP ,
DOS 9- .
DOS 9- NT/2000/XP, VMware .


( ) ( ) . ,
, DOS
Windows XP Linux... , . , ,
. , .
, (, ).
(. 9.10) 3,5- ,
IDE/SCSI (
).

. 9.10. IDt: ,

[.

,
1

5.25"
5,25"

;, ,

210

9.

Master,
. 5,25",
. .
, .
, Slave
. ,
. , , .

.
: , IDE DMA/ATA-66
, UDMA/ATA-100/ATA-133. .
80- IDE, .


87

, , .

, ,
: , ( FDISK
NT, ).
Windows ,
. PartitionMagic/BootMagic (Symantec) Partition Commander/System
Commander (V-Com) .
, . FAT-32 DOS. DOS Windows 9x
.
, NT. , NT (NTLDR)
(BOOT.INI)
, . -

87.

211


, - DOS/Windows 9x. NTLDR, BOOT.INI;
DOS/Windows 9x, Windows NT, 2000 .


, . , DOS 6.22 Windows 95 (OSR1) FAT-16, 2 . Windows 2000
FAT-16.
DOS, Windows 95, Windows 95
OSR2, Windows 98, 98SE, Me . .
FAT-32
Windows 95 OSR2 98SE. NTFS NT/
2000/, , NTFS. , NTFS
, FAT-32,
FAT 89.

DOS/Windows , , DOS Windows 9x .
NTFS. NTFS
,
NTFS Windows NT, 2000 . , ; Windows 2000 Partition Magic System
Commander .

( )
, ,
, . , .

PartitionMagic
PartitionMagic BootMagic .
1. PartitionMagic BootMagic Windows
.
. POST, .

212

9.

2. . Windows , BootMagic.
3. Add BootMagic , . .
BootMagic.
4. PartitionMagic. Install another
operating system (. 9.11).
Next.

. 9 . 1 1 . PartitionMagic

5. (. 9.12)
Next.

. 9.12. ,
PartitionMagic

87.

213

6. ( ),
. 9.13 9.14, Next.

. 9.13.
PartitionMagic

. 9.14. ,

, (. 9.15), Next. ,
- (. 9.16), Next.

8. (. 9.17)
Finish.

214

9.

. 9.15. PartitionMagic

. 9.16. PartitionMagic

9. Apply (. 9.18). PartitionMagic


.

87.

216

. 9.17. , PartitionMagic

. 9.18. PartitionMagic

10. Windows 2000 , - CD-ROM .


- , .
- ( Windows 9x-Me),
PartitionMagic :.
DOS, CD-ROM,

216

9.

DOS , - ( D CD-ROM):
D:\i386\winnt.exe
11. , .
, ( ).
12. BootMagic,
. .
13. - . , . , BOOT.INI
(. 94) NT/2000/XP TIMEOUT= 0 , DEFAULT= . .
System Commander
System Commander V-Com . , .
Windows 2000 Windows 98.

, System Commander V-Com,



. , .

1. System Commander Windows. .


POST, . , Tab, Enter .
2. OS Wizard.
3. New Installation Next.
4. Windows; Next.
5. (Windows 2000) Next.
6. (New) Next.
7. Isolated by itself Next.
8. ,
Next. . System Commander
. . Windows 2000 , -
, .

88.

217

9. -, DOS CD-ROM.
10. - CD-ROM
. boot from CD ,
. - ,
System Commander
:. , DOS CD-ROM;
DOS , - ( D CD-ROM):
D:\i386\winnt.exe
11. , . , ( ). System Commander .
12. . ( Windows 2000). Windows 2000.
13. . / . : / , :.
14. System Commander /, . Windows 2000 .
15. Windows, . , System Commander
. , ; , BOOT.INI (. 94)
NT/2000/XP TIMEOUT= 0 ,
DEFAULT= . .


88

Windows
.

: , - , -
Windows, . ?
, ?
( 700 ), - Windows . ,

218

9.

Windows, -.

,
SMARTDRV (. 65).

PC Windows 95, 98,98SE Me


C:\WINDOWS\OPTIONS\CABS, Windows NT, 2000 C:\i386. , -. , DOS A:\
(, - D:):
:\:
C:\>MD WINDOWS
C:\>MD WINDOWSNOPTIONS
C:\>MD WINDOWS\OPTIONS\CABS
C:\>CD WINDOWS\OPTIONS\CABS
: \WIND0WS\OPTI0NS\CABS>COPY D:\WIN98\*.*

Windows
C:\WIND0WS\0PTIONS\CABS>SETUP

, WINDOWS Windows,
\WINDOWCD - .

Windows NT-XP :
:\:
C:\>MD i386
C:\>CD 1386
C:\I386>COPY D:\i386\*.*

Windows
C:\I386>WINNT
Windows -,
, .

NTFS

NTFS ,
NTFS.
Sysinternals
NTFS ,

9 0 .

219

NTFS. NTFSDOS NTFSWIN98


http://www.sysinternals.com. NTFSDOS DOS, Windows 3.1 Windows 95, a NTFSWIN98
Windows 98 Me. NTFS
, NT/2000
.
NTFS,
, Sysinternal
Administrator's Pak.
Linux NTFS NTFS root ( - ):
# mount - /dev/hdal /mnt
# mount | grep n t f s

/dev/hdal on /mnt type ntfs (ro)


debian:-# Is -1 /mnt/boot.ini
_r
i r o o t r o o t 230 Aug 8 17:32 /mnt/boot.ini
NTFS:

# modprobe -v n t f s

insmod /lib/modules/2.6.6-1ocal/kernel/fs/ntfs/ntfs.ko
NTFS (
FATAL: Module ntfs not found), (http://www.kernel.org), , ,
NTFS .

NTFS .
NTFS
, 2.6 NTFS.

Windows ,
- , ( 5 , ). ,

(MBR) . ,
.
, - Windows .

220

9.

(, - ).
:
1. - Windows XP CD-ROM, (Start) (Run).
2. (f:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons, d
CD-ROM - .
3. . (Yes),
.
4. .
.
, help
. .

DOS Windows 95/98/


91

DOS
.

MSDOS.SYS
Windows 95,98 Me MSDOS.SYS.
, . , Windows,
. [Path] Windows
( Windows ), [Options] .

DOS 6.22 MSDOS.SYS . DOS


. Windows 95 MSDOS.SYS .

C:\MSDOS.SYS,
. DOS; Windows
, COMMAND.COM
. :
:\>:
C:\F0OCD \

C:\>attrib -r -h -s MSDOS.SYS

Nt 91 DOS Windows 95/98/

291

MSDOS.SYS,


attrib +r +h +s MSDOS.SYS.
-

-, -h -s. D O S edit
( N o t e p a d ) . . :FORMAT
[Paths]
WinDir-C:\WINDOWS
Win8ootDir-C:\WIND0WS
HostWinBootDrv=C
[Options]
BootMulti-1
BootGUI-1
DoubleBuffer=l
AutoScan=l

WinVer=4.10.1998
:The following lines are required for compatibility with other programs.
:Do not remove them (MSDOS.SYS needs to be > 1024 bytes).
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxa
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxb
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxc
ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxd
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxe
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxf
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxg
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxh
ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxi
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxj
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxk
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxl
:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxm
ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxn
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxo
ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxp
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxq
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxr
;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxs
W i n d o w s 9 x - M e .
:
W i n d o w s C : \ W I N D O W S :.
D O S .
Windows.

222

9.

,
.
,
Scandisk.
, [Options]:
BootDelay=2

BootKeys=0
BootMenu=0

BootMenuDefault-1
BootMenuDelay=30
BootSafe-0
DblSpace=l
DrvSpace=l
LoadTop=l
Logo=l
Networks

:
BootDelay=2, BootKeys=0 Starting Windows . ( ).
BootMenu=0 .
BootMenuDefault=1 ,
1 ( ).
BootMenuDelay=30 ( ) 30 , .
BootSafe=0 .
DblSpace=1, DrvSpace=1 DblSpace DrvSpace.
LoadTop=1 DOS DOS.
Logo=1 Windows.
Network=0 ,
.
, (
) [Options] :

BootDelay=5
BootKeys-1
BootMenu=l
BootMenuDelay=5
DblSpace=O
DrvSpace=O
Logo=l
Network=l

BootDelay=5
. BootKeys=1 -

91. DOS Windows 95/98/Me

223

. BootMenu=1
BootMenuDelay=5 5 30. DblSpace=O DrvSpace=O .
Logo- Windows . ,
Networks .
,
,
Windows.
MSDOS.SYS
[Paths] MSDOS.SYS (
):
HostWinBootDrv=KOjeeoM () .
UninstalNKopweeoM () W95undo.dat W95undo.ini,
Windows 95.
\\0\= Windows ( C:\Windows) ,
.
\= Windows ( C:\Windows)
Windows.
[Options] MSDOS.SYS:
AutoScan=Kod (1) ScanDisk . : 0 ScanDisk;
1 ScanDisk; 2 ScanDisk,
. Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2 .
BootDelay=ceM/wdb( (2) Starting Windows . Windows 98 BootDelay .
&\\= (0) - 1, Windows .
1= (1) - Windows. 0, Windows .
BootKeys=0.M2 (1) - 1, F4, F5, F6, F8 Ctrl
. 0, .
BootMenu=^a2 (0) - . 0, F8 Starting Windows.
BootMenuDefault=4a^o (1 3) - , . - 1 , 3 .
11= (30) - . ,

9.

224

BootMenuDefault. BootMenu=1.
\1\= (1) 0 ( DOS).
1= (I) 1 .
= (1) 1 Windows.
= (0) 1
, ( SCSI IDE). 2
.
DBLSpace=^aa (1) 1, DBLSPACE.BIN; 0 . , 0.
DRVSpace=^az (1) 1, DRVSPACE.BIN; 0 . , 0.
= (1) 1, COMMAND.COM ( DRVSPACE.BIN DBLSPACE.BIN, ) 640- DOS.

( 12 ,
).
, :
DBLSPACE=O DRVSPACE=O.
? DOS
DOS DIR.
DBLSPACE.000 DRVSPACE.OOO, , . ,
, ,

\.= (1) 1,
Windows. 0 ,
, .
Network=(/waz (0) 1, DOS
.
MSDOS.SYS
MSDOS.SYS -, ( ,
MSDOS.SYS 1024 ). , .

92. CONFIG.SYS

225

CQNFIG.SYS
CONFIG.SYS , , DOS.
CONFIG.SYS ( :\)
, ( )
. CONFIG.SYS i- DOS. CONFIG.SYS
DOS edit, Windows . DOS 6.22 , Windows 95-, Windows NT, 2000, 2003.

MSDOS.SYS BootKeys=1 (, 91),


CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT .
F5 Starting MS-DOS Starting Windows.
, CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT
F5 F8.

Windows 95- CONFIG.SYS


IO.SYS.
CONFIG.SYS:
DOS=HIGH
Device=HIMEM.SYS
SETVER.EXE
FILES=60
BUFFERS=30
LASTDRIVE=Z
STACKS=9.256
FCBS=4

, ,
CD-ROM, CONFIG.SYS . CONFIG.SYS :
Device=HIMEM.SYS /TESTMEM:off
Device=EMM386.EXE ON RAM ROM
DOS=HIGH.UMB
FILESHIGH=99
BUFFERSHIGH=6.2
STACKS=O. 0
DEV1CEHIGH=C:\CDROM\CDR0MDRV.SYS /D:MSCD001

CONFIG.SYS DOS, , .
. Device=HIMEM SYS /TESTMEM:off -
HIMEM.SYS. .

228

9.

Device=EMM386.EXE ON RAM ROM LIMS-EMS


EMM386 UMB (UMB, Upper Memory Blocks) LIMS-EMS ( ). DOS.
DOS=HIGH,UMB DOS UMB.
FILESHIGH=99 99 .
( !) .
BUFFERSHIGH=6,2
3 .
DOS (30)
SMARTDRV , DOS
AUTOEXEC.BAT (. 93).
, DOS.
STACKS=0,0
. ,
.
.
DEVICEHIGH=C:\CDROM\CDROMDRV.SYS /D-.MSCD001 - CD-ROM . MSCD001
.
.
. ,
, .

AUTOEXEC.BAT
93

DOS Windows.

AUTOEXEC.BAT ( :\).
DOS
(TSR). DOS COMMAND.COM
AUTOEXEC.BAT CONFIG.SYS.
AUTOEXEC.BAT DOS
edit, Windows . DOS 6.22 , Windows 95-Me,
Windows NT, 2000, 2003.
Windows 95- DOS IO.SYS.
DOS ( :\>)
DOS Windows (PATH).
Windows 95-98SE WIN.COM , AUTOEXEC.BAT. Windows Me DOS CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT, Windows
DOS, F5
. F5

93. AUTOEXEC.BAT

227

AUTOEXEC.BAT PAUSE,
Windows.
AUTOEXEC.BAT , .

MSDOS.SYS BootKeys=1 (. 91)


CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT .
F5 Starting MS-DOS Starting Windows.
, CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT
F5 F8.

AUTOEXEC.BAT DOS,
. ,
, ; PATH, ,
; , CONFIG.SYS
(, , CD-ROM,
. .).
, IO.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT:
PROMPT=$P$G>
TEMP=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP
TMP=C:\WINOOWS\TEMP
PATH=C:\WINDOWS:C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM

. , DOS , . AUTOEXEC.BAT
:
ECHO OFF
CLS

C:\WINDOWS\SMARTDRV +
PROMPT=$P$G>
=:\
=:\
PATH=C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\DOS;C:\
LH C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DOSKEY /INSERT
LH C:\WINDOWS\MSCDEX /D:MSCD001
LH C:\MOUSE\MOUSE.EXE

AUTOEXEC.BAT:
ECHO OFF - - . , ,
- , - ;
CLS - AUTOEXEC.BAT;
C\WINDOWS\SMARTDRV C+ - SMARTDRV
:. D+,-- ._
. Windows DOS SMARTDRV
Windows VCACHE;

228

9.

PROMPT=$P$G> DOS ;

=:\ ( C:\WINDOWS).
, C:\TEMP ( MD TEMP :\>);
=:\ .
DOS Windows;

PATH=C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\DOS;C:\ - PATH D O S , , DOS, . C:\DOS,


DOS;

LH C:\W1NDOWS\COMMAND\DOSKEY /INSERT - DOSKEY 4-.


/INSERT . DOSKEY
Windows;

LH C:\WINDOWS\MSCDEX /D:MSCD001 - M S C D E X CD-ROM DOS. Windows MSCDEX, DOS.


LH LOADHIGH, . M S C D E X
Windows 95, Windows 98 Me
Windows;

LH C:\MOUSE\MOUSE.EXE . D O S ( , ), Windows ,
.

AUTOEXEC.BAT
, .
PATH (, SET SYBASE=C:\SYBASE). ,
DOS, .
D O S 256 , CONFIG.SYS (. 92)
;
SHELL=C:\COMMAND.COM /E:512
D O S
512 . /: . , 512 1024
2048 .
AUTOEXEC.BAT . DOS,
, AUTOEXEC.BAT
.

94, Windows NT/2000/XP

228

. -, ( ).
, , . -,
CALL - . :
ECHO OFF

as

C:\WINDOWS\SMARTDRV +
PROMP>$P$G>
=:\
-

=:\WINDOWS::\WINDOWSX SYSTEM::\DOS::\
LH C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DOSKEY /INSERT
LH SMARTDRV C+
.
second.bat

.
CALL C:\SECOND.BAT
LH C:\WINDOWS\MSCDEX /D:MSCD001
LH C:\MOUSE\MOUSE.EXE
AUTOEXEC.BAT
SMARTDRV; SECOND.BAT,
AUTOEXEC.BAT MSCDEX
MOUSE.


94 Windows NT/2000/XP

BOOT.INI.

BOOT.INI Windows NT.


Windows 2000, 2003, .
, BOOT.INI DOS Windows NT ( , DOS). BOOT.INI
(,
) ,
Microsoft.
BOOT.INI ( DOS 10.SYS
MSDOS SYS) NTLDR .
, ; , .

230

9.

BOOT.INI
BOOT.INI.
, ,
, , , ,
.
[boot loader]
timeout=3
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP
Professional" /fastdetect
Windows XP.
, . Windows XP 1
rdisk(O) SCSI, BIOS
(multi(O)).
[operating systems] BOOT.INI
, Windows XP Windows 2000.
, .
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP
Professional" /fastdetect
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WIND0WS="Microsoft Windows 2000
Professional" /fastdetect
, Windows XP 2000
. , , ARC (Advanced RISC Computing). ARC
.
BOOT.INI
BOOT.INI , .
,
, .
:
1. : ,
cmd .
2.


:
X:\Foo>C:
C:\Bar>cd \
C:\>attrib -s -h -r boot.ini

edit,
. NTLDR -

N8 94. Windows NT/2000/XP

231

BOOT.INI , , 3. : > cmd .


\.
:
X:\Foo>C:
C:\Bar>cd \
C:\>attrib +s +h +r boot.ini
ARC BIOS
BOOT.INI, , , BIOS INT-13 SCSI. 9.2 ARC.
9.2. BOOT.INI IDE

multi(O)

( 0)

disk(O)

0; IDE

rdisk(O)

, .
0 3. SCSI 0 7 0 15

partition(O)

ARC
ARC Windows, SCSI, BIOS INT-13,
NTBOOTDD.SYS. SCSI ,
RAID , BIOS
,
. . 9.3 BOOT.INI
SCSI.
9.3. BOOT.INI SCSI

scsi(O)

( 0)

disk(O)

SCSI;
0 7 0 15

rdisk(O)

SCSI ( 0)

partition(O)

232

9.

SCSI :
1. .
2. , NT.
3. BOOT.INI , .
4. BOOT.INI :
[boot loader]
timeout-3
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP
Professional"
BOOT.INI :
[boot loader]
timeout=3
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP
on 1st Drive"
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(l)partition(l)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000
on 2nd Drive"
: Microsoft
Windows 2000 on 2nd Drive; , partition( 1) rdisk( 1).
BOOT.INI :
[boot loader]
timeout=0
default=mu"lti(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINTE
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(l)partition(l)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000
on 2nd Drive"

.

;
.
. , Windows
.

Linux
Linux BOOT.INI , .
Linux (GRUB LILO)

94, Windows NT/2000/XP

233

Linux. Linux /dev/hda6, GRUB


:
# grub
GNU GRUB version 0.95 (640K lower / 3072 upper memory)
[ Minimal BASH-like line editing is supported. For the first word. TAB
l i s t s possible command completions. Anywhere else TAB l i s t s the possible
completions of a device/filename. ]
grub> root (hdO, <TAB>

Possible partitions are:


Partition num: 0. Filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x7
Partition num: 2. Filesystem type is fat. partition type Oxc
Partition num; 4. Filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x82
Partition num: 5. Filesystem type is ext2fs. partition type 0x83

grub> root (hdO, 5)


filesystem type is ext2fs. partition type 0x83
grub> setup (hdO, 5)
Checking if "/boot/grub/stagel" exists... yes
Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stagel_5" exists... yes
Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stagel_5 (hd0.5)"... failed (this is not
fatal)
Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stagel_5 (hd0.5)"... failed (this is not
fatal)
Running "install /boot/grub/stagel (hd0.5) /boot/grub/stage2 p /boot/grub/
menu
.1st "... succeeded
Done.
grub> quit

: GRUB ,
Linux. Linux 1, GRUB
. , /dev/hda6 GRUB
(hdO,5).

dd:
# dd if=/dev/hda6 of=grub.bin bs=512 count=l
grub.bin , , : Windows. : NTFS,
, grub.bin Linux ,
FAT-32, ,
.
Windows, BOOT.INI , , [operating systems] :
c:\grub.bin="Linux"

234

9.

Linux
dd :. GRUB
LILO , GRUB
( GRUB, /boot/grub/menu.1st).
DOS Windows 9x-Me
BOOT.INI DOS Windows 95-
, Windows NT-2003 ( FAT-16
FAT-32),
( NTFS).
DOS/95/98/Me NT-2003,
FAT-16 FAT-32 BOOT.INI .
:
1. Windows NT-2003.
2. , DOS-Me, /
.
3. DOS Windows 95-.
4. , Windows NT-2003
(Master), DOS-Me (Slave).
5. Windows NT-2003.
6. BOOT.INI. :
[boot loader]
timeout=5
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINNT
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(l)partition(l)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000"
d:\="Windows 98"
d:\= "Windows 98" .

10


95-100
- , , . ? ,
( , - ),
.
, .
PC; , .
PC, , ,
. , , .
, . , ,
.
PC, Linux Windows
. , . PC
.
, , .
. : AVG, Trend, F-Prot,
McAfee, Norton Panda, PC .
, Outlook Outlook Express , .
. (. 98),
(malware). PC, -
, - .

236

10.

, ,
, , PC, . ,
.
. ( ) , . ,
, , . -
, -.

, Windows, Linux, Unix . .


. Windows
, (Tools) Internet Explorer, Linux, Unix .
.
:
, . : (. 99).

|
95

PC ,
. , , ,
,
, .
PC
,
, , .
;
, GHOST Drivelmage Symantec
(http://www.symantec.com) True Image Acronis (http://www.acronis.com).
GHOST DOS.
DOS .
Windows GHOST DOS (. 40) - PC-DOS . GHOST Windows
(,
, GHOST ).

95.

237

, , .
, PC ( Windows ). (Intel, Via . .),
- , . , (, Pentium II AMD64)
. , , Pentium 3 Pentium 4 .
Windows XP , ; Windows 2000
. Windows 9x-Me ,
2000 ,
. Linux
, Windows, , Intel 386,
, .

.

GHOST - ,
DOS, . , Linux (. 50) FDISK Linux. , ;
, Symantec.
- GHOST Windows.
Drive Image (. 10.1) True Image (. 10.2)
Windows. , ,
.
, , .
, ,
PC .
Symantec GHOST Drive Image, Acronis True Image,
. , Linux:
Linux:
ghost4unix, http://rfhs8012.fh-regensburg.de/~feyrer/g4u/
QTparted, http://qtparted.sourceforge.net/

Windows:
HDClone, http://www.miray.de/download/sat.hdclone.html
Farstone DriveClone, http://www.farstone.com

10.

. 1 0 . 1 . Drive Image ,
Windows

. 10.2. True Image

, Windows XP
2003 ( ). Windows
,
. ; ,
.

96.

239


96
,
PC, .
Microsoft ,
. PC
, .
(. 10.3) .
Windows XP , . ( ) ; ,
.

. 10.3. Windows XP

Windows . ,
.
.
(, , ) .
, Microsoft Windows XP

. - , :

PC Relocator AlohaBob (http://www.alohabob.com);

MigrateEasy Acronis (http://www.acronis.com);

240

10.

Move Me Spearit Software (http://www.spearit.com);


IntelliMover Detto (http://www.detto.com).
PC Relocator Aloha Bob.
,
, .
PC Relocator
, ,
Windows 9x Windows XP
(. 95) .
Windows , .
PC Relocator (. 10.4), Windows,
. PC Relocator , USB, .

. 10.4. PC Relocator


(,
, <>\

. .
a
tor
, i-
< >
, i O.IUKO
, )<
.
. , , .
.

98. PC

241

, , .

97


, .

? , PC
. - ,
is .
, , .
, ; .
, , .

,
. ,
. , .
.
,
.
, AVG Grisoft (http://www.grisoft.com). 6
. AVG, , . , AVG PC
, . AVG
Windows , , . AntiVir Personal Edition (http://www.free-av.com/).

PC
,
.
- , , :
(adware) - , .

242

10.

(spyware) ,
, , .
(malware) , . ,
, ,
.
:
, ,
Windows.
, .
(,
), .
, ... !
, : . , ,
, . , .
GAIN/Gator/Claria Doubleclick.

. 10.5. GAIN

. 10.5 ActiveX Internet Explorer 6 Windows XP Service Pack 2 (


Service Pack 2 99).
(Always Trust) (Yes), -

98. PC

243

,
, . -. (Always Trust)! .
, - (, DivX - http://www.divx.com),
, (. 10.6).
(. 10.7) , . , .
GAIN/Gator.

. 10.6.
,

, !
,
, : ,
- 10 20 .
(EULA, End-User License
Agreement)
, . . , Kazaa
tt//www.kazaa conVus/privacy/index.htm) Cydoor ( , , ) GAIN
( ).

244

10.

. 10.7. GAIN,

,
. $30 , , DLL,
. , Kazaa , , $29.95.

Google, Yahoo!, Lycos, MSN Altavista,


. , , -
. Google Yahoo! , . ? , -
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
, .

, .
.
, , :
BHODemon, Definitive Solutions (http://www. definitivesolutions.com);
Spybot Search & Destroy, (Patrick Kolla) (http://
www.spybot.info);

98. PC

245

Spyware Blaster, - Javacool Software (http://www.javacoolsoftware.com);


Ad-Aware, - Lavasoft (http://wwwJavasoft.de).

(. 99) , . , Windows IE, .


,
URL, IP- .

BHODemon (. 10.8) ,
(Browser Helper Objects), ActiveX,
Internet Explorer ( , Windows).

. 10.8. BHODemon ActiveX

. - C:\Windows\Downloaded Program Files, ActiveX. ,


, , BHODemon. (Properties),
, . , ; , , ( , ).
Spybot Search & Destroy (. 10.9) . -,
. - ,
- :

248

10.

ActiveX . -, . 12 400 , .

. 10.9. Spybot Search & Destroy

. 10.10. SpywareBlaster cookie

99.

247

SpywareBlaster (. 10.10)

. SpywareBlaster . ActiveX Macromedia Flash;
( , Flash
-, Flash HTML-).

99


, .

, ... . ,
. , , ,
, ,
.
; , .
, . Windows XP ( Service Pack 2) ICF (Internet Connection Firewall), ,
PC. ICF
, . , .

XP Service Pack 2 Security Center , ICF , (. 10.11 10.12)


Internet Explorer (. 10.13).

. 1 0 . 1 1 . Security Center XP Service Pack 2

248

10.

. 10,12. ActiveX Service Pack 2

, Microsoft , Microsoft ( ).
Microsoft
.

. 10.13. Security Center


ActiveX

99.

249


, DSL
, PC . (,
- Internet Explorer , ,
). PC -
( , ) . ,
.

, ZoneLab ZoneAlarm (http://www.
zonelabs.com) . 10.14, Norton Internet Security (http://www.symantec.conn)
Sygate Personal Firewall (http://www.sygate.com). Windows XP Service Pack 2 (. 10.15), Security Center.

. 10.14. ZoneAlarm ,

,
.
(. Jb).

260

10.

, , ,
. ,
, . .

. 10.15. Windows Firewall Service Pack 2


,
100
.
, , . ,
. :
- ,
, - .

100.

2S1


-
( ) .
Windows
, , . , Windows XP -. , .
- Stomp BackUp MyPC (http://www.stompinc.com) Newtech Infosystems NTI Backup Now! (http://www.ntius.com) - DVD,
. BackUp MyPC ,
,
.
(. 95). .
( , Zip-, - DVD), , PC.
,

, .
,
. (. 86)
. , . ,
.
ABS
(Automated Backup System) CMS (http://www.cmsproducts.com). ABS . ABS ,
.
, , - ABS.

ABS (Automated Backup


System), 251
Acronis True Image, 200, 236
ActiveSMART, 144
ActiveX, , 245
Ad-Aware, 245
AGP, , 162
, 165
, 64
, 69
AIDA32, 63
AMD,
, 64
, 70
AMI, BIOS, 31
ATA, , 145
ATI Radeon, , 170
ATX, , 37
AUTOEXEC.BAT, , 226
AVG, , 241
Award BIOS, 31
AwardMod, , 26
AWDFLASH.EXE, , 25

BackUp MyPC, 251


BHODemon, 245
BIN, , 35
BIOS
Plug and Play, 41
S.M.A.R.T., 143
, 25
, 30
, 30

BIOS ()
, 23
, 28
BootMagic, 198

CBROM, , 26
CMOS-, , 19
-, 37, 43
, 44
Plug and Play, 43
IRQ, 47
CONFIG.SYS, , 225
CONVERT, , 128

D
DB-25, , 49
DB-9 DB-25, , 47
DDR, , 90
Detonator, (nVidia), 167
DIMM, , 89
DiskCheck, , 144
DMA (Direct Memory Access), 40
DOS
BOOT.INI, 234
CONFIG.SYS, , 225
SMARTDRV, 155
, 26
, 94
Drive Image, , 237

E
ECP, , 50
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification), 91
EPP, , 50
ext, , 115

F
FAT
, 198

BNTFS,

128

, 115
FD1SK, , 201
Fire Wire, 37
FIXBOOT, , 132
FIXMBR, , 131
Flash, ActiveX, 247
FORMAT, , 133, 202
FSB (Front Side Bus), 68

G
GHOST, , 236
GRUB, ,' 130, 232

H
HDPARM, (Linux), 158

I
IBM Prototype Card, 179
ICF (Internet Connection
Firewall), 247
IDE
, 21
,149
, 27
IDETool, 153
IEEE-1394, 37, 176
iLink, 41, 176
Internet Explorer, 245
IRQ
, 44
, 41
, 54
ISA, , 162

J
jfs, , 115

L
Legacy USB, , 29
LILO, , 130, 232
LIMS-EMS, , 91
Linux
ext, , 115
GRUB L1LO, 130
, 232
BOOT.INI, 232

2S3
LPT-, 37, 44
, 49
, 180

, , 131
MBR (Master Bool Record), 114, 130
MFT (Master File Table), 115
MSDOS.SYS, , 220

N
NTFS
, 115
FAT, 128
, 129
, 115
nVidia GeForce, , 164

PageDefrag, 100
PartitionMagic, 198
PC Card, 39
PC Relocator, , 240
PCI, , 162
, 64
, 80
, 173
PCI-X, 40
PCL, , 193
Phoenix BIOS, 31
Plug and Play, 41
, 41
, 54
, 192
POST, 19
PowerStrip, 170
PS/2, , 37

R
RAID, 154
reiserfs, , 115
RivaTuner, , 167

S
SATA (Serial ATA), , 150
SCSI,
IEEE-1394, 53
, 52
BOOT.1N1, 231
SCSI, , 24
Service Pack 2, 242

264
Smart BootManager, 198
SMARTDRV, 35, 155
SpywareBlaster, 247
SYS.COM, , 137
System Commander, 216
SVSTEM.INI, , 157
System RescueCD, 133

T
T13, , 145
True Image, , 237

UAR/T, 187
Ultra ATA, , 150
Unicore, 31
USB (Universal Serial Bus), 39, 176

V
VCACHE, 155
VESA (Video Electronic Standard
Association), 175
VMware, 199

w
Windows 2000
DOS, 95
, 114
, 100
FAT-32, 116
, 99
, 129
Windows 95
, 96
FAT-32, 116
, 101
, 92
, 94
Windows 98
, 96
FAT-32, 116
, 101
, 92
, 94
Windows XP
DOS, 95
, 100
FAT-32, 116
, 99
, 129

X
X-Setup/X-Setup Pro, 106

z
ZoneAlarm, , 249

A
, 114

PartitionMagic, 211
System Commander, 216
, 199
-, 163
, 200


300h, 179
, 51
, 178
, 54
, 114, 208
, 235
, 249
, 249

, 85
(VMware), 199
, 235

, 98
, 100
, 114, 208

FAT, 128
NTFS, , 129
RAID, , 154
Serial ATA, 150
, 114
, 236
, 139
DOS, 135
, 126
, 143
, 129
, 133
, 133


, 113
, 192
, 50

Linux, 133
MS-DOS, 220
Windows 9-, 220
, 197
, 219
, 18
, 23
(NTLDR), 206

(IR) , 48

, 112
FAT, 115
NTFS, 117
, 236
, 219

VCACHE, 155
Windows 95, , 96, 139
, 142

, 136
, 113

, 64
, 84

, 189
, 114, 203
, 113
, 142
, 70

, 163
Windows 95-96
, 93
Windows 9x, 90

266
()

, 92
, 107
, 101
, 37
, 49

BIOS, 18
, 19
, 57

ISA, 52
CMOS-, 19
, 163

LPT, 44
/, 37
, 21
, 37

AMD, 65
FSB, 80
Intel, 65
, 85
, 63
, 70
, 57

ATI Radeon, 170


nVidia, , 167
PowerStrip, 170
, 57

FAT, 129
FDISK, 201
Linux, 133
NTFS, 129
, 113
, 129
, 113
, 91

, 50
, 48
, 241
, 101

256

, 69
, 115
, 194

, 53
Plug and Play, 43
, 17
, Windows, 29
, 74


BIOS, 78
, 63
, 163
, 57
, 57, 70

, 40


, 100
, 97
, 99
, 98

, 112
, 128
, 114
, 133

, 194

, 242