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74

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77


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109

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11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 1
15 17
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10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 2 .................. 16 ............... 30 0

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110

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111

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112

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113

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114


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115

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116

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117

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119

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PDH - Plesiohronous Digital Hierarhy

120

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(- 7 ).


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Q.761 Q.767 ISUP, Q.771 Q.775 TAP, Q.780
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122

:
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, ,
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();
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123

- PDH - Plesiohronous Digital Hierarhy


, - "0" "1",
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- 64,0/;
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124

-30
.
, 4- -30,
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.
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() 64,0/

125


:
1
1
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1 1
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2
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t = 125,0

, ..
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( ):
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1
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2
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4
8

8,0
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34

127

- SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy,


- SONET - Synchronous Optical Network
-
( : ).
SDH - -

SDH

155,520 / .
SDH
,
( )
STM (Synchronous Transport Module).
SONET - - -

SONET
- STS (Synchronous Transport Signal)
SONET - 51,84/.
SONET STS-n, n -
51,84/.
SDH STM-1, - (),
270 9 = 2430.
STM-1
155,520/ (2430 64/ = 155 520/).
(, ) -
STM-1
270
9
261
1-3

4-

RSON

PTR

MSON

( )

5-9

125,0

128

- ,
4- STM-1 (Pointer - PTR),
:
1 9 = 9 .
, (): 3 9 = 27
(RSON).
RSON ,
.
() ,
STM-1 ,
(MSON), :
5 9 = 45 .
125,0 (f - 8,0) STM-1.
:
:
- ("") STM-1 :
8 8,0 = 64,0 /
- STM-1 :
9 270 64,0 / = 155 520,0 / = 155,520 (155,0) /
2430
(, ) -
SONET - STS-1
90


STS-1:
90,0 9 64,0/ =
51,84/

4
86

SDH- SONET -
, .

129

- SDH -
- SONET -

0
1
2
3
4
5

STM
SDH
STM-0
STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64
STM-256

STS
SONET
STS-1
STS-3
STS-12
STS-48
STS-192
STS-768

/
51,840
155,520
622,080
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( "" - 64,0/)
STM (SDH) STS (SONET)
540
2430
9720
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STM-1
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()
(Container-),
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(: PDH - ).
STM-1 PDH
139,264/, -1920, ..
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155,520/. PDH, SDH-,
"" , -4.
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(9 260 64,0/ = 149760,0/ = 149,0/).
()
(H - Paith Over Head) -4
V-4.
VC-4 (PTR),
AU-4 (Administrative Unit),
STM-1 (SON - Section Over Head),
PDH (
STM-1).

130

PDH STM-1
9
RSON
PTR
MSON

261
1
POH

AU-4
260

V-4

260
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9

STM-1
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-30.
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64,0/ = 2048,0/).
() - Paith Over Head -12 VC-12.

( ).
STM-1 63 VC-12,

(PTR), TU-12 (Tributary Unit).
TU-12
155,520/ :
- TU-12
TUG-2 (Tributary Unit Group);
- TUG-2
TUG-3;
- TUG-3 VC-4.
TUG-3
VC-4 STM-1 , .. :
- PON, - PTR, RSON, - MSON.
STM-1 PTR
( 4- )
2,048; 34,368; 139,264/.
- ADM - Add Drop Multiplexer
, .

131

PDH STM-1
-1920 (139,264/)

155,520/

-4

V-4

-480 (34,368/)
-3

V-3

V-12

STM-1

155,520/

TU-3

TUG-3

-30 (2,048/)
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AU-4

V-4

AU-4

STM-1

3 155,520/

TU-12

TUG-2

TUG-3

V-4

AU-4

STM-1

: 63 V-12
(STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, STM-64) SDH

, :
,
(), SDH.
STM-16 ( )
STM-1 (155,0/)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

STM1

STM-4 (622,0/)
STM-16 (2488,0/)

3 0 1 2 3 0 16
4 STM-16
(16 STM-1)
9953,0/
STM-64

7 4 5 6 7 4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

8 9 8
4
(4 STM-4)

132

STM-1 (. .
) STM-4, STM-4
STM-16.
16 ,
16 STM-1 STM-16.
, 64-
()
SDH
SDH , ,
, ,
- "".
"" STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, STM-64
SDH .

:
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()
;
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/
, .
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.
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/,
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(FOT-155 R).
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2,048/
, PDH.
(: RMX
- 264, )
: , , ..

133


() STM - 100,0 (, ).
SDH FOT-155 (21 - 63 1, .. 2,0/)
STM-1


()
SDH
()
STM-64 (9953,280/)

()
STM-16 (2488,320/)

,
. ,

()
STM-4 (622,080/)
D
D
,
D
. ,
.
()
STM-1 (155,520/)
D


( D - -1
2,048/)

:
-

134

SDH
, SDH
:
- - ()
155,520/ (STM-1) 622,080/ (STM-4);
- () - ()
622,080/ (STM-4) 2488,320/ (STM-16);
- () -
9953,280/ (STM-64).
, STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, STM64, - ,
( / SDH
SDH)
.
/ - ADM - Add Drop Multiplexer -
SDH ,
TU TUG, :
2,0/; 34,0/; 140,0/; 155,0/ ()
.
ADM :
- ;
- ,
(TU) (TUG) SDH.
ADM ()
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STM-1 STM-4
: 155,0/ 622,0/.
ADM -
(- ), -
, .
/ - ADM
STM-1
STM-1
ADM


( .

)


(
)

( ,
, , / SDH-)
- SDH
135

: STM-16,
STM-64 .., :
- ;
- ;
- (, -
).
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- STM ,
;
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-
on-line, , - - Operation
and Maintenance, TMN - Telecommuncations Management Network.
TMN - , .25
, SDH.

.
- ( STM-1)
STM-1

STM-1

STM-1

STM-1

STM-1

STM-1


(TMN)

.
.

136


, ..
, .

: "1 + 1" "n + 1".
"1 + 1" 100- ,
: (
), .

,
-

,
-

("1 + 1") ,
"-"
"".
("+1") "n"
-
.

"" , , .

"",
, - .

137

- ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode


(
,
) .
- () -
.25; FrameRelay .
Frame Relay -
() - ISO,
HDLC. , .25
. ()

( )
IP.
HDLC - Hiqh Level Data Link Control -
. -
ISO, SDLC.
SDLC - Synchronous Data Link Control - .
- -
, ,
HDLC LAPB.
LAPB - Link Access Procedure, Balanced -
. - .25,
HDLC.

, .
,

.
( )
() .

(-)
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1 ( ) 1,536/ 1
( ) 2,048/

(!) (),
.
, ,
,
.

(),
() .
138


: ,
, .


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()

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, ..,
, ATM
(Asenchronjus Transfer Mode). :
( - ). -
(cell) .

139

(-, -) (48
) -Header- (5 )
- - (-) .
(ATM) ()

-
5

()
48 (384 )

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.

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(Virtual Channel Identifier- VCI).
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- ()
.
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140

-
, .
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().
65536, .. 216

(), ().
()
4096, .. 212
(Virtual Path Identifier - VPI)
STM-1 .
(ATM) SDH,
- STM-1.
STM-1 - ""
VC-4, ()
- STM-1.
- STM-1.

9
1-

PON
VC-4

260

2-
3-
4-
5-
6-
7-
8-
9-

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VC-4
SDH
ATM (: NorteL - Passpon 7480
, Ascend - GX 500, "Smart" ore,
500 ATM Extant, )

SDH


() SDH
: SDH ATM
.
141

, , , SDH,
, ,
ATM.
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.

(dial-up).

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.

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:
- 1024;
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155,0/);
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- 16 777 216 (65 536 256 ).
16 777 216
UNI (User to Network Interface) ,
( : ,
, , ).
:
142

- ;
- , .
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, , ..
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. -
, -
.

(LAN)
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-.

155,520/.
(, ), Suher Video Graphics Array,
: 1024 768 = 786432 .
( : -),
( - - V.34), :
- - 300,0/;

- - 600,0; 2000,0...7200,0; 9600,0...28 800,0/ 0,3 - 3,4


- - 33 000,0/ ( );

- - 56 000,0/ (
).

143

4-
:
-

- 1024

4- -
()

- 24

1024

- 1048
3- - IP
( )
IP-
24

-
24

1024
IP- 1072

2- - - ,
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5

48

1- - - -


SONET-Synchronous Optical Network, ..
( 51,84/), - ,
LAN .
, SONET,
- SDH.

(, , , ..)

144

,
- ,
ISDN - Intergradet Services Digital Network -

( )
():
-;
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.
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:
-
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, (), ISDN -
(, ),
;
-
;
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).

145

(ISDN)

(ISDN):
- ()
(, ) ()
, ..
();
- () ;
- ;
- ()
1,0 ( - 16,0);
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- 10-6;
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- () ;
- ;
- , 25,0,
.
(ISDN)
:

() : , SDH, ATM
:

..

..

..

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- (
) :
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(, );
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146

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3,0-4,0 .
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ISDN) - ,
(-,
B-ISDN - Broadband - ISDN).

147

"" "",
.
- , -.
:
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:
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( , ),
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148

:
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:
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16,0/
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64,0/;
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384,0/;
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1920,0/ ( -30 , );
-21 =512
32768,0/ (32,768/);
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-4 ~ 2109 135000,0/ (135,0/).
-
, , ,

144,0 /
2+D

12

12
12
12
4
7680,0 /
135,0/

412, 120

2109

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- : , 2, , 11, 12, 4,
;
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(16,0/) ;
-
()
() ;
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- 7.

149


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:
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( -).
- ,
( -).
- ( 2B+D , :
264,0/ + 16,0/ = 144,0 /, 0+D
).
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150


" ", .. ,

- ,

( ).

6
5
4
3

2
1

, 1- 3-,
.
4- - ,
.
, 5- 7-
() .
- 7 :
- 1- - ( -
):
- - () - .21;
- - - .25 1.430;
- - - V;
- 2- ( - ,
)
() ;
- 3- ( -
, )
,
;
- 4- ( -
)
, ;

151

- 5- (, -
)
,
,
( );
- 6- (, , )
(, , );
- 7- ( - ,
)
( , ,
, , ,
.).
-, -
,
(1920 / = 2,048/):
- (-+-)
- ( 15% ), ..:
- 4,0-6,0/,
- 16,0-24,0/,
- 200,0/;
- ( 17%);
- ( 21%);
- ( 3%).
- -
-1- : () -,
- ();
-2- : - - ;
-3- : - ()
- (),
(, )
().
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
152

(IN)

, .. - ,

( -).
- (IN Intellectual Network) -
- , (,
, )
.

, ,
, - .

.

( ),
.

, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , ,
;
-
;
- ;
- .

: , , , , -, -.
(
Centrex).
Centrex,
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ; "" .
Centrex ,
.
153

()


( : , ,
, )

" "
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
-
(Value Added Services);
-
(),
.

154



(SMP)

(SCEP)




(SCP Service control point)



(SSP Service swiching
point)

(IP)


(SN)


(SSP)

(SN)



- Q.1201, Q.1205, Q.1211. Q1215,
: SCP, SMP, SCP.
:
SSP - Service Switching Point :
- ;
- SCP ;
- ;
- , ;
- .
SCP - Service Control Point :
- 1,0 . ./;
- 4- ;
- 0,2 ;
-
, SSP;
- ()
, .. ;
- SMP.
155

IP - Intelligent Peripheral :
- SCP (
, ,
SCP - DTMF);
- .
SN - Service Node :
- ;
- .
SMP - Service Management Point
:
- 2- SCP;
-
, SP;
- ;
- IP, SSP, SCP;
- .
SCEP - Service Envirjnment Point :
- - ;
-
;
-
;
- () ;
-
,
;
- , ,
, ;
- , ;
- SP.
NAP - Network Access Point :
- SSP.
( - Q.1214):
() SSP () SCP,
7, INAP-R;
() SP ( ) SSP () IP

:
- SCP/SP/ SP 5 .
:
1. (POTS).
2. (ABD).
3. (PRM).
156

4. (CD).
5. (CF).
6. (CCBS).
7. (CON).
8. (DCR).
9. , (UDR).
10. (MCI).
11. " " (FMD).
12. (MAS).
13. (OCS).
14. (SEC).
15.
(SCF).
16. (TCS).
17. - Freephone - FPH .
( -
" ", .. ).

() , .
: ,
,
, ,
,
,
.
FPH ( - "800", - "900").
18. - Universal Personal
Telecommunications UPT - .
UPT ,
,
,
( ), .
,
, .

.
19. - Virtual Private Network VPN -

.
.
,
.
VPN .
VPN
.
VPN
.
157

VPN
.
VPN
VPN VPN.
, ,
() .
20. - Televoting - VOT -
.

.
: ,
, , , 2008 20,0 .
. .
21. - -
PIN-.
,
.
22. () PIN-.
23. () PIN-, .
24. ().
.
25. (SPL).

( ).
,
. ,

, .

( ).
,

.
,
.
, ,
() ,
.
, ,
,
.
SCEP "" ,
: , PIN-,
.. .

158


,
.
, .
,
, .., ,
, .
,

.

() DEF X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 ... n
:
( );
DEF , ;
X1 X2 X3 ;
DEF X1 X2 X3 ,
;
X4 X5 ... n .

SMF

SMF

SCEF

SMAF

SDF

SCF


SRF
SSF
CCAF

CCF

SSF
CCF

CCF

CCAF



CCAF,
SSF

159

-
IN () INAP,
UNIX Informix/Oracle

(FPH,UPT)

(

, FPH, UPT)

ISDN, Centrex

(, , , MS, , .)


. .
20000

VPN

18000
16000
14000
12000
10000

FPH

8000
6000
2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

-4
-5
-4
-4
-3
-3
-3

-4
-3

-2
-2

-2

-1

-1

-2
-1

-1

160

10%

22%

161


" , - , , ,
- , ,
?"
:
", - , ,
,
".

- POTS (Plain Old


Telephone Servce) - , - IP-,
()

(30% ) (3% ).
IP- 5%,
( , IP,
).

IP IP
()
()
( . )

IP- ,
.

ATM

Frame Relay

IP-

162

(LAN - Local Area Network )


LAN - Local Area Network - (
, - ).
,
( ).
, , ,
. LAN
- (
OSI - Open System Interconnection - ).
: Ethernet, TokenRing, FDDI.

( "-")
:
, . ,
. ,

RS-232
:
-;
-;
- ;
- ..
.
LAN:
)

)
()

163




, .
""

LAN.

,

.
:



,
,

, .

,


,
.


(MAC - Media Access Control)



,
.

LAN
(mesh-)
- ,
.


,


.

,



().


.



,




.
,
,
().

164

( "")
, ()
, .


,
.
, ..

.




,
.
,
.
:

.
( ).
, , .

- .

,

.


,
( ).
,
. ,
.
. ,
, .
(CSMA - Carrier Sense Multiple
Access), Ethernet.

165

( )
(WAN -Wide Area Networks) ,
( 100,0..). , ,
() ( ),
(
10,0/)
.
.
() .
;

.
(MAN - Metropolitan Area Networks) , " "
( . .), .. .
(
MAN-) , WAN-.
(LAN - Local Area Network) , (
10,0..).

.
,
.

.
LAN
()
:
- : , , ;
- : , ;
- : , ,
;
- : , , ,
, ..
, LAN,
- , ( ).
, :
- (
);
- ( );
166

- ( ,
);
..

,
LAN., LAN,
,
(, ).

, - , , .
LAN
LAN
( )

()


.
.
() ()
.
(),
.
:
- ;
- , .

()


, ..
.
,
;
,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
-;
- ;
-;
- ;
- .
;
.

( ,
, ).
:
- ( );
- ,
(), ;
- (
- ), - ;
- ( ),
;
- (
);
- , .
.
.
.

, (, ..
).

167

LAN

LAN - .200,
.
.200 ,
( ), N
, .. .

, - N- .

- :
-ISO - International Organization for Standardization -
- ,
7498;
-ANSI - American National Standards Institute -
- ;
-ECMA - European Computer Manufactures Association -
. OSI - Open System Interconnection ;
-IEEE - Institute of Tlectronic and Electrical Engineers -
. LAN- IEEE
. LAN - Local-Area Network - ,
- . LAN-
.
LAN- Ethernet, FDDI Token Ring;
- - ;
-EIA - Electronic Industries Association -
(), - RS-232C,

.
,
.
,
ISO. , , .25.
, ,
.
, - V.24 EIA RS-232C.
LAN
, ,
() , ,
1 2-, .

-. :
-V.21 - 300/ ;

168

-V.22 - 1200/,
;
-V.27 - 4800/,
.
-V.24 ( EIA RS-232C)
. RS-232C V.24
.21, .25 -
.
LAN
HDLS. HDSL - High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line - 4- DSL-,
,
1,544/ 3,7), ISO
1973., ,
, , :
.25 - - ,
- , .
LAN- 1-, 2- 3 .
.75 .25, ,
, , .
.75 .25 1-, 2-, 3- .

( )
ISO

IEEE-802

LLC
MAC

PHY

, LAN,
IEEE LAN.
,
ISO ()
IEEE-802, :
-LLC (Logical Link Control) - ;
-MAC (Medium Access Control) - .
LAN 2-
.
169


( )LAN
:
.

-
.200
.400

(ISO)

TCP/IP

400

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ;


TELNET -
,
,

;
FTR - File Transfer Protocol -
;
TFTR - Trivial File Transfer Protocol
( FTR).

.226

ISO 8823

.225

ISO 8327

.224

ISO 8073

.25, .75

.25, .75

SMTP, TELNET, FTR, TFTR -



TCP, UDP -
.
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol -
,

;
UDP - User Datagram Protocol ,


.
IP - Internet Protocol - ,
;
IPng - Internet Protocol new (next) generation
.

LAPB - Link
Access
Procedure,
Balanced


.25,



HDLS.

LAPB

170



( ) LAN Novell OLI Open Link Interface, LAN, :
Ethernet,TokenRing .
, OLI, :
- ( IPX Internal Packet Exchange , IP
, IP ,
);
- ( SPX
- Sequeced Packet Exchange).
LAN
, LAN,
,
,
( ).

(.. ,
, LAN
).
.
()
LAN.
( LAN),
( ) ,
, ( , ),
LAN, .
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
:
1. .
" " :
- ;
- ;
- "-";
- ;
- ;
- ;
- (, ).

171

2. .

,
, .
- ,
, , ..
"" ,

. , ,
, ,
.
3.
, ,

.
- ,
, ,
, ( ,
, .).

( , , , ..).

, , .
-
,
.

Novell


NetWare

Bell
Laboratories,
AT&T

UNIX

Microsoft

Windows NT,
Microsoft
BackQffice
Microsoft
Office

IBM

OS/2
AIX

NetWare :
- ( ) - NetWare Lite NetWare Personal.

, .
- ( ) NetWare 2.2, NetWare 3.12 NetWare 4,0.

, .. .
.
.

"-" (
).
UNIX , .
, UNIX
.
UNIXWare NetWare
"-" ( 2- ),
.
2 Windows NT: Windows NT 3.51 4,0.
:
-Microsoft BackQffice - .
-Microsoft Qffice 97 - ,
:
- ACCESS;
- EXEL;
- WORD.
OS/2

172

LAN
- ,
, , LAN.
LAN:
- ( );
- ;
- ;
- ;
-;
-;
-, .
LAN :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
LAN
LAN :
-ARCnet - Attached Resource Computer Network LAN , - 2,5/, 1980..
Datapoint Corporation;
-Ethernet : Fast-Ethernet Gigabit-Ethernet.
: 10,0/, 100,0/, 1,0/
: "" "". 70-
"Xerox", 80- "Digital Equipment" "Intel"
Ethernet - DIX,
. CSMA/CD (Carrier
Sense Multiple Access with Collision -
).
LAN IEEE 802.3;
-Token Ring - IBM, ,
4,0 16,0/, IEEE 802.5.

.
LAN
LAN
,
.
LAN ,

.

173

-
( ).
( )

(,
.).

LAN,
.
, LAN,
.
:
-
;
- ( )
.
.
LAN
Token Ring - ,
, LAN ( ).
LAN
"" (Token bus - ).
, IEEE-802.5,
() 3 :
-1- - (SD);
-2- - (AC) - LAN
.
-3- - (ED).
, ,
, ,
,
, .
, ;
,
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
().
"" Token Ring

.
SD

AC

FC

DA

SA

DATA


FSC

ED

E
D

174

SD - ;
AC - ( );
FC - ,
;
DA - ;
SA - ;
FSC - 32 ;
ED - () .
FDDI(CDDI) - Fiber Distributed Data Interface (Coaxial Distributed Data
Interface) - ()
IEEE-802.5 - Token Ring ( ).
, :
- - ,
10,0/ 100,0/;
- , ;
- (8 ),
, ;
- ;
-
.
Ethernet - LAN (
) Xerox Corporation,
Ethernet 10,0/ IEEE 802.3 1995.
Fast Ethernet - Ethernet ( IEEE 802.3U)
IEEE 802.3U.
Fast Ethernet 100,0/.
(
UTP- ) 100,0. ,
Ethernet.
Fast Ethernet (),
,
, .
( Ethernet)
, , ,
(Fast Ethernet).
Fast Ethernet ,
: I II ( ),

II I.
(
II), , ,
.
,
, ,
( I).

175

LAN II ( )
Fast Ethernet

() 1

11

Fast Ethernet ( )
, , :


I
II
II

100
200 (100+100)
200
205 (100+5+100)


+
261 (100+161)
309
216

(,
)
412
272 (136+136)
320
228

Gigabit Ethernet ( IEEE-802.3z)


, 1996.,
LAN 1,0/. ,
Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet
100,0/. 1,0/
.
Gigabit Ethernet -
.
Frame Relay ( LAN) .
" ".

176

IP- (Internet-Protocol-, , Web-, -


) -

IP- - ,
.
" " "" (3
) IP-
.
IP- ,
,
,
, ,
.
,
.
IP- VocalTek
1995 .
IP- 20
() .
AT&T British Telecom,
IP- 10 ,
( ) IP.
IP- : Cisco
Sistems, Nokia, Digi International, ECI Telecom .
IP-

0,80%

0,05%
1997

2007

2010

177

IP- :
1. " - "

IP-

2. " - "
IP

IP

IP

3. " - "

IP

IP-

4. "Web- - "

IP

IP-

IP-
:
- ,
( );
- ,
IP- IP- (
-: ITU- H.232);

178

-
( );
- () IP-
( 50%) ;
-
( ).
IP-
,
IP- (
""
) .
IP-
IP-,
(), ,
, .. .
,
, , XoIP -
(, , ) IP-
.
IPng - Internet Protocol new (next) generation -

.
IP-
, ,
:
- (basic services), .. :
, ;
- (enhanced services), .. ,
( ) ,
( ) ,
(: -, IP, , ..
, ,
..).

10.01.98. IP-
" "

IP- .
- FCC
IP- ,
:
- - , ;

179

- - ,
, , , ,
..
IP-
, ,
.
, ,
,
IP-,
,

, - .
IP- .
01.06.91. IP- "
" ,
IP- , ..
( 45.046-99, 12.11.99.).
IP-
:
- (, ,
) () ;
-"" ,
();
- ( - );
-
;
- ( ),
()
;
- (, )
- .
, IP-
(,
- ) ,
( , , ..)
.
IP-
- .323,
, IP-.
,
, .323,
IP- ().
( )
, IP-.

180

.323 64,0/,
-
, G.729, G.723,
8,0 5,3/6,3/.
G.723 Intel, Microsoft, Netsape
IP-,
,
100,0 (Pentium).
Dialgic - DM3 IPLink,
IP- (
, : R2; R1,5;
ISDN; OKC7 - ), ITU-T H.323.
IP-
, -:
-.37
(- - IP
) ;
-.38
-
Fax Reley.
IP-

IP-


IP- . :
- ;
-
on-line , ,
IP- - (
).

181

IP-
1.
- 200,0 (1- ),
400,0 (2- ), 700,0 (3- , ,
);
- ;
- (on-line) ;
- .
2.
- (, ) ;
- (DTMF - Dual Tone Multifrequency -
).
3.
- ;
- (DTMF relay - Dual-tone multifrequency reley , .. ,
Voice over IP DTMF-,
RTP H.245

Voice over IP, DTMF-


);
- ;
- ;
-;
- (
), .. ,
,
.
4. IP-
- ( );
- (Data Dependent Jitter - DDJ - ,
);
- ( ).

/ ,
IP-.

- ,
, , ( ).
:
-, (Data Dependent Jitter - DDJ) - , ,
, ;
- ;
- (Random Jitter RJ) - - .

182

( ) IP-
0

150

250



IP-

300

450

,
MOS 4,-5,0 MOS 3,8-4,2

MOS 2,9-3,8

600

700

MOS 2,0-2,9

IP-
MOS (Mean Opinion Score - )
IP
ITU P.800, P.830 ETSI -
,
(ETSI - European Telecommunication Standrds Institute), TR101.329
.

/ .
5% "", , 15 - 20% -
. , ,
.
IP-
1. "" ()
, - "" (,
, , ),

.
( ) , (
)
, , IP-
.
2. .
3.
.
IP- 2 ()
:
-GSM - 5:1;
-True Speech ( DSP) 18:1 ( ).
4.
, , .

IP- .
,
.
183

5.
, .
, .
IP-
:
1. - - - Media Access Control -
- (
), ,
LAN ( ),
IP-, : 12-0-27-2D--02.
,
.
IP- LAN -
6 :
- 3
-;
- 3 -.
2. - (IP-) 4 .
:
256.8.64.16. - ( ) :
11100000.00001000.01000000.00010000. - ( )

.
IP- 2- :
- , NIC
(Network Information Center - ), IP-
. ,
NIC,
.
- , .
IP- ,
,
IP- (. ).
IP-,
IP-, IP- ( ) .
, IP-
, .
IP- "0" ( ) ,
1 3 - , IP- "" IP- .

184

"" 1 126 ( "0"


, "127" - ).
IP- "10" ( 2 ) , IP-
"" - IP- -
28 - 216, 2 ( 16
).
IP- "110" ( 3 ) , IP-
"" - IP- -
28, 3 (24 ), - 1
.
IP- "1110" ( 4 ) ,
IP- "D", ,
- multicast. ,
, IP-.
IP- "11110" ( 5 ) ,
IP- "",
.
IP-
IP-

IP-
01.0.0.
128.0.0.0.
192.0.1.0.
224.0.0.0.
240.0.0.0.

IP-
126.0.0.0.
191.255.0.0.
223.255.255.0.
239.255.255.255.
247.255.255.255.

3. (DNS - Dormain Name Sistem - DNS- - -)


, SERV2.INTEL.RU. : ALEKC.MGTS.RU.
,
:
- ();
- ();
- .
IP-

DNS (Domain Name System - ),
IP- ()
.
DNS ,
IP-.
DNS IP-.
DNS
, DNS- DNS-.
DNS- IP-,
.
185

DNS- IP-
IP IP-.
I- DNS-,
, - DNS- DNS ,
DNS- ,
.
DNS- , ..
. DNS ,
, (
) .
, 63
ISO 3166.
-
(: - ru),
:
-com - ;
-edu - ;
-gov - ;
-org - ;
-net - , .
()
IP- DNS-.
DNS- FQDN - Fully Qualified Domain Name - ),
.. , ,
, : mtu.mqts.ru.
IP- "" ,
, () ,

IP-,
( )
.
IP-
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protokol -
),
.
DHCP-
IP- ,
.
DHCP-
IP- ,
.
() () ,
DHCP IP-, IP-
( ).
186

DHCP:
- DHCP
DNS, , ,
Dyinamic DNS, ( );
- IP- -
IP-;
- IP- IP, .. DHCP- (
IP-) IP-
.
LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol -
-
( IP-), DHCP
IP-.
LDAP, DNS, - -.

, ..
( .164) IP- IP.
DHCR LDAP
DHC
TCP/IP


LDAP
IP-
()

DHC LDAP
( ) I-. DHCR
LDAP ( , I-) IP-
LDAP. LDAP
IP-.
, LDAP
LDAP, .
IPv6,

IP- (128 , 16 ), 4
- IPv4 .
IP- :
- ( );
- :
-;
- ( );
- (
- ,
, .)
IPv6 ( IPng ''IP next generation'' - IP)
IP (
IPv4).

187

*BSD, FreeBSD
IPv6 KAME. FreeBSD ,
IPv6.
1990-
IPv4.
:
. ,
(RFC1918)
(10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 192.168.0.0/24)
(NAT - Network Address Translation).
.
.
IPv6 :
128- . ,
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 .
6.67 * 10^27 IPv6
.

,
8192 .
IPv6, , :

('' '')

IPsec (IP security - IP)

IP
IPv6--IPv4
IP-
IP-
IP-
:
- IP- (
: , ,
- , ,
IP, : , Frame
Relay, .25, TCP/IP .);
- IP- ( ,
,
, ,
,
, .. );
- IP-.

188

IP- :
- IP- ( ,
,
);
- IP- (, ,
- Deutsche Telecom, France Telecom, Telecom
Finland, Japan Telecom ., ,
IP- );
- IP- ( , ,
IP-, ; ,
, ..
IP- ).
IP-:
- IP- (IPEU) - , IP.
- ( c) IP- (IPAP) - ,
IP- .
- IP- (IPNP) - - IP-.
- - IP- (ITSP) - ,
.
- (DSP - Directory Service Provider) ,
IP-;
- - , ,
IP () IP-,
(, CHSP - Clearing House Service Provider);
, IP-,
,
IP-, , , ,
, , .
(- ) IP-:
- ( ) -
, IP- (:
"AT&T" - www.ap.att.com, "GRIC" - www.gric.com .);
- ( ) - IP-, ,
1 - 2
(, "-": - www.mtu.ru "Tario Tradinq":
- www.tario.net - ,
IP-, );
, ,
,
.
-- - , IP.
IP- Dialogic, Cisco Lucent, Nortel, Ericsson,
Siemens .

189

,
,
.
, , ,
,
IP- (
).
IP-:
- (-, -, , -);
- ( ,
100 , ,

IP-)
- () ( );
IP-
. .
1800
1000
600
200
2001

2003

2006

2009

IP-
.

(PDA)

( )

( )


() (MSU, DSP

Ethernet

()

Ethernet
10,0/
100,0/
Ethernet

(/)

190

IP- - ,
,
(
) IP- .
IP- IP-,
.
IP-: Cisco, Avaya, Siemens, Alcatel.
27.05.98. ( )
(CompTek - , "", "
", , , Cisco Systems ),
, IP- ,
.
IP-.
- - IP-,
(, IP ) - ,
ITU - .323, -
ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication
Standardization Sector -
,
)
1996. , ( )
- . IP-
( - , :
) : Cisco Systems ( )
VocalTek ( - IP-).
IP-
,
- iNOW! -
.
iNOW!
IP- , (
50,0%),
IP-.
IP-
" , - , , , , ,
?"
:
", - , ,
,
".

- POTS (Plain Old


Telephone Servce - ) - ,
-

191

IP-, ()

(30% )

(3% ).
IP- 0,5%,
( , IP,
- , on-line ).
IP-
IP IP
POTS
POTS



POTS (Plain Old Telephone Servce) -
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) -
-
PSN (Packet- Switched Network) -
PSDN (Packet- Switched Data Network) -
IP- ,
.
IP- ( - )
IP-
:
- (): (- ),
, , ;
-: , , WLAN (WiFi),
WMAN (WiMAX).

192

IP-
:
1. ( V.90, 56/)
, ( - 3000,0)
- ,
2. N-ISDN (Narrowband Integrated Services Digital Network - -.
ITU-T 64,0/
"" 16,0/ - "D", - ).
3. , xDSL
(Digital Subscriber Line - ).
DSL:
ADSL - Asymmetrik DSL -
() , - 5488,
1,5 - 9,0/,
: 16,0 - 640/.
HDSL - Hiqh-Data-Rate DSL -
() , - 3658,5,

1,544/.
SDSL - Single-line-Digital DSL -
(), - 3048,8,

1,544/
VDSL-Very-high-data-rate DSL -
() , 304,8 1372,
( ) 13,0 - 52,0/,
: 1,5 - 2,3/
4. ().
5. ( ),
- IP .

(..)
..

ISDN
ADSL


( ), /
56,0
128,0
9000,0
10000,0

, /
56,0
128,0
640,0
768,0

, IP, , :
- IP- ADSL-,
- IP- .
ADSL-
193

()

- ADSL

IP-
ADSL-. ,
IP-.

IP- ADSL-

1,5 - 8,0/
16,0 - 640/

IP-

ADSL

DSL (Digital subseriber line access multiplexer) -


,

194

()
- (), IP-.
()
(
).
1949.
.
:
C = W log2(1 + PS/Pn)/
:
C - (/)
W - ()
PS - ()
Pn - ()
/

/,

,
4,0


, /
35,0


, /
33,4

104,000

8000,0

133 000,0

30 000,0

31,000

8000,0

40 000,0

10 000,0

PS/Pn
30 -


50 -
( D - 8,0)
:

15 - ,
:

1,023

(1- ) ,



.
-
, .. (
), / (
) , .
- ,
(2-, 3- ), 1000
. , ..

, , ,
( ),
(
) .
28324-89 ,
-.

195


:
- ,
- .
,
(LAN, , IP-)
,
,
(10,0/ - ,
Etehernet , ,
Ethernet ).

( 50,0) ,
,
.

.
-
( )
- (
).
IP .

- .

() ,
.
-


IP-.
,

IP-, ,
( - )
.

10,0

196

,
/

ISDN (
: 2,-3,0.
. )

9,6
14,4
28,8
56,0
128,0

10,0
2,3
1,5
46,0
24,0
1 0,0

4000,0

20,0

10000,0

8,0

-,




6,0

35,0 - 40,0
(
)
100,0 ()

97% - , - 10%.
75% ,
(IP-), 1998. 90%.
6,0. IP-,
1998. - 400,0. .

IP- ()

197

Word Wide
Web-

W W W (),
IP-

()


.
5,0-42,0

.
54,0-750,0

Rx

( )


- ,
100
()

(-, ...)

(/

.
.

World Wide Web - W W W -" " (Internet -


) - ,
,
()
W W W - ( ).
()
:
- ;
198

- ( ),
(, , )
- (/);
- ,
(, .).
modem ( - /) - ,
() ( ),
() , (
),
: ()
.
, , ,
bit - -Binary digit - : "1" - , "0" -
; 8 "", .

(, ) ,
:
- - ( -
);
-;
- ;
- LAN (, Ethernet,
LAN - -
10,0/);
, ..
(, ) ,
() ,

(6,0-8,0).
.
, ..
. ,
5,0 40,0, - -
( ,
..).
-
"" , .
,
- Ethernet (: 10,0
100,0/).
Ethernet,
LAN .
Ethernet ,
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol - / -,
199

, 1970-
).

, , ,
.
,
IP-
,
IP-, :
-;
-.

( - ) (
) .
, .
:
-
;
- ;
-
, ;
-
.
:
- IP- (,
- ,

ISDN (Narrowband Integrated Services Digital Network -
- -. ITU-T
64,0/ ""
16,0/ - "D");
-
;
-
(!);
- IP-, ..
(!);
-
;
- ;

(), ,

, .

200

IP:
- ;
-"", , ,
;
- , , , ..;
-, , , ..;
- "-";
- , ;
- .
(DSL)
DSL - xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line - ).
,
.
DSL:
ADSL (Asymmetrik DSL -
) , - 5488,
1,5 - 9,0/,
16,0 - 640/.
HDSL (Hiqh-Data-Rate DSL -
) , - 3658,5,
1,544/.
SDSL (Single-line-Digital DSL -
) , - 3048,8,

1,544/.
VDSL (Very-high-data-rate DSL -
) , 304,8 1372,0,
( )

13,0 - 52,0/., - 1,5 - 2,3/.


( ) :
- ( ),
- ,
.
() DSL
, .
DSL (Digital subseriber line access multiplexer) -
.
DSL-
(DSL- ) .
2003 ,
, .

(DSL) 3,0 ( - 5

201

). ,
100% ( - 120%).
- UDSL (Universal ADSL ,
G.lite - ),
55,0% DSL-.
DSL,

() , ,
.
- - :
IP-, ,

.
DSL
.

56,0/

56,0/ ( )
28,8/ 33,6/. (
)
128,0/ ( )

,
,
IP-

6,0

10,0 - 30,0/ (
-
)
128,0 - 10,0/. (
) -

35,0 - 40,0

250.)

IP-,

IP-

ADSL

1,5 - 8,0/. (
-
)
16,0 - 640,0/. (
)
1,544/. ( 1)
2,048/. ( 1)
2-3
1,544/. ( 1)
2,048/. ( 1)


13,0 - 52,0/. (
-
)
1,5 - 2,3/. (
)

4,0 ( 4,1
6,0 -

)

IP-,

5,0

IP-,

3,0

IP-,

0,3 - 1,5

IP-,

ISDN

HDSL
SDSL

VDSL

DSL
. , ,
.

202

, , , ,
-
, .. -
( ).
- , , .
, DSL ,
, - .
-
,
DSL - ,
, .
,
,
, 25-30 .

-

-
-
(, , )
IP-:
-
-
-
-,
- , ,
,
-
- ,


27,0
40,0
14,0
5,0
11,0
12,0
40,0
20,0
12,0

CSP (Content Service Provider - ).


CSP :
-;
- ;
- .

, - ,
- web- (web-)
web- (web-) .

( )
50:50.

(IP-)

203

- ,
100 .

,
2,048/. 50,0. .
, 256,0/ - 15,0. . .
Iridium (
, 60

) .
-
, 2,048/.



10,0/. 5,255,35 - ,
.
, -
.

, , ,
. preWiMAX (WMAN)
, ,
.
, ,
Revolution 5000
Ethernet 10,0/ Fast Ethernet 100,0/.

.

- . .
6 1983
.
204

Motorola DynaTAC 8000X 15 , $100,0.


794 33,0 x 4,4 x 8,9 .

8 .

. - $3.995.
,
, DynaTAC 8000X
.
, , "100
". 67 , E-News.
, 80 , ArrayComm -
(). ,
,

,
:
- "3G is dead" ( :
"3 " "3 ").
()
- ,
.
25
80,0.

- AMPS - Advanced
Mobile Phone System -
( ) () 1983.
AMPS , , ,
, .
:
-
- SDM - Space Division Multiplexing -
().
- () -
, - , .
- (100,0 );
- ();
- () BTS
Base Transceiver Station - .
- BTS () ,
MS (
, , ).

205

BTS - BSC - Binare


Synchronous Comunication - -
(
- , ISO -
).
BSC

BTS.
BTS
BSC BSS - Base Station (Sub)system - ()
.

BTS- BSC-
- GSM - Global System for Mobile Comunikation:
- () ,
BTS, , ,
.
- (),
, .
- -
- -
( ),
BTS (d = 3R).
,
.
- 10-50 ( 60) ,
().
-
(), ,
.
-
- () , ,
.

BTS ,
( ),
? - ,

, BTS,
, ,
, .. BTS
.
.
.

206

- NMT 450 NMT 900 - Nordic Mobile Telephone


, 450,0 900,0 ,
" ".
NMT 450
, (:
- GSM 900);


( - signaling).

-
- FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access,
( ) 12,5 30,0.
- , , ,

.
AMPS - - 1G
AMPS - Advanced Mobile Phone Systems -

1G.
AMPS 25,0
.
( ) 12,5 .
30,0 .
(12 500,0: 30,0) = 416
: 21 - 10,0 395
- .
,
.
AMPS -
BTS
MS ( - - ),
MS
BTS ( - - ),

,


MS,
,


, /

869,0 - 894,0
824,0 - 849,0
45,0
30,0
395 + 395 = 790
21 + 21 = 42
3,0
2,0 - 20,0
(),
12,0
(),
8,0
10,0 . -, 1,2 -
(48, 36, 5) (40, 28, 5)

AMPS -

207

()
(RCC - reverse control channel)
48
240
240

30 11

...

36 -
+12 - , 48

30- :
010101010101010101010101010101 ( 0 1)
C 11- :
11100010010
(DCC - digital color code) 7 .
-
.
() AMPS
21
400

10 11 40 - , 400
10-
11- .
.
(-) 28 12 - 40
.
5 - .
"" / "" (
- RCC).
: (21 + 400) : 10 = 42 "" / "".
: 10 + 11 + 42 + 400 = 463.
( )
1,2/ 10,0/.

. MS BTS
( ),
100,0 , (FSK -Frequency-Shift
Keying) (,

, ).

208

, ,

( - FM - Frequency Modulation).
,
!
1G
(,
)
.
- 1G.

AMPS

1. ,
-
( )
825,0 845,0
-
( )
870,0 890,0
2. ,
2,0 20,0
3. , /10,0 - .
1,2 -

NMT 450

453,0 457,5
463,0 467,5
1,0 40,0
1,2

2G

,
( )
.
AMPS
,
.
- ,
.
1992 .
D-AMPS, IS-54 (IS - Intermediate Standard , Intermediate Svstem -
, - - In-Service ).
1993.
.
GSM: GSM 900 - 900,0.
GSM 900 124 ,
, ,
, ,
- ISDN
.
GSM 900 1991.

209

,
D-AMPS, 1993 .;
JDC, 1994 . - PDC - Personal Digital Cellular -
" ".
D-AMPS
(). AMPS: D-AMPS
AMPS,
.
EDGE (GSM/EDGE),
IS-136, 1996.
IS-136 AMPS D-AMPS (IS-54),
.
GSM 1800 1800,0
: .
GSM 1800 GSM 900 ,
:
-
()
, ,
MS.
DCS 1800 - Digital Cellular System .
PCN - Personal Communications Network,
" ". PCN 1993 ., 1996 .
GSM 1800.
1800,0 ,
1900,0,
PCS - Personal Communications Systems, 1800,0,
(cellular).
PCS IS-136 1995.
D-AMPS (IS-136).
AMPS 1900,0 .
MS:
MS :
- - Mobile Equipment - ().
- (-) - SIM - Subscriber Identity Module -
(),
.
- ,
- IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity ,
.
- SIM, , IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity ()
().
IMEI IMSI:
- IMEI - MS ( ).
- IMSI - ( ).
210

" " GSM - NSS - Network and Switching


Subsystem - .
, "", MSC - Mobile services
Switching Center - . MSC
.
MSC GSM .
MSC ,
(), ..
, NSS:
- HLR - Home Location Register - .
- VLR - Visitor Location Register - ().
HLR "" ,
.
IMSI ,
MS ISDN - Mobile Subscriber ISDN -
, MS .
HLR, , VLR
.
VLR MS,
(
, , ).
VLR,
VLR, .
HLR VLR:
- HLR ,
,
- VLR ,
VLR . HLR
VLR,
. VLR
, , , .
, BSS - Base Station Subsystem . BSS BSC - Base Station
Controller - , BTS - Base
Transceiver Station - .
BSC
BTS ,
.. BSC ,
( - ).
OMC -Operation and
Meintenance Centre - .
.
MS
.
- "", "",
.

211

MS IMSI VLR
.
IMSI ( ),
, , -
. IMSI VLR
HLR. HLR
VLR, ,
VLR, ,
" " .
:
AuC
128- - RAND - Random number - ,
MS . SIM
Ki ( , SIM)
32- - SRES - Signed RESult
:
SRES = Ki RAND

AuC ( HLR Ki ).
SRES SRES,
AuC, .
TMSI - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity ()
().
TMSI
.
TMSI ( , VLR
MS - LA).
,
MS - - IMEI,
IMEI
.
IMEI ,
EIR, "" :
- ""
.
- "" IMEI, MS.
- "" - "MS "", ,
.
VLR
HLR ,
- .
.
, ,
- .
MS ,
, -
.
212

,
, . ""
MS (, ,
, ) .
10
( 0 9). ,
11 15 (
, .).
SIM.
, 10 , (
"112"), - ,
IMSI (, , SIM-).

.
handover ( ).
BTS - ( BTS -
"", ).
BTS
- , LA - Location Area -
.
LA LAI Location Area Identity - .
VLR LA.
LAI VLR
MS.

LA, ,
MS .
MS LA
VLR / HLR ,
MS LA,
MS .


-
LA.
LA
VLR LAI, LA
VLR, VLR
HLR.
LA
, .
LA
MS , ,
.
LA , ,
,
,
LA,
.
213

"handover" - ,
LA .
(
MS BTS, , MS
"" ..) (, , )
.
(
, , , handover).
Handover :
- BTS;
- ,
BSC;
- ,
- BSC,
MSC;
- ,
BSC, MSC.
, - handover - MSC.
, handover,
MSC , BSC,
MSC .
MS BTS ( -
16), .
,
( ) BSC
MSC .
- handover:
- " " - Minimum acceptable performance.
,
, . ,
, (
), - handover.
- " " - Power budget.
,
( handover).
MS,
MSC, ,
.


214

, ,
() MSC -
( ) ,
"" MSC IMEI,
.

.
MSC HLR ( MS
- ISDN) . HLR, ,
VLR ,
.
VLR MSRN - Mobile Station
Roaming Number - .
MSRN
IP
.
HLR "" VLR
MSRN , IMSI ,
MSC .

,
() IMSI MSRN, MSC
.
MSC , PAGCH - PAGer CHannel
- - LA,
MS .
GSM ,
:
. (9,6/)

().
, ..
, GSM,
, GSM (1800).
GSM ,
3G,
.

CDMA - Code Division Multiplie Access -


() - 2,5G
215

CDMA
, 2.5 - 2,5G.
() FDMA
( : NMT, AMPS .) -
() TDMA (
: GSM, D-AMPS .)

,
() CDMA -.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
.

,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

. , ,
1935 ..
CDMA
, . 80-
1995.
.
CDMA GPS.
CDMA DSSS - Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
- , () .
DSSS - ,
, .
, CDMA
CDMA,
,
.
CDMA2000 3G CDMA One
( IS-95). ,
IS-95A, CDMA
.
CDMA
CDMA2000.
CDMA2000 1,
153,0/, ,
, , , ,
. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 1,23,
2,4/ 153,0/ .
3G
,
. 1EV-DO Rev

216

A, .
3,1/
MS ( ) 1,8/ MS.
, Rev 0, , ,
, IP .
. ,

1EV-DO Rev B,
: 4,9/ MS 2,4/ MS.

. , 15-
( ) 73,5/
MS 27,0/ MS.
CDMA -
VoIP, Push to Talk, ,
, .
CDMA2000 :
, (
),
. ,
,
.

. , CDMA2000
250,0,
GSM-900 2,0 ( ), GSM-1800 1,0
( ).
CDMA
1G 2G ()
FDMA " "
("reuse") ().
, BTS
.
"" (
- 7 ), BTS
- ().
, BTS
, .
- (),
BTS,
.
CDMA FDMA,
CDMA .

() CDMA ,

217

() TDMA,
FDMA - ().
, MS,
BTS, "" MS,
CDMA ,
MS BTS ,
,
.
CDMA "
" BTS ("soft handoff"). ,
MS ""
BTS.
, "" BTS.
, BTS.

GPS - Global Positioning System -
().
CDMA - , ..
,
" " () ,
, .

,
.
CDMA
(, , ) .

() - TDMA.
CDMA:
,
,
, , .

() CDMA
, CDMA .
IS-95 (800,0) CDMA PCS
(1900,0).
, CDMA
- .
CDMA, ,
.
C CDMA ,
CDMA
14,4/, IP 2.0 . ,
CDMA .
.
CDMA
144,0/.
218

, ,

, .
CDMA Development Group () ,
300,0/, CDMA
- 3G.
CDMA - 3G
-
() TDMA.
TIA / EIA (Telecommunication Industry Association / Electronic
Industries Alliance) CDMA 2000 (
IS-2000),
IS-95.
CDMA 2000 CDMA One (CDMA + CDMA 800) -

1,0/1,5/.
.
IS-95.
, CDMA 2000
IS-95,
CDMA 2000 IS-95. ,
- " soft handoff" (" "
, ) CDMA 2000 IS-95.
, , ,
IS-95 CDMA 2000 .
CDMA 2000 ,
, , Band Class 5 (NMT-450)

- 1G - 3G,
CDMA 2000,
. CDMA
2000
. AMPS,
,
.
CDMA 2000 "
" - International Mobile Telecommunications - IMT 2000,
ITU (International
Telecommunication Union, -)
3G, ,
.
- TDMA ( IS-136
IMT-2000)
CDMA ,
GSM -
() -TDMA.
CDMA 2000
, ,
219

IMT-2000,
384,0/,
320240.
CDMA
CDMA .
, CDMA " "
"" .
- CDMA - ,
, ,
MS , .
.
. -
,
. , CDMA
.
- CDMA.
,
.
,
BTS , , ,
""
, BTS
, .. BTS MS.
BTS
BTS , (,
).
.
- BTS
- GPS. GPS
, .. "soft handoff" (" "
LA )
BTS.
, 800,0,
CDMA,
-
,
""
.
, , , ,

. :

-CDMA - Code
Division Multiple Access,
, NMT, AMPS ,
, ,
GSM.
()
CDMA :
220

.
, - , -
..
(: 0,3 - 3,4), , ,
, .
CDMA:
BTS MS
, , ,
, ,
. CDMA
.
GSM, TDMA Time Division Multiple Access -
(), ..
, CDMA, CDMA, .
CDMA , .
CDMA 2000 - 1,5/
.
- ,
, (
, ).
CDMA - ,
- .
D-AMPS ,
, , CDMA
.
CDMA , AMPS. CDMA,
D-AMPS 120 ,
, , ,
, BTS,
.
D-AMPS
(
, ,
), CDMA
. ,
, 1,25, CDMA
, D-AMPS.

,
. . ,
, .
,
. , ,
.
, - fading.

221

MS
LA :
"
" (hard handoff),
.
,
, :
,
.
CDMA ,
, FDMA TDMA. :
- -, CDMA - ( " ", ..
,
CDMA),
- -, CDMA ( 1,5/).
, .
, CDMA
,
() .
.
"" ,
.
,
() .
(
):

.
.
,
.
, CDMA

MS, .. .
MS
, BTS,
(
).
CDMA , MS
.
" " (hard handoff break before
make) , , CDMA
" " (soft handoff make before break).
MS BTS,
,
. , ,
.

222


MS, ,
BTS .
BTS - - MS
, BTS.

, .
CDMA ,
, -
.
,
. , ,
, ,

.
, CDMA
.
,
.
, .
,

.
CDMA
- . 1994 .
( IS-95), CDMA ,
.
, ,
.

QUALCOMM, Samsung, Motorola, Lucent Technologies, Nortel .
,
, .
" ".
, MS
BTS, - make before break
,
,
.
CDMA : -
" " (Wireless Local Loop - WLL),
"" , .
CDMA
,
.
,
"
" - .

223

CDMA
1900,0 PCS - Personal Communications Services -
.
PCS:
. PCS ,
,
.
PCS CDMA, ,
( ,
, CDMA "",
), .
PCS CDMA.

CDMA D-AMPS
, .
CDMA
, D-AMPS.

, , ,

, , .
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access -
().
CDMA-

.
.
-
. , ,
.
1,25. 8,55/,

1,2/. CDMA
,
MS, MS ,
.
CDMA One
CDMA One, IS-95a, IS-95b (cellular -
- 800,0) PCS ( - 1900,0).
IS - Interim Standard - ,
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association.
, CDMA One IS-95a,
9,6/ ( ) 14,4 / (
).

224

IS-95b CDMA,
( ).
28,8 / (
14,4/) 115,2 / (8 14,4/).
IS-95 CDMA One
. CDMA One 1995
.
CDMA One "CDMA" "CDMA-800"
( 800- , IS-95).
869,040893,970 824,040-848,860.
64 1,25.
-
NMT GSM . ,
800,0
.
"" N-AMPS, D-AMPS CDMA.
, , -800
"" x-AMPS GSM 1800.
CDMA IS-95 , .
W-CDMA
W-CDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA -
( 1988 ) ETSI (European
Telecommunications Standards Institute)
.
W-CDMA
: , .
2,048/ 384,0/ -
MS.
, W-CDMA 5,0.
GSM PDC,
W-CDMA
.
W-CDMA -
() , .
- 3G,
, GSM. W-CDMA
, ,
2,048/ ( ) 384,0/ (
120,0/). W-CDMA
GSM UMTS.
CDMA 2000
CDMA 2000 2G
CDMA One, IS-95c,
.

225

, Qualcomm
ITU, CDMA 2000. Lucent Technologies
IS-2000. -
:
- IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications System - 2000 - 2000),
- IMT-MC (Multi Carrier)-
CDMA 2000,
CDMA One (IS-95).
- IMT-DS (Direct Spread) - W-CDMA
UMTS.
CDMA 2000 3G, ..
.
2.5G.
CDMA2000 (IMT-MC) - 1X 2X.
IS-95. 1X-EV (evolution),
- CDMA2000 1X EV-DO (data only) CDMA2000 1X EV-DV (data &
voice).
CDMA 2000
, CDMA
(450, 700, 800,
900, 1700, 1800, 1900).
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
.

,
. ,
.
, e ,
, .
CDMA
. 80-

.
( , ,
Skylink GPS).
, CDMA
CDMA,
,
.
CDMA 2000 3G
CDMA One, IS-95. ,
IS-95A, CDMA
.
CDMA CDMA.

226

CDMA2000 1
153 /,
, ,
, , ,
.
- CDMA2000 1EV-DO
1,23, - 2.4/
153,0/ ,
3G
, .
1EV-DO Rev A,
.
3,1/
1,8/ .
, Rev. 0, , , ,
IP . .
,
- 1EV-DO Rev B,
: 4,9/ 2,4/
.
. , 15-
( )
73,5/ 27,0/ . VoIP,
Push to Talk, , ,
.
CDMA 2000
, (
),
. ,
,
.

. , CDMA 2000
250,0,
GSM-900 2,0 ( ), GSM-1800 1,0.
CDMA
, - (International Telecommunications Union ITU)
3G -
IMT 2000.



3G.

227

3G.

(CDMA), - .

3G - ,
(TDMA),
GSM, ,
CDMA One.
One
- IS-95A.
IS-95.
CDMA 2000 IMT-2000 c
IMT-MC, ,
CDMA 2000 1 CDMA 2000 3.
CDMA 2000 1 IS-95C.
CDMA One CDMA 2000
CDMA
CDMA 2000 1X.
CDMA 2000 3X
LMNQS (Lucent, Motorola, Nortel, Qualcomm, Samsung)
HDR 1X-EV.
CDMA ,
1X-EV.
CDMA 2000 1X EV-DO CDMA 2000 1X EV-DV.
CDMA 2000 1X EV-DO ITU-T
IMT-2000.
, CDMA 2000
CDMA
One
(450, 700, 800, 900, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100 )
ANSI-41 GSM-MAP.
IP- CDMA One
GSM, IS-95A c
.
,
IP/ATM .
cdmaOne
IP Inter Working Function
(IWF).
IS-95A
,
, , 14,4/.
IS-95B IS-95, ,

64,0/.

228

IS-95B GPRS.
IS-95B 1999 . ( KT
Freetel Hansol) 2000 . ( DDI IDO).
IP- CDMA 2000 1X
IS-95A
IS-95B
CDMA 2000 1X.
IS-95A :
, . .
,
, ,
,

,

.

153,6 / 1,7 ,
, IP .
CDMA 2000 1X
1,7 , IS-95A
.
, CDMA 2000 1X
35%
, - ,
CDMA 20001X
. ,
/

IS-95A.
CDMA 2000 1X (SK Telecom,
KT Freetel, LG Tekecom, Verizon Wireless) ,
130,0/
.
,
.
, "" ,
,
, 130,0/, .
IS-95A
:

;
;
IP: PCF (Packet Control Function), PDSN (Packet Data Service Node), AAA
(Accounting, Authentication, Authorization).

229

PCF ,
PDSN A
. , , PDSN
IP ,
-.
, cdma2000
Mobile IP,
IP
.
CDMA 2000 1X
IS-95A. , CDMA 2000 1X
IS-95A. IS-95A
cdma2000 1X, - 14,4/.
IP- cdma2000 1 EV

,
CDMA 2000 EV ""
.
CDMA 2000 1 EV-DO,
1,25.
,

,

. CDMA 2000 1 EV-DO
1,67 /
, .
,
.
2,4/ ,
307,0/ ,
CDMA One.
CDMA 2000 1 EV-DV Motorola
Nokia, Philips Semiconductors Texas Instruments
1,25
4,8 .
CDMA 2000 1 EV-DO :
,

,
.
CDMA 2000 1 EV
, . 9,10.
CDMA 2000 1X CDMA 2000 1X EV
CDMA One CDMA 2000 1X.

.
CDMA 2000 1 EV
CDPD.

230

, CDMA 2000 1X c CDMA 2000 1 EV


CDMA 2000 1X , , IS95A.
: GSM


.

.
, ,
DMA, .

.
.
- . 3-4
2-5 ,
.

, ,
,
.

DMA.
,
CDM.
231


GSM.
3G- ?

, ,

.
: ,
, , ,
, , - . ?

.

. 1935
. , 10 . ,
"
" .

.
.
(CDMA).
0,01 ( ,
"" ).
,
CDMA.
,
IS-95
( - ),
-, .
CDMA:
,
"".
.

.

232


:
- , ..

, BTS
, .
MS
, MS ,
, , , .
,
,
(, , MS) - .
- ,
BTS, ( )
MS (, ).
- , ..
.

.
- (,
..) .
:
- ,
BTS .
: ,
, ()
MS ..
- BTS.
MS
BTS . ("")
MS.
-
BTS,
. ,
.
233

( ) BTS
( )
- FDM - Frequency-Division Multiplexing.
FDM - ,
. -
.
- .
,
, , - ()
( ).

:
- ,
BCA - Borrowing Channel
Allocation - ;
-
FCA - Fixed Channel Allocation
GSM (Global System for Mobile mmunication -
);
- CDMA
,
.
- ( , , R = 6,5 - 13,0),
BTS ,
. n
, n2 ,
n2 .
BTS ("" )
(, ) ,
.., .. ""
.
1 - :
,, AMPS n (, 32):
n = 32
, - K.
, AMPS - Advancet Mobile Phone
System - 1G (850):
K = 336
( , ,
- ) - N (, 7):
N=7

234

N : 1, 3. 4, 7, 9,
12, 13, 16, 19, 21 ..
:
K : N = 336 : 7 = 48
:
48 32 = 1536

7
1

4
5
2

7
3

1
6

1
6

4
5

2
7

5
2

3
1

5
2

7
3

6
- R, : = 1,6.
, ,
1,5
( - ) - S -
:
S = R 1,5 3 = (1,6) 1,5 1,73 = 2,56 1,5 1,73 = 6,64
, - S:
S = S n = 6,642 32 = 212,482
D - ,
, ;
D = R 3N = 1,6 1,73 2,645 = ~7,32
d - :
d = 3 R = 1,73 1, 6 = 2,77
2 - :
, n' = 32 4 = 128 - 4 ,
, - S' - - 4
:
235

S' = 6,64 : 4 = 1,66


S :
S' = 1,66 128 = 212,48
( ) 4
:
K n' = 48 128 = 6144
- :

, .
, .
, .
, /

1,0 - 2,0
1,0 - 10,0
0,1 - 10,0
0,3

0,1 - 0,2
0,1 - 1,0
10,0 - 100,0
1,0

2G
VLR
AuC

HLR


BTS

M
S

EIR

GMSC

(MTSO),
MSC -

BTS

M
S

:
GMSC MSC
EIR - ("", "", "")
HLR - "" ()
M
S
VLR - "" ()

AuC MS
BTS
MS - Mobile Station -
MTSO (MSC) - Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office - ()
, MSC - Mobile Switching
Center - -
BTS ,
(, ). MSC (MTSO)
10,0 MS,
(, ,
) () . MSC
(MTSO) , 10,0
()
().
2G
MS ,
( ), "". MS
BTS ,
.
236

MTSO (MSC) MS
() MS .
"" MS.
MS ,
BTS .
MS MS
BTS,

MTSO.
MTSO (MSC) :
- MS ;
- MS,
().
MS,
MTSO BTS
MS,
BTS
BTS.
BTS
MS, ,
(, ).
MS
,
BTS
. MS,
,
MTSO,
BTS.
, - ,
BTS ,
MSC (MTSO),
.
2G , ..

, , .
MS
BTS ,
(, , )
.
- :
- ( 4,0 - );
- ( - 8,0);
- (8 );
- ( ).

237


,
() - TDMA
() -CDMA.

- 2G

GSM 900 / GSM 1800


,

,
,
,

,

,
,
/
, /

1990
935 - 960
890,0 - 915,0

FDMA+TDMA ( + .

); CDMA - .
)
8

( -
GSM - TDMA)
,
,
/ (/)
1- (. ),
,
,
. : . /

IS-136
(D-AMPS)
1991
869 - 894
824 - 849

45,0 (GSM 900); 95,0 (GSM1800)


200,0
124+124=248; 187+187=374
20,0
8
156,25:4,615=33,8
33,8 8 = 270,4
13,0

35,0
250,0 (69,4)
0,577
0,577 8 = 4,615
130,0
148 + 8,25 - 156,25

IS-95
(CDMA)
1993
869 - 894
824 - 849

45,0
30,0
790 + 42
3,0
3

45,0
1250,0
20
35,0
35

8,0

8,0; 4,0;
2,0; 1,0
CDMA+
TDMA

FDMA+
TDMA

20,0

130,0

50,0

130,0

TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access -


()
- 2G
)

0,24

0,06

0,57
)
49
15

0,24

49

0,03

238


GSM - 2G
GSM

ME

SIM

SIM

MS-

MS

(-)

-
(-)

Um
()
- BSS
BTS -

BTS -

bis

BSC -

GMSC

MSC -

(PDN):
PDH, SDH

EIR

HLR

ISDN
()

AuC

:
VLR
- -
- MS -
- SIM - Subscriber Identity Module - (SIM-),
MS

239

- HLR - Home Location Register - -


("" ). -
, , ,
-
GSM.
MS LA,
HLR .
- GMSC

- VLR - Visitor Location Register - () -
"" ,
HLR
LA MS.
VLR HLR HLR
.
- - Operation and Maintenance Centre -
( TMN - )
GSM ""
( .25 - 7, SS7),
, (),
..
AuC - -
,
, ,
HLR,
AuC.
EIR - -
, ,
GSM. MS -
, , , SIM Subscriber Identive Module - ( :
"SIM-"), MS.
EIR "" ( MS),
"" - MS , "" .
Um - GSM,
. Um - "U"
- (ISDN), .
.
Abis - ()
16,0/ 64,0/.
- BTS
- BSC - BSS
GSM 2G

BTS
BSC

()

+
+
+

240





MS

MS

+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+

GSM SDMA -
()
BTS.
MS - BTS,
, , (
) , (
- )
FDD - Frequensy Division Duplex - , ..
(FDMA).
TDMA FDMA -

().
GSM 900 FDMA 124
( 248 ) 200,0, GSM 1800 187+187 ( 374 ).
248 FDMA, ..
200,0 ,
.
4,615.
8 ( ) GSM,
TDM .
, TDM 4,615
200,0 :
4,615 : 8 = 577 = 0,577
148 ( )
546,5, 30,5 (577,0 - 546,5 =
30,5) ,
.
,
.
577,0 156,25, ,
TDM :
156,25 : 4,615 (0,004615) = 33,8/;
8 :
33,8/ 8 = 270,4/.

241

-
- GSM ( ).
. .
1 = 2048 =2715648 =12533,76=3 28 53,76
0

...

2046

2047

1=51=1326=6,12;1=26=1326=6,12
0

...

49 50

1=26 =120,0;
0

...

24

...

24

25

1 =51 =235,4

25

...

49

50

1 = 8 ( ) = 4,615

1 ( ) = 156,25 4,615 = 577


3

57 1 26 57 1 3

8,25

S

-

- ( 156,25)
(8,25):
156,25 - 8,25 = 148,0
- S :
, .
- ( 8,25)
.
- ( )
.
.
- 33,8/
-
22,8/
GSM
( 2 ,
242

12 26 ).
, .
- (26 )
( - 148,0) ,
() .

.
(148,0), ETSI,1993
:
- ;
- ,
,
MS BTS;
-
BTS ( ) MS ( );
- , .
GSM 900 (
) 45,0,
GSM 1800 FDD - Frequency Division Duplex - 95,0.
TDMA 0,577,
MS
:
t0 + 3 577,0,
-
/.
MS GSM
BTS
( ,
).
MS
.
2G
(SDM - Space
Division Multiplexing)
,
, :
, , .
() SDM

.
.

, ,

243

, , FM ( ),
.
, :
, .

() - FDM - Frequency Division


Multiplexing 2G
:
, .
MS ,
. ( )
.
, .

:
, .
"" .
() - TDM - Time Division
Multiplexing 2G

, ..
, .

.
, ,
-
(
).

-
.
() TDM, ,
() FDM.

.
,
.

(.. ).
GSM

MS BTS.
244

MS
BTS ,
:
- BTS MS ( );
- MS BTS ( ).
.
, GSM 900 (900,0):
- 890,2 915,0;
- 935,2 960,0;
f = f + 45,0 f = 890,0 + n0,2; f = 935,0 + n 0,2
:
n - .
0,2 (200,0) -
45,0 -
:
( MS BTS) 124, ( BTS MS) 124.

, ..
, ,
("", ,
). .
() - CDM - Code Division Multiplexing 2G
() CDM
,
. CDM
.

"". ,
(
) ""
, , ( ).

.

() CDM:
- , ""
(),
;
-
.
245

- MAC - Medium Access Control


MAC .
MAC
( ) - DLC - Data Link Control -
.
- ( OSI) 2G - GSM
MS

Um Abis

BTS
-

MSC

BSC

.
C -

MM -

RRM -

LAPDm -


RRM / BTSM


BTSM / BSSAP


LAPDm / LAPD


LAPD / SS7


64,0/

/16,0

16,0/

/
64,0/

BSSAP-

BSS
SS7 -


64,0/

2,048/

- Um - U (ISDN)
.
- Abis - () 16,0/ 64,0/.
- - () 64,0/ 2,048/.
Abis .

(- ),

64,0/.
GSM 4- 16,0/
64,0/.

( ) 2,048/.

246

MSC
BSC BTS
SS7 ( 7).
7 (SS7)
MSC,
AuC, OMC
HLR, VLR, EIR.
GSM
35,0 ( , ,
..).

( )
- -
.
, ,
, .
MS BTS ,

64,0/.
- ,
,
.
.
GSM LAPDm - Link Acces Procedure on the D chanel - D 16,0/ - ISDN,
LAPD
- ISDN. LAPDm
LAPB - Link Acces Procedure Balanced -
, - -
.25. LAPB HDLC - Hing-Level Data Link Control
- .
HDLC - - ,
SDSL - Singe-line Digital Subscriber Line -
- DSL-,
1,544/ ,
3048,8.
LAPD,

.
, ,
().
- - RRM ( )
.
, ,

.
- - MM ( )
.
.
247

, , ,
MS
- TMSI - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity.

HLR-. MS
MS - IMSI International Mobile System Identifier -
, SIM-, SIM-
MS. TMSI ,
MS.

GSM, MS IMSI
BTS, HLR-.
IMSI , TMSI
VLR.
- - CM - Conection Management
:
- - - Call Control;
- - SMS - Short Message Serice;
- - SS - Supplementary Service;
CM
, ,
,
, .

2G
- SDMA - Space Division Multiple Access -
().
MS
BTS, . ,
SDMA , .
,
FM.
- FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access -
().
FDMA
BTS
MS () .
- MS
BTS - .
FDD - Frequency Division Duplex.
, GSM 900:
- ( ) 890,2 - 915,0;
- ( ) 935,2 960,0.
-
45,0;
248

- - 124;
- () - 200,0 (0,2).
- TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access -
().
TDMA FDMA .
,
, .. ( ).
.
,
,
.
- TDMA
.

(, ).

, .
TDMA FDMA
.
TDMA (
)
: GSM, IS-54 (PS), IS-136 (AMPS), DECT .
.
()
DECT:
10,0, ..
417,0.

10,0, .
1 12

417
1

BTS
3

...

11

12

...

11

12

MS
MS 1 12-
. ,
.
DECT .

249

- CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access -


().
- CDMA - (
) MS
.
.
(, ) ,
,
.
( )
CDMA FDMA TDMA.
CDMA
( ) .

, .. ( )
BTS, ..
, "" .
SDMA, TDMA, FDMA, CDMA
SDMA
TDMA
FDMA

()


()


()

(

)
MS



(
)

MS
,

MS

MS

,

, .. MS

()

,
,

- MS,
(,
,
)



MS


()



, ,
,

,

,



SDMA FDMA



FDMA,
TDMA CDMA

CDMA

()


: TDMA -
;
SDMA -

MS
,


FDMA
TDMA

250

CDMA ,
, ..
. FDMA TDMA.

- (ARQ - Automatic Repeat Request);
- MS
- CDMA;
-
- TDMA ( - );
- : , (
), ;
- :
, - ( ) 7- .
8- ,
:
- -
, , -
;
- -
(), -
.

251

1G, 2G - :
-GSM 900 - Global System for Mobile communication -
;
-DCS-1800 - Digital Cellular System - (
);
-AMPS D-AMPS -
(: );
-NMT - ""
, 450,0 (NMT 450);
-GPRS - - ETSI ,

GSM;
-3G - ;
-CDMA - (),
CDMA ,
: CDMA -2000, Global CDMA1, Global CDMAII, UTRA, W-CDMA ..

. (
1995., ) CDMA, ,
.
, .

- 2G .

1. ,
-
( )
-
( )
2. ,
3. , /

GSM-900/GSM -1800

D-AMPS

935,0-960,0 /
869,0-894,0
1805,0-1880,0
890,0-915,0 /
824,0-849,0
1710,0-1785,0
0,5 35,0
0,5 20,0
13,0
8,0

CDMA
869,0-894,0
824,0-849,0
50,0
8,55

252

CDMA ,
, , . (: 70-
300,0. ).
3G,
- 2,5G, CDMA.
CDMA ,
- AMPS. GSM,
() - CDMA
BTS
, ,
.
BTS .
, CDMA, ,
, ,
GSM: SMS, -, ,
, , .
- 2,5G - 3G
- 3G -
,
.
- (ITU-T)
:
- , (
)
- (25,0 - , 260,0 -
);
- ( 200,0/) MS,
14,40115,0/ (CDMA One),
,
MS - 384,01500,0/;
- MS - 2,048/ (CDMA 2000);
-
();
- ,
();
- ,
: ( )
( );
- ;
- ();
- ().
-
:
- ;
-
, ;
- ;
253

- ..

(TDMA) / (CDMA) ,
, ,
.
(GSM)
(PCS)
(PCN), -
- 3G.
( , ) PCS
.
GSM
() : ,
MS ,
.
GSM
, ,
MS, , .
MS ( SIM-, )
GSM .
MS HLR,
VLR, MS,
. MS
VLR, HLR.
VLR,
MS, (roaming).
( ),
( )
( ) .
.
MS
, MS :
- MS
(ISDN) - MS ISDN (Mobile Station International ISDN Number) -
.164 - -
, , ( : Mobile
Subscriber ISDN Number - ISDN ).
ISDN.
ISDN MS: MS ISDN :
- ();
- (NDC), .. () HLR;
- (SN).
: "8" "00" .

GSM

254

AuC

BSS: BTS, HLR, VLR, EIR

:
- .
MS - ( )
GSM.
GMSC Gatewey Mobile (Service) Switching Center (MSC)
.
AuC .
- 1: GSM
( )
2: ()
, GSM
GMSC.
3: GMSC HLR,
,
.
- 4: HLR
, VLR
MSRN - MS,
,
MS - VLR HLR.
- MSRN (VCC),
(VNDC), MSC
.
- 5: HLR , MSC
MS
GMSC.
- 6: GMSC
MSC.
- 7: MSC .
- 8: MSC VLR
MS (, ,
..).

255

9 10: MS ,
MSC .
11: BTS BSS ( )
MS.
12 13: VLR
( . .)
14 -17: VLR MSC
MS.


, , .
MS

:
-
MS - ( )
MS ,
BSS MSC,
,
GSM
MS ( ) .

MS BTS
.
(RACH). ()
( ):
- MS;
- ;
- TCH
(, , ).
TCH :
(TCH/F) 22,8/
(TCH/H) 11,4/;
-
;
- ,
.
256

(authentikos - "", " " .)


, SIM- ()
MS:
- - i ( AuC SIM-)
- - IMSI
- , "-",
AuC 128- - - RAND
( RAND, SRES,
AuC) SIM, : RAND i
32- - SRES.
("identificare" - - .) VLR
RAND ( RAND,
SRES, AuC) SIM,
SRES.
() - GSM
() BTS
, i
(8).
.
( - 35,0) GSM
- . BSC
BSS .
BSC GSM : MS
,
BSC, ,
.
BSC
MSC , BSC
.
MSC.
MSC
, ,
MSC.
MSC.
BTS MS
( )
, ,

"-" -
.

257

GPRS-General Packet Radio Service - (


) - 2,5G
GPRS - ETSI (
1998, 1998 ) ,
GSM -
( , Web-)
(, Web-).
, GPRS
.
GPRS
. , GSM, GPRS
,
.
GPRS - , ,
, .
-, .
,
GSM, .
GPRS
- ,
.
GPRS :
.
, , GPRS
.
GPRS (ETSI, 1998):
- GSM
TDMA;
- ,
;
- MS
()
, ( MS BTS) ( BTS MS)
;
- () ,
171,2/.
: ()
GSM.
,
14,4/
:
14,4/ 8 = 115,2/;
GPRS
.
GPRS
-PTP (ETSI,1998).

258

:
PTP (PTPCONS) ,
GSM,
.25.
:
PTP (PTP-CLNS),
, IP.
- PTM - GPRS 2G.
GPRS
, :
- (, , );
- ;
- .
,
. () (SDU Service Data Unit) ,
. ( ) -
:
- 10-9 - , ;
- 10-4 - 10-6 - ;
- 10-2 - 10-5 -
.

GPRS, .
() GPRS

, .. GPRS
.
GPRS, ETSI, 1998


128,

(95%)
128,



1024,

1
2
3

< 0,5
< 5,0
< 50,0

< 1,5
< 25,0
< 250,0

< 2,0
< 15,0
< 75,0

(95%)

1024,
< 7,0
< 75,0
< 375,0

GPRS ,
,
.
GPRS ,

MS, - .

259

GPRS :
- GPRS - GSN (GPRS Support Node),
GSM, ;
- GPRS - GGSN (Gateway GSN),
,
( ) ()
. (, IP
.25) Gi
- GPRS - SGSN (Serving GSN),
MS Gb.
SGSN
GPRS ( Gn), IP.
SGSN, , GR -
GPRS MS,
, ,
(, ),
BSC BSS .
SGSN ,
MSC;
- GR, HLR, ,
GPRS.
GPRS

BSS

M
S

SGSN

PDN

GGSN

(ISDN, .25 .)

Um

Gb

Gn

Gi
Internet

HLR/GR

VLR

Gi
EIR

:
EIR - Equipment Identity Register - IMEI -
MS (ME).
HLR - Home Location Register - IMSI -
"" .
P-TMSI
VLR - Visitor Location Register - TMSI ( - TMSI) , MSRN -
MS.
PDN - .
ISDN - ().

260

Um - MS GPRS.
G - GPRS.
PCU - Packet Control Unit - .
IGSN - .
BG - .
MS GPRS,
MS GPRS - SGSN.
GPRS :
MS,
- CKSN , :
- TLLI, Recciver Addres -
(RA),
PDN .
MM, ,
, (
MS
- SGSN,
GSM).
GPRS
MS.
,
- TLLI
- CKSN.
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service

,
GPRS - General Packet Radio
Service.
. ,
, , "
". BTS
MS .
, ,
.
.
, ,
.

.
, ""
(
) ,
GPRS
.

261

,
( )
,
().
GSM
GPRS.
GPRS GSM.
GPRS
- .

, HLR-VLR
BTS.
:
GPRS GSM
:
- GPRS - Serving Support Node - SGSN;
- GPRS - Gateway GPRS Support Node - GGSN.
SGSN ,
, ,
, , ,
" GPRS".
GGSN IP - ,
. GGSN ,
.
SGSN GGSN.
BTS - BSC
PCU Packet Control Unit. ,
GSM-. BSC
:
() MSC, -
PCU SGSN.
GPRS.
GPRS :
- (- -
);
- .
- -, :
, -,
GPRS :
- .
- GPRS.
- .

262

.
MS GPRS
(-),
MS .
, MS 4 + 2. ,
MS , MS -
.
GPRS MS
(), :
- "" .
- GSM (
) GPRS ( ).
- "B" GSM/GPRS,
, ..
- .
- "C"
.
(),
,
() TDMA 1 8.
- ( MS BTS),
( BTS MS).
GPRS-, .

(), , :
4 + 2 ( -), : 6.
-
.
, 6 - 4 - .
GPRS.
.
,
GPRS , .
GPRS.
GPRS
- Coding Schemes - CS - : CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4.
- ( ),
(..
),
GPRS. ,

:
-CS1 - 9,05/
-CS2 - 13,4/
-CS3 - 15,6/
-CS4 - 21,4/

(-).

263

,
, .
GPRS
GPRS :
- ;
- .

RLC - Radio Link Control -
(), ,
.
CS1 - CS4
,
.
BTS.
CS1,
.
CS2,
.

/,
CS1 CS2 / 9,0.
, Abis -
( ).
GPRS , .. GPRS
MS 1 8
().
:
- CS1 -
GSM 900 - 9,6/ - (-),
8 - - 72,4/;
- CS2 - :
13,4/ 107,2/;
- CS3 - :
15,6/ 124,8/;
- CS4 - :
21,4/ 171,2/;

, ..
.
GPRS- 171,2 (821,4)/ -
CS4. ,
: -,
().
- GSM GPRS,
, 8 -
GPRS, .
, ,
,
, .

264

, ,
,
, -
.
, GSM
( 9,6/).
, () ,
, ,
. ( 171,2/)
GSM GPRS - General
Packet Radio Service - .
GPRS
,
, GSM.
GPRS
(
MS BTS).
, .

.
,
,
- .
GPRS

.
.
GPRS ,
"" GSM-
GSM.
GSM-
GPRS :
.

: HLR VLR
BTS. ,
() GSM,
HLR, , :
Mobile Station Multislot Capability - MSMC - ,
MS.
GPRS - GPRS Core Network - :
- SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node - GPRS;
- GGPRS - Gateway GPRS Support Node - GPRS;
- SGSN GPRS, MSC -
GSM.
- SGSN -

265

, HLR,
, ,
On-line MS "" .
MSC, SGSN -
.
GPRS - GGSN -
( , GPRS)
(ISDN, .25 ).
GGSN, : (,
) , SGSN.
GGSN : ,
IP-,
, .
GPRS - GPRS :

SGSN,
GGSN IGSN.
GPRS ( SGSN
GGSN)
: GTP - GPRS Tunneling Protocol.
GPRS PCU - Packet Control Unit . PCU
BSC
BSC SGSN.
GPRS
- IGSN - Internet GPRS Support Node - .
GPRS OMC-R/G - Operation and
Maintenance Center - Radio / GSN - GPRS.
- "" GPRS .
GPRS, MS,
, .
("" - attachment - )
SGSN. :
,
HLR SGSN, P-TMSI - Packet Temporary
Mobile Subscriber Identity -
, TMSI. TMSI
MS ( MS "",
TMSI P-TMSI).
GPRS MS
, (HLR VLR ).
LA - Location Area - ,
MS .
,
.

266

MS:
- IDLE - . MS
. .
- STANDBY - . MS ()
GPRS, ( )
.
STANDBY- (MS )
RA (Routing Area - ). RA , LA (
LA RA, RA , () LA , ).
-READY . MS
. MS, READY,
GPRS - SGSN .
MS, STANDBY, RA
SGSN (routing
area update request).
RA
SGSN, RA
SGSN. MS
SGSN, SGSN
SGSN , MSC
VLR, HLR, GGSN SGSN.
MS, GPRS, LA,
SGSN VLR
MS.
GPRS :
- SGSN (VSGSN - Visited
SGSN);
- GGSN :
- (VGGSN - Visited GGSN),
- (HGGSN - Home GGSN).
-
GPRS- (Inter PLMN GPRS BackBone - GPRS- )
HGGSN MS.
, BG (Border Gateway - )
"" .
QoS (Quality of Service) - .
,
, .
GPRS QoS,
:
- ( ,
);
- ( ,
..);
- ( GPRS- );
- ( ).
267

QoS
.
QoS, :
- PDP type - Packet Data Protocol type;
-PDP-, MS (
, );
- GGSN, .
"":
-PTP - Point-To-Point - -;
-PTM - Point-To-Multipoint - - - .
:
- PTM-M (PTM-Multicast) -
, ;
- PTM-G (PTM-Group Call) -
.
"" PTM
GPRS.
GPRS -

, GPRS.
GPRS- :
- "" ,
(
(circuit switched), (packet
switched), .. ;
- "" ,
, ;
- ""
. ,
.
, ,
,
. 13.4/.
GSM 2G
3G UMTS - Universal Mobile Telephone System -
EDGE - Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution -
,
384,0/ GSM- (48,0/ - ).
EDGE " GPRS"
BTS, -
EDGE MS.
~171,2/, GPRS,
.
GPRS - 3G,
- - 2,5G,
2,048/.

268


GPRS :
( ),
.
, . GPRS
TCP/IP, GPRS
. IP X.25,
, IP,

, (TCP, UDP, HTTP, HTTPS, SSL, POP3, Jabber
.). GPRS
, IP- ( ).

- ,
/
.
- ,
,
.
. ,
.
(), ( ,
), (
, - ).

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

269

- 2,5G:
IMT-2000, UMTS, UTRA, EDGE
- IMT-2000 - International Mobile Telecommunications -
( - 2000.),
ETSI UMTS.
- UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System -
.
, 2G
GSM - 3G.

2G 3G
- EDGE - Enhancend Data rates for GSM Evolution -
GSM.
GSM, GPRS, UMTS (UTRA), .
- UTRA - UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access - UMTS -
UMTS,
- UMTS.
UMTS ,
ETSI, - GMM - Global Multimedia Mobility .
GMM ,
:
- GSM BSS - GSM Basic Service Set -

- UMTS - UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System -

- MBS - Mobile Broadband System -
- TCP/IP - Transmission Control Prtocol / Internet Prtocol -
/ - ,
1970- .
ETSI UMTS
UTRA:
- - 144,0/ ( - 384,0/);
- - 384,0/ ( - 512,0/),
- 120.0/,
- - 2,0/, 10,0/;
- 500,0/;
- (On-line);
-
;
- ("") ()
, (LA) UMTS,
GSM ;
- UMTS : GSM, ATM, IP ISDN;
- UMTS
;
- UMTS
UTRA
- IMT 2000.

270

UMTS

- UE

UTRA
UMTS

CN Core Network

UU = Um (GSM)
IU = A (GSM)


( ) ( ,
, ,
,
)
UTRA FDD
FDD - Frequence Division Duplex -
UTRA -

W-CDMA. , (
MS) ( BTS) ()
:
- 1920,0 1980,0;
- 2110,0 2170,0;
250 ,
, DS - Distribution System ( ).
- 2,048/.
GSM, UTRA-FDD
:
- - ,
- -
( ), ,
- ;
- -
, -
, .
UTRA TDD - Time Division Duplex -
- , GSM.
GSM - EDGE
EDGE - Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution -
GSM - GSM-
3G - UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System .

271

EDGE
(ESTI) 1997 . EDGE
- 384,0/
( ~171,2/ GSM/GPRS).
EDGE Web-,
, .
, .
, ,
, -
, EDGE - Enhanced Data
rates for Global Evolution -
384,0/.
EDGE ,
3G
.
EDGE
- ITU-
(-) 3G.
EDGE 3G - ,

. EDGE
- GPRS:

.
EDGE
.
EDGE TDMA () - . "
", ()
- 200,0, GSM.
EDGE
( ),
, , .
3G - 3 Generation - ,
,
, .
, ,
, (120 /),
144,0/, (4,0/) - 384,0 /,
- 2,048/.
3G .
3G - ,
,
MS BTS.
3G
, .
3G ,
.
272

3G ,
.
,
, .
, GPRS
EDGE, UMTS(UTRA) / W-CDMA -
(
UMTS)/
(),

, , , , Web, ..
2G ,
3G,
4G.
UMTS - 3G,

ETSI.
2G - GSM
.
UMTS.
- : 1920,0 - 1980,0 ( );
2110,0 - 2170,0 ( ).
- ( ) - 190,0.
- - 5,0,
200,0.
- ( ) - 200,0.
- :
) - 9612,0 - 9888,0;
) - 10562,0 - 10838,0.
- , - 5,0.
- :
1. - QPSK;
2. HSDPA
QAM : 16 64.
- - .
- 1- - 384,0/.
- - "" (
)
.
- :
) - 256 4,
- 15,0 960,0/
(15,0 64 = 960,0/);
) - 512 4,
2 - 7,5 / 960 /.

273

10,0 ,
15 (),
.
- , .
On-line - " "
, Off-line - "
" - . ,
,

,
.

H-SCSD
H-SCSD High- Speed Circuit Switched Data -
. -
- 4G.
- 14,4/, - 3,0/.
H-SCSD GSM-.
H-SCSD ,
, , ,
SMS,
.
GSM ,
H-SCSD
(), .
14.4/,

4- 57,6/.
H-SCSD
GSM , .

. ()
.
H-SDPA
H-SDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Access -
,
4G.
14,4/,
- 3,0/.
H-SDPA :
- - QPSK
- 16 QAM;
- - HARR - Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request;
- MAC-high speed.
H-SDPA - HighSpeed Downlink Shared Channel - HS-DSCH,
.
274

,

(),
.
UMTS, H-SDPA

(). 3G
( ) 384,0/ ( ,
3G, 2,4/).
, H-SDPA
( ,
).
5,0
30,0 , 3,0
20,0 . ,
DSL.
:
HSDPA 2008-2009.
H-SDPA : WiMAX (EEEI 802.16) ,
() 70,0/, ,
H-SDPA. EEEI 802.16 - WMAN - WiMAX
. -
, HSDPA , ..
.
H-SUPA
H-SUPA - "Highly () Seductive () Ultra () Pace
() Technology ()"
H-SUPA : "High-Speed () Uplink
() Packet () Access ()".
Samsung ,
5
W-CDMA. H-SUPA 2007 .
H-SUPA - W-CDMA,
.
2,0/
( MS BTS - ) 3,6/
( BTS MS - ).
H-SDPA
MS
CCTrCH - Coded Composite Transport Channel,
.
H-SUPA
, , ,
H-SDPA, ,
.

275

5. W-CDMA FDD UTRA


TDD

W-CDMA FDD
UTRA TDD
,

2110,0 - 2170,0 .
1920,0 - 1980,0 .
DS-CDMA
25; 27,5; 215
200
3,84


,
,
(), /
:
.
QPSK
.
QPSK

24
,

, 5,787 (.)/ 4,475 (.)

1900,0 - 1920,0 .
2010,0 - 2025,0 .
TD-CDMA
5
200
3,84
QPSK
QPSK
27,2
6,041 (.)/ 5,279 ()

: "
" - "", "" "",
, 3G (
) .
3G
:
- 1900,0-2200,0,
- ,
- ..
- ,
- On-line .
3G , 2008.
,
, , , 4G
,
3G .
, (-)
4G
,
1,0/ / 100,0/

120,0/.
4G, ,
" " ( ,
- , , ..)
. 3,5G.
, ( ),
"" ,
4G, 3,5G
.
, , ,
.

276

:
- 1G - - ( NMT).
- 2G - - (
GSM, CDMA, AMPS, D-AMPS).
- 3G - - ( GPRS, UMTS) -
.
3G , 3G
- 4G.
3G -
- 4G.
- 4G - . 4G, ,
,
100,0/ (EDGE, GMM, OFDM
.).
- 5G -
1,0/.
4G -
4G - , Wi-Fi (
) WiMAX ( - 1,0/).

GSM/EDGE (2G), :
240,0/.
EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution -
GSM.
3G, ,
(, , ),
7,0 - 14,0/.
() 4G
Samsung Electronics
Samsung 4G Forum
4G.
4G
.
100,0/ 60,0 /.
1,0/
4G .
Samsung Electronics ,
/ - Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO - 3,5/.
IPv6 - IPng ''IP next generation'' ( IP) -

4G ( 5G).
IPv6 ( IPng ''IP next generation'')
IP ( IPv4).

277

*BSD, FreeBSD IPv6


KAME. FreeBSD ,
IPv6.
IPv6.
,
IPv4. , :
. ,
(RFC1918)
(10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 192.168.0.0/24)
(NAT - Network Address Translation).
.
IPv6 :
128- . 6,67 1027
IPv6 .
,
.
IPv6, , :
.
('' '').
.
IPsec (IP security - IP).
.
IP.
IPv6 IPv4
,
4G 2012 .
4G ,
3G, , 4G
,
3G
. (-)
4G ,
1,0/
100,0/
.
4G
IPv6 (IP 6) -
.
,
.
40,0 60,0.
4G
-
- OFDM.
""
.
:

278

,
.
, -
("") .

- ( )
QPSK - Quadrature PSK,
. ,
- - QAM.
QAM - ,
.
QAM ,
9,6/.

.
.

,
BTS.

, .
OFDM -
"" (
), ,
MS,
- GSM.
OFDM -
.

4G. LTE (Long-Term Evolution)
T-Mobile International, Orange Vodafone
Group, Alcatel-Lucent, Nokia
Siemens Networks, Nortel Networks Ericsson.
LTE- ( 4G) - Long Term Evoluton ,
(4G).
LTE 1,5,
LTE/LTE Advanced 450,0
4990,0 (
). LTE . :
- , -
, .
"
", . . .
,
LTE.
, 3G ,
, .
LTE. 1,5
, LTE
279

, 100,0/ ,
20,0. .
800,0,
, .

2010-2012 . ,
4G, "".
, 4G
.
3G , 50,0% .
3G
. 4G
.
-
( ). 3G,
4G
2020 .
Nextel
3G 4G Flarion.
4G 150 BTS
. Telefonica
,
, ""
.
4G :
-

: ,
.
4G, ,

( 3G).

:
, ,
.

: -
, 2G
3G.
4G .

4G
WMAN.
4G, Wi-Fi .
,
4G,
.

, 4G
- video-on-demand - VOD - " ", " ..

280

4G ()
PTP (P2P) - Peint-to-Point - (-).
Screen Digest, 2011
140,0 .
4,7
. . ,
,
. 2011 - 2,0 . .
Screen Digest

, .
, , .
2007 8 1,5 . .
,
, . 2011
,
.
1G-4G

BTS, :
- BTS.
- .
- ,
, ,
, .
- ( ) -
.
- MS ().
:
- .
- (, ).
- BTS.
- MS BTS ,
.
BTS, , ..
" " ,
(, ). ,

,
- "" .

, .
, .
,
BTS, .

281

, :
- - 100,0 - , , , .
- - 50,0 300,0 - .
- - 1,0 20,0 - .
- - 20,0 - .

(). ,
.
:
-,
, ,
. , ,
, .
, "" .
GSM.
. GSM
900,0, 1800,0, 1900,0.
, GSM900, GSM1800,
: ( MS BTS - )
( BTS MS - ).

( TDMA -
).
MS BTS
(),
- . 200,0.
GSM 900 124 ,
GSM1800 - 374 . GSM
TDMA.
TDMA
, ..
.
8 .
CSD - Circuit Switched Data -
.
:
- CSD
.
- - 9,6/.
- CSD GSM.
- CSD-
.
- SD - .

282

WAP - Wireless Application Protocol -

WAP - ()
, : , .
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol - ,

. WAP
,
Web- ( HTTP TCP/IP).
WAP MS,
:
- MS;
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
- .
WAP
,
.
,
HTML - Hyper Text Markup
Language - -
, - tag - ,
.
(
Web- - ) .
, (Internet Explorer, .)

.
GSM
, .
WAP- .
"" MS Web-
.
" " - WML. WAP-

. WML
. WAP,
WAP-, WAP. WAP- .
WAP-, ().
: 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 2.0 . 1.0.
, WAP 1.2 2.0
MS. WAP
, .

283

GPRS - General Packet Radio Service -



,
GPRS - General Packet Radio
Service - .
. ,
, , "
". BTS
MS .
, ,
.
.
, ,
.

.
, ""
(
) ,
GPRS
.
,
( )
,
().

GPRS
(Coding Schemes - CS - ): CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. -CS1.
GPRS MS 1 8
.
:
- CS1
GSM 900 - 9,6/ - (-),
8 - - 72,4/;
- CS2 - : 13,4/ 107,2/;
- CS3 - : 15,6/ 124,8/;
- CS4 - : 21,4/ 171,2/;

, ..
.
GPRS- 171,2 (821,4)/ -
CS4.
MMS
MMS - Multimedia Message Service - -
. ,
, ,
.
284

S SMS - Short Messaging Service -


, SMS
.
, ,
GIF JPEG,
MPEG4, MP3 MIDI.
,
. ,
.
,
,
. , ,

WAP-.
MMS-
,
.
.
MMS ,

MS, MMSC - Multimedia Messaging Service Center -
- - (,
. .). ,
,
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant -
( ).

GSM
W-CDMA. CSD, GPRS HSCSD (.
) 2G, ,
GPRS, UMTS 3G.
MMS - MMSC Multimedia Messaging Service Center - ,
, , MMSC
, , .
, ,
MMS-.
MMS, SMS-
, MMS-.
-, ,
. ,
WAP-, MMS-,
.
MMS
,
. ,
, .
285

MMS-
WAP-.
,
MMS. , SMS, ,
, .
, "" .
.
MMS
GPRS.
.
.
EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution -

EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution -
.
EDGE
- ETSI 1997
GSM.
(ETSI) , EDGE
UWC-136 -
3G IS-136 (D-AMPS).
, EDGE GSM,
TDMA (IS-136) .
EDGE - :
(2G) (3G) .
GSM, GPRS.
(phase I) EDGE ( 1999 .)
GPRS, 384,0/.
- 2,048/,
-: IMT-2000 3G,
EDGE,
(On-line),
(, , ).
EDGE :
- (EGPRS, Enhanced GPRS);
- (ECSD, Enhanced Circuit
Switched Data).
384,0/ - ,
- 3G. EDGE
GSM,
, ,
.
.
.
.

286

I-MODE -
I-MODE - , , ,
.
"I-MODE " - "", NTT DoCoMo ()
I-MODE,
NTT DoCoMo, 1999.
, .
.

c

MS:
(, ,
, , ...);
;
;
.

, , WMAN
- Wireless Metropolitan Area Network WiMAX.
- Mobile Ad Hoc network - ,
-
, ,
.
(router) (host).

.
IMT-2000
3- - 2,5G.
MS
:
2,048/ - ( 3,0/)
(, );
144,0/ - ( 120,0/)
;
64,0/ - .
.
.
.
.
.

287

2,5G

,
SMS,

()
,

,
/

8,0-32,0

9,6-14,4

144,0-384,0


, ,
, EDGE,
GSM.

8 ().

IMT-2000
- 3G: ()
():





2G 3G

, 2G

,
3G

288

IMT2000
, - - (ITU-T)

3G: IMT- UMTS, CDMA 2000, UTRA - CDMA (2G).
-
:
IMT-DS (Direct Spread, W-CDMA / UTRA FDD);
IMT-MC (Multi Carrier, CDMA 2000);
IMT-TC (Time-Code, UTRA FDD / CDMA, CDMA 2000);
IMT-SC (Single Carrier, IS-136 - AMRS);
IMT-FT (Frequency Time, DECT).


3G.
3G
2G
.
: , , , ,
.
I-MODE
I-MODE -
, . ,
NTT DoCoMo - Nippon Telephone and
Telegraph DoCoMo, ()
HTML - c HTML (Compact HTML).
EDGE
EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
ETSI GSM / GPRS.
IMT-2000, EDGE
384,0/
UMTS.
100,0120,0/,
230,0/. EDGE .
E-GPRS - Enhanced GPRS E-CSD
(Enhanced Circuit-Switched Data). 1999
.
. ,
EDGE UMTS, .
3.5G
3.5G , 3G
, , 2,048/,
- 3,0/. ,
3.5G - , KDDI. KDDI
CDMA2000. 1x.

289

H-SUPA 3.75G

H-SUPA - High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
5,8/.
H-SDPA, H-SUPA
3.75G. H-SUPA 2008.
4G
4G
(Fourth-Generation), 3G.
4G , :
-
- 20,0/.
- - Pervasive networks. : WLAN,
WMAN, UMTS, EDGE .
:
1G;
2G;
2.5G;
3G; 3.5G; 4G; 5G;
:
1984;
1991;
1999;
2006; 2008; 2012; 2015.
:
1G - ,
9,6 /;
2G - , (SMS)
, ,
4G - IP- , ,
.
: 1G- 9,6/; 2G - 14,4/; 2.5G - 384,0/;
3G - 2,048/; 4G - 3,0-14,0/,
1,0/.

3G.
,
NMT. GSM

. , ,
3G ,
,
- .
3G
(2G)
.
,
,
.

-
.
3G
, , .

290

,
, . -
, -
.
, ,
, .
- - (ITU)
,
,
3- - IFS - IMT-2000 Family of Systems,

.
CDMA HSCSD.
H-SDPA

H-SDPA
H-SDSC - High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel 3G,
;
,
. ,
.

UMTS-
H-SDPA
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (H-SDPA)

.
,
. H-SDPA
UMTS
, .
H-SDPA UMTS-

. UMTS
,

, .
H-SDPA ,
800,0/
1,5/, 3,6/
6 14,4/ 10.
, H-SDPA
65,0,
- .
291

H-SDPA
, , :
. .
,
. - ,
,
H-SDPA
. ,
-.
;
, .
, H-SDPA
triple play,
: , ,
. H-SDPA, .
triple play H-SDPA
H-SDPA

H-SDPA

Nortel Node B,
UMTS. Node B, ,
HSDPA
(). IS-95 (CDMA)
,
1xEV-DO
CDMA UMTS, Nortel QPSK
16 QAM H-SDPA. Node B
.
(RNC),
H-SDPA, (add-on)
,
R'99. UMTS R'99 H-SDPA
.
H-SDPA ,
HS-DSCH
Iub. ,
(Radio Resource Management) H-SDPA,
H-SDPA,
(UE), (RAB)
H-SDPA (CAC). H-SDPA
2004.,

292

2005 . GSM Nortel


3,6/ .
H-SDPA

UMTS-. H-SDPA
( 65,0). H-SDPA
, .
,
IMS ACK/NACK,
.
, TCP
, 100,0 .
,

H-SDPA

, , 16
QAM Modulation ( ,
).
UMTS BTS RNC.
UMTS H-SDPA,
(UE
category).
Nortel UMTS-
ATM.
ATM (CBR, , rt-VBR, nrt-VBR, UBR)
(emission priorities).
, , Nortel UTRA
UMTS- ( Rel'99)
Iub 50%,
90% .
.

, H-SDPA
Node B
RNC.

144,0/
Nortel H-SDPA
Node B, ,
15
144,0/ (9,6/ 15).
15
H-SDPA - .

293

: H-SDPA
. H-SDPA
, ,
(Dynamic Power Management).

H-SDPA.
UMTS-GSM

E1 (64,0/ 32 = 2,048/).
.
H-SDPA . 2009.

; 60% UMTS- - .
UMTS
H-SDPA,
(UE category).
UMTS
,
H-SDPA ,
Iub, (dark fiber), LMDS,
.
,
H-SDPA. Nortel
MIMO OFDM

.
300,0/ 20,0.
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (H-SDPA)

.


,
. ,
.
, "" ,
, , "
". "" ( . Smartphone),
, " (Smart) (Phone)" -
. ,
.

, , - ,

294

, .
:
- :
, ,
, ,
"",
, .
- :

. ,
.
, ,
, ()
:
,
() .
"" ,
,
, ,
.
Java , , ..
Java , ,
- ,
.

1G

2G

2.5G

3G

3.5G

1984

1991

1999

2002

2008-2010

2010 - 2012

9,6/

(SMS)

2,0
/

,
IP-
, MSM,
,

1,2 /

14,4 /

384,0 /

2,0 /

3,0-14,0 / 1,0 / ...

4G

4G

5G

295

D-AMPS
(900),
AMPS(450, 900)
GSM 900,
NMT 450,
GSM 1800,
NMT 900
PDC
(1900)

PSTN ()

W-CDMA
CDMA (800),
(2100...),
CDMA (900),
CDMA 2000
CDMA PCS
(
(1900,0-),
),
PCN (1900,0 UMTS (UTRA)

(1900)
PCS),
LTE (
EDGE (1900,0

- )
)
GPRS GSM

PSTN () PSTN PDN

GPRS

450
900

1800 900

900
1800

1G
, :
N-AMPS D-AMPS
450 900
.

1G
2G




,
, .
.

,
+

:
NMT 450 NMT900 GSM900 GSM1800

2G

EDGE

H-SCSD,
H-SDPA,
H-SUPA,
W-CDMA
2100
IMT-2000
I-MODE
LTE (
)

UTRA

UMTS
1900 1900

2,5G


IPv6 (IP 6) .

:
,
PDN -

H-SCSD, H-SDPA, H-SUPA


W-CDMA

3G

3,5 G

H-SCSD, H-SDPA, H-SUPA

CDMA800 CDMA900 CDMA-PCS (PCN)


800 900
1900

2,5G

CDMA2000 W-CDMA


3G

3,5G

:
IPv6 ,
4G

5G


: 1G; 2G; 2,5G; 3G; 3,5G; 4G; 5G
- 1G

.,
.,
.R ,

, /

NMT450 (450,0)


(""
), 450,0
453,0-457,5
463,0-467,5
2 - 20
1,2

NMT900 (900,0)

N-AMPS (900,0)

825,0-850,0
870,0-895,0
2 - 20
10,0 . .
1,2

825,0-850,0
870,0-895,0
2- -20
10,0 . .
1,2

296

,
,






MS/BTS,

- IS

10,0
12,5
SDM
FDM
198+198=396

45,0
30,0
SDM
FDMA
395+395=790

45,0
30,0
SDM
FDMA
395+395=790

10+10=20

21+21=42

21+21=42

416 (208+208)

832 (416+416)

832 (416+416)

6,0 / 100,0

3,0 / 100,0

3,0 / 100,0

IS-136

1979
, ,
...

1983
,

1983
, ...

- 2G

.,
.,
. R ,

, /
,

D AMPS (IS-54)-

GSM900 -

GSM1800 -


, 900,
PDC -
,
900,0
824,0-849,0
869,0-894,0
20,0
8,0

,
900,0


,
1800,0

890,0-915,0
935,0-960,0
35,0
9,6

1710,0-1785,0
1805,0-1880,0
35,0
13,0

45,0

45,0

95,0

297


MS,

- IS

30,0
FDMA+TDMA

200,0
FDMA+TDMA,

200,0
FDMA+TDMA,

395+395=790

124+124=248

187+187=374

21+21=42

832

248

374

3,0

20,0

20,0

IS-54

1991 - 1993
- D-AMPS
- PDC

1991
, ...

1996
...

*IS -
GSM - 1800 - :
- DCS 1800 (1991.)
- PCN (1993.)
PDC - 900 (, 1991.)

2,5G
CDMA, CDMA800

CDMA PCS (PCN)

CDMA 2000

()
1900

(IS-2000, IMT-2000)


(),
450 ...

1810,0-1885,0
1905,0-1980,0
50,0
9,6 -
14,4
( )
8

453,0-457,0
463,0-467,0
50,0
384,0 - 1500,0
(,
)
8

45,0

95

10

.,
.,
R ,


, /

(
)
,

3G

CDMAOne (IS-95)


(),
800,
824,0-849,0
869,0-894,0
50,0
14,4 8 =115,2

298

1250,0
CDMA + TDMA
CDMA + FDMA

CDMA + TDMA
CDMA + FDMA

5000,0
CDMA + TDMA
CDMA + FDMA


()

MS BTS

64

64

64


MS,

- IS

35,0

35,0

35,0

IS-95

IS-95

IS-2000

1995
... ...70

1994
...

1995
... ...70

* PCS (PCN) - 1900 - ()


CDMA

2,5G
3G
EDGE (GSM/EDGE)
( GPRS)

.,
.,
R ,




(
- GSM) 900,0

GPRS
(GSM/GP
RS)

(
)
I-e 900,0
II-e 1800,0

UMTS
(IMT-2000/UMTS)

2000)
1900,0
1920,0-1980,0
2110,0-2170,0
50,0

299



, /

144,0 - 120,0/
384,0 -

2,048,0 - 0,0/

171,2 - 8 ,
:
9,6 -
CS1
14,4 -
CS2
15,6 -
CS3
21,4 -
CS4


MS,

- IS

200,0
TDMA

200,0
TDMA

171,2 - 8 ,
:
9,6 -
CS1
14,4 -
CS2
15,6 -
CS3
21,4 -
CS4
960,0 15
15
( QPSK - 16 ,
QAM - 64 )
190,0
200,0
QPSK QAM

250
20,0

20,0

27,2

1998
, ...

1998.

IS-136 (
D-AMPS)
1999.
.

...

* EDGE N-AMPS, D-AMPS (IS-54)


3,5G
4G

.,
.,

W-CDMA FDD

UTRA TDD-

GMM

(W)
CDMA,


(FDD),
2100,0

.
UTRA FDD-
.

()

1920,0 - 1980,0 .
2110,0 - 2170,0 .
DS-CDMA

UTRA
(IMT 2000)


-
(UMTS),
1900,0-1920,0 .
2010,0-2025,0 .
TD-CDMA

300

,
/

,
/

25,0; 27,5; 215,0

5,0

200,0

200,0
250

0,384

120/
2,048

0,0/

2,048

190,0
0,384

120/
2,048

0,0/

0,384

120/
2,048

0,0/

QPSK -


,
/

1600,0

QPSK -
+ QAM

100,0 - 800,0

24

27,2

57,0

106,0

~5,8

~6,0

2002
, ...,

2002
...

...


4G
5G

H-SCSD

H-SDPA -

H-SUPA -

-


( GSM)


BTS MS - .
( CDMA),

HS-DSCH

(TDMA+CDMA)


-
W-CDMA H-SDPA

LTE - Long Term


Evoluton

301

.,
.,
R ,

, /

()
,

MS,

- IS

384,0 - 3000,0

384,0 - 3000,0

2000,0 - .
3600,0 - .

16

TDMA

QPSK QAM

QPSK QAM

2007
, (LTE)
WiMAX
( WMAN)

2007


4G
5G
IPv6 - I-MODE -

(
) - IP 6

.,

40,0

.,

60,0


()

R ,

, /

100,0 - 1000,0

302


()
,

OFDM -

;
QPSK QAM,


(9,6/)

MS,

- IS

2010 - 2012

1999

, , ...

...

Skyp - IP-.
VoIP ( IP-)
GEO- Skype 2003.
Skype:
Skype - ,
, , ,
Skype.
Skype P2P = PTP - Point-to-Point (P2P) -
(-) ,
- ,
.
,
, .

303

,
.
. ,
Skype !
,
, .
Skype :
Net2Phone MSN Messenger, ICQ, AIM, Yahoo Messenger, Skype:
- ;
-
, ( );
- , ;
- ;
-100% ;
Skype:
- Skype;
- ;
- -
;
- , ,
;
- ;
- ;
- P2P (peer-to-peer), KaZaA Joltid;
- .
Skype
:
- Windows 2000 XP;
- 400,0;
-128,0 ;
-15,0 ;
- , + ;
- 33,6/.
-"" , .

,
- .
- (VoIP - Voice IP
IP)
, , .

() VoIP-,
- -.
VoIP -
(PSTN, POTS - Public Switched Telephone Network
- ).
, :
304

- .225 (ITU-T);
- SIP (Session IP);
- SCCP ( Cisco Control Protocol);
- Skype - 2003. VoIP - Voice over IP IP, Skype S.A.,
.
-.
Skype :
-MS Windows;
-Pocket PC;
-Linux.
Skype ,
().
Skype
, .
Skype 128- ,
""
.
Skype ,
Per-to-Per (P2P).
Skype ZaA, ,
: KaZaA
Skype , KaZaA
() ()
.
, Skype
:
- - ;
- () - ,
, ;
- -
;
- -
;
- - ;
- - ;
- - Skype "spyware".
, Skype, ,
, ISDN- (- ), ,
,
Skype , ,
.

305

Wi-Fi -
Wi-Fi - Wireless Fidelit - : " ".
Wi-Fi 50., ,
. Wi-Fi -
, hot spots - : ,
, , , , , ,
..
- Wi-Fi.
. Wi-Fi
.
Wi-Fi
. Wi-Fi -
, , 50- .
Wi-Fi - ,
(hot spots).
Wi-Fi
( ) .

, , ,
,
. .
Wi-Fi, , .
Wi-Fi
.
306

Wi-Fi Wi-Fi

.
, , , Wi-Fi
. , Wi-Fi
(, , , , .)
BTS () (
)
, Wi-Fi
(),
(hot spots).
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi .
, Wi-Fi, - hot spots,
Wi-Fi
, Wi-Fi
.

1,0/. hot spots
100,0 / Ethernet.
(hot
spots) Wi-Fi ( Wi-Fi
), (,
- ) 100,0/ 150,0/.
MyVital Agent.
, 3G - GPRS,

() - CDMA (CDMA - 2000.1x).
Wi-Fi 450,0 -.
"" , ..
,
.
,
, 100,0/
"" 1,5 .
(hot spots)
, , Cisco - BBSM - Building
Broadband Solution Manager,
() , ,
( ) PMS - Property Management Systems.
BBSM
Wi-Fi (OSS -Operations Support System), ,
Nomadix Alvarion. BreezeACCESS GO HotSpot OSS -
307

() ,
().
Wi-Fi
SMS (SMS - Short Message Servce -
160 ).
BreezeACCESS GO HotSpot OSS 2000
PAC - ,
.
, ( )
100.
Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11b,
.
Wi-Fi
"

2400,02483,5 ":
-
- .
;
-
/ .
- , .;
-
,
,
-
29.10.2001.

Cisco, Hand Held Products Symbol,

;
- .
Wi-Fi, - Wi-Fi
, ,
, , , , , .
, 5,0.
.
IEEE 802.11
, , ,
.
,
IEEE 802.11,
.
:
-
;
- .
308

IEEE 802.11
5,8 - 5,9.
CompTek,
Intel Cisco. ,
$150,0 .
Centrino, IEEE 802.11b,
- IEEE 802.11. Intel

.
Wi-FI Cisco
().
5,0 ,
2,4, Wi-Fi
.
, 500,0.
,
40%,
Wi-Fi.
,
.
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
,
, 2,5G - GPRS
3G - UMTS.

, GPRS UMTS,

1,0/.
(
) 2000. : Telia, Sonera Telenor.

.
Wi-Fi T-Mobile USA " " T-Mobile International (
Deutsche Telekom). T-Mobile USA 3000
Wi-Fi.
2002 . mZone.
( )
.
384,0/,
-UMTS,
GSM - CDMA -
().

309

,
Nokia 2002
, GPRS / Wi-Fi.
Novatel Wireless.
Merlin U530 UMTS, 3GlobeTrotter
CDMA-2000 , ,
Wi-Fi.
Merlin U530 3GlobeTrotter
(Secure Mobile Data Solutions for
Enterprises - SMDSe) Lucent.
.

.
Wi-Fi :
- Wi-Fi ;
- Wi-Fi .
,

.
Wi-Fi, .
Wi-Fi .
,
, ,

Wi-Fi.
Wi-Fi
() ,
( ,
, , .)
Wi-Fi
.
, British Telecom, Verizon
10 000 2008.
Wi-Fi
- ,
.

Hanaro Telecom ( ) -
,
WiFi 25 000.

, -
Wi-Fi

, ADSL-.
British Telecom ,

ADSL - Wi-Fi.
310

Verizon Wi-Fi
, , Wi-Fi
-
ADSL.
,
- ("", "" "" .).
"" -2,
GPRS, ,
Wi-Fi GPRS, ,
. ""
Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi
GPRS, , , WiFi, , " GSM".
, , " " "Race
Communications". "Race Communications",
""
"Country-Park". ,

, , .
, IP-
, :
- .
ADSL- ,
Wi-Fi ,
, ADSL-.
ADSL-
Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi
, ,
.
Voice over Wi-Fi, Voice over IP - VoIP - ( )
.

. " "
() ,
.
MS.


. ,
: , .
,
- VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol -
, .

VoIP.
:
(, - )
( ) .

311

Wi-Fi
, .
Wi-Fi
(hot-spots - -), .
- Voice over
Wi-Fi - Wi-Fi - Voice over Wi-Fi.
, ,
.
Wi-Fi
.
, , ,
, .. ,
.

()
.
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi ( ),
GSM,
.

Wi-Fi VoIP,
.
Wi-Fi, .. hot-spots.
,
Wi-Fi, .
, , (
VoIP) ,
"" .
( ) ,
.
-
Wi-Fi ( Wi-Fi),
.
VoIP,
. ,
Wi-Fi
.
,
VoIP MS, WiFi. , MS
, SMS .

MS.
IP VoIP .
VoIP (, Nokia: "N"),
( ,
..).
312

Voice over Wi-Fi ,


VoIP-
MS ( MS
, ).
IP-,
,
, .
Wi-Fi .
Wi-Fi
, Wi-Fi
, -
.
, ,
, .

WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access " "


WiMAX - ,
Intel, 30
.
WiMAX
, IEEE 802.11 (a,b).
- IEEE 802.16,

- Wi-Fi.
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers -
. LAN- IEEE
. LAN - Local-Area Network - ,
- . LAN-

( , OSI -
).
LAN- :
- Ethernet - ,
, 10,0/,
IEEE 802.3, 10Base, Fast Ethernet (100,0/), Gigabit Ethernet (1,,0/)

313

FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interfac -


- 100,0/
2,0.
- Token Ring -
4,0/ 16,0/ - IEEE 802.5.
IEEE 802.16
.
-

WiMAX - ,
IEEE 802.16 (2004), "WiMAX
Forum".
WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
"
".
WiMAX ,
.
, WiMAX
,
, ,
.
WiMAX
, ,
, .
WiMAX
" " ,
, .
WiMAX:
: 50,0.
: 2,0 - 11,0.
: 70,0/
.
.
:
.
WiMAX - ,
,
, Wi-Fi (50,0).
70,0/,
1,0/ 10,0/.
WiMAX - ,
,
.
GSM GPRS
-3G ( 2,5G) , WiMAX
WiMAX.

314

WiMAX
- ADSL. , 2008
"Vodacom" WiMAX, ADSL,
.
"Vodacom" , H-SCSD High-Speed Circuit Switched Data .

4G,
14,4/, - 3,0/.
,
.
WiMAX Wi-Fi (
) IEEE 802.16 ,
:
-

WMAN - Wireless Metropolitan Area Network -


WLAN, ,
, WAN.

WAN - Wide - Area Network - .

WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network -


Wi-Fi, ( 2001).

WMAN 802.16a.

WMAN IEEE 802.16a:


- IEEE 802.16a
.
- WMAN 50,0,
, ,
,
.
- WMAN, ADSL,
,
.
- ( ) WMAN 70,0/.
- WMAN 60 ,
2,048/.
- 2,0 - 11,0,
.
- ,
IEEE 802.16, Wi-Fi -

315

IEEE 802.11a,b ,
.
WMAN Wi-Fi,
WMAN - IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi -
(" ")
BTS
MS.
Wi-Fi, WMAN
, ,
IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.16
.
WMAN - IEEE 802.16
(12,0 66,0)
.

Wi-Fi WiMAX

:
2400,0 2483,5. Wi-Fi
.
. 8-, 10-
,
.
2500,0 2700,0. ,
WiMAX.
"". 3400 3450 ; 3500 3550 .
WiMAX-.



- NAVSTAR / GPS
NAVSTAR - ( ).
GPS - Global Positioning System -
() .
, (, ).
GPS .
, ,
.
GPS -
Global Position
System. -
NAVSTAR/GPS .

316

GPS (LEO)
,
-: , , ..,
.


( ) -
,
. -
GPS , ,
.
,

() GPS.
-
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.
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.
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( ) ()
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.
() .
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() 2,5/.
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.
, SONET.
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.
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353

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().
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,
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BDA.
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Electronics Show (CES), 2006 .
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- , ISO
). BSC


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.
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354

"C"
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,
.
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(). - CDMA -
( )
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, , GSM.
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10 .
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CSD - Circuit Switched Data - .

355

"D"
DECT - Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications -
.
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, , (0 1):
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);
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-
.
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- (2,5 2,5G
) () CDMA.
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), ,

. ,
.

356

"E"
EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution -
GSM - GSM-
3G - UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System ).
EDGE
(ESTI) 1997 . EDGE
- 384,0/.
EGNOS - European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Services -
,
,
( 30,0), .
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E-mail - .
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, SMS
.
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(, ), ,
.
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Access /Collision Detect),
10,0 /.
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,
.
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, ()
, .
.
.
.
.
.
.

357

"F"
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, ..
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().
FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface -
- ( 2- .), LAN -
()
100,0/. () -
.
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access -
(). FDMA
BTS
MS () .
Frame - ( ),
"", ,
.

- OSI - Open System Interconnection, - .
"" : "" (cell), ""
(datagram), "" (message), "" (packet), "" (segment) .
Frame Relay -
- ( ISO),

HDLC-. ,
.25 .

"G"
GMM - Global Multimedia Mobility - ,
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, ETSI.
GMSC Gatewey Mobile (Service) Switching Center (MSC)
.
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ETSI (Europian Telecommunication Standards
Institute - )
, GSM-.
GPS - , - - (
). : 900,0/1800,0.

358

GSM - Global System for Mobile .


ETSI (Europian Telecommunication
Standards Institute - ).
.
: 900,0, 1800,0 1900,0.
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100 .
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, .
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.
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.
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( , ,
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"H"
handover - -

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.
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hard - "" , .. ( ).
hard handoff - " " ( ), :

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- -
( - ISO),
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359

HDTV - High Dfinition TeleVision


,

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720576 ,
, .
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.
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. ,
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, -,
, SMS,
.
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GSM , .
.
() .
HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Access -
- ,

4G.
14,4/, - 3,0/.
HSUPA - "Highly () Seductive () Ultra () Pace
() Technology ()".
HSUPA : High-Speed () Uplink
() Packet () Access () -
. Samsung .
,
, . 5 W-CDMA, , ,
.
HSUPA 2007.

360

Hot spots - (-), ( ,


, , ..).
HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language - -
, - tag , .
HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol -
(, ), Web- Web-.
:
http - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol -
.
hub - 1.
"". 2. ,
,
. 3. Ethernet,
.

"I"
IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity -
( ).
IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity -
() ()
:
IMSI - International Mobile System Identifier -
, SIM-, SIM-
MS , -
MS.
IMT-2000 - International Mobile Telecommunications -
( - 2000.),
ETSI UMTS. UMTS - Universal
Mobile Telecommunication System -
. ,
2G GSM
- 3G. :
- IMT-DS (Direct Spread, W-CDMA / UTRA FDD);
- IMT-MC (Multi Carrier, CDMA 2000);
- IMT-TC (Time-Code, UTRA FDD / CDMA, CDMA 2000);
- IMT-SC (Single Carrier, IS-136 - AMPS);
- IMT-FT (Frequency Time, DECT).
IP - Internet Protocol - TCP/IP -
.

361

IP - - ,
() .
IPv6 - IP 6 - IP -
,
4G.
IrDA -
( )
PTP=P2P - -: , .
. (-) ,
,
, ,
, - ,
. :
.
IS - Interim Standard - ,
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association.
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network -
( - = - = - ), ,
( - , ) ,
, .
.
ISDN + IN - Integrated Services Digital Network - (
) + Intelegent Network ( ).

"J"
JAVA , Sun
Microsystems. JAVA ,
, .
, Sun
Microsystems, JAVA 2 Micro Edition (J2ME).
, ,
. J2ME
-, Bluetooth,
( ) .
JAVA - WAP. JAVA -

,
, " "
. - MIDP 2.0 - Mobile Information Device Profile JAVA,
.
. MIDP 2.0

362

"" ,
. MIDP 2.0
.
:
. MIDP 2.0
.

"L"
LA - Location Area - . LA
LAI.
LAPB - Link Acces Procedure Balanced -
- - .25, ,
HDLC.
LAI - Location Area Identity - .
LAN - Local Area Network - ( - ).
,
( ).
, , ,
. LAN
- ( OSI Open System Interconnection - ). :
Ethernet, TokenRing, FDDI.
LAPDm - Link Acces Procedure - on the D chanel -
D - 16,0/
- ISDN),
LAPD, - ISDN.
LAPDm - LAPB.
LTE- - Long Term Evoluton ,
(4G).
LTE 1,5,
LTE/LTE Advanced 450,0
4990,0 (
). LTE . :
- , -
, .

" ", . .
. ,
LTE.
, 3G ,
, .
LTE. 1,5

363

, LTE
, 100,0/ ,
20,0. .
800,0,
, (. 279).

"M"
MAC - Medium Access Control -
.
MAN - Metropolitan Area Networks - . -
, " " ( .
.), .. .
- MAN-.
MBS - Mobile Broadband System - .
MIMO - Multiple Input Multiple Output -
/,
3,5/.
MMS - Multimedia Message (Messaging) Service -
- ,
, , .
S SMS - Short Messaging Service, SMS
. MMS -
, .
: MMS-
, , SMS.

MMS-, -
.
MMS- , SMS, 1000
( SMS - 160 ).
MMSC - Multimedia Messaging Service Center - .
MPC - Multimedia Personal Computer - ,
Microsoft Windos. Macintosh - - Quick
Time ( Apple).
MS - Mobile Station - .
MSC - Mobile Switching Center - -
BTS
, (, ).
MTSO - () .

364

MSISDN - Mobile Station International ISDN Number -


(ISDN) -
.164 - - ,
, :
Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number - ISDN .
ISDN.
MSMC - Mobile Station Multislot Capability - ,
MS
GPRS.
MSRN - Mobile Station Roaming Number - .
MSRN,
IP
.
MTSO - Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office - ()

Multimedia -
(, , ,
, ) .

,
CD-ROM.
, , , MPC ( MPS-2),
, .

"N"
N-ISDN - Narrowband ISDN - .
NMT 450 NMT 900 - Nordic Mobile Telephone -
, 450,0 900,0 -
, : "
".
NMT 450 ,
( - GSM 900).
N-ISDN - Narrowband ISDN - .
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone - ,
,
. NMT450: 450.
Novell - -
.

365

Novell Netwere - Unix.

"O"
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Divizion Dplex -
(),
4G.
OMC -Operation and Meintenance Centre -
. -: TMN -

GSM "" ( .25 -
7, SS7), ,
(), ..
OSI - Open Sistem Interconnection - ()
,- , ISO
ITU-T (-) ,
(,
) .

"P"
PIN - Personal Identification Number ()
. ,
.
. 3- SIM-
PUK-. PIN-
. ,
, , ,
, PUK-.
, PIN- -
, PUK-
, .
PIN- 5-7 .
.
- - PC-card ,
.

(, e-mail).
PCS - Personal Communications Services -
( ). PCS:
. PCS
, ,
,
.
366

PCN - Personal Communictions Network - .


PDA - Personal Digital Assistant - (
).
PDC - Personal Digital Cellular - : "
" (), 1900,0.
PDN - Pablic Data Network - (, IP, X.25).
- Paith Over Head - () ,
-12 VC-12.

( ).
PTP - Point-to-Point (P2P) - (-)
.
PTM - Point-To-Multipoint - - - .
:
- PTM-M (PTM-Multicast) -
, ;
- PTM-G (PTM-Group Call) -
.
"" PTM
GPRS.
PTP-CLNS - Point-to-Point Connection Less Network -
.
PTP-CONS - Point-to-Point Connection Oriented Network Service -
, .
Prepaid .
PUK - Personal Unblocking Number -
8 . SIM-.
PUK- 10 ,
-. PIN-, PUK-
.

"Q"
QAM - Quadrature AM - .
QAM - ,
. QAM
, 9,6/.

367

QPSK - Quadrature PSK -


( ), ,
, .
QWERTY - ,
, (
).
, . :
. :
.

"R"
RA - Recciver Addres - .
RACH - Random Access Channel - () .
RAND - Random number - .
RLC - Radio Link Control - .

"S"
SCP - Service Control Point -
.
SCEP - Service Envirjnment Point -
.
SDH - Snchronous Digital Hierarchy -
155,52/ - STM-1 -
155,52/). SDH -
.
SDH
155,520 / .
SDH
,
( )
STM (Synchronous Transport Module). SDH
STM-n, n - 155,520/.
SDLC - Synchronous Data Link Control -
. - -
, ,
HDLC LAPB.
SDM - Space Division Multiplexing -
().
368

SDSL - Singe-line Digital Subscriber Line -


, DSL-, 1,544/
,
3048,8.
SIM - Subscriber Identity Module - (),
,
(, ) . SIM, :
"SIM-" MS. SIM
,
. SIM , ,
SMS-. SIM
. .
SIM-,
SIM- .
Site - (). .
()
.
Skyp - IP-. 2003. VoIP
- Voice over IP - IP,
Skype S.A.,
SMS - Short Message Serice - . SMS -
.
- 160 .
SMS.
,
SMS. , ,
. SMS-
, . SMS-
, , .
. - MMS, .
SMP - Service Management Point ,
, .
Soft - ().
Soft handoff - " ", ,
MS ""
BTS. , "" BTS.
,
BTS.
SONET - Synchronous Optical Network -
51,84/ - STS-1 ( 1- ),
: STS-3c ( ) SONET
369

155,52/. SONET - - .
SONET
- STS - Synchronous Transport Signal.
SONET STS-n, n -
51,84/.
SRB - Sourse-Route Bridging - .
SRB on-lin, ,
( Token Ring IBM).
SRES - Signed Response - ,
AuC.
SS - Supplementary Service - .
SSP - Service Switching Point
.

"T"
-9 c "" ,
, Tegic. , -9,
"" ,
. , ,
, .
-9 . , :
.
, .
- , .
TCH - Traffic Channel - ().
TCP - Transmision Control Protocol - ,

.
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Prtocol / Internet Prtocol -
/ - ,
1970- .
Telecommunications - - ,
,
.
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access -
. 2G
, , ,
: FDMA - (),

370

SDMA - ()
CDMA - ().
TDMA -
, .
, .
TMN - Telecommunications Management Network -
. TMN ,
,
.
TMSI - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity -
() ().
TP - Twisted Pair - - ,
,
. .
Token - . , .
.
Token passing - - ,
,
-.
(circiut switching), (contention).
Token Ring - (- - )
, IBM, 4,0/
16,0/.
Token bus - -
(: Ethernet, ).
Transmission - ( - ,
).

"U"
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System -
. ,
2G GSM
- 3G. UMTS ,
ETSI, : GMM - Global Multimedia
Mobility - .
UMTS(UTRA) / W-CDMA -
( UMTS) /
(),
371


, , , ,
Web-, ..
UTC - Universal Time Coordinated - (
- Greenwch Mean Time - GMT, ).
T-GPS UTC

, .
UTRA - UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access - UMTS -

UMTS,
- UMTS.

"V"
Vendor () - ;
( ).
, ,
manufacturer, .
VLR - Visitor Location Register - () .
VoIP - Voice over IP - IP - ,
, ,
DSP - . DSP
(frame), ,
IP-
.323 - (ITU-T). 2003.
VoIP - Voice over IP - IP,
Skype S.A.,
.
VP-Virtual Path - ( ) .
VPN - Virtual Private Network - , (
) ().
VPI - Vertual Path Identifier - ( -
). VPI - (8 ) -.
VSAT - Very Small Aperture Terminal -
(, ). , VSAT
. VSAT

372

(64,0/)
, , .
.
VSAT
:
- 50,0;
- 2,0;
- 0,5 - 3,8.

"W"
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol - - WAP - ()
.
: .

WAP - Wireless ccess rotocol - :


- Web- .
-
.
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Access Protocol
, WAP-
. WAP
.
(
). WAP ,
. WAP
,
Web- (: HTTP, TCP/IP, VoIP).
,
, WAP ,
. , ,
"" Web-.
WAP- .
WAN - Wide Area Network - ,
(Area - ,
,

). :
- SONET - 51,84/ - SDH - 155,52/ Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelit) - : " ".
Wi-Fi 50, ,
.
373

Wi-Fi - , hot-spots.
Windows-
.
WLAN - Wi-Fi.
WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microware Access - :
" ". WiMAX -
, Intel
30 ,
70,0/ ( WMAN)
DSL. WiMAX Wi-Fi:
. WMAN -
Wi-Fi - 802.11
(" ")
.
WMAN - WiMAX
().
WWW - World Wide Web - " " - ,

, ,
(Browser - GUI - Graphical User Interface , :
Microsoft Windows Apple Macintosh .).

, , ,

374

/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
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13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
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22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
/
54
55

" "

()




""
" "






TMN,

, ,














,


:
:
: , ,
:

:


:
:





2-

30

.
5
11
12
20
21
22
23
25
26
27
28
29
30
32
33
36
39
40-42
46-50
52
53
56
56
57
59
62
65
67
68
68
69
71-72
73-75
77
78-79
82
84
86
87
87
89-90
91
92
93
94
94
95
96
99
100
102
103
103
.
104
106

375

56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89




:
:

7

:
:
2,048/
PDH 140,0/
STM 1 SDH
STS 1 SONET
SDH SONET
1920 STM1
SDH
SDH
ADM SDH
- SDH


-

STM 1 SDH
SDH
: ( ) -

-

: ( )
(IN)


90
91
92


LAN
LAN

93
94

: LAN
: ( ) LAN

95
96
97
98

: LAN
: Token Ring LAN
: LAN
: IP-

: 4 IP-
: IP-
: IP-
: IP-
: DHCR LDAP IP-
IP-

IP-
: IP-
ADSL-

99
100
101
102
103
104
/
105
106
107

110
111
112
114
116
118
119
121
122
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
130
131
132
133
135
136
136
137
137
140
142
145
146
147
150
151
155
156157
158
159
160161
164
165166
168
170
172
173
174
177
179
181
183
186
.
186
188
190

376

108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138145
146149
150
151
152
153154
155

: /
IP-
IP- ADSL
:
IP-
: IP- -
:
: AMPS
:

:

: 1G
:
2G

: 2G
: TDMA
: GSM (2G)
: BTS GSM (2G)
: GSM (2G)
: ( )
:

: SDMA, TDMA, FDMA, CDMA
: 2G
: MS
: MS
: GPRS
GPRS
UMTS
: W-CDMA UTRA
: 2,5G - 3,0G
:
1G - 5G ( 8 )


( )
:

191
192
193
194
198
199
203
204
204
205
231
232
233
234
234
235
236
238
242
245
246
248
251
252
255
256
267
272
284
284
292299
326327
329
330
332
333334
335

377