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2006

-
, -,

. .


2005
HEXIS Publishers
, ,

:
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:
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.
c Hexis Publishers, 2005

c . , . , . , 2005

ISBN: 1-931233-06-3
Printed in the United States of America



1. .
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4 .
1.5
2.
2.1 -
2.2 .
2.3 -
2.4 ,
2.5 S- .
2.6 - IV
2.7 - IV:

2.8 - IV:

2.9

4
5
9
16
17
21
24
29
38
41
47
60
69
73
79

3.
3.1 .
82
3.2
86
3.3
94
3.4
97

101





- (-). .
,
,
.
, -, (. ).
, .
, ,
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2005

1.1

.
, 1995 .
<A>
() <-A> <-A> (
,
<A> <A-A>). <-A> <-A> <-A>.
, <A>
<A-A>
<-A> , .
e [1].
1995 .
(
1980- ),
,
,
- , - ,
1.
, , , , .

, , . . , , : . , , American Research Press, 1998 [2].

1 .


.
,
, .
, ,
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[4, 5, 6].
.
.
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,


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.

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1.1

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23 , ,
.

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<-A>, [4].

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.

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1 .

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S- [7, 8, 9, 10], . . ,
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-- .
. , Smarandache
Manifolds [11] [12, 13]
,
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1.2

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- IV .
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1.2


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1 .

10

( neuter, neuter sophia ,


.

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.

:
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, . e.
(, 1996 [14, 15]) (, 2002 [16]);
, , , ,
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;
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Me
Ma ( , , ), , ,
, , , a, , , , , , .

1960- A [17]
,
.

1.2

11


. , x
, n |x| < 1/n. > 0 . ,
.
1+ = 1+, 1 ,
,
0 = 0, 0 .
T , ] a, b+ [
. , 0 1 , , ,
, , 0, ,
, 1, . a , . e. :
( a) = {a x : x R , x } ,

(1.1)

b+ :
(b+ ) = {b + x : x R , x } .

(1.2)

, ] a, b+ [
, ,
() ( a) (b+ ), .

,
, c+ :
( c+ ) = {c x : x R , x }, 4 {c + x : x R ,
x }, c.
, a < a b+ > b. c+ c.

T, I, F ] a, b+ [ . T, I, F
, : ; ,

12

1 .

(c

) ; .. . t, i, f (
T, I, F ).
T, I, F, ,
,

, , , , , .
.
() ,
( , T, I, F ). , (, I ),

( , T, I, F I ; ,
).

<A> , , , , , <-A> , <A>,


<A-A> <A>. , <-A> , <A> <A-A>, . e.
. <A0 > <A>.
<-A> <A-A>.
: <A> = , <A-A> =
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,

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. . (

), <A0 > =
. . (, ). <-A>,
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<-A> <-A>,

1.2

13

:
<A> <A-A> ;
<A> <-A> ;
<A>, <-A> <A-A> ;
<-A> <A> .

<A>
<A-A>
-

<-A>.

<A> T% , I%

F% , T, I, F ] 0, 1+ [ .

<> , (T, I, F) ] 0, 1+ [3 . :
<P> R, , <P> T% <>, I%
,
<->, F% <A->;
<P> R, , <P> T% <>, I%

, <-> F% <->;
<> <A->,
<A-> <>.
: <P>
R1 , R2 ,. . . , , <P> -
<P>
<-P> <A-P>.
, , <M>
<N> R M RN , , <M> <N> .
,
.

1 .

14


, !
, !

<A> , , <-A> ( ,
<A-A>, <-A>) . <A> <A-A>
<-A> , <A>
<A-A> .

: (), ()
(
) (). .

a) , ,
;
b)
,
<E> ,
, , <E0 >, <-E>.
, , <E> <A-E>, <-E> <E> <A-E>, , ;
cd) , , . : ,
;

1.2

15

e) ,


;
f) Philosophia Perennis ,
;
g) ( )
, 100%
100% , ,

100.

<A> ( ), , , :
<-A> = ,
<A>;
<e-A> = -, <A>;
<e-A0 > = <e-A>;
<A> = , <-A> =
, <A>;
<A0 > = <A> (), ()
, , ;
<A/-A> = <A> (),
<A> - ;
<A-A> = , <A>,
<-A>;
<A-A0 > = <A-A> (), () , ,
;
<A-A/-A> = <A-A> (), , <A-A>

1 .

16

<-A>
;
<A0 /A-A0 > = ()
<A0 > <A-A0 >;
<-A> = <A>, -, ;
<-A0 > = <-A> ;
<eo-A> = <A>, ,
, ,
, , ; <A> .
C , , ,

.
= .
<-A> ( , <A>, <-A>,
), , (

<-A>). <-A> , , ,
.
, , <A> ,
<-A>, . , ,

. ,

(
<A>),

.
T , <A>
<-A> <A-A>.
1.3

1. , .
2. , -

1.4 .

17

.
3. , , .
4. ,
, .
5. .
6.
, , , .
7. , n-, n-, , .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
:
,
, , , , , , , .
1.4


,
, , ,
, , , , , , .

18

1 .

, , T,
I F, T, I, F
, .
(
, ) ,

, :
, ,
3040%, a 6070%, :
3040% 4550% (
) 60% 6670%
.
,
(, , o

. .) .
.
: (T, I, F) , T, I, F ] 0, 1+ [ ninf = inf T + inf I + inf F > 0,
nsup = sup T + sup I + sup F 6 3+ .
A : a, b, c, . . .
: A, B, C, . . .
,
,
.
(, 2002 [18]).

, ,
0, 1,
(18151864), 1981 [19].

1.4 .

19

1910
,
(1920- )
. 1 , 1/2

0 . .

1949 [20], K
1960 [21], T 1994 [22]
. ,
, .

(LP) : , . : (), (),


, ; . . 1976 [23]

.
e , ( catushkoti).
0, a 1 , . . . , an , 1 , m-
.
1969
[24] 1975 [25, 26] ( ,
), ,
[0, 1].
1975 .
, : [0, 1] ,
. e. ,
, ; , nsup = sup T +
sup I + sup F ] 0, 3+ [ , 3 3+ ,
ninf = inf T + inf I + inf F ] 0, 3+ [ , 0

20

1 .

0.
(, ,
) 1764 , . . , . (1680- ),
.
Koo 1940-
, 1967 [27]
. 1976
[28]
, .
. T -
(, 1760- , , 1780-
); .
p , , q, , 1 p q, , [29]. , : , , ,
1.
[30], -,

, (1975 ) [31] (1975 ) [32]. , ,


, .
,
, ,

.
. - . ; S -, -

1.5

21

n (San San+1 ) . T , ( ) = , ( ) = , () =
.
1980 [33] , ,
, 1982 [34]
, :
a) (IFS):
E, IFS A E,
<-, --A(M), ---A(N)> ,
M + N 6 1 M, N [0, 1]. M + N = 1 M + N < 1,

I = M N.

b) L- (ILFS):
IFS, M N L.
c) - (IVIFS): IFS, M N [0, 1]
sup M + sup N 6 1.
d)
(IFS2): IFS, M2 + N2 6 1. M N .
e) IFS: IFS, N
.
.
. .
1.5

, . 3D- ,

22

1 .

(T), (F),

(I) , e T, I, F

] 0, 1+ [ .

[0, 1]. T, I,
F , ( < 1),
( > 1) ( = 1).
: [0.4, 0.6],

{0.1} (0.15,0.25) 0.4,


0.6.
. U ,
a M , U. x U M x(T, I, F)
M : t% , i%
(, ) f%
, e t T, i I, f F.
T, I, F , -o,
.

,
, A , t%
t T, i%
i I f% f F. n_sup[1,
n_sup[3+ . T_[0, 1],
p [0, 1], , , F (
[0, 1]); i
I.
a , . x, ,
: NP(x) =

= T(x), I(x), F(x) , T(x) ,
x , F(x) , x

1.5

23

I(x) ( )
x.
, , , . 1995 . <A>
<A-A> <-A> (. e. , , <A>
<A-A>). <-A> <A-A>
<-A>. , <A>

<A-A> <-A> .
, , ,
(
), , , , .

2.1


o , - ?
,
:
1. , .
2. .
3. ,
.
4. .
5. , , , , , ,
, ,
.

. -, .
: ,
.
, (. e. ). -- .
( .

2.1 -

25

hyperballein ). . ( . elleipein ).
, . e. , , , , , .
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
.
-- ()
. () ,
,
, , . ,
, , ,
, , . , ,
, ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
, .

, [35].
, . , 180 , ,
180 , , 180 , .

180 180 ,

2 T

26

180 . ,
. --
. . ,

. , ( n ):
1) g

g =

g00
g10
..
.

g01
g11
..
.

...
...
..
.

g0n
g1n
..
.

gn0

gn1

...

gnn

(2.1)

g = g ,

(2.2)

g = det kg k 6= 0 ,

(2.3)

, ds

ds2 =

g (x) dx dx = g dx dx ,

(2.4)

16,6n

. , g ,
;
2) .
,
[36].
, -

2.1 -

27

1 0 ... 0
0 1 ... 0

,
g = . . .
. . ...
.. ..

(2.5)

...

.
o
, g ( ds2 )
: ,

1
g01 . . . g0n
g10 1 . . . g1n

(2.6)
g = .
.. .
..
..
..
.
.
.
gn0 gn1 . . . 1

o , ,
.


(+) (+++), x0 = ct, x1 = x,

x2 = y, x3 = z
,
ds2 = g dx dx = g00 c2 dt2 + 2g0i cdtdxi + gik dxi dxk .

(2.7)

, ,
(+) (+++).
. ,
[37] (+++),
,
,
(
) . ,

28

2 T

[38], (+), , ,
,

, .
,

.
,
g

1 0
0
0
0 1 0
0

g =
(2.8)
0 0 1 0 ,
0 0
0 1

.

ds2 = g dx dx = c2 dt2 dx2 dy 2 dz 2 .

(2.9)


, . .


, , ,
(
).
,
. : 1)
K 6= 0
C 6= 0; 2)
K 6= 0,

: C = 0; 3)

K = 0,
C 6= 0;
4)
K = 0

C = 0.
(..
).

2.2

29

,
( ) .


g00
g
.
, -
() g0i
.
,
. , () .
, , , ( ).
, .
2.2


( )

-. ,
. , ,
, , -.
,
-,
.

(
,
, . , ,
( ) ,
.

2 T

30
):

1) Q ,
;
.
2) N ,
, ,

Q =

dx
,
d

= 0, 1, 2, 3

(2.10)

,
. ,
,
. . , , Q
N =

DQ
dQ
dx
=
+
.
Q
d
d
d

(2.11)

DQ
dQ 2-
. 2- 1- ( ) ,
g


g
g
1 g

=
g

=
+

.
(2.12)
,
,

x
x
2 x
, ,

,
Q ,
. N ,
, . -,
.
Q Q = const,
(2.13)
N N = const.

(2.14)

2.2

31

T . , . ( , ) ,
() .
. ,
,

.
( )
N = 0, . e.

dQ
dx
+
= 0,
(2.15)
Q
d
d
N 6= 0 .
,

ds : ds2 > 0, ds2 = 0
ds2 < 0. , ,
.
, ,
,
. , :
,

. ds2 > 0, , ds
. , m0 > 0 v < c, m = p m0
.
1 v2 /c2
, ,

P
P = m0

dx
m dx
=
,
c d
ds

(2.16)

2 T

32


. , ,
,

P P
P P = m20 g

dx dx
= m20 = const .
ds ds

(2.17)

, , ( ),
v = c. m= p m0
1 v2 /c2
2
E = mc
00 . , ,
. - ds = 0, ,

, . ds2 = 0
, - ds . [39, 40, 41]: d

d. d d

, ,
dx
d =

1
g0i
b dx = g00 dt + dxi ,
c
c g00

d = (g + b b ) dx dx =

g0i g0k
gik +
g00

dxi dxk ,

(2.18)

(2.19)

b , h = g + b b [39, 40, 41]. b



(bi = 0)
.
- -

2.2

33

( v2 = hik vi vk )
ds2 = b b dx dx h dx dx =



v2
= c2 d 2 d 2 = c2 d 2 1 2 .
c

(2.20)

, v = c ds2 = c2 d 2 d 2 = 0.
, (
)
P
cd = d.


m0
dx
dx
dx
=q
=m
,
(2.21)
2
ds
d
1 v2 cd
c
, ,

dx dx
ds2
P P = m2 g
(2.22)
= m2 2 = 0 .
d d
d
P = m0

, .
- ds2 < 0, ds
. ( . tahus ), [42, 43]. m = p im0
v2 /c2 1

P ,
P = m0 dx ,
ds
, ds .
P P = m20 = const.
,
1.

: 1) ,
; 2) (),
; 3) (
).
T [39, 40],
, ,

ds2 = 0

II

III
ds < 0

ds2 > 0

T/

Q Q

= m20

Q Q = 0

Q Q = m20

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

N 6= 0 ()

N = 0 ()

N 6= 0 ()

N = 0 ()

N 6= 0 ()

N = 0 ()

1.
-

34

2 T

2.2

35


, .
, ,
,
, , .
, ,
.
[44] , ,
; , , . ,
, , . ,
,
, , , , ,
! , ,
.
[45]. , ( ,
) , ,
.
,
[46]. ,
, . 1 [44].
, co - . , ,
[47, 48].
,

36

2 T

-,
1,
. , 1, :
1: -
- ,
?
,
. , .
: ,
- , , .
-, :
- I-II,
, a -
II-II, .
- I-II , -
ds2 > 0. ,
, . , , , -, () ,
().
- II-III, - ds2 6 0.
, . -

2.2

37

, , ,
-,

() .
Ta 2.
-

o-
I-II -

,

ds = undef


2

II-III - ds2 = undef


,
.
:
2: I-II,
, ?
3: II-III, (
) ?
2 3 , ,
,
,
Q , . N , .
N = 0 , N 6= 0 ( ). , Q N
-, .

2 T

38

, 2 3
,
:
4: Q
N -
?
,
, . 4
, ,
I-II . . ,
, , , .
2.3

4:
Q N
- ,
- ?
, , :
1) ;
2) ,
.
.
I-II (. 2 . 37) , , ,
().
.
. ,
. :
5: ?

2.3 -

39

, 6 I
. : .
:
:
,
, . . .
C1 C2 ()
-, ,
.
, . P1 C1 . ,
P1 .
: ,
.
. C2 P2 ,
,
P1 P2 . T , C1 C2 . , C1
C2 , . . .
,
C1
C2 [49].
:
: , , .
, , . 6 [50]:
: , .
, , ,

. , ,
, .

40

2 T

1: .
, .
2: ,
.
3: , , .
, .
4: ,
.
5: ,
, . ,
.
6: ,
.
,
,
, . , 16,
7 8:
7: ,
,
, -

2.4 -

41

. , .
8: (
)
( ),
.
,
9 10:
9:
.
10: ,
.
, - 110.
,
.
,

, .

, , ,
,
,
.

, ,
, .
2.4

, -

,
- , . . .

2 T

42

,
,
m0 6= 0 m 6= 0. ,
m0 = 0, m 6= 0.
:
6: , - ?
?
, , .
1.3, ,

( -
)
P ,

. (m0 6= 0,
m 6= 0)
P = m0

dx
,
ds

(2.23)

(m0 = 0,
m 6= 0)
P = m0

dx
dx
=m
.
ds
d

(2.24)

( )
- ds 6= 0,
( ) ds = 0,
d 6= 0.
, () , P
P P = g P P = m20 = const 6= 0 ,

(2.25)

2.4 -

43

P .
, ( N = 0) (N 6= 0). ,
P

P P = g P P = m

g dx dx
ds2
=m 2 =0
2
d
d

(2.26)

,
(N = 0)
(N 6= 0).
( )
P
P0 = m
Pi =

dt
,
d

(2.27)

m dxi
1
= mvi .
c d
c

(2.28)

dt d

U , ,
,
r
dx
v2

U =
(2.29)
ds = cd 1 2 ,
g U U = +1 ,
ds
c
g U U = 0 ,

g U U = 1 ,

U =

dx
d

dx
U =
|ds|

ds = 0 ,
|ds| = cd

d = cd ,

(2.30)

(2.31)

v2
1.
c2

vi

vi ,

, [39, 40, 41],
g0i
,
vi = c
g00

vi =

dxi
,
d

(2.32)

2 T

44

,

hik = gik +

1
vi vk .
c2

(2.33)

,
g U U ,
dt

. ,
d



 2
dt
dt
1
1
2vi vi
i
k

+

vi vk v v 1 = 0 . (2.34)

d
w 2 c4
c2 1 w2 d
1

c
c2




 
dt
1
1
i
=
v
v

1
.
(2.35)
i
d 1,2 1 w c2
2
c
dt

,
d
. dt > 0, d
t , . e. ( ). dt < 0, d
, . e.
( ).

1 w2 = g00 >0, g00 =0


c

g00 < 0 .
t dt = 0,
d
vi vi = c2 ,

vi vi = +c2 .

(2.36)

t dt > 0,
d
,
1
vi v i + 1 > 0 ,
c2

1
vi v i 1 > 0 .
(2.37)
c2
t dt < 0,
d
1
1
vi v i + 1 < 0 ,
vi v i 1 < 0 .
(2.38)
c2
c2

2.4 -

45

vi vi < c2 . ,
(2.37),

(2.38).
, t, ,
d > 0 .
, , ( ) Pi
P
Pi =

m
(vi vi ) ,
c

P0
= m ,

g00

(2.39)
(2.40)

+m
,
( ),
m , ( ).
, (., , [37]).


,
dx
.
(2.41)
K =
c d
,
, .
K K = g K K =

2 g dx dx
2 ds2
= 2
= 0.
2
2
c
d
c d 2

(2.42)

K
K =

dx
k dx
=
,
c d
c d

k =
c .

(2.43)

46

2 T

, , ,

.

K ,
dt
k dxi
1
K0 = k
,
Ki =
(2.44)
= kvi ,
d
c d
c
.
kvi
dt ,
d

Ki
K
k
(2.45)
Ki = (vi vi ) ,
c
K0
= k ,

g00

(2.46)

+k ,
( ),
k , ( ).
,

, , .
, ,

, :
m
1c mvi ,
i
i
( p = mv
pi = mci , ci

).
: , , ,
m = 0, m = 0
.
,
, .
, 6. :

2.5 S-

47

: , , m0 = 0 m = 0,


, , P 6= 0. N ,
,
( ) ( ).
,
- , ,
. 3.
2.5

S- .



(+) (+++) ,

. , . -
. :
7: , S-

? ,
, , , , .
S-
. , S- . , S- .
. , S-
.
,
S- (. [7][13]), :
-.

m0 = 0

m0 = 0

m0 = 0

I-II

II

II-III

III
m0 6= 0

m0 6= 0

m 6= 0

m=0

m 6= 0

m=0

m 6= 0

P P = m20

P 6= 0

P P > 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

P 6= 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

P 6= 0

P P = 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

P 6= 0

P P > 0

N N 6= 0

N N = 0

N 6= 0 (.)

N = 0 (.)

N 6= 0 (.)

N = 0 (.)

N 6= 0 (.)

N = 0 (.)

N 6= 0 (.)

N = 0 (.)

N 6= 0 (.)

N = 0 (.)

P P = m20

P 6= 0

3.

48

2 T

2.5 S-

49

: S-
- , . -
, .
,
, S-
.

.
, -,
:
8: , S- -
?
: . , .
.


g
, , , ,

g00

g10

=
g20

g30

g01

g02

g11

g12

g21

g22

g31

g32

g03

g13

,
g23

g33

(2.47)

.
,
,
()
d 2 = hik dxi dxk
(2.48)

2 T

50

. ,

h11 h12 h13

(2.49)
hik =
h21 h22 h23
h31 h32 h33


g0i g0k
hik = gik +
,
g00

(2.50)


,
,
,
,

det kh11 k = h11 > 0 ,


h11 h12


det
= h11 h22 h212 > 0 ,
h21 h22


h11 h12 h13




> 0,
h
h
h
det
21
22
23




h31 h32 h33

(2.51)

det kg00 k = g00 > 0 ,

(2.54)

(2.52)

(2.53)

. 84 [37].
, (2.47). , (+),




g00 g01


2
< 0,
det
= g00 g11 g01
g10 g11



g00 g01


det
g10 g11

g20 g21


g02


g12
> 0,

g22

(2.55)

(2.56)

2.5 S-
, ,

g00 g01


g10 g11

g = det k g k = det
g20 g21


g30 g31

51

g02
g12
g22
g32

- I


g03


g13

< 0.
g23


g33

(2.57)

-
g00 > 0 (2.54) S-, (2.55, 2.56, 2.57) . , I. S
det kg00 k = g00 > 0 ,

(2.58)


g00 > 0 ,

g00 = 0 ,

(2.59)

. . g00 > 0 (2.54)


.
, (g00 > 0) (g00 = 0).
- ?
: . . . g00 > 0
,
;
, g00 (

) [37].

[39, 40, 41]:

w = c2 (1 g00 ) .
(2.60)

2 T

52

. S g00 > 0 (2.58) ,


1

w
> 0,
c2

w
= 0,
c2

w < c2 ,

w = c2 .

(2.61)

, ,
(2.62)

-, g00 > 0. -, g00 = 0.



- I,

w 6 c2

(2.63)

S-
.
, I g00 > 0, . e.
g00 = 0, - c,
w = c2 .

(2.64)

w = c2 ,
( ). ,
I:
I: - I (g00 > 0) - (g00 > 0), , (g00 = 0).
- II
-
(2.55) S-,

2.5 S-

53

(2.54, 2.56, 2.57) . , - II S-




g00 g01


2
6 0,
(2.65)
det
= g00 g11 g01
g10 g11

2
< 0,
g00 g11 g01

2
g00 g11 g01
= 0,

(2.66)

,
2
g00 g11 g01
< 0 (2.55) .
S-
2
6 0 (2.65) .
g00 g11 g01
g00

w = c2 (1 g00 ). g0i (. [39, 40, 41])


g0i
,
vi = c
g00

v i = cg 0i g00 ,

v0i = hik v k .

(2.67)

gik
.

.


 2
1
g
g = g +
(
x x ) (
x x ) + . . . ,
(2.68)
x

2 x
. e.
, .

(
) , , . e. , [39].
,

2 T

54

. ,
,
. ,
,
g g . ,
~e() , . , ,
,

,
.
d~r
d~r = (dx0 , dx1 , dx2 , dx3 ). T d~r = ~e() dx ,
~e()
~e(0) = (e0(0) , 0, 0, 0),

~e(1) = (0, e1(1) , 0, 0),

~e(2) = (0, 0, e2(2) , 0),

~e(3) = (0, 0, 0, e3(3) ).

(2.69)

d~r

. d~rd~r = ds2 , . e.
, ds2 = g dx dx .
g = ~e()~e() = e() e() cos (x ; x ).

(2.70)

g (2.70) . (2.70),
g00 = e2(0) ,

(2.71)

, , g00 = 1 w2 .
c
~e(0) ,
x0 = ct,

w
(2.72)
e(0) = g00 = 1 2 ,
c

2.5 S-

55

, w. (w = c2 )
~e(0) .
, (2.70),

(2.73)
gik = e(i) e(k) cos (xi ; xk ) ,

g11
g11 = e(1) e(1) cos (x1 ; x1 ) = e2(1) .

(2.74)

, S (2.65), ,



1 2
(2.75)
g00 g11 2 v1 6 0 .
c

, g00 > 0
, S-
g11

1 2
v 6 0,
c2 1

(2.76)


g11

1 2
v < 0,
c2 1

g11

1 2
v = 0.
c2 1

(2.77)

(2.76),
, g11 = e2(1) 1. , v 1 = v,
1 2
v < 0,
c2

1

v 2 > c2 ,

1 2
v = 0,
c2

v 2 = c2 .

(2.78)

(2.79)

v 2 > c2 -. v c ,
, , .

(+),

g11 = 1.

2 T

56

v 2 = c2 -,
v 2 > c2 II. ,
,
(+) (+++).
, -
II ,

. ,
II:
II: - II (v 2 > c2 )
- (v 2 > c2 ), -
, . .
.
- III
- S-
(2.56), (2.54, 2.55, 2.57)
. ,
III, S,


g00 g01 g02





g
g
g
det 10
(2.80)
11
12
> 0,


g20 g21 g22

,

(2.52),


h11 h12


(2.81)
det
= h11 h22 h212 > 0 ,
h21 h22

h11 h22 h212 > 0 ,

h11 h22 h212 = 0 .

(2.82)

2.5 S-

57

T , (2.56)
, .
,

. ,

III. .
IV
- S-
(2.57), (2.54, 2.55, 2.56)
. , - IV,
S-


g00 g01 g02 g03




g10 g11 g12 g13


(2.83)
g = det k g k = det
6 0,
g20 g21 g22 g23




g30 g31 g32 g33

g = det kg k < 0 ,

g = det k g k = 0 .

(2.84)

,

g < 0 (2.57) . g < 0
-. g = 0,
g 6 0,
IV.
g g ,
,
, hik ,
g
,
(2.85)
h=
g00
g = 0 [39, 40, 41], . . , h = 0. ,

2 T

58

- IV ,
- . .
ds2 = g dx dx , d 2 = hik dxi dxk
ds2 = c2 d 2 d 2 = 0 ,

c2 d 2 = d 2 = 0 .

(2.86)

d 2 = 0 ,
.
d 2 = 0 ,

. d d 2 (2.18, 2.19)

d =
d 2 =

g0i
g00 dt + dxi ,
c g00

gik +

g0i g0k
g00

dxi dxk ,

(2.87)

(2.88)

,
h00 = 0,
h0i = 0, d 2 = 0 d 2 = 0



1
dt 6= 0 ,
(2.89)
cd = 1 2 w + vi ui cdt = 0 ,
c
d 2 = hik dxi dxk = 0 ,

(2.90)

i
, ui = dx
dt
i
vi = dx .
d
hik = gik + 12 vi vk (2.89) dt2 ,
c
(2.89) (2.90)

(2.91)
w + v i ui = c 2 ,
, ds2 = 0 c2 d 2 = d 2 = 0,
c2 d 2 = d 2 6= 0, -
() , .

2.5 S-

59


w 2
gik ui uk = c2 1 2 ,
c

(2.92)

e vi ui
vi ui .
, IV:
IV: - IV (g 6 0) - (g < 0), , -
(g = 0).

, , ,

, ,
.
- V
-
(2.54, 2.55, 2.56, 2.57) S-, - V ,
S-




det

det kg00 k = g00 > 0 ,



g00 g01

2
6 0,
= g00 g11 g01
g10 g11



g00 g01 g02





det g10 g11 g12
> 0,


g20 g21 g22

g00 g01 g02 g03


g10 g11 g12 g13

g = det k g k = det
g20 g21 g22 g23


g30 g31 g32 g33

(2.93)
(2.94)

(2.95)






6 0.



(2.96)

60

2 T

,
, ,
-.
, V
I, II, III IV , .
, V:
V: - V,
I, II, III IV, - . : 1) ; 2) : ,

; 3) ,
, ; 4)
, (
).
S-
S- , g00 > 0 I, ,
, . .
I-II, . . .

, , ,

.
2.6

- IV

- IV, ,
-

2.6 - IV

61

( g
g < 0), , -
(g = 0, -).
,

ds2 = c2 d 2 d 2 = 0 ,

c2 d 2 = d 2 = 0 .

(2.97)

d 2 = 0 , -. d 2 = 0 , -
.
d (2.18) d 2 = hik dxi dxk (2.19), d 2 = 0 d 2 = 0



1
i
d = 1 2 w + vi u dt = 0 ,
dt 6= 0 ,
(2.98)
c
d 2 = hik dxi dxk = 0 ,

(2.99)


ui = dxi/dt vi = dxi/d .
,
. -
d 2 =
= hik dxi dxk h = det ||hik || = 0.
hik [1, 4]
h=

g
,
g00

g = det || g || ,

(2.100)

,
d 2
h = 0,
ds2 g = 0.
-, (2.98) (2.99),
-.
(2.98)

hik = gik + bi bk = gik +

1
v i vk ,
c2

(2.101)

2 T

62

(2.98) (2.99)

w 2
gik ui uk = c2 1 2 ,
(2.102)
w + vi u i = c 2 ,
c

vi ui vi ui
.
(2.102) .
, ,
, vi = 0, w = c2 ,

, g00 = 0. , w
,
- (
, g00 = 0).
(2.98), vi
-
ui
vi =

ui
1 12 (w + vk uk )
c

(2.103)

, -
ds2 ,


v2
ds2 = c2 d 2 hik dxi dxk = c2 d 2 1 2 =
c
(
)
(2.104)
2
2

1
u
2 2
k
= c dt
2 .
1 2 w + vk u
c
c

(g < 0)
-
. -, (g = 0). (2.104)

- (g 6 0), , .

. hik (2.101)

2.6 - IV

63

d 2 = 0,


w 2
(2.105)
ds2 = 1 2 c2 dt2 gik dxi dxk = 0 .
c

, -
, -
,
e w = c2 vi ui
(2.102).
(w = c2 )
- (2.105)
ds2 = gik dxi dxk = 0 ,

det k gik k = 0 ,

(2.106)

. e. . , gik dxi dxk


,
, gik dxi dxk ,
gik . -

.
w + vi ui = c2 ,
vi ui = v u cos (vi ; ui ) ,
, - ( vi ui ):
vi ui > 0, vi ui

3
2 < < 2 .
, u = c g00 ,
w < c2 ( );
2
vi ui < 0, 2 < < 3
2 w>c
( );
vi ui = 0 , = 2 ; 3
2 w = c2 ( ).
~e() ,
. ~e() . ,
[5, 6]. , ds2 = g dx dx

2 T

64

~r = ~e() dx ,
g = ~e()~e() = e() e() cos (x ; x ) ,
w = c2 (1 e(0) ) ,

vi = c e(i) cos (x0 ; xi ) ,

(2.107)
(2.108)

w + vi ui = c2
c e(0) = e(i) ui cos (x0 ; xi ) .

(2.109)

~e(0)
~e(i) . -,
(2.109)
. (w = c2 )

e(0) = g00 ~e(0)


e(0) = 0. e(0) = 1. e(0) ,
, , .
,
, g dx dx = 0. -
, .
ds2 = 0, , . ,
.
, , .
-
(2.105),
.



w 2
(2.110)
1 2 c2 dt2 gik dxi dxk = 0 ,
c
.
,
(2.110),
w + vi ui = c2 , -.

(2.110) . ,

2.6 - IV

65

, . ,
gik dxi dxk = 0

(2.111)


. w = 0, vi ui = c2 (2.110)
c2 dt2 gik dxi dxk = 0 ,

(2.112)

. e.
. w, . ,
w = c2 ,

(). (w = 0)
o .
, , w/c2


w 2
w
ds2 = 1 2 c2 dt2 2 1 2 vi dxi dt + gik dxi dxk ,
(2.113)
c
c

gik dxi dxk = 0, -


(2.111). - w + vi ui = c2 , -, . : , ,
, -
( ) , -.
, ,
g dx dx = 0
(2.110), (2.111) , . , , .

2 T

66

, - ,
. m0

P ,

K
P = m0

dx
,
ds

K =

dx
,
c d

(2.114)


d 2 6= 0, ds2 = 0.
-,

.
,

- (g 6 0),
-
(-), P ,

dx
M dx
=
,
c dt
ds
m0
,
M = rh
i2
2
u
1
k
1 2 (w + vk u ) 2
c
c
P = m0

(2.115)
(2.116)

M , ,

, w vi .
(2.115) ,
-
ct, t .
M (2.116)
m
,
(2.117)
1
1 2 (w + vi ui )
c
,
, M 6= 0.
M=

2.6 - IV

67

.
m :
m 6= 0 m0 = 0 , v = c. ()
v = c, .
- :
, ,
;
-,
, .
P (2.115)





1
P0
(2.118)
= M 1 2 w + vi ui = m ,

g00
c
M i
m i
u =
v,
c
c

Pi =

P0 = M =

Pi =

M
c

m
,
1
1 2 (w + vi ui )
c

ui + v i



1
k
.
v
u
w
+
v
i
k
c2

(2.119)

(2.120)

(2.121)

-,
(2.102),
P0
= m = 0,

g00

Pi =

M i
u,
c

(2.122)

M
(2.123)
ui ,
c
. e. -,
, M (2.117).
P0 = M ,

Pi =

2 T

68


-.
.
[37]

,
(2.124)
x
e (oa),

P
K =

P =

~
,
c x

(2.125)

e ~ .

-
P0
~
= 2
,

g00
c t

P i = hik k
c
x




~
1

v
Pi =
,
i
c xi
c2
t



0
i
.
P = 2
v
c g00
t
xi

(2.126)

(2.127)
(2.128)

. , (2.129),
M E.
, (2.130),
M ui
M c2 =

1
1 12 (w + vi ui )
c

= ~ = E ,
t

M ui = ~ hik

,
xk

(2.129)

(2.130)

e

=

1 12 (w + vi ui )
c

.
t

(2.131)

2.7

69

P P = const = 0 .

- (2.125)

E2
E2
M 2 u2 = 20 ,
(2.132)
2
c
c
e E = mc2 E0 = m0 c2 . (3.131), P (2.125)

~
~ dx
dx
t
i
= h
,
P = 3
c dt
c3 1 12 (w + vi ui ) t
c
(
)

 2 u2
1
~2 2

i
P P = 4
1 2 w + vi u
2 ,
c
c
c

(2.133)

(2.134)

. , -, P P = 0.
, ,

- .
P P = 0

= 0, -, ,
-

hik


= 0.
xi xk

(2.135)

, , ,
,
.
2.7

- IV:

,

, IV. , -

70

2 T

IV, , (
g < 0), (g = 0). , - IV , , g 6 0 .
, ,

. ,
, ,

(2.136)
E 2 c2 p2 = E02 ,
e E = mc2 , p2 = m2 v2 , E0 = m0 c2 , . , E 2 c2 p2 6= E02 . (2.136),
P P = const,
P P = g P P = m20 g

dx dx
= m20 .
ds ds

(2.137)

, (2.136), e pi = mvi , p2 = hik pi pk ,


. [1, 5, 6]. , E 2 c2 p2 6= E02 ,

P P 6= const.
, , , P P = 0 . ,
,
, -,
. ,
-, . , - d2 = gik dxi dxk ,
(2.110),

-,


w 2
d2 = gik dxi dxk = 1 2 c2 dt2 6= inv .
(2.138)
c

2.7

71

o, ,
-,

w 2
(2.139)
U U = gik ui uk = 1 2 c2 6= const,
c
. ,
-

- (g 6 0), .
, . 2.102)
(w = 0).
vi u i = c 2 ,

gik ui uk = c2 ,

(2.140)

, - ,

p
(2.141)
u = gik ui uk = c .


vi ui = vu cos vi ; ui = c2 ,

(2.142)

u = c, vi ui , . , - , , , ,
.
. , -, -
,
d2 = gik dxi dxk = c2 dt2 6= 0 ,

(2.143)

d 2 = c2 d 2 6= 0 .
, ,
w 6= 0, (2.102)
vi ui = c2 ,

ui =

dxi
,
dt


w
t = 1 2 t ,
c

(2.144)

2 T

72

dxi dxk
= c2 ,
(2.145)
dt dt
- , . , .
,
, -,
, .
.
(w = c2 ) .
(2.102)
u2 = gik ui uk = gik

vi u i = 0 ,

gik dxi dxk = 0 ,

(2.146)

: 1) - ,
-,
dxi = 0; 2)
- det kgik k = 0.
, , vi = dxi/d , , ,
. , vi ui = c2 d
-



1
i
dt 6= 0 .
(2.147)
d = 1 2 w + vi u dt = 0 ,
c
,
,
- .
, - ,
. , , ,
- .

2.8

73

, ,
,
. , - . ,
. - , -
( ), , .
, . .
2.8

- IV:

,

, , - IV,
, . , -
, , , ,
,

, .
- ds2 = g dx dx , [39, 40],

ds2 = c2 d 2 d 2 .

(2.148)


w
1
d = 1 2 dt 2 vi dxi ,
c
c

(2.149)


g
, w=c2 (1 g00 ) , vi = c 0i
g00

2 T

74

, d 2 = hik dxi dxk


, hik = gik +
+ 12 vi vk c
, gik g (-
, = 0, 1, 2, 3, i, k =1, 2, 3).
, ,
- ds. ds2


v2
2
2
2
ds = c d 1 2 ,
(2.150)
c

i
e v2 = hik vi vk , vi = dx

d
. , ds : 1) v < c; 2) v = c; 3) v > c.
m0 6= 0 ()
: 1) cd > d,

m= p m0
; 2) cd < d,
1 v2 /c2
m = p im0
v2 /c2 1
().
.
m0 = 0 ( ), m 6= 0,

cd = d. . ().
, (), d = 0,

w + v i ui = c 2 ,
i

(2.151)

.
e ui = dx
dt
- -

2.8

75



w 2
ds2 = d 2 = 1 2 c2 dt2 + gik dxi dxk ,
(2.152)
c
i
e 1 w2 = vi u
, d = 0.
c
c2
(+),
- ,
(+++) -, . ,

.
, : .
. ,
() , ds2 =d 2 6=0.
,

d, , t xi ,
. ,
(vi = 0) vi ui (. . vi ui = |vi ||ui | cos (vi ; ui ) = 0),

, (w = c2 ).
,
,
ds2 = gik dxi dxk .
, (oo)


w 2
(2.153)
ds2 = d 2 = 1 2 c2 dt2 + gik dxi dxk = 0 ,
c
ds2 = 0 . ,
ds2 = 0 d 2 = c2 d 2 = 0.
c2 d 2 d 2 = 0 (d 6= 0, d 6= 0), -

2 T

76

. , , t xi .
,
, ( ) -,
( ).
, , d 2 = hik dxi dxk h = det ||hik || = 0 -,
.
g = hg00 [39, 40], ,

ds2 = g dx dx g = det ||g || =0. , , ,


. , - . - [41, 51],

.
d = 0 d = 0 m
. , , , ( , ), m0 = 0, m = 0 = 0.

.
, , -.
-
K = , e
x
(oa). K K = 0 [37], , K ,

-, -

2.8

77

( )

2


1
ik

h
= 0,
(2.154)
c2 t
xi xk
K K =

= g = 0
x x
[39, 40], e ( )



= 1 = + 1 v , , g 00 = 1 1 1 v v i ,
i
i
g00
t
g00 t xi xi c2 t
c2
i
i
0i
ik
ik
g00 , g = h .
vk = hik v , v = cg
-
hik


=0
xi xk

(2.155)

, =
= 0, t

. . , , - , -, ,
- .
, .
,
(g = 0) (g < 0), (g < 0), .

n n- Q
, Q Q = const. ,

K

- .
, - , ds = 0 (
cd = d), , , K K = 0.
.

78

2 T

,
(+) (+++), , .

-, g 6 0,
(g < 0) - (g = 0)
. g 6 0 -
, ( ),
, .
,
.
-,
. , , , K K =0. t xi

2
- ds2 = 1 w2 c2 dt2 + gik dxi dxk = 0
c

d2 , ,
w, -
2

, d2 = gik dxi dxk = 1 w2 c2 dt2
c
6= inv. -
, ,
U i
U ,
,

w 2
(2.156)
Ui U i = gik U i U k = 1 2 c2 6= const,
c
- .
,
, g 6= 0 . ,
.

2.9

79

- . ,

-.
, ,
( ),
, . :
w + vi ui = c2 ,
,
, , -
. ,
. , ,
, ui (
), ( ), - ,
. ,
,
- (

),
, ,
.
, , 1970-,
, (
- -- [52, 53, 54]).
2.9

, , .

80

2 T


- , , , , ,

, , . , - ,
, ,
, . ,
, , .
,
, , , ,
- .


S-

( ), .
S- (
) , ,
,
. S-

IV,
.
-

IV,
,
. , .
, , ,
. , , -

2.9

81

, .
.
, ,

.
,
, .

3.1

2000- , , [55] , de facto . :



,

. ,
,

.

, , , 1935 ,

. - . (

.)
, ()
()
, 1 (, ) = = () () , .
,
Schr
odinger E. Naturwissenschaften, 1935, Band 23, 807812, 823828,
844849.

3.1

83

1 (, ) 6= ()():

,
.

,
, , ; ,
, , .
, - ,
,
.
1993 [56].
(
) , 1998
[57]. (
) 2004

:
[58] [59].
, , ., , [60][70].
,
, ( ) : ,
, ,

, (
,
). , ( ).
:
, . , (o).
, ,

84

.
, [71, 38, 37], ,
, .
, , . ,
.
,
.
[49],
e ()
( , 1950- ). , (, ), .

[44], () ( -).
, ,
, . :
1. ,
, ,
;
2. , -
,
( ),

. ,
.
, . , , -

3.1

85

. . , , ,
.
, , , ,
. , .
. ,

, ,
(+) (+++).
, , g = det kg k g
g < 0.
-,
, g = 0
.
[713], ,
.
[51, 41] ( , 2001), -
,
,

, -
-. -
- , (. . 1),
,
A B -
, , A B
(. . 2). ,

86

U
A

. 1: -.

. 2: .

A B, , (a)
B.
.
, ,
, A, B
.

.
3.2

[49]
(. 1), (v) (v + dv), v
,
(v = const ).

dU
dx
+
= 0,
U
ds
ds

(3.1)

DU = = dU +
U dx U (

3.2

87

U = dx ),
ds
, , .
s (
- )
.
(-)
= 0, 1, 2, 3.
v ,
dv. ,
(v) (v + dv),

x
dv .
(3.2)
=
v

, (v+dv)
(v)

D2

+ R
U U = 0 ,
(3.3)
ds2

(R
-).

, .
[44] , , ,
, .
,

dU

dx
,
+
=
U
ds
ds
m 0 c2

(3.4)

,
.

1 D
D2

+ R
U U =
dv
2
m0 c2 dv
ds

(3.5)

(
m0 ), .

88

, ,
.
-.
U ,

1
(U ) =
.
(3.6)
s
m0 c2
, ,
.
-
.
,
.
: A B, dxi 6= 0 , ,
d
d = 0. d = 0,
,
A B .
, d = 0
.
d = 0
.
d ,

dxi ,

g0i
dxi ,
(3.7)
d = g00 dt +
c g00
. 84
[37].

(3.6) , = 0 U .

-, . - ,

.
, A B, ,
.

3.2

89

( [39, 40],
. [41, 51])


w
1
d = 1 2 dt 2 vi dxi ,
(3.8)
c
c

e w = c2 (1 g00 )
g
vi = c 0i g00
.
, ,
,

, -
ds2 = g dx dx
ds2 = c2 d 2 d 2 ,
(3.9)


g g0k
i
k
(e d 2 = gik + 0i
g00 dx dx
) ,
g g0k
hik = gik + 0i
.

g00
,
, ,
h .
, d 2 = hik dxi dxk ,

.
(9), ,
d = 0 :
1) ds = 0 d = 0,
2) ds2 = d 2 6= 0, d .

-.

[39, 40],
,
.

, (. 7.167.28 [72]),

90

, ,
 k
d2 i
i
i d
+
2
D
+
A
= 0,
k
k
d 2
d

(3.10)

. ,
, (, ). ,
, , -.
,
, , ,

,
[39, 40].
.
,
(3.10) d = 0 . -
. , ,
.

[51]
,
. :
1) d = 0 {ds = 0 , d = 0},
2) d = 0 {ds2 = d 2 6= 0}, ( ).

hik
[39, 40], Dik = 1 hik = 1
2 t
2 g00 t




, Aik = 1 vk vi + 1 Fi vk Fk vi
i
k
2
x
2c
2 x
,

im A
, Dki = him Dkm Ai
km . . k = h
[41, 72, 73, 74].

3.2

91

,
,
[51].
,
d = 0
!
,
.
, ,
. , ,


(. 2). ,

,
,
. , .
, , . , , ,
.
, ,

. . .
, ds2 = g dx dx , g
w, vi ui .
[51], ,
w + vi u i = c 2 .
. ,


.

92

g = det k g k < 0 . ,
-
g < 0.

( )
[39, 40],
d 2 = = hik dxi dxk

.
d 2 = 0,
( )
h = det k hik k = 0.
[39, 40], ,
,
g
h = g00 . ,
h = 0,

g = 0.
,
, d = 0 {ds2 = d 2 6= 0}
. h > 0 g < 0 ,
.
: - (
) .
ds2 = d 2 ,
.
d = 0, i
(vi = dx ).
d
(8)
, d = 0

w + vi ui = c2

(3.11)

w,
vi

3.2

93

ui = dxi /dt . -

w 2
ds2 = d 2 = 1 2 c2 dt2 + gik dxi dxk ,
c

(3.12)

, ,
(+) (+++)
, ui
, .
().
, d = 0 {ds = 0 , d = 0}. h = 0, -
g =g00 h = 0.
.
? (a , 2001 [41, 51]) -
, (+), -,
g 6 0.
,
w + vi ui = c2 , -
: ds = 0, d = 0, d = 0 (
) , , h = 0
g = 0. , -,
w + vi ui = c2 g 6 0.
g < 0,
, g = 0.
[2228], , .
S- [710], . e. a
, , . ,
-, , , S-
[11]. , , -

94

d = 0 {ds = 0 , d = 0}
( ) ,
( h = 0 ,
, g = 0).
: () , -
g = det k g k = 0.

-, g 6 0
, .
- , , .
, ,
.
3.3


(, 2003) [75].
:
: ,
.
, ,
.
, (
), ,

, ,
-- .
. ,
Smarandache Manifolds [11] [12, 13]
,
.

3.3

95

, .
, .
- , ,
-.
, ,
.
. ,
.
, [39, 40], , ,
.


( )


1 2 g
(
x x )(
x x ) + . . .
(3.13)
g = g +
x

2 x
g , . ,


, (, )
.
, , g , , g , .
, ~e() , . -

96

, ,
, ,
( , ). .

d~r = (dx0 , dx1 , dx2 , dx3 ), d~r = ~e() dx , e ~e() , , ~e(0) = {e0(0) , 0, 0, 0}, ~e(1) = {0, e1(1) , 0, 0}, ~e(2) = {0, 0, e2(2) , 0},
~e(3) = {0, 0, 0, e2(3) }. d~r
d~rd~r = ds2 , ds2 = g dx dx ,
g = ~e()~e() = e() e() cos (x ; x ).
g00 = e2(0) ,

g0i = e(0) e(i) cos (x0 ; xi ) ,

gik = e(i) e(k) cos (xi ; xk ) ,

i, k = 1, 2, 3 .

(3.14)
(3.15)

, g00 g0i ,
w = c2 (1 g00 ) g
vi = c 0i ,
g00
vi = c e(i) cos (x0 ; xi ) ,

h
i
hik = e(i) e(k) cos(x0 ; xi ) cos(x0 ; xk ) cos(xi ; xk ) .

(3.16)
(3.17)

: , cos (x0 ; xi ) = 0, . , , (. 3).


. , c - . , , - .
,
cos (x0 ; xi ) = 1, -

3.4

97
x i = const

e0
A

. 3:
, .
ei

x 0 = const

xi

:
. ,
.
(3.16),
, vi
. , , ,
, .
, -
,
.
: , , ,
.
, ( ),
.
,
.
3.4

, : , , ,

98

- ( ). ,
,
, ()
.
.
,
,
. .
, . , ()
, .


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-, :
,
.
. 8
, ( ),
.
Progress in Physics, .
: e-mail: rabounski@yahoo.com; http://www.geocities.com/ptep_online
, 9 (CRC
Press, ): , ,
-, -, . . ,
(-). ,
, ( ). ( ) .
. (n- ) .
.
, , .

-, . : e-mail: smarand@unm.edu;
fsmarandache@yahoo.com; http://www.gallup.unm.edu/smarandache
-, . 1970- , 1950-. 8
, ( ).
Progress in Physics, Journal of
Appl. Math. and Statistics .
:
e-mail: lborissova@yahoo.com; http://www.geocities.com/ptep_online

, 1995 . , .
,
- ,
, : - (- ); -
- ( ). ,
.
-, S- ( , ,
). S- - ,
. 4- ,
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