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I>116J1110TEKA $11J10J10fA

M.B. HI1KI1TI1H

JIEKCI1QECKOE 3HAQEHI1E CJIOBA


(CTPYKTypa
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KOM6liHaTOpliKa)

,l(oIIYllIeHO MHHHCTepCTBOM IIpOCBemeHHSI CCCP B xaxecrae yxefiaoro IIoco6HSI .aJISI cTy.aeHTOB IIe.aarOrHQeCKHX HHCTHTYTOB IIO cIIeu,HaJIbHOCTH «Haocrpaaasre SI3bIKH»

M OCKBa «BbI ern as ur KOJIa» 1983

66K

81.2 AIII'JI-9 H62

P e U e H 3 e H T hI: aHrnI1HCKOM: <j;Jl1nononm JIeHI1Hrpa.uCKOrO rocynapcraennoro YHI1BepCIHeTa HM. A. A. )l{.uaHOBa (3aB. Ka<j;JenpOH nou. T. M. EenlleBa); n-p <j;JI1JIOJ1. HaYK nOLI. E. 10. Foponeuxaa (MocKOBCKI1M rocynapcrsenasra YHI1BepCI1TeT 11M.M. B. JIOMoHOCOBa).

Kaoenpa

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CTPYKType. nOJUICeMHH H ceM3HTHQeCKOH CTPYKType cnoaa. H3 neXUHOHHblX H ceMHHapCKHX 33HHTHHX, TaJC H ,lVHI llUllJIOMHblX

pafio r no

cneuxypcos
.

MO)KeT 6bITb HCnOJIb30BaHO Kale H nOJlrOTOBKH XYPCOBblX 11

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4602010000-244 001(01)-83

170-83

BBK 81.2 AHfJl-9 4 II (AHfJl)

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1983.

llPE,lUICJIOBIIE
KHHfa CO)J;eplKHT H3JIOlKeHHe nporpasoaastx TeM, OTHOCSIllIHXCSl K YPOBHeBOH CTPYKType Sl3bIKa 1'1 JIHHfBHCTH'IeCKOH THnOJIOfHI1 3HaqeHI1H, JIeKCHqeCKOMY3HaqeHI11O 11 ero CTPYKType, nOJIHCeMHH 1'1 ceMaHTHqeCKOH CTpYKType CJIOBa. Ha OCHOBe yr JIy6JIeHHOrO H3yqeHHSI JTI1X nOHSITI1I1ql1TaTeJIb BBO,llI1TCSI HOBYIO 06JIaCTb KOM611B HaTOPHOH ceMaHTHKI1, HCCJIe,llYlOllIeH B3aHMO,lleHCTBl1e neKCHqeCKI1X 3HaqeHI1H B nO,llqI1HI1TeJIbHbIX CJIOBOCOQeTaHI1S1X, raxzce nOJIYQaeT aeofixonasrsre llJISI JTHX a UeJIeH caenenas H3 CHHTaKCHQeCKOH: CeMaHTI1KH. TeM caMbIM Ha fiaae nporpaseaasrx Tpe6oBaHHH: C YQeTOM OCHOBHbIX pe3YJIbTaTOB, nOJIYQeHHbIX B rpex HaH60JIee HHTeHCI1BHO pa3BHBaeMbIX pasnenax COBpeMeHHOH JIHHrBHCTI1QeCKOH reopaa 3HaQeHI1SI JIeKCHQeCKOH:, CI1HTaKCHQeCKOHH KOM6HHaTOPHOH ceMaHTHKH,- ocseuren KOMrrJIeKC B3aHMOCBSI3aHHbIX aorrpocos CTPYKTypbI 1'1 KOM6HHaTOpHKI1 JIeKCHQeCKI1X3HaQeHI1H. Ilocofiae aarnrcaao aa OCHOBe xypca JIeKUI1H no sorrpocaxr JIHHrBHCTHQeCKOH ceMaHTHKH, QHTaeMbIX aaroposr C 1975 rona B YHHBepCHTeTax 1'1 nenar-oravecxax I1HCTI1TYTax llJISI CTYlleHTOB, acnapaxros H nperronaaarenen. KHHra MO)[(eT 6bITb HCnOJIb30BaHa aa JIeKUHSIX 1'1 ceMHHapCKI1X 3aHSlTHSIX no JIeKCHKOJIOfHH, B cneuxypcax, npu rronrorosxe KYPCOBbIX 1'1 ,lll1rrJIOMHbIX pafior, a raxsce llJISI caMOCTOSITeJIbHOrO rrOrrOJIHeHHSI 3HaHHH: no JIeKCHQeCKOH 11 KOM6HHaTopHoH cesraaraxe. JrlJIJIIOCTpaTHBHbIH: srarepaan xepnaercs He TOJIbKO 113 aHfJIHH:CKOrO, HO 11 H3 PYCCKOfO SI3bIKOB, npHQeM, KaK npaBI1JIO, rrpHBOllSITCSI napaJIJIeJIbHO aaanoraaasre, XOTSI11He 06SI3aTeJIbHO paBH03HaQHble (T. e. He SIBJISIlOllIlfeCSInepeaonasra) npnsiepsr 113 060HX SI3bIKOB (OHH paaneneasr 3HaKOM 8). Ilpl1HI1MaSI BO BHIfMaHHe 60JIbIlIOH: ylleJIbHbIH: aec 113HaQl1MOCTb ceMaHTHQeCKI1X HccJIellOBaHI1H: B cOBpeMeHHOH: JIHHfBI1CTI1Ke, n03BOJISIeT anpecoears KHl1ry 60JIee IlII1POKOMY Kpyry JII1U sa npenenassa OT)leJIeHIfH H <l>aKYJIbTeTOB aHfJII1HCKOrO SI3bIKa.

no

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He TOJIhKO pesrs, HO H soofinte 3HaKOBa~ .n:e~TeJIhHOCTbrnofioro pozta ocymecranserca pana nepenasa 3Ha'leHH~. CJIOBeCHble H BCHKHe HHble 3HaKH H 3HaKOBble CHCTeMbl npermaanaaensr .n:JISITOfO, 'lT06bl CJIY:>KHTb nepenarsaxassa, TPaHCJISITOpaMH 3HaqeHHH. 3Ha'leHHe - He npeznser O.n:HOH TOJIhKO JIHHfBHCTHKH, HO np06JIeMa ofimeaaysnas H, 60JIee TOfO, onaa H3 uenrpansasrx np06JIeM COBpeMeHHOHHaYKH. np06JIeMaTHKa 3HaqeHHH opfaHH'leCKH Bouma B xpyr HHTepeCOBueJIOfO pazta HaYK H HaY'lHbIX .n:HCIJ;HITJIHH, H npexcne ncero <pHJIOCOqlHH, JIOfHKH, KH6epHeTHKH, COIJ;HOJIOfHH, nCHXOJIOfHH, ceMHOTHKH, JIHHfBHCTHKH, nCHXOJIHHfBHCTHKH, COIJ;HOJIHHfBHCTHKH, 3mOJIHHfBHCTHKH H ztpyrax. HaH60JIee HHTeHCHBHOara np06JIeMaTHKa HC. crrenyercs C n03HIJ;HH <pHITOCO<pHH (fHOCeOJIOf~, HJIH reopas n03HaH~), JIOfHKH (JIOfH'leCKa~ ceMaHTHKa, Mo.n:aJIhHa~ JIOfHKa), ceMHOTHKH (cevaaTHKa), JIHHfBHCTHKH(ceMaCHOJIOr~) H nCHXOJIHHfBHCTHKH. B03HHKaIOmHe npa HCCJIe.n:OBaHHH3HaqeH~ np06JIeMbl HaCTOJIhKO CJIO:>KHbl, MHOfOqHCJIeHHbI, TaK TeCHO CB~3aHbl C peureaaesr Kap.n:HHaJIhHbIX BonpOCOB fHOCeOJIOfHH H MeTo.n:OJIOfH'leCKHMH sonpocasra pana HaYKJIHHfBHCTHKH H ceMHOTHKH npezcne ncero, - 'ITO 'reopas 3Ha'leHH~ eme He BbIWJIa H3 Ha'laJIhHOH CTa.n:HHCBoeH pa3pa60TKH. Bbl.n:BHHYTbl Pa3JIH'lHble KOHIJ;enIJ;HH 3HaqeHH~, xoropsre OTqaCTH aaxonarcs B .n:onOJIHHTeJIhHOM OTHoweHHH .n:pyr K .n:PYfY,06'b~CHH~ PaJJIH'lHble acnexrsr 3Ha'leH~, a OT'laCTHB oraoureaaa B3aHMOHcKmoqeH~, xorna onaa soauerutas OTPHIJ;aeT ztpyryro. B COBpeMeHHOHceMaCHOJIOfHH, TO ecrs JIHHfBHCTH'IeCKOH.n:HCIJ;HITJIHHe, accneztyrourea np06JIeMaTHKY 3Ha'leHHH B eCTeCTBeHHblX H3blKax, HaH60JIee HHTeHCHBHO paapafiarsmarorcs paanerrsr JIeKCH'leCKOH H CHHTaKCH'leCKOH ceMaHTHKH. B nepsosr cnyxae npe.n:MeTOM IDY'leH~ asrcrynaer JIeKCH'Iecxoe aaaxenae CJIOBa,BO BTOPOM CeMaHTH'IeCK~ cTPYKTYpa rtpertnoacenas. nOMHMO JIeKCHqeCKOH H CHHTaKCHqeCKOHCeMaHTHKH, cyurecrsyer eute npOMe:>KYTO'lHa~06JIacTb KOM6HHaTopHOH CeMaHTHKH, HJIH ceMaHTH'IeCKOH CHHTarMaTHKH, rrpeznaer KOTOPOH COCTaBJI~IOTrrpanana KOM6HHHPOBaHH~ H B3aHMo.n:eHCTB~ JIeKCH'IeCJ[HX3HaqeHHH CJIOBB CJIOBOCO'leTaH~X. Bo scex 3THX TPex 06rraCT~X, B oc06eHHOCTH B nepasrx .n:BYX,BbmOJIHeHO HeMaJIO HCCJIe.n:OBaHHH, norryxeasr saaorsre pe3YJIhTaTbI, npeztnoacensr H onpofosaasr aarepecasre KOHuenIJ;HH H MeTo.n:HKH. O.n:HaKOaa PYCCKOM ~3blKe npaKTH'IeCKH HeT 0606maromHX pa60T no ceMaCHOJIOfun, xoropsre .n:aBaJIH 6bl CHCTeMaTIDHPOBaHHOe IDJIO:>KeHHe npeznrera, no.n:'IHHeHHOeyqe6HblM 3a.n:aqaM. ECJIH yqeCTb 06meHaY'lHblH xapaxrep TeopHH saaseaaa H naaapyrontyro pOJIb ceMaCHOJIOfHH B COBpeMeHHOHJIHHfBHCTHKe, TO nOH~THO, 'ITO nOTPe6HOCTb B pafo rax raxoro pona BeJIHKa. Ho coaaaaae HX 3aTPy.n:HeHOPaJHOfOJIOCHQeHMHeHHH B 06meH reopaa aaaxenas H HCXO.n:HblX nOH~THH ceMaCHOJIOfHH. B penrenaa KOHKpeTHblX 3a.n:aq COfJIaC~ 60JIhwe, qeM B OCHOBaH~X ceMaCHOJIOfHH. 3TO xacaerca H nporpaseaasrx BY30BCKHXKYPCOBB 'IacTO CBe,lJ,eHHH no CeMaHTHKe. OHH aanacaasr C PaJHblX n03HQHH B 06meH TeopHH saaseaas, XOT~ 'lac TO H He conepxar HX CUCTeMaTH'IeCKOfOH3JIO:>KeH~. Henocpeztcraeaasnr HaJHaqeHHeM aacrosntero xypca ~JI~eTC~ snezteHue B np06JIeMaTHKY B3aHMo.n:eHCTB~ JIeKCH'IeCKHX 3HaqeHHH CJIOBB non'IHHHTeJIhHbIX CJIOBOCOqeTaH~, TO ecrs B TY 06JIacTb ceMaCHOJIOfHH, KOTOPyro axan, JI. B. Illepfia B csoe BpeM~ aassraan «fpaMMaTHKOH CJIO:>KeH~ CMbICJIOB» KOTOPyro rerreps 06bl'lH0 HMeHyroT KOM6HHaTOPHOH H cejaaaTHKOH HITH aaorna TaK:>Ke CeMaHTH'IeCKOHcHHTafMaTHKoH • .llJI~ 3THX ueJIeH nOTPe60BarrOCb IDJIO:>KHTb KOMIIJIeKCCBe.n:eHHH COBpeMeHHOHceMaCHOJIO· ID

rHH THK~.

COCTaBJUIlOIUHX lfCCJIe.n:OBaHHe

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npe.n:nOChIJIKH (npaBHJI) 3HatIeHHH

KOM6HHaTopHOH KOM6HHupOBaHIDI onapaercs

cessaaH B3a-

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COtIeTalOIUHXCH

JIeKCHtIeCKHX TeopHlO CJIOBa

aa reoparo .n:JISIYHCHeHHH 3HatIectpepy

CTpaTH!jJHKaUHH

SI3hIKOBhIX e.n:HHHU, He06xo.n:HMYlO CTp)'KTYPhI H, HaKOHeu,

JIeKCHtIeCKOrO TeopHlO,

3HatIeHHH, CTp)'KTYPhI

JIeKCHtIeCKOrO YTO'lHHTh

HHH H ceMaHTHqeCKOH H YCJIOBHSI .n:eiiCTBHH

ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCHCJIO)J(eHHSI CMhIC3HatIeHHH cesaaaCOCTaBJISleT Tpeno

B repsraaax 'rex

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H

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CBe.n:eHIDI no KHHfH. no TeM

H3hIKa, JIeKCH'leCKOH

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B COBOKynHOCTH aro oxaasraaerca He06xo.n:HMhIM


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C nporpaMMHhIMH

SI3bIK03HaHHSI

H C YfJIy6JIeHHeM caM no ce6e

pa3JJ:eJIaM aa COBpeMeHHOM 'lTO np06JIeMaTHKY

yposae,
paJ.n:eJIOB coztepsorr HHTeBOHX Mepe, ueJIeBOH npasroe B caMOCTOSITeJIhHhIH ero

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H MO)J(eT npe.n:CTaBJIHTh

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YCTaHOBKOH npOCOB, C OTHOlIIeHHe 60JIhlIIeH He06xo.n:HMoii

H B Ka)J(JJ:OM CJIYtIae K KOM6HHaTopHKe JJ:JISI roro, reopaa, qT06hI ee

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CBSl3aHHhlX C HaJBaHHhIMH nOJIHOToH.

xoropsre

JIeKCHtIeCKHX

3HaqeHHH,

OCTaJIhHaH OCHOBHhIX

np06JIeMaTHKa nOHSlTHSIX H ox

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COCTaBHTh uensnoe

0 cessaCOOTHO-

CHOJIOfHQeCKOH lIIeHIDIX.

rJIABA

CTPYKTYPA JIEKCII1JECKOrO 3HA1JEHlUI CJIOBA

CTPYKTypa

Jl3bIKa

JIHBI'BHCTH'IeCKaJl THDOJIOI'HJI 3Ha'lelIHH

§ 1. Bsoztasre 3aMe'lamfSJ. § 2. Il>YHKUHOHaJIbHble Sl3bIKOBble e.llHHHUbI: 2.1. Il>YHKUHOHaJIbHble H IPopMaJIbHble Sl3bIKOBble e.llHHHUbl. 2.2. KOHTeHTI1BHble H IPOpMaTHBHble IPYHKUHOHaJIbHble enaaausr. 2.3. KOHTeHTI1BHble IPYHKUI10HaJIbHbie ezntaausr: .llI1CTHHKTOPbl (2.3 .1.), IPHKCaTopbl (2.3 .2.), HOMI1HaTOpbI (2.3.3 .), KOMMYHHKaTopbl
PaJBI1Tl1e rrOHSlTHl1 HOMI1HaTOpa 11 IPI1KCaTopa: 3.1. HOMHHaTHBHocTb 11 ee rpanauaa. 3.2. HOMI1HaTOP vs 'IJIeH npennoacenna. 3.3. HOMI1HaTOp vs CJIOBOIPOpMa. 3.4. HOMI1HaTOp 11 IPI1KCaTOp KaK paansre MO.llYCbl 3HaqeHI1S1.3.5. fpaMMaTI1'1eCKHe H HerpaMMaTH'IeCKl1e IPI1KCaTopbI. 3.6. Jlezceva, 3.7. CI1HTaKCHQeCKl1e 11 HeCI1HTaKCI1QeCKHe IPHKCaTopbI. § 4. ll>opMaJIbHble S13bIKOBbIe e.llI1HHUbI: CJIOBO 11 MOPIPeMa: 4.1. I1oHSlTl1e 0 KaTeropHSIX IPOpMaJIbHOH TaKCOHOMI1I1.4.2. CJIOBO 11 MOPIPeMa KaK xareropaa IPopMaJIbHoJ'i: TaKCOHOMI1Ii. 4.3. CooTHOWeHl1e <pHKcaTopa 11 HOMHHaTopa KaK <PYHKUHOHaJIbHbIXe.llHHHU C Mop<peMoH H CJIOBOMKaK <POPMaJIbHbIMHe.llHHHuaMH. 4.4. Resume K § 4. § 5. Onpezierreaae rroHSlTHH H3, f3, CHH3 H JI3 aa OCHOBe cTpaTH<pHKaUI10HHbIX TaKCOHOMI1J'i::5.1. Onpezterreaas. 5.2. I1pl1BaTI1BHble rpaseaaTH'IeCKHe orrrr0311UI111HMeH H HOMHHaUHllJIeKCHQeCKOrO 3HaQeHI1S1,

(2.3.4.). § 3.

§ 1. Baasane
HHSI (JI3), TaKoro a rpaMMaTHqeCKOrO

npe)lCTOHT (f3) H

TaK)I(e

yroxaars casro nOHSlTHe JIeKCHqeCKOrO saaaeconpssceaasre C HHM nOHSlTHSI HOMHHannmoro (H3),


CHHTaKCHqeCKOrO JIe)l(HT (CHH3) 3HaqeHHH.

OCHOBe

pa3)leJIeHHSI

3HaqeHHH

yponnesaa,

poria 3HaqHMbIX JIeKCHqeCKOe HIlH asrpaacaroutea aa C06CTBeHHO conepacamno, OHaJIhHOH noro HHUaM roe aHrJIHHCKOe a ero

e)lHHHU: TO HJIH aaoe rpaMMaTHqeCKOe B 3aBHCHMOCTH e)lHHHUbI. THnOJIOrHSI 3HaqeHHH

aaaxenae

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npa-

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Sl3bIKOBbiX OCHOBaHHSlX: 3HaqeHHSI nO)lpaJ)leJISlIOTCSI C006PaJHO na.o:paJ)leJIeHHIO HX YPoBHeBoH 3HaqHMhIX Sl3hIKa no no npHHa)lJIe)l(HOcTH.

cTPYKType

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3HaqeHHSI H )lpyrHx 3HaqeHHSI He06CTPYKType

06 ypoanesoa

§ 2.
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ECTecTBeHHhIM YHHBepCaJIHH.

Sl3hlKaM seprsr, HaJIHqHe cy6CTPaTOB,

rrpa

BceM

HX

THnOJIOrHqeCKOM rosopsr, B

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CTPYKType

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nCHXHqeCKOrO qeJIOBeqeCKOH

H !l>H3HOJIOrHqeCKOrO

na KOTOPhlX OCHOBaH Sl3hIK. HHaqe nOH

.n;JISI KOTOPOH

T. e. YCJIOBHSI ocyrn:eCTBJIeHHSI onpeneneaaoa pa3Ho06paJHH ee KOHKpeTHOrO ueJIhIO,

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2.1.
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(<popMaJIbHble no

.n;BOSlKO: no e.n;HHHllbI).

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B crpyxrype

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oc06eHHocTSIM oc06eHHocTSIM.

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a BO aropow+rro pSI.n;a enaaan,

ee CTpOeHHIO, nOHSITHM K H rep-

BHYTpeHHHM MlfHOB Type

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1)

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<PYHKQH5IM B CTpyK6blTb OTHOCH5IBJI5lIOTC5I C TeM OCYMorYT

2)

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rycenansr,

cpencrsa

neofixoznoaa H .n;p.

Bee

xonoaas OHH

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K YPOBHIO cPm<CaTOpOB (HO He ssnne) ,nOJDI(Hbl 6blTh craeceasr cnyzcefiasre CJIOBa,He cnocofiasre K HOMMHaUHH(CM. HH)Ke). Hapazty C 3THMH 6a3HCHbIMH cpe,nCTBaMH cPYHKUHSIcPHKcaTopOB CMblCJIa BbIllOJIHSleTCSI TaK)Ke rrpoco,nH'IeCKHMH (MHTOHauHSI) H Mo,neJIbHbIMH, HJIH cxeMHblMH ('1epe,nOBaHHSI, HYJIeBble MOPcPeMbl) cpencraasra, 2.3.3. BCSlKaSi3Ha'lHMaSi e,nMHHUa asnne YPOBHSI,nHCTMHKTOPOB ofiaapy,: )KHBaeT CBoHcTBa cPm<caTopa. O,nHH H3 HHX OKa3b1BaIOl'CSicPm<caTopaMH par excellence, npyrae ,nonOJIHHTeJIbHO K CBoHcTBaM ,nHCTMHKTOpaH cPm<caropa 06JIa,naIOT eure cnoC06HOCTbIO HOMMHHPOBaTbCMbICJI.HOMMHaTOpOM cnenyer C'IHTaTh TaKYIO e,nMHHUY, xoropaa casta no ce6e cnocofiaa aKTYaJIH3HPOBaTh B C03HaHHH 4Im<cHPyeMbIH eIO KOHuenT. <l>HKcaTopbl aKTYaJIH3HPYIOT cBSI3aHHblH C HHMH CMblCJI TOJIbKOB COCTaBeHOMMHaTOpOBKaK '1aCTb CMblCJIa nOCJIe,nHHX. IIoSlcHHM 3TO npHMepaMH. ,l(ecHrHaTop «'1aH» aKTYaJIH3HPyeT KOHuenT «BH,n cocyna ... ». TOT )Ke zrecaraarop caM no ce6e He MO)KeT aKTYaJIH3HPOBaTh CMblCJI «)KHTeJIb aexoroporo MeCTa», XOTSI OH H COOTHeCeH C 3THM KOHuenTOM, cp, <<pOCTOB'IaHe», TOT CMblCJI HM aKTYaJIH3 3HPyeTcSI TOJIbKO B COCTaBe HOMMHHPYIOll.\HX e,nMHHU. PaBHblM 06Pa30M a1l211. / Sip/, B3S1Toe OT,neJIbHOCTH, KTYaJIH3HPyeT 3Ha'leHHe «xopafim,» H SIBB a JISIeTCSI, aKHM 06Pa30M, HOMMHaTOpOM; Ta )Ke e,nMHHUa cassa no ce6e He T cnocofiaa aKTYaJIH3HPOBaTh 3HI\'1eHHe, C KOTOPblM OHa COOTHOCHTCSI, aanpasrep, B e,nMHHUaX friendship '.npY)K6a', partnership 'napraepcrao' H T. rr., H ssrcrynaer TOJIbKO B xaaecrse cPm<caTopa COOTBeTCTBYIOmero CMbICJIa. CPo TaK)Ke CYcPcPm<CblH napOHHMbl-HOMMHaTOpbl: -able Z able, -eer / ear, -fold/ fold, -ful/ full, -hoodz hood, -less/ less, -lett let, -long/Iong , -some/ some, -wise/wise; npHCTaBKH H napOHHMbl-HOMMHaT0Pbl: ad-z add, counter- / counter, il- / ill, in-linn, in (adv.), mis- / miss, post-/ post, vice- / vice. . Conepxarensao 3HaqeHHSI cPm<caTopa H HOMMHaTOpa MorYT 6blTh onanaKOBbIMH,- OHH necorrocranasrsr cPYHKUHOHaJIbHO. CJIOBocPopMe«nearenesi» B 3HaqeHHe areara, ,neHCTBYIOmero JIHUa npe,nCTaBJIeHO TPH)K,nbl: B MOPcPeMax -mens, -eu H. oesmens-, To )Ke saaxeaae HMeeT H HOMMHaTOp«nearem,», HO see OHH cPYHKUHOHaJIbHO Pa3HOPO,nHbI. IIoMHMo npocrsrx HOMMHaTOpOB,SI3blKHpacnonararor TaK)Ke onpeneneaHbIMH-CMHTaKCHqeCKHMH H ceMaHTHqeCKHMH-npaBHJIaMH HX KOM6MHHPoBaHHSI,nJISI06pa30BaHHSI CJIO)KHbIXHOMMHaTHBHblX e,nMHHU. 2.3.4. HaKOHeu, KOMMYHm<aTOp- 3TO cPYHKUHOHaJIbHaSi SI3blKOBaSi e,nMHHUa, conepxanras coofinreaae. Haaaaxeaae KOMMYHm<aTopa COCTOHT B TOM, 'lT06bl BbI3BaTb onpezreneaasre MHcPOPMauHoHHble COCTOSIHHSI SR. B 3TOM H 3aKJIIO'IaeTCSIcymecraeaaoe OTJIHQHeKOMMYHm<aTopOBOT e,nMHHUztpyrax yposaefi. Ilpocroa KOMMYHm<aTOp npH6JIH3HTeJIbHO TO )Ke, 'ITO rrpeztno)KeHHe B 06bl'IHOM cPYHKUHOHaJIbHOM nOHHMaHHH.

§ 3. B HaWHX ueJISIX crrerryer nozrpofiao paCCMOTpeTh cPYHKUHOHaJIbHble e,nMHHUbl, aassaaasre snecs cPm<caTopaMH H HOMMHaTOpaMHCMbICJIa. 3.1. IIoSlcHHM HaMeQeHHOe asnne nOHSITHeHOMMHaTopa. HOMMHaTHBHOCTh nOHHMaeTCSIKaK cpencrso Sl3blKOBblXe,nMHHU, cnocofiasrx caMOCTOSlTeJIbHO, 6e3 nOMOll.\H OKpY)KeHHSIBblPa3HTh, aKTyaJIH3HpOBaTh (BbI3BaTb B C03HaHHH npn BocnpHSITHH) H C006mHTh cOOTHeCeHHblH C HHMH CMbICJI.CnoC06HOCTh. K HOMMHaUHH KOHKpeTHO npOSlBJISIeTCSI pane CBOHCTB HOMHHaTHBHoH B e,nHHHUbl. HOMHHaTopbl caMH no ce6e MoryT COCTaBHTh BbICKa3bIBaHHe (3JIJIHIITHQeCKHe npe,nJIO)KeHHSI, B onpeneneansrx CJIY'laSix TaK)Ke HOMHHaTHBHble npe,nJIO)KeHHSI).OHH MorYT COnpOBO)l(,naTbCSI OTPHUaHHSlMH,Mo,naJIbHblMH CJIOBaMH, OrpaHH'IHTeJIbHbIMH, YCHJIHTeJIbHblMH H npO'lHMH YTO'IHSI9

IOl1I.HMH qaCnmaMH. MOrYT 6bITb }'KaJaHbI H rtpyrne OC06eHHOCTH HOMHHaTHBHbIX ezramm, KaK 06l1I.He ztrrs BCeX HOMHHaTOpOB,TaK H rrpacymae TOnhKO HX paapanasr B TOM HnH HHOM Sl3bIKe. Taxosa, aanpasrep, CrrOC06HOCTb HOMHHaTHBHbIX e,nHHHU onpeneneaasrx PaJPSI,nOB 3aMel1I.aTbCSI MeCTOHMeHHSlMHH BOnpOCHTenhHbIMH CnOBaMH. Bee 3TH OC06eHHOCTH 06yCnOBneHbI cyutecrseaasnr HX OTnHqHeM - CnOC06HOCTbIO aKTyanH3HpOBaTb COOTHeCeHHblM C HHMH CMbICn. BepHO, 'ITO 3HaK ecrs 061>e,nHHeHHe 03HaqalOl1I.efO H 03HaqaeMOrO, HO nanrs aa yposae HOMHHaTopa H ssnne )TO 061>e,nHHeHHe SlBnSleTCSI nCHXOnHHfBHCTHqeCKOM pearrsaocrsro: yposens HOMHHaTopOB - HaHMeHhllIHM ypoaens, na KOTOPOM ceMH03HC SlBnSleTCSl OC03HaHHhIMrrpO[(eCCOM. BepHO H TO, 'ITO IPHKCaTOpbI COOTHeceHbI C onpe,neneHHbIM CMbIcnOM, O.lJ;HaKO 3TO HHOM yposeas peansnocra COOTHeceHHSl ziecaraaropa H necaraara, B npannane MO)l(HO CKaJaTb: saaseaae HOMHHaTopa He ecrs peaynsrar CYMMHpOBaHHSI3HaqeHHM COCTaBnSIIOl1I.HX IPHKCaTOpOB, HO anaxenae IPHKCaTOpOBecrs peayrn.rar conOCTaBneHHSI H aaanasa COOTHeCeHHbIXCTp}'KTypHo-ceMaHTH'IeCKHX PSl,nOBHOMHHaTopOB (CM.TaK)I(e HH)I(e). HOMHHaTHBHOCTb, TaKHM 06PaJOM, SlBnsreTcSlIPYHK[(HeH CHHTaKCH'IeCKOH aBTOHOMHH Sl3hIKOBOH e,nHHHUhl OT OKpY)l(eHHSInpn C006l1I.eHHH CBSl3aHHoro C HeH 3Ha'leHHSI. Hapazty C MOPlPeMaMH, npoconaxecsmra H Mo,nenhHbIMH (cxeMHbIMH) cpeztcrsasra, )TOH cnoc06HOCTH rrameasr MHOrHe cnyscefiasre cnosa, asrcrvrrarounre B xasecrse qHCTO fpaMMaTH'IeCKHX Opy,nHH: BcnOMOrarerrsasre cnosa, 06paJyIOl1I.He aHaJIHTHl.J:eCKHerpaMMaTH'IeCKHe 1P0PMbI rnaronoa, apTHKnH, 1P0pMaHTbi npennoxeaaa, apozte PYCCKOH xacrama AU H T. n. Crenens HOMHHaTHBHOHcnoc06;HOCTH paanaxaa y PaJHblX nexcaxo-rpaxrMaTHqeCKHX KnaCCOB enos, Illxana H3 ,nBYX O[(eHoK: HaJIHqHe -OTCYTcTBHe rrpaaaaxa - onacsraaer paamrrae aa nomocax, Me)l(,ny KOTOPhlMH B03MO)l(HbI rpaztanaa, HOMHHaTHBHOCTb npncyura xnaccasr 3HaMeHaTenhHbiX crros • .llnSl CJIyX<e6HbIX CJIOB 3TO CBOHCTBO [(eJIOM He xapaxrepuo. B Ha sonpoc Where should I go? U Kyoa uomu?B03MO)l(HbI OTBeTbl: 1) Forward U Bnepeo, 2) Tothe bridge. 11K uocmy, HO BPSl,nJIH 3) To. 11K. Bsrecre C TeM Henh351 He OTMeTHTh, 'ITO B OC06bIX ycnonasx npennora H COlO3hl MoryT COCTasHTb 3JIJIlfIITH'Iecxoe asrcxaasraaaae H 06HapY)l(HBaIOT, TaKHM 06PaJOM, HOMHHaTHBHOCTb, qpe3Bbl'laHHO, onnaso, ocnafineaayio. To. II K. B03MO)l(HO B OTReTe aa BonpOC, Y)l(e conepscannoi to II K (06bIqHO B COCTaBe3KCnnHUHTHOrO HnH HMnnHUHTHoro anhTepHaTHBHOrO sonpoca): Where should I go? To the bridge or from the bridge? - To. II Kyo a uomu? K uocmy UIlU om uocmat=K. I10,n06asre crrafisre cnensr HOMHHaTHBHOCTH 06HapY)l(HBaIOTCSI TaK)I(e y cnOBO06paJoBaTeJlbHbIX npelPHKCoB. B 60JlblIleH Mepe OHH npHCYl1I.H KOMnOHeHTaM cnoacasix cnoa, I1onYTHO 3aMeTHM, 'ITO rpaaana Me)l(,ny ,nHCTHHKTopaMH H IPHKCaTOpaMH csrsrcna TaK)I(e MO)KeT 6blTb pa3MbITOH. I1poMe)KYTO'IHbIH xnacc Me)K,ny HHMH 06PaJyIOT SlBJIeHHSI ayxosoro a CHMBonIDMa H OHOMaToneH. HOMHHaTHBHOCTb B HaHBbICllIeM CBoeM BbIpa)l(eHHH CBO,nHTCSI cnocofiK HOCTH HOMHHaTopa npencramrn, cBSl3aHHbu1C HHM KOH[(enT B «'IHCTOM» BHzte», B OTBne'leHHH OT ero B03MO)l(HbIX cBSl3eH,B OTBne'leHHH OT BCSlKOH CHHTaKCH'IeCKOH Cne[(HaJIH3a[(HH B xanecrne KOMnOHeHTa CnO)l(HbIX HOMHHaTHBHblX e,nHHHU. CnOBa B eCTeCTBeHHbIX Sl3bIKax pacnpezre.neasr no qaCTSIM pena. B OCHOBe )TOfO pacnpeneneaaa rrexar , CHHTaKCH'IeCKaSi Cne[(HaJIIDa[(HSI HOMHHaTopOB, sapaaee rrpenonpenerrsrouraa HX B03MO)l(HbIe CHHTaKCH'IeCKHe OTHOllIeHHSI. I1pHHa.nne)KHOCTb cnosa K qaCTSIMpexa - r naBHbI" noxaaarerrs B03MO)l(HbiX ,nnSl aroro cnosa 1P0pMyn ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCH'IeCKHX caasea.

ornerrsasoa

10

CTeneHb CHHTaKCHqeCKOH CneUHaJ1H3aUHH pa3J1HqHa y pasasrx sacrea pexa, H OHa Haxo,n:HTCH B 06paTHOM OTHOllleHHH K HOMHHaTHBHOH cnoc06HOCTH CJ10Ba.ECJ1H nOHHMaTb non HOMHHaTHBHOCTblO cnOC06HOCTb H3bIKOBOHezraHHQbI BbIPa3HTb 3aKJ1IOqeHHOe B HeH conepxaaae He3aBHCHMO OT COqeTaHHH C ,n:pyrHMH e,n:HHHQaMH, ee cnOC06HOCTb CJ1YX<:HTb xaxecrse cpeztcraa B KOHuenzyaJ1bHOH HHBeHTapH3au;HH B OTBJ1e'leHHH OT ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCHqeCKHx CBH3eH, TO cnezryer rrpasaars, 'ITO cnOC06HOCTb K HOMHHaUHH 3HaqeHHH B HaH60J1bllleH Mepe 06HapYX<:HBaeTCH y HMeH cYllleCTBHTeJ1bHbIX a raiose, KOHe~o, y CJ10BOCOQeTaHHHC rJ1aBHbIM CJ10BOM-CYllleCTBHTeJ1b~ HbIM. 3Ta qaCTb pexa HaH60J1ee CneUHaJ1H3HPoBaHa B HOMHHHPYIOlll.eH <PYHKUHH H HaHMeHee CneUHaJ1H3HpOBaHa B CHHTaKCHqeCKOM nrraae. IIo :nOH npH'IHHe BCHKHH paa, xorna HCCJ1e.n:YIOT aaaseaae KaKOH-J1H60 3HaqHMOH e,nHHHUhI casso no ce6e B OTBJ1e'leHHH OT ee <PYHXUHOHaJIbHOHH CHHTaKCHqeCKOH CneUHaJ1H3aUHH, KaK sacrs 3aperHCTPHPOBaHHoro B assnce HHBeHTapH KOHueIITOB, TO ero CTpeMHTCH OnHCaTb HOMHHaJ1H3HPOBaHHbIMH KOHCTPYKUHHMH. MOX<:HD HaMeTHTb CJ1e.n:YIOlll.Herpananaa HOMHHaTHBHOCTH: CYllleCTBHTeJ1bHbIe H npyrae cy6CTaHTHBHbIe CJ10Ba- rrpcxae paspansr 3HaMeHaTeJ1bHbIX CJ10B OCHOBbI-KOMnOHeHTbI CJ10X<:HbIX CJ10B, CJ1yx<:e6Hble CJ10Ba, COOTHOCHMble C Hape'lHHMH, KaK conjoint vs absolute forms (aarrpaxrep, aHrJI. npezinorn H COlO3bI before, below, down, underneath, in H T. n.)-a<P<PHKcbI (xanre nperpnxcsr), COOTHOCHMbIe co 3HaMeHaTeJ1bHbIMH CJ10BaMH (cp, OHZII. afterall-, by-, forth-, in-lin, out-, up-, over-, -man) - rrpoxae CJ1yx<:e6HbIe CJ10Ba (He COOTHOCHMbIe co 3HaMeHaTeJ1bHbIMH)-npOqHe Mop<peMbI (He accounapyeMble co 3HaMeHaTeJ1bHhIMH CJ10BaMH). B nepsoa rpynne HOMHHaTHBHOCTb npencranneaa HaH6oJ1ee SlPKO;nOMHMO 3J1J1HnTH'IeCKHX, CJ10Ba3TOH rpynnsr cnocofiasr COCTaBHTb HOMHHaTHBHbIe npezinozcenas, cp. To be or not to be?IISblmb UIIU He 6blmb? B nOCJ1e.n:HeHrpynne yx<:e He npaxozrarcs rOBOpars 0 KaKOH-J1H60 HOMHHaTHBHOCTH, B npenrrocrrernrea 06HapYX<:HBaIOTCH JlHlllb cnafisre CJ1e,n:bI 6YCJ10BneHHOH HOMHHaTHBHOCTH: KaK yx<:e OTMe'leHO 0 nsnne, 3J1eMeHTbI 3TOH rpyrmsr cnocofinsr COCTaBHTb 3J1J1HnTH'IeCKOenpennoxeaae nanrs npa HaJIH'IHH rrpezraapsroutero KOHTeKCTa (06bI'lH0 am, repHaTHBHoro sonpoca), yx<:e conepscamero ,n:aHHbIH 3JIeMeHT. ECJ1H 3HaMeHaTeJ1bHOe CJ10BO 06J1a,n:aeT rpaMMaTHqeCKOH napa,n:HrMOH, TO HaH60J1blllYIO HOMHHaTHBHOCTb 06HapY)KHBaeT HeMapKHpOBaHHaSI <popMa: cnoaooopsrsr e,n:HHCTBeHHOrO vs MHox<:ecTBeHHoro qHCJIa, HMeHHTeJ1bHOrO vs KOCBeHHbIX na,n:ex<:eH,npocroro vs cnOX<:HbIX (COCTaBHbIX) HH<pHHHTHBOB, repyazraes H T. n., n0J10X<:HTeJ1bHOH nponnx vs crenenen cpaBHeHHH H T. n.

3.2. qeM OTJIHqaeTCH HOMHHaTOp OT H3BeCTHblX nOHSITHH 'IJ1eHa npeztrrox<:eHHSIH cnoBo<popMbI? qneHbI npennoxenas, KaK H3BeCTHO, He OTHOCSITCSI qHCJIY OCHOBHbIX K SI3bIKOBbIX e,n:HHHU. OHH BbIHBnHIOTCSI na yposne npOCTbIX KOMMYHHKaTHBHbIX e.n:HHHQ- KaK <PYHKUHOHaJIbHble 'IaCTH B CTPYKType npennozcenas. Tlepaoe qJ1eHeHHe npennoxeaaa npOH3Bo,nHTCSI no HanH'IHOH npezraxaraaHOH CBH3H aa nonnezcauree (roxnee, rpynny nonnezcantero) H cxasyessoe (rpyrmy cxaayesroro), BbISlBJISlIOTCSIOHH no ,n:BYM OCHOBaHHSIM: KOMMYHHKaTHBHOH <PYHKUHHB CTPYKType npe,n:J10x<:eHHSI <popMaJ1bHbIM npH3HaKaM. H KOMMYHHKaTHBHble <PYHKUHH nonneacaurero H cxasyesroro - HOMHHaUHH TeMbI H peMbl cootiurenas. Ilonnexamee H cxaayexsoe npe,n:CTaBJ1S1IOT C060H, TaKHM 06Pa30M, HOMHHaTOPbI, <popMa KOTOPblX <pHKcHpyeT <PYHKUHH TeMbI H peMbI (cy6'beKTa H npeztaxara). KOMMYHHKaTHBHO-J10fHqeCKOe xneaenae Mox<:eT He cosrranars C <popMaJIbHblM, H B 3TOM cnysae npezmo-rreaae OT,n:aeTCH<popMaJ1bHbIM KpHTe11

pHSIM: nazrenae mHM

PYXOBOLlCTBYSlCb CTPYXTYPOH KOMMYHHKaTHBHO-JIOfH'IeCKHX llOCJIeLlHHe clJOPMbI. Sl3bIKOBOH H CKa3yeMbIM.

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KO no.anescautee KaK K OrrpeLleJIeHHSI, CJIOBaM CKa3aTb,'ITO cOBeplIIeHHO

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nonnezcanree 06meH BH,llbI C

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(H rpy60H)

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12

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-

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see

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(napananaaraxa
HO He -ette 3HaqHT

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e,llHHHQaMH e,llHHHQY O,llHH KaK

pertenennsra
CTaBJISIIOT tables

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H CO,llepJKaHHSI nOCKOJIbKY H T. n.,

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OT HOMHHaTopOB, COOTHeCeHHSI

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C necaraaroposr, HOMHHaTopOB pas erne

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14

mui

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perynapno

COOTHOCH-

MbIH C 06Il(HM 3neMeHTOM <pOPMbIHOMHHaTopOB. 3.5. B03MO)l(HbI paanasnsre rpyrmaposxa (xnaccsr) HOMHHaTopOB no 06Il(HOCTH 'rex HnH HHbIX <pHKcaTOpoB B HX crpyxrype. Tanonoras 3THX KnaCCOB nonpaaysresaer, TaKHM 06pa30M, nexoropyro rnnonormo <pHKcaTopOB. <t>HKcaTopbI nozrpaanerrarorcs npezcne scero aa rpaMMaTHqeCKfIe H HerpaMMaTHqeCKHe. rpaMMaTHqeCKHMH HaJbIBaeM <pHKcaTopbI, HHKaK He CBSI3bIBaIOIl(HeCSI C HOMHHaQHeH c06CTBeHHbIX 3HaqeHHH. HerpaMMaTHqeCKHMH HaJbIBaeM <pHKcaTopbI, xoropsre, HanpOTHB, npSIMO CBSI3aHbIC HOMHHaQHeH CBOHX 3HaqeHHH. Hanpnsrep, B HOMHHaTope by the doer" oenmeneu O,IlHO H TO )l(e anaseaae ,IleSITenSI (arenra) CO,Ilep)I(HTCSITPH)I(,IlbI: B by, -er, doer " -eM, -mens H oesmens-, a B HOMHHaTope with the instrument II UHcmpYMeHmoM aaaseaae HHCTpYMeHTa nsrpaxeao ,IlBa)l(,IlbI: B with H instrument " -OM H uucmpyuenm-, O,IlHaKO IPHKCaTOpbI by, -er B -eM, -mens; with" -OM He HMeIOT OTHOllIeHHSI K HOMHHaQHH KOHQenTOB resp. nearens H HHCTpYMeHTa (OPY,IlHSI,IleHCTBHSI),n03TOMY 3TH <pHKcaTopbI Ha,IlO CqHTaTb rpaMMaTHqeCKHMH. HanpOTHB, <pHKcaTopbI do- II iJe(Jl)-, instrument II uucmpyueum- npSIMO CBSI3bIBaIOTCSI HOMHHaQHeH <pHKcHpyeMbIx HMH KOHQenTOB,IleHCTBHSI HHC H CTpYMeHTa. <t>HKcaTop npn 3TOM HnH coananaer C HOMHHaTopOM roro )l(e KOHQenTa HnH COCTaBnSIeT qaCTb ero. B TO )l(e BpeMSI rpaMMaTHqeCKHH <pHKcaTOp HHKaK He cosnanaer (paase qTO qHCTO cnysaaao) H BO BCSIKOM cnysae HHKaK He aCCOQHHpyeTcSIC HOMHHaTopOM roro )l(e nOHSITHSI. TaKHM 06PaJOM, OTnHqHe rpaMMaTHqeCKHX <pHKcaTopoB OT nerpasrMaTHqeCKHX COCTOHTB TOM, qTO npn HOMHHaQHH conepxaaas 3THX ezraHHQ HOMHHaTopbI B nepsoxr cnyxae He conepscar ,IlaHHbIH <pHKcaTOP, a BO BTOPOM- co.nep)l(aT. B HeCKOJIbKO fionee CTpOrOM anne nerreaae <pHKcaTopoB na srazrsa xnacca MO)l(HO rrpencrasars TaK. Ilycrs N 1- HOMHHaTOp C 3HaqeHHeM m.. B ero crpyxrype BbISIBnSIIOTCSI <pHKcaTopbI n H n, CBSI3bIBaIOIl(HeCSI KOHC QenTaMH C H C" TaK KaK N 1 BXO.nHTB naa pana onn03HQHH npa crrenyiourax KoppenSIQHSIXMe)l(.ny <pHKcaTopaMH H KOHQenTaMH (CM. ratin, 1).

Tatinuua 1

I
HOMHHaTOp Hero 3HaqeHHe

pSI.[{

ormoaanaa
KOH~eIITbI B COCTaBe ero aaaseHHSI

II
HOMHHaTOp Hero 3HaqeHHe

pSin

onno3HUHH

qlHKcaTopbI B ero CTpYKType

q:mKcaTopbI B ero CTpYKType

KOH~eIITbI B COCTaBe ero sna-reHHSI

Nn - mn
'"

n + nn

C+

Cn

N~ - m~

n'n + nl

C~ + Cl

...
n + m2

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n.) -

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N; - m;

...
n; + n,

...
c; + c,

N~- m,

KOppenH~HH Me~ IPHKcaTOpaMH H KOH~enTaMH

mJ(c + CJ) n-c nl nn resp. Cl nJ n'n resp. C;

Cn C

15

ECJIH Tenepb cPHKCaTOpn conepacarcs B HOMl:IHaTOpe N roro IKe, 'ITO y n, 3Ha'leHHSI, TO n - HerpaMMaTH'IeCKHM cPHKcaTOp. B 06bI'lHOM cnysae TaKHM HOMHHaTOPOM OKaJbIBaeTCSI N 1 (T. e. O.llHH H3 pana N 1 Nn), KOTO... PbIM saaxeaae muc c.) cossremaer CO 3Ha'leHHeM m(c). B TaKOM HOMHHaTope saaxeaae cPHKcaTopa n, B O.llHHX CJIY'IaSix HaJIH'IeCTByeT, a B .llpyrHX HeilTpaJIH30BaHO.

ECJIH, HanpOTHB, cPHKcaTOp n, He CO.llepIKHTCSI HOMHHaTopax roro IKe, B 'ITO y n., 3Ha'leHHSI, TO n, - rpaMMaTH'IeCKHM cPHKcaTOp. TaKoB npHHUHn paJJIH'IeHHSI rpaMMaTH'IeCKHX H HerpaMMaTH'IeCKHX cPHKCaTOPOB.Ocaossmaacs aa HeM, paJrpaHH'IHBaIOT THnH'lHbIe cnysaa. 3TO B CBOIO oxepezrs n03BOJISleT pa3JIH'IaTh H npyrae, 60JIee CJIOIKHhIe H COMHHTeJIbHbIe (nepexoznrsre) CJIY'laH, rne YKaJaHHbIM npHHUHn He CTOJIb O'leBH.IJ:eH. Cp., C OAHOM CTOPOHbI, np06JIeMY nOJIyacPcPHKCOB,rne HMeeM AeJIO C JIeKCH'IeCKHMH cPHKcaTopaMH, PaJBHBaIOruHMHCSIB rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe, H - urape - np06JIeMY paJJIH'IeHHSI CJIOIKHbIX H npOH3BOAHbIX CJIOB,a C APYrOM CTOPOHbI, np06JIeMY KopHeM, He COOTHOCHMbIXC KaKHM-JIH60 3HaMeHaTeJIbHbIM CJIOBOM roro IKe 3Ha'leHHSI [CMHPHHUKHH, 58-64]. B TaKHX CJIY'laSix PYKOBOACTBYIOTCSI KOCBeHHbIM nO.ll06HeM C OAHHM H3 ABYX THnOB cPHKcaTopoB: re HJIH HHbIe cPHKcaTopbI nOHHMaIOTCSI KaK rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe HJIH HerpaMMaTH'IeCKHe He TOJIbKO no cyutecraeamnr npH3HaKaM, HO no BceM COBOKynHOCTHPaJJIH'IHM: no COOTHOCHTeJIbHOM n03HUHH B CTPYKType HOMHHaTopa, no xapaxrepy CO'leTaIOruHXcSI C HHMH APyrHX cPHKcaTopOBH T. rr, 3.6. 06'beAHHeHHe HOMHHaTOpOB no 06ruHOCTH rex HJIH HHbIX cPHKcaTOPOB B HX cTPYKTYPe BbISIBJISleTnpesczte scero TaKHe HX rpynrraposxa (KJIaCcbI), 3JIeMeHTbI KOTOPbIX OTJIH'IaIOTCSIHaH60JIbWeM CeMaHTH'IeCKOM H CTPYKTYPHOM06ruHOCThlO H BbICTynaIOT KaK npOSlBJIeHHSIHHBapHaHTa, T. e. npa scex CBOMCTBeHHbIX HM MOAHcPHKauHSlx nOHHMaIOTCSI rosopauneaa KaJ< BapHaHTbI ezraaoro - KaJ< cPOPMbI onaoro HMeHH. Ha nOM OCHOBe rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe cPHKCaTOPbInO.llpaJAeJISIIOTCSIna cPopMo06paJOBaTeJIbHble H CJIOBoo6paJOBaTeJIbHbIe, a caM HOMHHaTOp AeJIHTCSI aa ABe '1aCTH: JIeKCH'leCKYIO H HeJIeKCH'leCKYIO. JIeKCH'IeCKaSi 'IaCTh HOMHHaTopa, HJIH JIeKCeMa - 3TO CTPYKTypHO-CeMaHTH'IeCKHM HHBapHaHT cPOPM ozmoro HMeHH. Jlexcexsa - POA cPHKcaTopa H no CTPYKType MOIKeT 6bITh npOCTOM (conepIKHT OAHH HerpaMMaTH'IeCKHM IPHKcaTOp) HJIH CJIOIKHOIJ (CO.llepIKHT HeCKOJIbKO HerpaMMaTH'IeCKHX cPHKcaTopOB HJIH coseraer HerpaMMaTH'IeCKHe cPHKcaropsr C rpaMMaTH'IeCKHMH CJIOBoo6paJOBaTeJIbHbIMH). 3a npenenasra JIeKceMbI OCTalOTCSIcPopMo06paJOBaTeJIbHble IPHKcaTopbI - nOKaJaTeJIH cPOPM ozmoro HMeHH. HanpOTHB, OHa, KaK CKa3aHO, MOIKeT (XOTSI H He06S13aTeJIbHO) BKJIIO'IaTh CJIOBo06paJOBaTeJIbHhle cPHKcaTopbI - nOKaJaTeJIH PaJHbIX HMeH. CaMO HMSI MOIKHO onpezienars KaK KJIaCC HOMHHaTOPOB c 06rueM .JIeKCeMoM. 3.7. CpeAH cPopMoo6paJOBaTeJIbHbIX cPHKcaTopoB BbIAeJISllOTCSI CHHTaKCH'1eCKHe, no OTHoweHHIO K KOTOPbIM nee nponae cPHKcaTopbI MorYT 6bITh HaJBaHbI HeCHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH .lleJIeHHe cPHKcaTopoB aa CHHTaKCH'IeCKHe }{ . HecHHTaKCH'IeCKHe, HHTYHTHBHO TaKIKe AOCTaTO'IHO oxeaazmoe, He CTOJIb npOCTO B reoperaaecxmr nnaae. KaJ< YIKe ynoMHHaJIOCb, ero HeJIb3S1 CBeCTH K c06CTBeHHO ceMaHTHqeCKOMY PaJJIH'IHIO, TaJ< KaK cPYHKUHOHaJIbHOpasJIH'IHbIe eAHHHUbI, KaK pasnoyposnensre, TaK H oznroyponaensre, Moryt 6bITb BnOJIHe CXOAHbI no COAepIKaHHlO (3Ha'leHHIO). Cp, B AOnOJIHeHHe K npHBe.lleHHhIM asnne npHMepaM 3HaqeHHSI eAHHHU address, -ee, to B HOMHaarope to the addressee. Orrpezterraa pa3JIHQHe HeCHHTaKCHQeCKHX CHHTaKCH'IeCKHXcPHKcaTopoB, H 6YAeM HCXOAHTb H3 CJIeAYIOIUero. BCSlKOMY CO'leTaHHIO HOMHHaTopOB 16

B CJIO)KHble HOMHHanmHble e,[{HHHUbl (= CJIOBOCO'leTaHHSI) COOTBeTcTByeT HeKOTOpOe OTHOIlIeHHe ,[{eHOTaTOBCOCTaBJISIlOIIIHX HOMHHaTOpOB. (.llJISI xparKOCTHMO)KHO rOBOpHTb npocro 06 OTHOIlIeHHSIX HOMHHaTopOB, CJIOBH T. n.). 3TO OTHOllIeHHe MO)KeT 6blTb 3KCnJIHUHTHQ BbIPa)KeHO B <!>opMe CJIO)KHOrO HOMHHaTopa. COCTaBJISIJOiliHe HOMHHaTopbl, acrynaroutae B H3BeCTHoe OTHOIlIeHHe, 6y'[{eM aaasrsars aprYMeHTaMH sroro OTHOIlIeHHSI. Cpeztcrsa asrpa)KeHHSI OTHoIlIeHHH Me)K,[{y aprYMeHTaMH MorYT HMeTb pa3HblH <!>YHKQHOHaJIhHblH CTaTYC: HMH MorYT OKa3aTbCSI e,[{HHHUbl YPOBHSI HOMHHaTOPOB HJIH OHH MorYT 6blTb e,[{HHHUaMH YPOBHSI <!>HKcaTopoB H He BblIIIe. 3TH nOCJIe,[{HHe H CJIe,[{yeT C'IHTaTb CHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH <!>HKcaTopaMH. TaKHM 06Pa30M, CHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH C'IHTaeM 're <!>HKcaTopbl, xoropsre BbIPa)KaJOT OTHOIlIeHHSI HOMHHaTopOB B CJIOBOCO'leTaHHSIX,HO caMH He SIBJUIJOTCSIHOMHHaTopaMH COOTBeTCTBYJOIIIHX OTHOIlIeHHH. 3HaqeHHSl TaKHX <!>HKcaTopOB TaK)Ke Ha3bIBaJOTCSlCHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH, 'ITO HMeeT JIHllIb TOT CMbICJI, tITO 1) ziaaaoe 3HatIeHHe npanacsmaerca KaKHM-TO aprYMeHTaM KaK OTHOIlIeHHe Me)K,[{y HHMH, a casro He asrcrynaer B 3TOM cnysae KaK aprysrenr; 2) 3HatIeHHe OTHOIlIeHHSI B 3TOM CJIY'lae asrpasceao e,[{HHHUaMH YPOBHSI <!>HKcaTopoB. K npHMepy, CJIOBa and II U (00), with II c, together with U euecme c, in company with n 6 KOMnaHUU (othuecmeej+ po,[{. n. BbIPa)KaJOTcxo,[{Hoe 3HatIelme - OTHOIlIeHHe COBMeCTHOCTH H B3aHM03aMeHHMbl B aexoropsrx KOHTeKcTax. O'[{HaKO CHHTaKCHqeCKHMH <!>HKcaTOpaMH SlBJISIJOTCSI OJIbKO and H U (00), with H T TBOPHT. n., OCTaJIhHble )l(e He TOJIbKO <!>HKCHPYJOT THOIlIeHHe COBMeCTHOCTH,HO H HOMHHRpYJOT ero. (3aMeTHM, O 'ITO 06IIIee 3HaqeHHe COBMeCTHOCTHnpHCYIIIe J1HllIb and U U (00), with II C,' OCTaJIhHble )Ke e,nHHHQbl Bblpa)KaJOT xacrasre crryxaa OTHOllIeHHSI COBMeCTHOCTH). CJIe,[{yeT 3aMeTHTb, 'ITO, rOBOpSi 0 CHHTaKCHtIeCKHX 3HatIeHHSIX H e'[{HHHnax, MI.I HMeeM B BH):{y e,[{HHHUbI C onpeneneaasnr pe<!>epeHUHOHHbIM aanOJ1HeHHeM, a HMeHHO e,[{HHHUbl peJISIUHOHHo-pe<!>epeHTHoro conepacanas. KaK H BCSIKHe 3HatIHMble e,[{HHHUbl, OHH cyrs conepxarensnsre e,[{HHHUbl. HHblMH CJIOBaMH, MI.l He CtIHTaeM B03MO)KHbIM rosopars 0 KaKOM-JIH60 3Ha'leHHH, xorna e'[{HHHUa pe<!>epeHUHOHHOnYCTa, fiecconepzcarensna. BCSIzoe aaoe CJ10BoynoTPe6J1eHHe CJIe,[{yeT npasnars aenpaaosrepnsnr paCIIIHpeHHeM nOHSITHSI «3HatIeHHe», rrpa KOTOPOM OHO repser CKOJIbKO-HH6Y,[{b '[{OCTaTOtIHYJOorrpeneneanocrs. Jl3blKoBble e'[{HHHUbl Moryr HeCTH Pa3JIH'Iasre <!>YHKUHH,HO He BCSIKaSi<!>YHKQHSI COnpSI)KeHa co 3HatIeHHeM. <l>YHKUHOHaJIhHble e'[{HHHUbI THlla <!>opMaTopOB, KaK, aanpmaep, nOKa3aTeJIH cornaCOBaHHSInpanararensasrx H rJIarOJIOB, nOKa3aTeJIH OCHOB (OCHOBOo6pa3YJOIIIHe CY<!><!>HKCbl), KJIaCCHble nOKa3aTeJIH Pa3PSl,[{OBCJIOB (aanproaep, napetIHH), nOKa3aTeJIH rpaMMaTHtIeCKOrO porta, coe,[{HHHTeJIbHhIe rnacasre B CJIO)KHbIX CJ10BaX, 6erJIble H BCTaBHble 3neHTeTH'IeCKHe rnacasre H COrJIaCHbIe, TaK)Ke BbmOJ1HSIJOT onperterreaasre Sl3blKOBbie <!>YHKUHH,HO He corrpaxeasr C KaKHM-J1H60 CMbICJIOM. MO)KHO erne nOSICHHTb pa3JIHtIHe Me)K,[{y HeCHHTaKCHtIeCKHMH H CHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH <!>HKcaTopaMH xepea nOHSITHe CTPYKTypHo-ceMaHTH'IeCKorO THlla. By'[{eM CtIHTaTb CTPYKTypHo-ceMaHTH'IeCKHM CHHTaKCH'IeCKHM THnOM TaKOH KJ1aCCCJ10)KHbIX HOMHHaTopOB, B KOTOPOM 06IIIHOCTb ceMaHTH'IeCKOH Mo'[{eJIH OTHOIlIeHHSI xopperrapyer C 06IIIHOCTbIO CTPYKTYPHOH (rpopMaJIbHO-CHHTaKCH'IeCKOH) Mo,[{eJIH. Cpo a letter to my father, a letter to his brother, a parcel to my father, a parcel to his brother II nUCbMO omuy, nUCbMO e20 tipamy, 170Cb/IlKa omuy, nocusua e20 tipamy, Mo,[{eJIb OTHoweHHSI: anpecyesroe - aztpecar, crpys'rypnas Mo,[{eJIb: N, (anpecyexioe) to II nar, n, N2 (aztpecar), Ho cp, a road up the hill, on the hill, below the hill!

c+

17

over the hill II oopoea 6 zOPY,no eope, noo eopoii, nao zopoii - pasasre CTpYKTypHo-ceMaHTH'IeCKHe CHHTaKCH'IeCKHe THTIbI (HJlH no,n;THTIbI). TaK)I(e: my father's letters - letters to my father II nucsua omua - nucsua omuy; son and daughter - son or daughter II CblH U oou« - CblH U/lU oov» H T. n. CHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH cpHKcaTopaMH cnenyer C'IHTaTb e,n;HHHIIbI, KOTOPbIMH o6eCne'IHBaeTCSI TO)l(,n;eCTBO CTPYKTypHo-ceMaHTH'leCKOro CHHTaKCH'IeCKOro THTIa, a HeCHHTaKCH'IeCKHMH- e,n;HHHIIbI, nepesrena KOTOPbIX He napyuraer TO)l(,n;eCTBa CHHTaKCH'IeCKOrOTHTIa. 3TO onpeneneaae npezmonaraer ztpyroe, aaxozianreecs B ,n;onOJIHHTeJIbHOMOTHOllIeHHH K nepaosry: CHHTaKCH'IeCKHe cpHKcaTopbI H 3Ha'IeHHSI- 're, nepesrena KOTOPbIX H3MeHSIeT CTPYKTYPHOceMaHTH'IeCKHH CHHTaKCH'IeCKHH THTI, a HeCHHTaKCH'IeCKHe cpHKcaTopbI H 3Ha'IeHHSI- re, TO)l(,n;eCTBO KOTOPbIX He 06eCne'IHBaeT TO)l(,n;eCTBaCHHTaK. CH'IeCKOrO THTIa. Ilpaaeztenasre onpezterreaax npHJIO)l(HMbI H K CnO)I(HbIM HOMHHaTopaM, B KOTOPbIX- B OTnH'IHe OT npasrepoa, npaaenemrsrx BbIIIIe, - OTHOllIeHHe aprYMeHTOB BbIPa)l(eHO nOJIH03Ha'IHbIM cnOBOM (T. e. ssrpaxeao rrexcnxecKH, HMeHeM). Cp, the artist drew a sketch, the playwright writes a play, the gardener grows flowers II XYOO:JICHUK uatipocan 3mroo, opauamype nutuem nsecy, caooenu« eupatqueaem ueemu. 06lQaSI ceMaHTH'IeCKaSI Mo,n;eJIb: arear=,n;eHCTBHe o6beKT-pe3YJIbTaT - KOppenHPyeT C 06lQeH CTPYKTYPHOH MO,n;eJIbIO. I'rraro.nsr nsrpaxcaror OTHoweHHSI Me)l(,n;y aprYMeHTaMH, HO cpHKcaTopaMH He S1BJISlIOTCSI, KaK HOMHHHPYIOT 3TH OTHOllIeHHSI. Tlocrreznnre, TaK O,IJ;HaKO,OKaJblBalOTCSI 'IaCTHbIMH cnyqaSlMH 06lQeH a6CTPaKTHOH MO,lJ.enH OTHOllIeHHSI. 06lQHOCTb CHHTaKCH'IeCKOrO THTIa CTPYKTYP o6eCne'IHBaeTCSI CHHTaKCH'IeCKHMHcpHKcaTopaMH: nopSI,n;KOM cnoB/na,n;e)l(HbIMH OKOH'IaHHSIMH H 3aJIOrOBbIMH nOKaJaTenSIMH. CJle,n;YIOlQHe CTPYKTYPbI TaK)I(e OTHOCSITCSI 06lQeMY CHHTaKCH'IeCKOMY K nmy: «JIeHHHrpa,LJ;cesepaee MocKBbI», «YroJIb KaJIOpHHHee roptpa», «Mallia cTapllIeMHlIIID>, «Mama Mna,LJ;llIe MallIID> H T. n. CeMaHTHqeCKaSI Mo,n;eJIb: A 06na,LJ;aeT60JIbllIHM 'IeM B KOnH'IeCTBOM ofimero CBOHCTBaP. <l>OPMaJIbHaSI Mo,n;eJIb N' nom Adj comp N2 gen (B03MO)l(HbIe BapHaHTbI: N' nom Adj comp, 'IeM N2 nom «Mallia crapure, 'IeM Marna», N1 nom 60nee Adj nom brevis, 'IeM N2 nom «Yrorn, fiorree KaJIOpHeH, 'IeM TOPCP»). KOppeJISlUHSI: N1 nom - A, N2 gen - B, Adj comp - P. rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe cJ>OPMbI ', N2, Adj CJlY)l(aT nOKaJaTeJISlMH 06lQeH ceMaHTHqeCKOH Mo,n;eJlH N OTHOllIeHHSI. Cp, C aarrr, MO,lJ.eJIbION' Adj comp than N2, rne noxasareJISlMH 06lQeH CHHTaKCHqeCKOHMo,n;eJlH cnyacar nopanox CJlOB, rpasoaaraqeCKaSicpopMa cpaBHHTeJIbHOH CTeneHH H than. CTaTYc CHHTaKCH'IeCKHXcpHKcaTopoB HMeIOT, TaKHM 06Pa30M, npennorn, COI03bI, nazrezcnsre nOKa3aTeJlH Cy6CTaHTHBHbIX crros, 3aJIOrOBbIe noxasare.JIH rnaronos, nOpSl,lJ.OK CJlOBH T. n.

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a nroporo

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(IPOpMaJThHO-KOM6HHaTopHhIM) cnysae npH3HaKOM

06JIa.lIaIOT.

Torna

19

MOIKHO onpezternrrs KaK sayrpenae xoreperrrmae 3Ha'IHMble e,nHHHIIbI, BbICTynaIOIUHe KaK 3JIeMeHTbI anyrpetme HeKOrepeHTHbIX CTPYKTYP 60JIee CJIOIKHOrO nopanxa, a Mop¢JeMbI - KaK (BHYTpeHHe xorepearaue) 3Ha'IHMble e,nHHHIIbI, asrcrynaiomae KaK 3JIeMeHTbI BHYTpeHHe KOrepeHTHbIX CrpYKTYP 60JIee CJIOIKHOrOnopsztxa, HJIH rrpome KaK 3Ha'IHMble 3JIeMeHTbI, BbI'IJIeHHMble B crpyxrype CJIOB. .llJI51 KpaTKOCTH MO)l(HO rOBOpHTb, 'ITO CJIOBa 3Ha'IHMbIe e,nHHHIIbI, 06JIa,naIOIUHe CBOHCTBaMH OT,neJIbHOCTH, a Mop¢JeMbI - 3Ha'IHMble e,nHHHIIbI, He 06JIa,naIOIUHe CBOHCTBaMHOT,neJIbHOCTH (B YKaJaHHOM BbIIIIe CMbICJIe). B 'IaCTHOM CJIY'Iae Mop¢JeMa COBnaztaer CO CJIOBOM,T. e. 06a YPOBH5ICOBMeIUeHbI B O,nHOH e,nHHHIIe, KOTopa51 5IBJI5IeTCSI CJIOBOMH Mop¢JeMOH onaospeveaao. H 4.3. Hexoropsre CJIOBa,narrpaxrep, COI03bI, npennora, apTHKJIH H ztpyrae cJIYIKe6Hble H ncnonorarensasre CJIOBa, naxorzra He BbICTynaIOT caMOCT05lTeJIbHO KaK ornensnsre HOMHHaTopbI, OHH JIHIIIh 06PaJYIOT qaCTb COCTaBa HOMHHaTopOB. OT,neJIbHOCTb ¢JOPMbI CBOHCTBeHHa HM JIHIIIb KaK naCCHBHbIH npH3HaK, TaK KaK 06paJyeTcSI BbI'IJIeHeHHeM caMo,nOCTaTOtIHbIX HOMHHaTopOB. <PYHKIIHOHaJIbHO TaKHe e,nHHHIIbI - He 60JIee 'IeM ¢JHKcaTopbI, TeM He MeHee aa ¢JopMaJIbHOM OCHOBaHHH no npH3HaKY OT,neJIbHOCTH ¢JOPMbIHX cneztyer npasnars He Mop¢JeMaMH, a CJIOBaMH, KaK no 06bItIHO H zieJIaeTC5I. Maorne KOHIIenIIHH crpaTH¢JHKaIIHH Sl3bIKOBbIX e,nHHHII Hey,nOBJIeTBOpHTeJIbHbI B CMJIY 'roro, 'ITO He nposonar nOCJIe,nOBaTeJIbHOrOpasrpaaaqeHH5I ,nBYX OCHOBaHHH ¢JYHKIIHOHaJIbHOrO H ¢OpMaJIbHOrO - Bbr,neJIeHHSI 513bIKOBbIX e,nHHHII, a CMeIIIHBaIOT HX H B JIyqIIIeM CJIY'Iae crpeM5ITC5I coe,nHHHTb o6a OCHOBaHH5I. exny TeM COOTBeTCTBH5I M MeIK,ny ¢YHKIIHeH H ¢JoPMOM: rrpocroa ,nHCTHHKTOP ¢JOHeMa, npocron ¢JHKcaTOp- Mop¢eMa, npocTOH HOMHHaTop - CJIOBO 51BJI5IIOTC5I He 60JIee 'IeM 06IUeH TeH,neHIIHeH 513bIKOBonpeztenemroro crpos, H KJIaCCmPHKaIIHSIe,nHHHII CPaJY no ,nBYM OCHOBaHHSlM He MOlKeT BMeCTHTb Maccy norpaaaxasrx CJIY'IaeB, xorzra ¢YHKIIHH He COOTBeTCTByeT «nOJIOIKeHHa51,nJI51aee ¢JopMa». Mop¢eMbI BbIcTynaIOT He TOJIbKOB 06bI'IHOH ,nJISIHHX ¢JYHKIIHH ¢HKcaTopOB, HO H KaK HOMHHaTopbI (CP. npHMepbI, npozte «MarHHTO¢OHHbIe H KHHOJIeHTbI»). HanpOTHB, CJIOBa BbIcTynaIOT He TOJIbKO B 06bltIHOH ,nJI5I HHX ¢JYHKIIHH npOCTbIX HOMHHaTopOB, HO H B xaneerae ¢JHKCa1'OpOB (cp, ¢JYHKIIHH npeziJIOrOB, COI030B, apTHKJIeH - CJIOB, BcnOMOraTeJIbHbIX rJIarOJIOB H np.). TaKHM 06PaJOM, ,nJISI OqHOH xapaKTepHCTHKH ,neCHrHaTOpOBrpefiyercs T rpeTHH pszt TepMHHOB, YKaJbmaIOIUHX H ¢JopMaJIbHbIH, H ¢JYHKIIHOHaJIbHbIH npasHaKH ztecarnaropa: MOP¢JeMa-¢JHKcaTOp, Mop¢eMa-HOMHHaTOP, Mop¢eMa¢opMaTOt;, CJIOBO-HOMHHaTOp (= nOJIH03Ha'IHOe CJIOBO), CJIOBO-¢HKcaTOp (- CJIYIKeOHoeCJIOBO)H T. n, If3BecTHa51 ,nMJIeMMa, crrenyer JIH KBaJIH¢JHIIHPOBaTb OT,neJISIeMble npHCTaBKH HeMeIIKHX rJIarOJIOB KaK CJIOBa HJIH KaK Mop¢JeMbI, He MOlKeT 6bIT& peureaa npHeMJIeMbIM 06PaJOM, eCJIH coenaaars B onpenerreaaax CJIOBaH MOP¢JeMbI ¢JYHKIIHOHaJIbHble H ¢OpMaJIbHble npH3HaKH. TIPH TaKOM noztxone npHCTaBKa B YCJIOBH5IX,xorzta OHa CJIHTa C rJIarOJIOM, y,nOBJIeTBOp5leT onpezterreamo Mop¢eMbI, TaK KaK He SlBJISleTC5I OMHHaTHBHOH H e,nHHHIIeH H BMeCTe C TeM He 06HapYIKHBaeT npaanaxa OT,neJIbHOCTH.Ho B YCJIOBHSlX,xorna OHa OT,neJIeHa OT rJIarOJIa, OHa, C YKaJaHHoM TOqKH 3peHHSI, He MOlKeT 6bITb Ha3BaHa HH CJIOBOM,HH Mop¢JeMOH: XOT5I npasHaK HOMHHaTHBHOCTHOTCYTCTByeT, HO nOSlBJISleTCSI ¢JopMaJIbHbIH npH3HaK OT,neJIbHOCTH.ECJIH IKe 3TH zma OCHOBaHHSI aJBeCTH, TO npHCTaBKH sroro p porta KBaJIH¢JHIIHPYIOTCSI aK ¢JHKcaTopbI, HMeIOIUHe B O,nHHX YCJIOBHSlX K cpopMaJIbHbIH CTaTYC Mop¢JeMbI, a B zrpyrax - CJIOBa.

20

113 TlIDOJlOflUf Sl3bIKOB H3BeCTHO, 'ITO KaTerOpHH CJlOBa H MOpcpeMbI B YKaJaHHOM nOHHMaHHH He 06S13aTeJlbHbI zina CTPOSIscex Sl3bIKOB.Bo BCSIKOM cnyxae opranasanaa CPYHKI..{HOHaJlbHbIX e,llHHHI..{ B nO,ll06HOrO porta 4>opMaJlbHble KJlaCCbI H npOTHBonOCTaBJleHHe HX npe,llCTaBJUIeTCSI COMHHTeJlbHbIM B sssrxax HHKOpnOPHPYJOmHX H TaK HaJbIBaeMbIX «aMop4>HbIX». B l..{enOlfKe MopcpeMa - CJlOBO- rrpennoxenae nepssre KaK 6Y,llTO rrponycxaroT CJlOBO,a aropsre - MopcpeMY. I1HbIMH CJlOBaMH, 3TH nOHSlTHSI,nO-BH,llHMOMY He onacsraaror peaJlbHOCTH scex Sl3bIKOB H He HMeroT CTaTYca Bce06mllX YHHBepcamrn. KOMnOHOBaHHe Sl3bIKOBbIXe,llHHHI..{B CPOpMaJlbHble KJlaCCbI aroro pona CBOHCTBeHHO,no BceH BepOSITHOCTH, rrann, HeKOTopOMY KPyry SI3bIKOB KaK lfaCTHaSI oc06eHHOCTh HX CTPYKTypbI. 3TO, srrpoxej«, -HeY,llHBHTeJlbHO: YHHBepCaJIHH 06HapYJKHBaIOTCSI npexne scero B CPYHKI..{HOHaJlbHOH CTpaTHcpHKal..{HH SI3bIKOBbIXe,llHHHI..{,HO YHHBepCaJlbHbIM CPYHKI..{HSIM MOJKeT COOTBeTCTBOBaThforrsuroe caoeofipasne lfaCTHbIX 4>OPMaJlbHbIX ,ma6JlOHOB, B TOM 'IHCJle H rpynnHPOBOK Sl3blKOBbIX e,llHHHI..{no pa3JlHlfHbIM 4>OPMaJlbHbIM npH3HaKaM. no )TOH rrpaxaae TepMHH «Mop4>eMa» B CTPYK. TYPHOH JlHHrBHCTHKe ynoTpe6JlSI1OT TaKJKe He3aBHCHMO OT npOTHBonOCTaB·neHHSI«MopcpeMa - CJIOBO»B caMOM llIHPOKOM CMbICJle ,llJlSl 0603HalfeHHSI -npe,lleJlbHbIX 3HaqHMbIX e,llHHHI..{nro6oro 4>YHKI..{HOHaJlbHOrO YPOBHSIH 4>opMaJlbHOrO xnacca, Ho, YBbI, 3THM JlHllIb 3aTeMHSleTCSIBHYTPeHHSISIPaJHOPO,llHOCTh 0603HaQaeMbIX SlBJleHHH. 4.4. TaKHM 06PaJOM, CJlOBO H MopcpeMa - xareropaa 4>opMaJlbHOH (vs 4>YHKQHOHaJlbHOH)TaKCOHOMHHSl3bIKOBbIX e,llHHHI..{,HaXO,llSIIUHeCSI zroB nOJlHHTeJlbHOM OTHOllIeHHH. 3THMH nOHSlTHSlMH onacsraaercs HeYHHBepCaJlbHblH THn KOMnOHOBaHHSI q,HKcaTopoB B Mopq,OJlOrH'IeCKH xoreperrmsre (= nenpoaartaesrsre ,llJUI HOMHHaTopoB) CTPYKTypbI. H CJlOBO H MopcpeMaxoreperrmsre 3HalfHMble ezranansr, PaJJlH'IHe JKe MeJK,llYHHMH COCTOHT TOM, B 'ITO CJlOM KOM6HHHPYJOTCSI aexoreperrnrsre B CTPYKTYPbI. CnOBO MOJKHO n03TOMY onpenerrars KaK 3HalfHMYJO e,llHHHIzy C KorepeHTHOH CTPYKTYPOH, nsrcrynaronryro KaK 3JleMeHT aexorepearasrx CTPYKTYP fiorree CJlOJKHOrO nopaaxa, a Mopq,eMY - KaK 3HalfHMYJO e,llHHHI..{YC KorepeHTHOH CTPYKTYPOH, BbIcTynaIOmYJO B xasecrse 3JleMeHTa xoreperrrnsrx JKe CTPYKTYP 60Jlee CJlOJKHOrO nopanxa. I1JIH 60Jlee nananapno: CJlOBO ecrs npenert xorepeHTHOH 3HalfHMOH CTPYKTYPbI, a MopcpeMa - 3HalfHMbIH 3JleMeHT TaKOH CTPYKTYPbI.

§ 5. TaKoB «CTPaTHq,HKau;HoHHbIH MHHHMYM» noaaraa, rreotixonasrsrx ztna onpenerreaas nexcaaecxoro H COnpSIJKeHHbIXC HHM BH,llOB 3Ha'IeHHSI. JIHHrBHcTHlfecKaSI THnOJlOrHSI 3Ha'IeHHSI npOH3BO,llHa OT q,YHKI..{HOHaJlbHOH CTPaTHcpHKau;HH Sl3bIKa. Kareropna JIHHrBHCTHQeCKOH THnOJlOrHH 3HaQeHHSIH3, r3, JI3, CHH3 H T. n. - onHCbIBaIOT MO,llYCbI KOHl..{enTOBB CTPYKType Sl3bIKOBbIX BbIpaJKeHHH. no CYTH ztena, 3TO KBaJIHCPHKau;HSI oaaaxaesroro 'Iepe3 ero oanasaioinee, a HMeHHo, yposaeaas xapaxrepacraxa 3Ha'IHMbIX e,llHHHI..{,npHnHCaHHaSI TeM 3HalfeHHSlM, xoropsre HMH BblPaJKaIOTCSI. 5.1. HOM H HaT H B Hoe 3 H a 'I e H H e - 3Ha'IeHHe HOMHHaTopOB. CornaCHO npl1HI..{HnY aepapxaxecxoro BKnro'IeHHSI- q,YH,llaMeHTaJlbHOMY npaaIIHny SI3bIKOBOHCTPYKTYPbI, HOMHHaTHBHblM 3HalfeHHeM 06Jla,llaIOT TaKJKe e,llHHHI..{blssnue HOMHHaTHBHoro YPOBHSI, aK 'ITO HOMHHaTHBHoe 3HaQeHHeT )TO saasenae npocrsix H CJlOJKHbIXe,llHHHI..{YPOBH51 HOMHHaTopOB H ssnne [cpo ApYTIOHOBa]. r p a saMaT H 'I e C K 0 e 3 H a Q e H He - 3Ha'IeHHe rpasoaaTH'IeCKHX cpHKcaTopOB paaaoro porta, 3TO, TaKHM 06PaJOM, 'ra QaCTh 3Ha'IeHHSI HOMHHaTopoB, KOTOpa51npHXO,llHTCSI B HX CTPYKType aa norno rpasrMaTHlfecKHx q,HKcaTopOB. C H H T a K C H If e C K 0 e 3 Half e H H e - 3Ha21

xeaae

CHHTaKCH'leCKHX Q.JHKCaTOpOB,HO 'laCTh HOMHHaTHBHOrO H Pll3HO: BH,UHOCTh rpaMMaTH'leCKOro 3Ha'leHIDI, npHXO.n;SIl.QaSlCSI CTpYKType HOB

MHHaTOpa aa .n;OJIlO CHHTaKCH'IeCKHX Q.JHKCaTOpOB. JI 0 BOO 6 P a 3 0 B aC T e JI h Hoe 3 H a 'I e H H e - saaseaae CJIOBo06p1l30BaTeJIbHhIX Q.JHKcaTopOB, sro xacrs HOMMHaTHBHOro H pa3HOBH.LJ:HOCTh rpaMMaTH'IeCKOrO 3Ha'leHHSI, npHxo.n;SII.I..(aSiCSI cTpYKTYPe HOMMHaTOpa na .n;OJIlOCJIOBo06p1l30BaTeJIbHhIX B Q.JHKCaTOPOB. rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe 3Ha'leHHJI OTBJIeKaIOTCSIKaK 06111ee B ceMaHTHKe HOMMHaTOpOB C 06111HM rpaMMaTli'leCKHM Q.JHKcaTopOM. HHa'le rOBOpSI, r3 - lTO ceMaHTH'IeCKHli HHBapHaHT HOMHHaTopOB C 06111HM rpaMMaTH'IeC"HM Q.JHKcaTopoM. 11e K C H 'I e C K 0 e 3 H a 'I e H H e - 3TO ceMaHTH'IeCKHH HHBapHaHT HOMHHaTopOB c 06111eH JIeKCeMOH, T. e. 113 OTBJIeKaeTCSIKaK ofiutee B cesraaTHKe rpaMMaTH'IeCKHX Q.JOPMozmoro HMeHH. 113 npHxo.n;HTCSI B CTPYKTYpe HOMHHaTopa na .n;OJIlOQ.JHKcaTopa, aaasraaesroro JIeKCeMoH. IIoCKOJIbKY, KaK Y)l(e 6bIJIO cxasaao, JIeKCeMa MO)l(eT BKJIlO'IaTh B CBOH COCTaB CJIOBO06p1l30BaTeJIbHhIe Q.JHKcaTopbI,TO CJIoBo06pa30BaTeJIbHhIe 3Ha'leHHSI no.n;KJUO'IeHhI B 113, H Onn03H.QHSI 113 - r3 nenpaaoseepna. PeaJIbHO nporasonocTaBJIeHbl He 3Ha'leHHSI rpaMMaTH'IeCKOe H JIeKCH'IeCKOe, a 3Ha'leHHSI rpavMaTH'leCKOe H HOMHHaTHBHoe. 5.2. ECTb cyutecraeaaoe pasrraaae Me)l(.n;y 113 H r3 B xapaxrepe HX BbISlBJIeHHSI:113 MO)l(eT 6bITb HOMHHHPOBaHO B TOM )l(e KJIaCCe HOMHHaTOPOB, OT xoroporo OHO OTBJIeKaeTCSIKaK CeMaHTH'leCKHH HHBapHaHT• .l1.eJIO B TOM, 'ITO <popMo06pa30BaTeJIbHbIe rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe onn03H.QHH nocrpoeHbI KaK npHBaTHBHbIe H ozraa H3 HOMHHaTopOB B TaKHX Onn03H.QHSlX cossremaer B ce6e ztaa 3Ha'leHIDI: O.n;HOMapKHPOBaHHOe no OCHOBaHHIO Onn03H.QHH C .n;pyrHM - HeMapKHPOBaHHbIM, T. e. B npHHSlTbIX BbIIlIe CHMBO06111eH JIeKCeMOH MO)l(eT 6bITb pasMellleHo HeCKOJIbKO npHBaTHBHbIX Onn03H.QHH H COOTBeTCTBeHHO HMeeT MeCTO HeCKo.rn.KO nOCJIe.n;oBaTeJIbHbIX HeHTpaJIH3aI.(HH. IIpH 3TOM BbISlBJISIeTCSI Q.JopMa, He MapKHpOBaHHaSi no JII060MY OCHoBaHHIO,- MaKCHMaJIbHO HeMapKHpOBaHHbIH HOMHHaTOp. TaK, cpezra Q.J0PM anrnaacxoro cYmeCTBHTeJIbnoro 6e3apTHKJIeBaSi Q.JopMa en. 'I. 06111ero naneaca He MapKHpOBaHa no TpeM OCHOBaHHSlM 'IHCJIY, nanescy H apTHKJIIO. Cpezia Q.JOPMrJIarOJIa TY )l(e pOJIb arpaer npOCTOH MHQ.JMHHTHB KOHe'IHaSl HHCTaHI.(HSI eHTpaJIHH 3a.QHHnpHBaTHBHbIX Onn03H1.(HH B aHrJIHHCKOM rnarone'. HaM Ba)l(HO 3aMeTHTh, 'ITO HtlMapKHpOBaHHbIH HOMHHaTOp nsrcrynae r KaK npencraaarerrs HMeHH «B 'IHCTOM BH.n;e», aa yposae KJIaCca. HHBapHaaraoe sna-reaae MHO)l(eCTBa HOMHHaTopOB C 06ll1.eH JIeKCeMOH OKll3bIBaeTCSI npa 3TOM He npOCTO (<B3BeIlIeHHOHi> a6CTpaKI.(HeH, peam.no cyutecrBYIOllI.eH TOJIbKO B 'IaCTHhIX 3HaQeHHSlX HOMHHaTopOB. OHO HOMHHHpOBaHO HeMapKHpOBaHHhlM HOMHHaTopOM KaK O.n;HOH3 ero 3Ha'leHHH, .n;JISIco.n;ep)l(aHHSI xoroporo HPpeJIeBaHTHhI ceMaHTHQeCKHe OCHOBaHHSIrpaMMaTH'IeCKHX Onn03HI.(HH. IIoHSITHo, 'ITO HMeHHO TaKHe Q.JOPMhIn;OJI)l(HhIH36HpaThCSI . B xasecrse CJIOBapHOro npe.n;CTaBHTeJISI.n;aHHoH CHCTeMhI HOMHHaTopOB. Cpo TaK)l(e B PYCCKOMSl3hIKe: Q.JOPMhl zr, 'I. HM. n. cyw.eCTBHTeJIbHhIX, en, 'I. e I B npanaraanux ormoaauasx aHrJII1i1cKoro rJIarOJIa nafirnonaerca aepapxus Hei1TPaJIll3alllli1 (T. e. onpenenennsnr nopsrnox soapacrarornefr HeMapKllpOBaHHOCTI1): nepasn-ia Hei1TPaJIll3}'lOTCSI onnoaauna no HaKJIOHeHI1IO, BpeMeHI1, mr'lHOCTll/6e3JIll'lHOCTI1 (OHll OTCYTCTBYJOT 6e3JII1'1HbIX <jJopMax rJIarOJIa: rlH<jJI1HllTI1Be, repYH)l1111 11 B rtpaaacraa), a na BTOPOM ypoaae H"ei1TpaJIH3YJOTCH60JIee YCT0i1'1118bJeOnn0311llHI1 no Bll)lY, BpeMeHHoi1 COOTHeceHHOCTI1113aJIOry.

nax N, coasreuraer m, = C + Cj C m = c. B O.n;HOMKJIaCCe HOMHHaTopoB C

22

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conepzcaaae:

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§ 1. I1HTeHCHOHaJI H HMIIJIHKaQHOHaJI JI3. 1.1. CJIOB03Ha'IeHlfe: onpezteneaae, 1.2. BlfpTyaJIhHOe (CJIOBapHoe) asaxeaae. 13. Kornaraaasre sacra JI3: IfHTeHCHOHaJI 3HaqeHlfH (13.1.), )!(eCTKlfH (o6H3aTeJIhHhIH) H CHJIhHhIH (CHJlhHOBepoRTHOCTHhIJ1) HMIIJIHKaUHOHaJl (1.3 .2.), HerlfMIIJIlfKaUlfOHaJI (133.), CJla6hIH (cBo6o.llHhli1) IfMIIJlIfKaQlfOHaJI 3HaqeHlfH (1.3.4.). 1.4. CTpYKTypa If ocotieanocra HHTeHCHOHaJIa If HMIIJIHKaQHOHaJIa. 1.5. BhlcKa3hIBaHHH C TOqKH apeaas 3KCIIJlHl(aQlfH B HHX xacrea JI3. § 2. CTpYKTypa HHTeHCHOHaJIa JI3. 2.1. Cesra: onpezreneaae. 2.2. CTpYKTypa HHTeHCHOHaJIa: IIyqOK HJIH CTpYKTypa? (2.2.1.); KlIaccmtmKaQHOHHhIH TpeyrOJIhHHK, rHIIepOHHM, rHIIOHHM, 3KBOHlfM (2.2.2.); rurrepcessa H ranocexa (2.2.3.); YPOBHH o606rueHHH B CTpYKType IfHTeHCHOHaJIa (2.2.4.).2.3. CeMbI COBMeCTHMhle H HeCOBMeCTHMble. 2.4. Orpaaaseaaa aa KOMIIOHeHTHblH aHaJIH3.

§ 1.
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23

OT IPOPMbI M CTPYKTYPbI .IleCIITHaTOpa. Haxoaeu, KOrHMTMBHOe CO,D;ep)!(aHMe 3HaKa InaMMO,D;eHCTByeT C nparMaTMqeCKMMM aCneKTaMM 3HaqeHMSI: 3MOTMBHbIM, 3CTeTMBHbIM M T. rr, B MTOre CBSI3b Me)!(,D;Y,D;eCMrHaTOpOMIf ,D;eCMrHaTOMOKa3bIBaeTCSIHe )!(eCTKOH, O,D;HO-O,D;H03HaqHOH, CBo60,D;HoH. a ,llecMrHaTOp cnocofien noztxmosars K CBoeMY conepxanaro xonnerrrsr, acCOl.(MMPyeMble no onpezrerreansnr npanarrasr C ero nepBM~bIM 3HaqeHMeM. 3TO M orrpezrenser TPY,D;HOCTM, KOTOPbIMMCTaJIKMBaIOTCSI C npa YCTaHOBJleHMM sap'ryam.noro CO,D;ep)!(aHMSI CJlOB, npn nesrapsanaa nOJlMCeMMM,pasrpaaaseaaa nOJlMCeMMM M OMOHMMMM.BMPTyaJlbHOe CJlOB03HaqeHMe npeztCTaBJlSIeT C060H HeqTO BpO,D;e MaCCbI C rpaBMTauIfOHHbIM nonesr, cnoco6HbIM 3aXBaTbIBaTh ztpyrae TeJla-KOHllenTbI. 3.1lecb crreztyer nO,D;qepKHYTh O,D;MH Ba)!(HbIH MOMeHT, Hepe,D;KOnenonoHMMaeMbIH. IbBecTHaSI aeonpezieneanocrs sapryansaoro 3HaqeHMSI,0 KOTOPOH rOBOpMJIOCb BbIlIIe, HMKaK He naer nOBO,D;aBM,L(eTh B SI3bIKOBbIX 3HaqeHMSIX KOrHMTMBHYID IPOPMY oco6oro pozia, HeqTO OTJlMqalOII.(eeCSI OT nOHSITMH pacnrrsrasarocrsro conepxanas'. Bapryarrsnoe aaaseaae neorrpenenenno TOJlbKO B TOM CMbICJle, qTO CJlOBO nonycxaer M3BeCTHYID CBO6o.n;y xopperrsnaa C KOHllenTaMM M cnocofiao B onpezterreaasrx YCJlOBMSIX 0603HaqaTh HeqTO csepx roro, qTO eMY Y3YaJlbHO nOJlO)!(eHO. 3TO neonpeneneanocrs BbI6opa. Xapaxrep )!(e xoauenra, qeTKMH MJlM pacnrrsmaaTbIH, rny60KMH MJIM nOBepXHOCTHbIH, conepscarerrsasni MJlM 6e,D;HbIH, peaJlbHbIH MJlM MHMMbIHM T• .n;. OTHOlIIeHMSI K zteny He MMeeT. OH o6ycJlOBJleH 3HaHMeM npezoaeraoa 06J1aCTM,.IleSITeJlbHOCThlO,OnbITOM. AKTyaJlMjauMSI CJlOBaB KOHTeKCTe YCTPaHSIeTaeonpeneneanocrs 3HaqeHMSI,T. e. CHMMaeT aeorrpeneneaaocrs B03MO)!(HOrO BbI60pa Me)!(.n;y KOHllenTaMM. 1.3. JIeKCMqeCKOe aaaseaae 06bI~O nperrcraanser C060H COBOKynHOCTh ceMaHTMqeCKMX npM3HaKoB, OTHOCSIII.(MXCSIonacaamo K Ha3bIBaeMbIX CJlOBOM .n;eHOTaTOB(KJlaCCa zreacraros), 3TM npIDHaKM opraHIDOBaHbI B CTPYKTYPY onpezrerreaasnra 3aBMCMMOCTSIMM, OTpa)!(alOII.(MMMCTPYKTYPY neaorara (KJlaCca neaoraros), B COBOKynHOM CO,D;ep)!(aHMM JleKCMqeCKOrO 3HaqeHMSI Pa3JlMqaIOTCSInse qaCTM: cozrepxarensnoe SI.n;pO JleKCMqeCKOrO 3HaqeHMSI, MJlM ero M H T e H C M 0 H a JI, M nepzrpepaa CeMaHTMqeCKllX npIDHaKoB, oxpyacalOII.(llX 3TO SI.IlPO,ero M M n JI M K all M 0 H a JI. 1.3.1. If H T e H C M 0 H a JI JleKCMqeCKOrO 3HaqeHMSI- npM6J1IDMTeJlbHO TO )!(e, qTO conepxaaae nOHSITMSIB rroraxe, 3TO CTPYKTYPMPOBaHHaSI COBOKynHOCTh cesraaraaecxax npIDHaKOB, HaJIMqMe KOTOPbIX rrorraraerca 06SI3aTeJlbHbIM .n;JISI .n;eHOTaTOB naaaoro xnacca, MHTeHCMOHaJIbI nOHSITMH3HaqeHMH rrescar B OCHOBe MbICJlMTeJlbHbIX M pexeasrx onepanaa no KJlaCCMIPMKauMM, TO)!(.n;eCTBJleHMlO pa3J1MqeHMlO,D;eHOTaTOB ax MMeHOBaHMlO. O M K npaxsepy, nee MaTepIf SIBJlSIlOTCSI )!(eHII.(MHaMM-pO,D;MTeJlbHMllaMM, 3TM M nsa npmaaxa (<<pO,D;MTeJlb» «)!(eHCKMH nom», If CBSI3aHHbIe cneuadiaxaI.(MOHHOH(pO.n;O-BM,L(OBOH) 3aBMCMMOCThlO,COCTaBJlSIlOT MHTeHCMOHaJlCJlOBa

1.3.2. B CMJlY Bceo6I1.(HOCTM cBSI3eH M 3aBMcMMocTeH O,D;HMnpIf3HaKM 3aCTaBJlSIlOTnOMbICJlMTh npyrae. PaBHbIM 06Pa30M MHTeHCMOHaJlbHble npusHaKM MorYT C Heo6xo.n;MMOCThlO MJlM BepOSITHOCTblO rrpenno.narars (IfMnJlMl.(MPOBaTh) HaJlMqMe MJlM OTCYTCTBMe,D;PyrIfx npM3HaKOB Y ,D;eHOTaTOB nanaoro xnacca, Ilo OTHOlIIeHMlO K MHTeHCIfOHaJlY- SI,D;PY 3HaqeHIfSI - coBOKynHOCTb TaKMX MMllJlMllMPyeMbIx npIDHaKOB COCTaBJlSIeT M M n JI If K a1 Cp, asrcxaasraanae CT. YJIbMaHa; "... meanings have no c1earcut demarcation lines but rather a hazy fringe through which they imperceptibly merge into each other; they are, as Wittgenstein once put it, "concepts with blurred edges" [2751-

«srars»,

24

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25

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H n03HaBaTeJIbHOrO 'ITO MO)l(eT HMeHH

npenonpeztenaer

06JIaCTb

Ha3BaHO orpaacaer HMeHeM. 3Ha'leHHSI B

nperorerasre
'ITO MO)l(eT

HMnJIHKaUHOHaJI B

CBSI3H CYIUHOCTeM, T. e. oaepxaaaer Ha3BaHO

O)I(HJlaeMYIO

CBSl3H C JlaHHbIM H

COCTaBJISleT HenpeMeHHbIM 3aBHCHMbIM

nOCTOSlHHbIM KOMnOHeHT CTPYKTYPbl CKOJIbKO ero

HMIIJIHKaUHOHaJI KOMnOHeHT,

06YCJIOBJIeHHbIM OT JIorH'IeCKOM 'ITO HMeHH,

BapbHPYIOIUHMCSI

KOHTeKCTa. COCTaBJISleT «CHJIOBOe HMeHH, SI3bIKax

onpeJleJIeHHOM

CMbICJIe MO)l(HO CKa3aTb, c06cTBeHHoM 06 ceMaHTHKH

HMIIJIHKaQHOHaJI

He CTOJIbKO qaCTb

nOJIe». ECJIH )I(e MbI rOBopHM TO 3THM CTpeMHMCSI TaK 'ITO Me)l(.llY HHTeHCHOHaJIOM K ero npH3HaKoB

HMIIJIHKaUHOHaJIe

KaK '1aCTH 3Ha'leHHSI B eCTeCTBeHHbIX nepenxo MO)l(eT HMeHH 3TO

nonsepxayrs

CJIeJlYIOIUee:

H HMnJIHKaUHOHaJIOM nomo.

HeT )I(ecTKoM He3aMeTHO acero nOJlKJIIO'IaIOB 3aBHCHMOCTH npHnHCblBaIOT nora eJlHHH'I3HOMHbIM». HHTeHCHHe npexczie

rpaaausr,
nepexoznrrs 06JIaCTH

HHTeHCHOHaJIbHOe HMIIJIHKaUHOHHOMY CHJIbHOrO ceMaHTHKe JIeKCH'IeCKOro 0 CBo6oJlHOrO

S1JlPO 3Ha'leHHSI

KacaeTCSI He3aMeTHO pa3JIH'IHa eMY

HMIIJIHKaUHOHaJIa, CJIOBa. 3HaqeHHSI onaoro qeM-TO HMIIJIHKaUHOHaJIa cp. HMeHH

mHXCSI K c06cTBeHHoM

1.5.
OT roro, npH3HaK noro, oaana

HH<l!opMaUHoHHaSl xaxaa sacrs ECJIH,

<l!YHKQHSI BblcKa3blBaHHM

CJIOBa 3KCIIJIHUHpyeTcSI HMeHH H3 sroro

.llpyrHMH. TO

BblCKa3bIBaSlCb

e.llHHH'IHOM, «JIeTO

H3 06JIaCTH

BblCKa3bIBaHHe

HanpOTHB, HJIH

npanacsraaaae
CHJIbHOrO

coztepxarensao,
eJlHHH'IHOMY CHen>.

6blJIO ofinacra

npH3HaKOB

HMnJIHKaQHOHaJIa 0 xnaccax

eJlHHH'IHOrO CMbICJIa)

HH<l!opMaTHBHO,

cp,

«3HMOM urerr

BblCKa3blBaHHSlX

(BbICKa3bIBaHHSlX HHTeHCHOHaJIa

06IUero

3KCnJIH-

KaUHSl npH3HaKOB XHI..UHHK». (crrafioro) oueHKOM,

H3 06JIaCTH

H CHJIbHOrO

HMnJIHKaUHOHana cp. «rarp-« CB060JlHOrO

CJlY)I(HT ueJISIM onpeneneaas

H 06'hSlCHeHHSI KJIaCCOB H HX HMeH, 3KCIIJIHKaUHSI HJIH npH3HaKOB HX JlOJI)I(Ha 6bITb scex COnpOBO)l(JlaTbCSI

Tex

x<e BblCKa3blBaHHSlX

HMIIJIHKalJ,HOHaJIa cp. «JIeTO MO)l(eT HHTeHCHOHaJIbI COCTaB H 06pa30M

)I(apKHM

npoxrraznrsrsr».
60JIee

BepOSITHOCTHOH

§ 2.
CJlO)I(HbIM

nOHSlTHM, T. e. B uerroe,

KpOMe

3JIeMeHTapHb1X,

HMeIOT nOHSlTHSI,

CTPYKTYPY,

cozrepzcar

npocrsre

onpeJleJIeHHblM

CBSl3aHHble

CTpYKTYPY. nOHSITHSI KaK '1aCTH OTJIH'IaIOTCSI OT C KaKoM-m160 CYIUeCTBeHHO, CeMbl

2.1.
JlPyrHX

IIpHMeHHTeJIbHo TeM, 'ITO ero

K 3Ha'leHHSlM Ha3bIBaTb

3HaKOB npHHSlTO ceMaMH1•

nOHSITHM-3Ha qeHHM

3Ha'leHHM 3Ha'lHMOH rOBOpHM KaK xacn,

He CBSl3bIBaIOTCSI B JlaHHOM '1aCTbIO, T. e. He

onpeJleJIeHHoM 0

'1aCTbIO.

Korzta

asrpaacensr
ceM

necaraarope
3HaqeHHM HMeeT He

B JlaHHOM 3HaKe KaKOM-JIH60 ero H npH3HaK-nOHSlTHe JlH 3TO nOHSlTHe

pa3JIH'IHe

ceMaHTH'IeCKHX cozrepacanaa 3HaKa

npasaaxax,

CeMaHTH'IecKHM OT roro,

He3aBHCHMO

1 )J,pynre B03MO)l(Hbie TepMHHbI - .llH!jJ!jJepeHUHaJIbHble ceMaHTH'IeCKHe IlpH3HaKIf, ceMaHTl1'1eCKHe MHO)l(HTeJIIf.

27

B CTPYKType 3HaKa C06CTBeHHhIl1 ,l:(eCHTHaTOp HJUI HeT (T. e. He3aBHCHMOOT TOrO, HMeeT JIH OHO CTaTYC3HaqeHHSI HJIM cesssr). 2.2. CTPYKTypa HHTeHCHOHaJIaorrpeztenaerca nYTeM BhISlBJIeHHSI cesnroro COCTaBa3HaqeHHH, xoropoe H3BeCTHOKaK KOMnoHeHTHhIH aHaJIH3 3HaqeHHSI [CM. AnpeCSIH (1); I'ax (1), (2); EJIhMCJIeB; KY3HeuoB; HHKHTHH (1), (3), CeJIHBepCToBa; Nida; Palmer]. 2.2.1. BnJIOTb no nOCJIe,l:(HerO BpeMeHH necarnar qaCTO npe)lCTaBJISIJIH KaK npOCTYIO coaoxynaocrs, rryxox ceMaHTH'IeCKHX npH3HaKOB, He CBSI3aHHbIX BHYTpeHHHMH 3aBHCHMOCTSlMH. TaKoH nozixort He xapaxrepea )lJISI COBeTcxoro SI3bIK03HaHHSI. nepssrx maroa KOMnOHeHTHoro aHaJIH3a OH paCCMaTC PHBaJICSI KaK He,l:(OCTaTO'lHbIH: 3Ha'leHHSI OT,l:(eJIbHbIX CJIOB H CJIO)l(HbIX Bblpa)l(eHHH paCCMaTpHBalOTCSI xax CTPYKTypbI co CJIO)l(HOH BHYTpeHHeH opranasauaea H BbI)lBHraeTCSI sana-ra OIIHcaHHSI 03HaqaeMbIX HMeHHO B sane CTPYKTYPHbIXQ:>OPMYJI, UJIH KOHQ:>HrypaUHH. B pafiorax B. f. raKa [faK (1), (2)] H C . .ll. KaUHeJIbCOHa [KaUHeJIbCOH (2)] 6bIJIO '1eTKO CQ:>OPMYJIHpOBaHo npezrcraaneaae 0 3HaqeHHH CJIOBaKaK aepapXH'IeCKOH opraHH3aUHH, xoropas «BKJIIO'IaeT apxacesrsr (ofiuure ceMbI ponosoro 3HaqeHHSI), ,l:(HQ:>Q:>epeHQHPYlOmHe ceMbI nazrosoro 3HaqeHHSI H nOTeHUHaJIbHble ceMbI, orpaxarourae nofioxasre xapaKTepHCTHKH 0603Ha'1aeMOrO npezeaera» [Fax (2), 371] H B KOTOPOH «)lOMHHHpYIOw;aSl pOJIb npnnannesorr KaTerOpHaJIbHOMY npH3HaKY» [KaUHeJIbCOH (2), 150]. 2.2.2. Haura aazraxa snecs COCTOHTB TOM, '1T06bI YTOqHHTb JIOrH'IeCKHe H rHOCeOJIOrH'IeCKHe OCHOBaHHSI OMnOHeHTHoro aaanma K H, onapascs aa sro, YSlCHHTb OCHOBHble KOMnOHeHTbI CTPYKTYPbI JIeKCHqeCKOrO 3HaqeHHSI, BbISIBHTbOrpaHH'IeHHSI aa cesmoe pa3JIO)l(eHHe 3Ha'leHHH. CTPYKTypa HHTeHCHOHaJIaH ee COCTaBHble'1aCTH BbISlBJISIIOTCSI KJIaCCHB Q:>HKaUHOHHbIXCBSl3S1X KOHuenTOB. KaK Y)l(e CKa3aHO paaee, KJIaCCHQ:>HKaUHOHHbIe CBSl3H KOHuemOB -)TO KorHHTHBHbIH aHaJIOr pacnpeneneaas npH3HaKOB B cymHOCTSIX 06'beKTHBHoro MHpa. Y CTaHaBJIHBalOTCSI HH no O 06mHOCTH - pa3JIH'IHIO CO,l:(ep)l(aHHSI KOHuemOB. HaJIH'IHe - OTCYTCTBHe HMIIJIHKaUHOHHbIX 3aBHCHMOCTeH KOH[(emOB npa 3TOM aecymecrneaao. KJIaCCHQ:>HKaQHOHHbIe BSI3HBbISIBJISlIOT KOHuenTax-nOHSITHSIX nse OCHOBC B asre '1aCTH, CBSI3aHHble B CTPYKTYPY PO,l:(O-BH,l:(OBbIM (KaTerOpHaJIbHO-CneUHQ:>HKaQHOHHbIM) OTHomeHHeM1• Ilpocreamaa KJIaCCHQ:>HKaUHOHHa}l cxesra, BbISIBJISllOma}lKOMnOHeHTbI H HX OTHomeHHe B CTPYKType HHTeHCHOHaJIa,3TO TpeyrOJIbHHK OTHomeHHH C TpeMSI KOHuemaMH B sepuraaax, aarrpasrep: parent

father

mother

KJIaCCHQ:>HKaQH}I npezmonaraer pa3J1H1llie B YPOBHSIX0606meHHSI BXO,l:(}ImHX TepMHHOB. llOHSITHe ypOBHSI npe,l:(CTaBJI}leTCSI,l:(OCTaTO'lHO SlCHbIM. ECJIH nOHSITHIO C COOTBeTCTByeT peQ:>epeHQHOHHOeMHO)l(eCTBO M H B 3TOM MHOx<eCTBe BbI,l:(eJISIIOTCSI nO,l:(MHO)l(eCTBaMh M2 ... Mn, TaKHe, 'ITO B COBOKYITHOCTH OHH HC'IepITbIBaIOT MHO)l(eCTBO M H HH O,l:(HHH3 3JIeMeHTOB JII060ro O,l:(HOrO H3 3THX nO,l:(MHO)l(eCTB He npHHa,l:(JI(~)l(HT HH K KaKOMY .D:PyrOMY H3 YKa3aHHbIX nO,l:(MHO)l(eCTB,TO noHSITHSI Ch C2 ••• Cs , COOTBeTCTBYlOmHe 3THM nO,l:(MHO)l(eCTBaM,SlBJISIIOTCSI nOHSITHSlMHaasmero YPOBH}I

11.

1 OCHOBaHHlI raxoro KaHTOM B BH~e ero nOHHTHH.

sarnaaa

aa CTPYKTYPYnoaaras 6blJIH c4>opMynHpoBaHhl eute ll3BeCTHbIX npHHUHnOB rOMoreHHOCTH H rereporeuaocra

28

o606meHHSI CpaBHHTeJIbHO C C. IloHSITHSI O)lHOrO YPOBHSI o606meHHSI H COOTBeTCTBYIOmHeHM HMeHa 6Y)leM Ha3bIBaTb no OTHOllIeHHIO zipyr K zipyry 3 K B 0 H H M a M H. .6Y)leM TaK)I(e B COOTBeTCTBHHC HMeIOIUeH:CSI paznn . r .(HeH Ha3bIBaTb nOHSITHSIH HMeHa HH311Iero YPOBHSIno OTHOllIeHHIO K BbICllleMY r H n 0 H H M a M H, a asrcurero YPOBHSIno OTHOllIeHHIO K HH311IeMY r H n ep o H H M a M H. EY)leM TaK)I(e rosopars 0 pe<pepeHUHOHHOH: 6JIaCTH (3KCTeH0 CHOHaJIe) rarrepoaasra KaK 0 npereaeraoa 06JIaCTH pa3MemeHHSI rHnOHI1MOB. TaK, B HallleM npasrepe father H mother - nOHSITHSIHH3lllero YPOBHSI o606meHHSI, a parent - nOHSITHe 6JIH)I(aH:lllerO asrcmero YPOBHSI.Father 11 mother HaXO)lSlTCSIB OTHOllleHHH 3KBOHHMHH ztpyr K )lpyry (3KBOHHMHSI3TO OTHOllleHHe nOHSITHH:H HMeH O)lHOH npe)lMeTHOH: 06JIaCTH H O)lHOrO ypOBHSI o606meHHSI). Haase rOBOpSl, OHH 3KBOHHMbI B npe)lMeTHOH: 06JIaCTll parent. BMeCTe C TeM, Ka)l()lOe H3 HI1X SlBJISleTCSI rHnOHHMOM no OTHOllleHHIO K o6meMY rHnepOHHMY parent. TaKHM o6pa30M, rHnepOHHM H rHnOHHMTO )l(e, qTO pO)lOBOe H BH)lOBOe nOHSITHSI(TepMHHbI, CJIOBa). OHM JIHlllb KopOqe H Y)106Hee nna 06pa30BaHHSI npOH3BO)lHbIX. KJIaCCH<pHKaUHSI 3JIeMeHTapHOM cnysae npezmorraraer, B KaK MHHHMYM, )lBa rHnOHHMa npa O)lHOM ranepomoae, BMeCTe C TeM OHa npezmonaraer )lBOSIKoro pozra OTHOllleHHSI Me)l()lY BXO)lSImI1MH nOHSlTMSlMH(TepMHHaMH, HMeHaMI1, CJIOBaMH) no CO)lep)l(aHHIO: 3KBOHHMHqeCKHe H rano-ranepoaaMHqeCKl1e (nOCJIe)lHHe TaK)I(e Ha3bIBaIOT BH)lO-PO)lOBbIMH, KaTerOpHaJIbHOcneUH<PI1KaUHOHHbIMH, HJlH HHKJII03HBHO-3KCKJII03HBHbIMH). Ilepnste 06HaPY)l(HBaIOTCSIY nOHSITHH:O)lHOrO YPOBHSIo606meHHSI, nropsre - Y nOHSITHH: pa3HbIX YPOBHeH: o606meHHSI. II B TOM H B )lpyrOM cnyxae neofixoztasro, qTo6bI nOHSITHSI THOCHJlHCbK O)lHOH npe)lMeTHOH: 06JIaCTH. O 2.2.3. B 3KBOHHMHqeCICHX H rHno-rHnepOHHMHqeCKHX oTHollIeHHSIx, B3aHMHO npezmonararourax ztpyr rtpyra, o6HapY)l(HBaeTCSI KOMnOHeHTHaSi CTPYKTypa nOHSITHH. Bonee Toro, KOMnoHeHTHbIH: aHaJIH3 o6S13aTeJIbHO npezmorraraer COOTHeceHHe nOHSITHSIC ero fHnepOHHMOM H 3KBOHHMaMH. CpaBHeHHe 3KBOHHMOB BbISIBJISIeTB HHX o6myIO xacrs, CO)lep)I(aTeJIbHO paBHYIO rHnepOHHMY H nonysarouryro TO )Ke HMSI. Ha30BeM 3TOT 06mHH: ceMaHTHqeCKHH KOMnOHeHT KaTerOpHaJIbHbIM npH3HaKOM, HJlH r H n e p C eM 0 H. Hapany C ranepcevoa, B cozrepzcaaaa 3KBOHHMOB 06HapY)l(HBaIOTCSI TaK)I(e pa3JIHqHTeJIbHble npH3HaKH, cneUH<PHQeCKHe.llJlSI Ka)l()lOrO 3KBOHHMa. 3TOT pa3JIHQHTeJIbHbIH KOMnOHeHT Ha30BeM )lJlSI KpaTKOCTH r H n 0 C e M 0 H:. TaKHM 06pa30M, coztepxaaae 3KBOHHMa COCTaBJISIeTCSI, KaK MHHHMYM, H3 )lBYX cesr, CBSI3aHHbIXKaTerOpHaJIbHO-cneUH<PHKaUHOHHbIM (ranep-ranonaMHQeCKHM,PO)lO-BH)lOBbIM) OTHOWeHHeM. Ilepsaa YKa3bIBaeT otintee B nOHSITHH (ofiniee .llJlSI nOHSlTHH)laHHOH:npe)lMeTHOH 06JIaCTH), T. e. ero xareropmo, BTopaSI- qaCTHOe, cneUH<PHqeCKOe .llJlSI )laHHOrO nOHSITHSI. KOMnOHeHTHaSI npapozta nOHSlTHll 06HapY)l(HBaeTCSI TOJIbKO B cpaBHeHHH (onn03HUHH) HX cO.ZJ;ep)l(aHHSI. PaBHbIM 06pa30M KaTefOpHaJIbHbIH HJlH crreUH<pHKaUHOHHbIH CTaTYC ceMbI He ecrs ee co6CTBeHHoe, a6COJIIOTHOe CBOHCTBO, a CBOHCTBO OTHOCHTeJIbHoe. CTaTYC ceMbl 06HapY)l(HBaeTCSI H 3aBHCHT OT Ha60pa TepMHHOB cpaBHeHHSI. B onn03HUHH fathermother nOHSITHe father cO.ZJ;ep)l(HT ranepcevy parent H ranoceuy male. B onn03HUHH father - son ranepcesaoa TOfO )Ke nOHSITHSIOKa3bIBaeTCSI ale, a ranoceseoa m parent KOMnoHeHTbI cO.ZJ;ep)KaTeJILHOH CTPYKTYPbI nOHSITHSI,T. e. cesrsr, caMH TaK)Ke SIBJISIIOTCSI nOHSITHSIMH,HO, TaK CKa3aTb, noHSITHSIMHBTOPOH osepena. CeMa - nOHSITHe B xaxecrae CTPYKTYPHoro 3JIeMeHTa .ZJ;pyrOfO nOHSITHSI. COOTSeTCTBeHHOcesra - nOHSITHe 60JIee rrpocroe no CTPYKType conepsaaas, qeM TO nOHSITHe, B COCTaB CTpYKTYPbI xoroporo OHa BXO)lHT. Ilpenensao

29

npOCTbIMH nOHSlTHSI

(aTOMapHbIMH, aeura, CBOHCTBa

CTPYKTYPHO H T. n.) HJIH

He

pa3JIO)l(HMbIMH) npeLJ,eJIY o606meHHSI npeLJ,eJIY

OKa3bIBalOTCSI (aanpassep, paCqJIeHeHHSI LJ,eSlTeJIb-

nOHSlTHSI, COOTBeTCTBYlOmHe

HJIH BepXHeMY

HH)I(HeMY

LJ,eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH, LJ,OCTHrHYTOMY B 06meCTBeHHOH HOCTH H OTpa)l(eHHOMY

qeJIOBeqeCKOH

2.2A.

B C03HaHHH. qTo6bI C YCTaHOBHTb B03MO)l(Hble qTO o606meHHH, KOMnOHeHTbI onn03HUHH 3TH onn03HUHH COLJ,ep)l(aTeJIbHOH Heo6xoLJ,HMO, nOHSlTHSI. B LJ,Ba qeM LJ,aHHOrO MaKCHMaJIbHOH LJ,eTaJIH3aUHeH,

,l(JISI

Toro,

CTPYKTypbI OqeBHLJ,HO, IIpH 3TOM

nOHSlTHSI YCTaHOBHTb MO)l(eT

see

06HapY)I(HTbCSI, HepapXHIO KOMnOHeHTHaSl nOHSlTHSI.

opraHH30BaHbI

MHorocTyneHqaTYIO YPOBHSI o606meHHSI. HepapXHIO

T. e. COLJ,ep)l(aT 60JIee nOHSlTHSI orpazcaer MepapXHSI qHCJIO B xaxecrae

CTpYKTypa

B ce6e

o606meHHH, CTPYKTYPY YPOBHeH IIpH

B KOTOPYIO BXOLJ,HT nOHSlTHe. IIoHSlTHe OHO COLJ,ep)l(HT BKJIlOqaeT o606meHHSI. 3TOM ceMbI ofiuiee

cnpoennpocexr ace

pasnoe
qTO

saaa

na

KOMnOHeHTOB,

qHCJIY

nOHSlTHSI BbICIlIHX npH3HaK n-ypOBHSI (rarrocesty). nOBTopSlIOT

YPOBHeH o606meHHSI cTyneHqaTOe MaKCHMaJIbHOe cneumpHKaUHH H T. LJ,. npHMepOM.

nJIIOC co6CTBeHHbIH B CTPYKType nOHSlTHe) nOHSlTHe nOHSlTHH

pa3JIHqHTeJIbHbIH nOHSlTHe xareBTOPOH CHCTeMa

nOHSlTHSI nOLJ,qHHeHbI TaK, B HepapXHH: BXOLJ,HT B n-l-ypoBHSI

nOLJ,qHHeHHe

(T.

e.

xa-recrse

rOpHaJIbHOrO

npasaaxa

(rnnepcesrsr),

COOTBeTCTByeT

nepsoa
crynetra nOHSlTHH

crynena

rnnepcesrsr,

nOHSlTHe

n-2-ypoBHSI-

cneUH<pHKaUHH CKa3aHHoe

IIoSlcHHM

(LJ,JISI YLJ,06CTBa

0603HaqeHbI

child son

-------aa

Hepapxaxecxa
relative

opraHH30BaHHaSl Sl3bIKe):

aHrJIHHCKOM

(direct)

parent mother

daughter

rather

COLJ,ep)l(lIT T}JH YPOBHSI o606meHHSI. (direct) o6mHH anscestor. KOMnOHeHT relative KOMnoHeHT scex H

AHaJIH3

CeMaHTHqeCKHX male female, qJIeHbI

npOTHBOnOCTaBJledescendantSlBJISlIOTCSI child relative, 06Pa50M npeKaK MHHHMaJIbHbIH CHCTeMbI nOHSlTHe PaBHbIM relative,

HHH BbISIBJISleT CJIeLJ,}'IOmHe KOMllOHeHTbI: relative qJIeHOB T.

(direct)

o6HapY)l(HBaeTCSI son male

nepapxaa, Bee
npezterry OHH

nOHSlTHSlMH co CJIO)l(HOH CTPYKTYPOH: descendant npOCTbIMH qeCKHX ./leJIY C060H (szrecs, COOTBeTCTBYlOmee onn03HUHSlX npenerrsasre nOHSITHo, naa 3LJ,eCb BepXHeMY qJIeHOB ./laHHOrO

descendant

LJ,. MCKJIlOqeHHe

COCTaBJISleT o606meHHSI.

OKa3bIBalOTCSI

H nOHSlTHSI-KoMnoHeHTbI, CHCTeMbI. yqaCTKa

BbISlBJISleMble

B CeM<lHTH-

cooTBeTcTBYIOT B orrsrre

HH)I(HeMY H

KBaHTOBaHHSI

LJ,eHcTBHTeJIbHOCTH penesaarasre CHCTeMbI 60JIee yposae ceM

H npe./lCTaBJISlIOT C03HaHHH KapTHHY

pasrpaaaseaaa, TOJIbKO rpparjaetrr YPOBHSI zrator aHaJIH3 na

nOHSITHH pOLJ,CTBa). YPoBHeH parent

IIoHSITHSI npeLJ,MeTHOH fiezmee:

HH311Iero 06JIaCTH.

Harrporna;

LJ,eTaJIH3HpoBaHHYIO child

nOHSlTHSI BbICllIHX

conepxarensno

KOMnoHeHTHbIH nOJIa.

06XOLJ,HTCSI 6e3 nOHSlTHH, socrrpo-

npmaasa

Cp,

TaK)I(e

OTHOllIeHHSI

B CTPYKType

H3BO./lSImHe

cryneaxaroe

nOLJ,qHHeHHe

nOHSlTHH B aepapxna:

son-male

descendant

relative

child-descendant

relative

30

B CTPYKType rrOHSITIUI son KaTerOpHaJIhHOH ceMOH SIBJISIeTCSIrelative, ceMa descendant coziepzcar cneuarpnxaumo nepaon cryneaa, a maleBTOPOH crynenn, T. e. crreu;mpHU;HpyeT Y)l(e CJIO)I(HYIO KaTerOpHaJIhHYIO cexiy descendant relative. Kpyr rroHSITHH, nozmeacaurax cpaBHeHHIO .n:JISIBhISIBJIeHHSI HX xosrnoHeHTHoro COCTaBa, onpenensercs rpaHHuaMH rrpernaeruca 06JIaCTH, a 3Ta rpaHHUa OqepqHBaeTCSI MaKCHMaJIhHhIM rHnepOHHMOM. Hepapxna nOHSlTHSI 06JIaCTH onacsrsaer rpaztanaa, crvnena nOCJIe.n:OBaTeJIhHOrO qJIeHeHHSI npe.n:MeTHoH 06JIaCTH. Ho eCJIH nazce B3SITh TOJIhKO <pparMeHT aepapxan, child

son

daughter

TO KOMIlOHeHTHhIH aHaJIH3, XOTSI H 6Y.n:eT CBepHYThIM, MeHee neransHhIM, T. e. BhISIBHT MeHhillee qHCJIO ceM (son - male child, daughterfemale child), HO OCTaHeTCSI KoppeKTHhIM, TaK KaK B pa3BepHYToH aepapxna o6HapY)l(HTeSI CJIO)l(HaSI crpyxrypa ceMhI child - descendant relative. Hnaae rOBOpSI, B03MO)l(eH H xoppexren KOMnoHeHTHhIH aHaJIH3 rrOHSlTHSI C pasnoa CTeneHhIO .n:eTaJIH3aUHH (pa3BepThIBaHHSI) BXO.n:SIlUHX B Hero ceM. Y CJIOBHeM xoppexrnoro KOMrrOHeHTHoro aHaJIH3a SIBJISIeTCSI IHilih CJIe.n:yIOJ utee: .n:JISIKOMnOHeHTHoro aHaJIH3a rrOHSITHe .n:OJI)I(HO 6hITh COOTHeceHO C rHnepOHHMOM H co BceMH 3KBOHHMaMH B rrpe.D:MeTHOH 06JIaCTH, osepxaBaeMOH 3THM rHnepOHHMOM. 2.3. Ilocnenosarensao rrpHMeIDISI KOMrroHeHTHhIH aHaJIH3 raxoro pozra K nOHSITHSIM, BhIPa)l(eHHhIM B saaxax KaKOrO-JIH60 SI3hIKa, T. e. K 3HaqeHHSIM (eM. HH)I(e), MbI rrOJIyqHJIH 6hI B pe3YJIhTaTe HeKOTophIH nepexem, npezierrsHhIX (npOCThIX, Hepa3JIO)l(HMhIX, aTOMapHhIX) cest, PaCCMOTpeB ceMhI OTHOCHTeJIhHO HX COBMeCTHOH BCTpeqaeMOCTH B CTpYKType 3HaqeHHH, MhI 06HaPY)l(HM ceMhI COBMeCTHMhIe H HeCOBMeCTHMhIe. Ilepssre MoryT COqeTaThCSI B O.n:HOM3HaqeHHH, narrpasaep, ceMhI male H parent B 3HaqeHHH HMeHH father, female H descendant B HMeHH daughter H T. n., sropsre JIOrHqeCKH He COqeTaIOTCSI. Hanpsoaep, parent H descendant HeJIh3SI coxerars B O.n:HOM nOHSlTHH. ECJIH 06'beM (3KcTeHCHOHaJI, npezoreraas 06JIacTh) KaKOrO-JIH60 ranepoaasra nOJIHOCThIO HCqepnhIBaeTCSI .n:BYMSIrHnOHHMaMH, TO COOTBeTeTBYIOlUHe ranocesesr He TOJIhKO HeCOBMeCTHMhI, HO H aHTOHHMHqHhI, cp. male H female B 06JIaCTH child HJIH parent, a TaK)I(e child H parent B 06JIaCTH relative. 2.4. He cneztyer O)l(H.n:aTh, qTO KOMrroHeHTHhIH aHaJIH3 ceMaHTHKH scerna ynacrcs ocyurecrsars C O.n:HHaKOBOH creneasro qeTKOCTH. Bo MHorHX rrpeziMeTHhIX 06JIaCTSlX npOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHSI aa HH)I(HHX YPOBHSIX .n:eTaJIH3aUHH He BhISlBJIeHhI C .n:OCTaTOqHOH nOCJIe.n:OBaTeJIhHOCThIO, TaK qTO neaorarnsre nOJISI HMeH OTqaCTH HaKJIa.[{bIBaIOTCSI O.n:HO aa ztpyroe. B KOHeqHOM cxere see onpe.n:eJISIeTCSITeM, HaCKOJIhKO paspafioraaa B OIThITe, B .n:eSITeJIbHOCTHH C03HaHHH monea ra HnH HHaSI npezeaernas 06naCTb. B CBSI3HC 3THM aepenxo aarpyztaarensno YCTaHOBHTh HCqepnbIBaIOlUHH Ha60p ceM H eure rpyznree YCTaHoBHTb HX CHCTeMHhle COOTHOIlIeHHSI H KOM6HHaTopHKY B crpyxrypax cnOB03HaqeHHH. CaMH TepMHHhI pozrcrna )lOCTaTOqHO rroxasarerrsasr na nOT cxer • .llpeBHSISI HX CHCTeMa, orpazcaroutaa 06lUHHHO-PO.n:OBYIO opraHH3aUHIO CeMhl:l H po.n:CTBeHHbIX CBSl3eH, conepzorr KaTeropH3aUHH H npOTHBonOCTaBneHHSI, KOTophIe Y)I(e rrepecrarm 6hITh COUHanhHO 3HaqHMbIMH B naure BpeMSI. Mnorae JIH H3 Hac ysepeasr reneps B 3HaqeHHH TaKHX TepMHHOB poncrsa, KaK «IlIYPHH, zieaeps, CBOSIqeHHua, 30nOBKa» 11 T. rr.?

31

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basin bottle bowl can cask chum container cup dish glass goblet jar jug kettle mug pan

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p H M e 'I a H H e: Ilpofierr no OCHOBaHHIO oaaaxaer, 'ITO HMSI no .D;aHHOMYocao OTpHuareJIbHYIO MapKHpOBaHHOCTb no npH3HaKY, (+) yzaasraaer, 'ITO MapKHpo

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ropurox, KOTeJIOK, KaCTplOJISI, KpY)I(Ka '1aHHOe 6JIlO.lUIe 60JIbIIIaJI lIJIBHaJI KpY)f(Ka 60JIbllla51 60QKa :meKTpH'IecKHii castosap IDlli Ko<i>ewHHK saaa, aM<i>opa, cocyn, '1aIIIa

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BaHHIO He MapKHposaHO, BaHHOCTb no npH3HaKY

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2-l528

33

CBOSl'IeHHQa H 30JIOBKa CpaBHSlJIHCLno CBoeMY COQHaJILHO-pOJJ;CTBeHHOMY CTaTYCYH COOTBeTCTBYIOunre pa3JIH'IHSI rrepecrana 6hITh CKOJIhKO-HH6y.o;h06meCTBeHHO Ba)l(HLIMH, npaKTH'IeCKH cymecrneaasnaa. CHCTeMa Haxo.o;HTCSIB .o;HHaMHKe H 3BOJIIOQHOHHpyeT B CTOPOHY ynpoureaas: HMeHa erne H3BeCTHhI, HO CMhICJI HX TepSleTCSIC yrparoa peJIeBaHTHhIX .LUISI ofinrecraa pa3JIH'IHH. nOHSITHO, 'ITO ,npH KOMnOHeHTHOM aHaJIH3e no.o;06HhIX CHCTeM B03HHKaeT np06JIeMa, KaK oaeprtrn, COCTaB TepMHHOB cpaBHeHHSI, KaKHe npOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHSI pasaars n peJIeBaHTHhIMH. To HJIH aaoe peIIIeHHe CKa)l(eTCSIaa pe3YJIhTaTaX KOMnoaearaoro aHaJIH3a. MO)l(HO npHBeCTH ImOH npassep - cacresrst, pa3BHBalOmeHcSI B CTOPOHY 60JIhIIIeH .o;eTaJIH3aQHH,YBeJIHqHBaBIIIeH qHCJIO ceMaHTH'IeCKHX Onn03HQHH H YCJIO)l(HSlBIIIeH HX CTPYKTYPY. B03hMeM Ha3BaHHSI npezoaeros nocynsr (CM. Ta6JIHUY 2). B xpyry 3THX HMeH, 06'Le.o;HHSleMhlx- B OTJIH'IHe OT TaKHX npezrsreroa CTOJIOBO-KYXOHHoroofiaxona, KaK HO)l(, BHJIKa (cutlery) H T. n.PO.o;OBhIMnOHSITHeM «eMKOCTh- BMeCTHJIHme .LUISI mnna (BKJIIO'IaSi sony H aarrarxa)», MO)l(HO YCTaHOBHTh npereaerno-cesraarasecxae pa3JIH'IHSI no pa3Ho06pa3HhIM OCHOBaHHHM: 1) no MaTepHaJIY H3.o;eJIHH: rJIHHa, MeTaJIJI, cp. can, kettle, pan, urn; CTeKJIO, cp, bottle, glass; nepeso, cp. cask, tun; ;MaTepHaJI H3.o;eJIHH aecynrecrseaea, cp, basin, bowl, dish, mug H ne.: 2) no Ha3Ha'IeHHIO: a) JJ;JISI )l(H.o;KOCTH, p. jug, mug, tankard; He)l(H.o;KOCTH, p. c c dish; OCHOBaHHe aecyntecraenao, cp, bowl, pan, plate, pot H ztp.; 6) .o;JISI xpaaeaas naunr, cp. bottle, can, cask, chum, jar, jug, tun; npHrOTOBJIeHHSI, cp. kettle, pan, urn; nonaxa, cp, bowl, dish; nOTpe6JIeHHH nanra, npo.o;YKTOB, .cp, cup, glass, mug, plate, tankard; OCHOBaHHe HecymeCTBeHHO, cp, pot, vessel H .o;p.; 3) no OTHOCHTeJIhHOMYpassrepy: 60JIbIIIOH, cp. tun, tankard; ,MaJIeHbKHH, cp, cask; paavep He peJIeBaHTeH, cp, barrel, mug; 4) no $opMe ropH30HTaJIbHOrO Ce'IeHHSI: KpyrJIbIH (OBaJIbHbIl1), cp, basin, bowl, jar, pot; HepeJIeBaHTHO, cp. bottle, pan; 5) eCJIH KPyrJIbH'f, TO no $opMe B 'rpex H3MepeHHSlX: QHJlHH.o;p, cp, can, jar, jug, mug; KOHYC, cp, goblet, tankard; crpepa HJIH 'IaCTL crpepsr, cp. basin, bowl, pot. vase; $opMa HppeJIeBaHTHa, cp, bottle, cup; 6) no COOTHOIIIeHHIO BblCOTbI H H .o;HaMeTpa D: H> D, cp. bottle, can, chum, glass, goblet, jar, jug, mug, tankard, urn; H = D HJIH H D, cp, basin, bowl, cup, dish, plate; COOTHOIIIeHHe H H D HepeJIeBaHTHo, cp, pan, vessel; 7) HaJIH'IHIO PY'lKH, PY'Iex, cp. can, chum, jug; kettle, mug, tankard; 6e3 PY'IKH (PY'IeK), cp, basin, bottle, dish, glass, goblet, plate; OCHOBaHHe HecymeCTBeHHO, cp. bowl, cup, jar, pan, pot H )];P.; 8) HaJIH'IHIO rOpJILIIIIKa, cp. bottle; OTCYTCTBHIO rOpJIbIIIIKa, cp. basin, bowl, cup, glass, mug; OCHOBaHHe HecymeCTBeHHO, cp, jar, jug H np.; 9) HaJIH'IHIO HO)l(J(H, cpo goblet; ee OTCYTCTBHIO,cp. mug.ocaoaaaae aecyutecraeaao, cp. bowl, cup, glass; 10) HaJIH'IHIO XPhIIIIKH, cp, can, chum, kettle, tankard; 6e3 KPhIIIIKH, Cpobasin, glass, mug; aecyurecraeaao, cp. bowl, pot H T. .0;. MO)l(HO, osenanao, BbIJJ;eJIHTLH .o;pyrHe OCHOBaHHs.! npH3HaKH, KaK-TO: H pacnonozceaae, xapaxrep H qHCJIO pY'IeK; HaJIH'IHe/oTcYTcTBHe HOCHKa (xpaaa, CJIHBa); e.o;HHH'lHOCTb-napHOCTb (KaK B cups and saucers) H T• .0;., onaaxo B 3TOM HeT CMbICJIa. Pa3JIH'lHSI B 3TOM xpyry HMeH He OTCTOSlJIHCL B CHCTeMY tIeTKHX ceMaHTHtIeCKHX npOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHH, nepapxas (CTPYKTypa) OCHOBaHHH 'leTKO He asrpaaceaa. Pa3JIO)l(eHHe 3Ha'IeHHH, npencrasJIeHHOe aa Ta6JIHQe, 3aMeTHO cxesraraaapyer H orpy6JIS1eT HX ceMHhle COCTaBbl. Hcxazcaerca pearrsnas penesaaraocrs rex HJIH HHbIX npH3HaKoB H oCHoBaHHH .LUISI ceMaHTHKH CJIOBa, cxpsrra CTOXaCTHtIeCKaSI papozra cesiaan TH'IeCKHX npH3HaKOB B COCTaBe 3HaqeHHSI, He nOKa3aHbI 3aBHCHMOCTHrrpa3HaKOBH HepapXHSI (CTPYKTypa) OCHOBaHHH.Ta6JIHQa naer 60JIee )l(eCTKYIO Ii

11 sro He y.o;HBHTeJILHO, TaK KaK IIIYPHH H neseps,

<

34

qeTKYJO KapTHHY CeMaHTHtIeCKHX COCTaBOB HMeH, tIeM aa CaMOM nene. <fJaKTHtIeCKH)Ke ,neHOTaTHBHbIH nOTeHl(HaJI HMeHH JIHWb OTtIaCTH orrpellemleTCSl CHCTeMOH CeMaHTHtIeCKHX COOTHOWeHHHnanaoro HMeHH C ,npyrHMH HMeHaMH TOH )Ke npezureraoa 06JIaCTH, nOCKOJIbKY3Ta CHCTeMaJIHWb cJIa60 HaMetIeHa. Onpenenserca OH He CTOJIbKO H3 CHCTeMbI, CKOJIbKOH3 npOCTOfO onsrra nperuuecrsyroutax lleHOTal(HH. 3TOfO onsrra, XOTst 6bI H He BnOJIHeCHCTeMaTH3HpOBaHHOfO,n;OCTaTOtIHO, . nOCKOJIbKY caMH npenjrersr H nOH 06JIaCTH .n;OCTaTOtIHO Tpa.n;Hl(HOHHbI H MaJIO BapbHpYIOT B ,nHana30Hax CBOHX npH3HaKOB, a KOM6l1HaTOpHKa caMHX npH3HaKOB HeBeJIHKa. CTOHT, o.n;HaKo, YBeJIHtIHTb KOM6HHaTopHKY H BapHa6eJIbHOCTb npH3HaKOB - H B03HHKHYT COMHeHHst, KaK cnenyer Ha3BaTb KaKOH-JIH60 HenpHBhItIHhIH npe.n;MeT: HeOTpa6oTaHHaSl JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTHtIeCKaSl eHCTeMa naer C60H B ,neHOTal(HH H cHfHHqmKal(HH. 3TO HeTPy.n;HO noxaaars B axcnepasretrre. HanpHMep, crreztyer JIH Ha3BaTh plate, dish, basin, pan «TapeJIKOH, 6JI1O,nOM» HJIH «tIaWKoH» TaKoH npernaer nocynsi, KOTOPbIH HMeeT ace npH3HaKH 06hItIHOH TapeJIKH, HO CTeHKH y KOTOPOfOl(HJIHH.n;pHtIeCKOH 1P0PMbI? EeJIH HeT pa3BepHYToH CHCTeMhl B caMHX neaorarax, B tIeJIOBetIeCKOH ,neSlTeJIbHOCTH, npaxraxe na KaKHX-TO ysacrxax, TO He crrenyer ee O)KH,naTbH B pe3YJIbTaTaX KOMnOHeHTHoro aHaJIH3a CJIOB-HMeH COOTBeTCTBYIOllleH npe.l:(MeTHOH06JIaCTH. TOtIHee, MO)KeT 6blTh, CKa3aTh: KOMnOHeHTHhBi aaamn He MO)KeT 6hITb 60JIee CHCTeMeH, '1eM ,neHcTBHTeJIhHOCThH .n;eHTeJIhHOCTh qeJIOBeKa na COOTBeTCTSYIOll(HX ysacrsax. YBSl3hIBaSl KOMnOHeHTHhIHaHaJIH3 CO CTPYKTYPOH .n;eHcTBHTeJIhHOCTH H tIeJIOBetIeCKOH .n;eSlTeJIhHOCTH,MhI .n;OJI)KHhI nonycxars H H3BeCTHYlO TeKYtIeCTh, .n;HHaMHlIHYIO aesasepureaHOCTh, HenOJIHYlO CHCTeMHOCThpe3YJIhTaTOB 3TOfO aHaJIH3a.

CeMaHrH'leCKaJl

CTPYKTYpa

CJlOBa

§ 1. Conepxaaae H cnTYC snaaeaaa, CeMaHTH'IeCKaSl CTPYKTypa CJIOBa: onpenenenae. § 2. Conepxarensnsre CB1l3H CJlOB03Ha'leHHiI:: 2.1. BBO)lHbIe 3aMe'laHHll. 2.2. ,L(sa OCHOBHbIX THna conepxarensasrx CB1l3eli CJlOB03Ha'leHHH: HMllnHKaQHOHHbIe H KJIaCcH<pHKaQHOHHbIe. 2.3. MMllnHKaQHOHHbIe CBSl3H: onpeneneaae (2.3.1.), HMllnHKaQHll H MeTOHHMHSI (2.3 .2), BHJlbl H npHMepbI m.mnHKaQHOHHbIX cBSl3eH (2.3.3.), KOHBepCHBHbIe 3Ha'leHHll oznroro cnosa (2.3.4.). 2.4. KJlaCcH<pHICaQHoHHbIe CB1l3H CJlOB03Ha'leHHH: onpeneneaae (2.4.1.), rHno-rHnepOHHMH'IeCICHe CB1l3H (2.4.2.), CHMHJlllTHBHble CB1l3H (2.4.3.). 2.5. 06IQHe BbIBO)lhl K § 2: <popMynbI cozteplKaTenbHhlX cBSl3eli CJlOB03Ha'leHHH (2.5.1.), npezrcraanenae ceMaHTH'IeCKHX CTPYKTYP B sane rpadios (2.5.2.). § 3. CTaTYc cnOB03Ha'leHHH: 3.1. .H3bIICOBOH craryc cnOBO3HaqeHHll: onpeneneaae. 3.2. C'raryrnsre npH3HaICH cnOB03Ha'leHHH. ZlsyxcrynenxaToe crpoeaae HOMHHaTHBHbIX CHCTeM H OHOMaCHOnOrH'IeCKall nopsra, HMllnHKaQHOHaJIbHO-nOrHQeCKHe H KOJlJlOKaQHOHHO-1l3bIKOBble HOPMbI neKCH'IeCKOH coseTaeMOCTH. 33. Craryrtrsre npH3HaKH H paHlKHpOBKa 3Ha'leHHH B ceMaHTH'IeCKOH CTPYKType cnosa (npofinesra rnasaoro H sropocrenennoro 3HaQeHHH): nOCTaHOBKa np06JIeMbi (33.1.), KOHKpeTHoe H a6CTpaKTHOe, QeHTpaJIbHOe H nepH<pepHlfHoe lHaQeHHSl (33.2.), CBO)lHbIH rrepeseas CTaTyTHbIX npH3HaKOB (3.3.3.), npH3HaKH, peneBaHTHbIe nns paHlKHpOBKH 3Ha'leHHH (33.4.), KOnH'IeCTBeHHall MeTO)lHKa 8hISIBneHHSl paHlKHpOBKH cnOB03Ha'leHHH (33.5.).

§ 1. IIpH nOJIHCeMHH CJIOB03HaqeHHSI MelOT He TOJIbKO06111HHztecaruaH TOp, HO H 06111HeceMaHTHtIeCKHe npH3HaKH. 3THM nOJIHCeMHH OTJIH'IaeTCSI OT OMOHHMHH. IIOCKOJIhKY 06111HOCTbzrecaraaropa ,nonOJIHHeTCSlaCCOl(HaTHBHhlMH CBSl3SlMH Me)K.l:(y3HalIeHHSlMH, MO)KHOClIHTaTh, lITO CJIOB03HalIeHHSI 06pa3YIOT He npOCTO ceMaHTHlIeCKHH COCTaBCJIOBa, aero ceMaHTHlIeCKYIO CTPYKTYPY. TepMHH TeM 60JIee onpaaaaa, qTO 3HaQeHHSl 3TH crrocofiasr B3aHMo,neHCTBOBaTb rrpa rropcxneaaa petIH (BbI60p CJIOBa)H ee BocnpHSlTHH (OCMhICJIeHHe- nOHHMaHHe CJIOBa). 2" 3S

B CeMaHTMqeCKOH CTPYKType CJIOBaCBSl3aHblno CO.D:epIKaHMIO onpenenen. nsre, HO He JII06ble napsr CJIOB03Ha'leHMH. Cosoxyrmocrs 3TMX CBSI3eHofipasyer cxesry ceMaHTM'leCKOH CTPYKTYPbl CJIOBa. KaIK.D:oe snaxeaae B TaKOH cxejae xapaxrepasyercs C .D:BYXCTOPOH: 1) no CO.D:epIKaHMIO 2) no CTaTYCY M B CMCTeMeHOMMHaTMBHblX Cpe.D:CTB Sl3b1Ka.CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHaSixapaxrepacraxa CJIOB03Ha'leHMSI- 3TO CTPYKTypa cBoHCTBeHHblx eMY ceMaHTM'leCKMX npM3HaKoB llJIlOC nparsrarasecxoe (KOHHOTaTMBHoe) saaxeaae, npacynree .D:aHHOMYJIeKCMKO-ceMaHTMqeCKoMY BapMaHTY• .H3bIKOBOH craryc CJIOB03Ha·qeHMSI onpe.D:eJISIeTCSI COOTHOCMTeJIbHblMM xapaxrepacraxasor JIeKCMKOceMaHTMqeCKOfO sapaanra KaK 3JIeMeHTa CMCTeMbl HOMMHaTMBHblX cpe.D:CTB SI3blKa (CM. HMIKe). B ueJIOM ceMaHTM'lecKYIO CTPYKTYPY CJIOBa MOIKHO onpenennrs KaK cxesry CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHbIXCBSI3eHMeIK.D:YCJIOB03HaqeHMSlMM cosoxyrmo C MX CTaTYTHblMM Xapal<TepMCTMKaMM. § 2. B 3a.D:aQY3TOfO pasnena BXO.D:MT OnMCaHMe cBSl3eH CJIOB03Ha'leHMH no CO.D:epIKaHMIO (cO.D:epIKaTeJIbHbIX cBSI3eH) M onpenerreaae CTaTYTHblX npasHaKOB JIeKCMKO-CeMaHTH'leCKMX BapMaHTOB. 2.1. CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHble CBSl3M CJIOB03Ha'leHMH ecrs rrpaxraxecxoe asrpascenae 06ll(MX npaBMJI CeMaHTH'leCKOfO BapbHPOBaHMSI CJIOBa, onpezrenarourax ero CeMaHTH'leCKMn nOTeHU:MaJI, ero «CMJIOBOe nOJIe». HccJIe.D:YSI CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHble CBSl3H B CeMaHTM'leCKOn CTpYKType CJIOBa, Mbl KaK pas H peracrpapyesr crrocofisr CeMaHTM'leCKOfO BapbHPOBaHMSI. TMllOJIOfMSI co,nep)l(aTeJIbHblX cBSl3en CJIOB03Ha'leHMH n03TOMY npssro CBSI3aHa C YCTaHOBneHMeM CTpYKTYPbl TOfO HeSiCHOfO opeona, KOTOPblH OKpYIKaeT npssroe aaaxeaae BHPTYaJIbHOfO 3HaKa. TeM caMblM nOTeHUMaJIbHOe B ceMaHTMKe CJIOBa BblSIBJISleTCSI epes Y3YaJIbHoe. s Tpa.D:Ml.{MOHHO CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHble CBSl3M CJIOB03Ha'leHMH onMCbffiaIOTCSI B TepMHHax MeTOHMMMqeCKMX (BKJIIO'laSi CHHeK.D:Oxy) M MeTa<popM'leCKHX (BKJIIO'laSi CHHeCTe3M1OM nepeaoc no <PYHKUMOHaJIbHOMYCXO.D:CTBY) .D:BMC fOB 3Ha'leHMSI, a TaKIKe CYIKeHMif (cneuaanasanafi) M paCWHPeHMH (0606:w.eHMH, reaepanasanaa) 3Ha'leHMSI. YKa3aHHble nOHSITMSI,XOTSI M OXBaTblBaIOT MHOfMe cnysaa, He.D:OCTaTO'lHbl, 'lT06bl 06'bSlCHMTh see. 06HapYIKMlIalOTCSI' BH.D:bl CBSI3eH, He nO.D:BO.D:MMble non Tpa.D:Ml.{MOHHYIO KJIaCCM<pMKal.{MIO. Ho Tpa.D:Ml.{MOHHaSi cxesra M He paapafiarsraanacs .D:nSIonMcaHMSI CBSI3en B CHHXPOHHH; ee ,neJIOM 6bIJIO 06'bSlCHHTh, KaK M3MeHSIIOTCSI aaaxeHMSI, a He KaK OHH COOTHOCSlTCSI CeMaHTM'leCKHX CTpYKTYPax CJIOB. DOJIee B 'roro, M3Ha'laJIbHO 3TM nOHSlTMSI OTHOCMJIMCb, KaK H3BeCTHO, K <pMfypaM 06Pa3HOH pe'lM. Me)l(.D:Y TeM CBSl3H CJIOB03Ha'leHMH - He'lTO 60JIbwee, 'leM Tponbl, M, 'lT06bl a.D:eKBaTHO 06'bSlCHMTh MX, Ha.D:O OnHPaThCSI aa 60JIee 06ll(YIO reopmo, 'leM pMTOpMKa. Tansr CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHbIX CBSI3eH CJIOB03Ha'leHMn O,nHHaKOBbl BO acex eCTeCTBeHHblX sssncax, T. e. OTHOCSlTCSl Bce06ll(MM Sl3blKOBblM YHMBepK CaJIHSIM. 3TMM, nOHSITHO, HMKaK He MCKJIIO'laeTCSI csoeofipaaae pacnpezieJIeHMSl CO.D:epIKaTeJIbHbIX CBSI3en B ceMaHTM'leCKMX CTpYKTYPax xoppecrroa,nHPYIOll(MX CJIOB M KJIaCCOB B Pa3HbIX Sl3bIKax, pasno KaK M Pa3nM'lMSI B y,neJIbHOM sece 'rex MJIM HHblX BM.D:OBCO.D:epIKaTeJIbHbIX CBSl3eH aa onpezienenasrx Y'laCTKaX JIeKCMKO-CeMaHTH'leCKMX CMCTeM Pa3HbIX SI3bIKOB.
YHMBepCaJIbHbl ransr CBSl3eH, H.D:M03THM'lHOMX pacnpezieneaae B CeMaHTMqeCKHX crpyxrypax, B JIHHfBMCTM'leCKHX u:eJISlX .D:OCTaTO'lHOBblSlBHTh 06ll(He ransr coziep)l(aTeJIbHbIX cBSl3eH .LJ:eTaJIbHaSi • KJIaCcM<pMKauMSI scex B03MO)l(HblX nO.D:TMllOB accouaaraaasrx cBSl3eH B ceMaHTH'leCKHX crpyxrypax TaKIKe aarepecaa, HO He CTOJIbKO ,nnSI JIHHfBMCTMKH, CKOJIbKO .D:JISInCHXOJIOfHH M nCHXOJIHHf-

36

BMCTHKH. Ilonpofiaas KJIaCCMq,HK~MSI rrpaKTH':IeCKH He HMeeT HIDKHero npe.LleJIa• [cp, OJIYMq,HJI.Ll,465-486]. _ YCTaHOBJIeHHe THIIOB CO.LlepXCaTelIbHbIXCBSI3eHrrpenrronaraer B xaxecrBe YCJIOBHSI, ':ITO yzce rrpOH3Be.LleHO OTrpaHM':IeHHe rrOJIHCeMHH OT OMOHMMHH, .LleMapKaU:HHITOJIHCeMHH,T. e. BbI.LleJIeHbI ornensasre 3Ha':leHHH MHOr03Ha'IHOH e.LlHHHI(bI, H H3BeCTHbI conepacarerrsasre onpezterreaaa 3Ha':leHHH aa ceMaHTM':IeCKOM nozrsaasnce, Ilorraoe OCYIu:eCTBJIeHMe 3THX YCJIOBHH B 3KCrrJIHIt:HTHOM BM.Lle aa OCHOBe crporax q,0pMaJIH30BaHHbIX npouenyp OCTaeTCH 3a.Lla':leH 6Y.LlYIu:ero H, KaK MOXCHO6bIJIO BM.LleTb BbIlIIe, 3a.Lla':leH .LlOBOlIbHOrHIlOTeTH':IeCKoH. 06bI'lH0 OrrHpaIOTCSInpa 3TOM aa .LlaHHbIe TOJIKOBbIX CJIOBapeH, rrpa He06xo.LlHMOCTH BM.LlOH3MeHSISI MX B COOTBeTCTBHM C 06mHMH npasnrrasra JIOrH':IeCKOH 06pa60TKH 3MIIHpM':IeCKOrO MaTepHaJIa. 2.2. Conepxarerrsasre CBSI3H CJIOB03Ha':leHHH- 're xce KOHu:eITTyam.HbIe CBSI3H, T. e. CBSI3H rroHSITHH H rrpe.LlCTaBJIeHHH. CBSI3M KOHu:errTOB 6a3HpyIOTCSI B KOHe'IHOM C':IeTe aa orrpeneneaasrx xoppernrrax B 06'beKTHBHOM MHpe H SIBJISIIOTCSI MbICJIHTeJIbHbIM orpascenaess. BMeCTe C TeM, 6Y.LlY':IH HX CymHOCTSIMH C03HaHHSI, OHH 06HapYXCHBaIOT H3BeCTHOe caoeofipasae. OTpazcaromaa CHCTeMa HMeeT C06CTBeHHbIH cyfcrpar H opraHH3~JiIO, H Hexo'ropsre oc06eHHOCTM npouecca orpazcenas Hero pe3YlIbTaTOB 06YCJIOBJIeHbI cy6crpaTOM orpaxaromea CHCTeMbI. 06'beKTHBHbIM OCHOBaHHeM KOHnerrryansasix cBSI3eH HBJISIIOTCSI CBSI3HCYIu:HOCTeH06'beKTHBHOro MHpa, 1) 2) 06mHocTH cyuraocrea 06'beKTHBHOro MHpa no HaJIH'lHbIM npH3HaKaM. COOTBeTCTBeHHO BbmeJISIIOTCSInaa OCHOBHbIX THIla xoanerrryansnsrx CBSI3eH, paBHO KaK M CO.LlepXCaTelIbHbIXCBSI3eHMeXC.LlY CJIOB03Ha':leHHSIMH:1) HMrrJIHKaU:HoHHbIH H 2) KJIaCcHq,HK~HOHHbIH. 2.3. KaK yxce OTMe':laJIOCb, HMIIJIHKau:HSI MoxceT 6bITb crpazceaaesr caMbIX pa3Ho06pa3HbIX BH.LlOB peansasrx cBSI3eH: CHMYJIbTaHHbIX M cyxcecCHBHbIX, CTaTH':IeCKHX H .LlHHaMM':IeCKHX, xceCTKHX (.LleTepMHHHpOBaHHbIX) H BepOHTHOCTHbIX, CJIa6bIX H CHJlbHbIX. 2.3.1. I1MIIJIHKau:HoHHbIe CBSI3HKOHu:errTOB (THII: eCJlH Ch TO C2; CHMBOJI: C 1- C2)- 3TO KOfHHTHBHbIH aHaJIOr pearrsnsrx CBSI3eH (B3aMMO.LleHCTBHH, 3aBHCHMOCTeH) cynraocreii 06'beKTHBHOro MHpa: CBSI3eH MeXC.LlYBemaMH, MeXC.LlY ':IaCTbIO H u:eJIbIM, MeXC.LlY semsro H rrpH3HaKOM, MeXC.LlY ITpH3HaKaMH aeura. Koanerrrsr C 1 H C2 HMIIJIHI(HpyIOT .Llpyr zrpyra, eCJIH npezmcnaraeTCSI KaKaSI-TO 3aBHCHMOCTb, B3aHMO.LleHCTBHe HX .LleHOTaTOB. HaH60JIee HBHbIM npasreposr HMIIJIHKau:HOHHbIX cBSI3eH HBJISIIOTCSI CMlIbHbIe rrpH':IHHHOCJIe.LlCTBeHHble 3aBHCHMOCTH, HO CIO.Lla xce OTHOCSITCSI 3aBHCHMOCTH CJIaH fibIe npocrpaacraeaasre, BpeMeHHbIe H .LlP. 2.3.2. KMnJIHKau:HSI B TaKOM rrOHMMaHHH HMeeT MeCTO KaK aa 3HaKoBoM, TaK H He3HaKOBOM (B TOM ':IHCJIe .Ll03HaKOBOM)YPOBHHX C03HaHHH. ilOHSITHO n03TOMY, ':ITO TepMHH «MeTOHHMHSI, MeTOHHMH'leCKHH» He.LlOCTaTO':leH H aeanexaarea. Ilon MeTOHHMHeH ITOHHMaIOT rpon, OCHOBaHHbIH aa «aCCOU:H~HH rro CMeXCHOCTID>. CYTb nena COCTOHTB TOM, ':IT06bI YSICHHTbnpaPO.LlY nOH «aCCOU:HaU:HH no CMeXCHOCTID>. 06HapYXCHBaeTCSI, ':ITO sa 3TMM HeY.LlOBJIeTBOpHTelIbHbIM TepMHHOM, KOTOPbIH, 3aMeTHM, caM CO.LlepXCHT MeTaq,opy, CKpbmaeTCSI O.LlHH H3 .Ll8yx YHHBepcam.HbIX crrocofios opraaasaU:HH C03HaHHSI H CBSI3Hxomrerrros - HMIIJIHK~HSI, a «CMeXCHOCTb» 3TO He MeHee KaK CBSI3H 06'beKTHBHOro MHpa. Ilpezmo-rrarerrsno rtoarosry ofiutee rrOHSITHe 06 nora pona xonuentyam.HbIX CBSI3SIX 0603Ha':laTb TepMHHOM «HMITJIHKau:HSI, HMIIJIHKau:HOHHbIH (HMIIJIHKaTHBHbIH»), a TepMHH «MeTOHHMHSI, MeTOHHMH':IeCKHH» B coOTBeTCTBHH C ero 3THMOJIOrHeH H npHHSITbIMH onpe.LleJIeHHSIMM HCITI)JIb30BaTb TOlIbKO .LlJISI':IaCTHOro CJIyqaSI HMIIJIHKaU:HOHHbIX cBSI3eH, a I1MeHHO

)7

.nJUI C.JIY'IaeB nepeHMeHOBaHHSI aa HMnJIHKaUHOHHOH OCHOBe, xorzta MeTOHHM He SIBJUleTCSI CHOBHbIM HMeHeM neaorara O H npOTHBOnOCTaBJIeH HCXO.nHOMYCJIOB03HaqeHHIO H OCHOBHOMYHMeHH no npH3HaKY nepeHOCHOCTH 3HaqeHHSI H OCJIa6JIeHHOHHOMHHaTHBHOCTH,T. e. 0603HaqaTb HM He 60JIee qeM BH,U 06Pa3HOH .pHrypbI pena. Hanpasrep, Y CJIe.nYJOLUHXCJIOB napsr 3HaqeHHH CBSl3aHbI HMnJIHKaUHeH: slide l) CKOJIb)l(eHHe; 2) zrercxas ropxa (.nJISI KaTaHHSI); surprise 1) y.nHBJIeHHe, H3YMJIeHHe; 2) HeO)l(H,UaHHOCTh, cioprrpza; tap 1) npofia, sarsrsxa; xpaa; 2) pase. nHBHaSl, 6ap; sweat 1) nOT, 2) H3HypHTeJIbHbIH Tpy.n. Ho JIHWb B nOCJIe.nHHX rrayx CJIyqaSlX HMeeTCSI SlBHaSiMeTOHHMHSI: aropsre 3HaqeHHSI npOH3Bo.nHbI OT nepssrx, nepenocasr, He SlBJISIlOTCSI HopMaTHBHbIMH nepBHqHbIMH 0603HaqeHHSlMH .n;eCHrHaTOB, HX HOMHHaTHBHOCTh, cnOC06HOCTh aKTyaJIH3HpOBaTh nOHSITHe H npeztcraBHTh .neHOTaT 06CTaBJIeHa OC06bIMH YCJIOBHSlMH, p. C npSlMbIMH HMeHOBac HHSlMH pub H hard work. Hanporas, B. nepnsrx nayx npieaepax CJIOBa BO BTOPbIX 3HaqeHHSlX SlBJISIlOTCSI npHHSlTbIMH HMeHaMH CBOHX.n;eHOTaTOB noH HSiTHH. 2.3.3. HMnJIHKauHoHHaSi CBSl3b3Ha'leHHH WHpOKO rrpencraanena B cesraaTHqeCKHX crpyxrypax MHOr03Ha'IHbIX CJIOB.KOHKpeTHble BH,UbI cBSl3eH, cny)l(aLUHe OCHOBaHHeMHMnJIHKauHH, BeCbMa paaaoofipasnsr: MaTepHaJI - H3.neJIHe, npHqHHa - CJIe.nCTBHe, Hcxo.nHoe - npOH3BO,UHOe, .neHCTBHe- ueJIb, npouecc - pe3YJIbTaT, qaCTh - ueJIoe, npH3HaK - Berub, CMe)l(HOCTh (conono)l(eHHocTb) B npOCTpaHCTBe, CJIe.nOBaHHe BO BpeMeHH H T• .n. H T. n., T. e. see Pa3HOBH,UHOCTH yKa3aHHbIX nsnne CHMYJIbTaHHblX H CyKCeCCHBHbIX, CTaTHqeCKHX H .nHHaMHqeCKHX, CJIa6bIX H CHJIbHbIX cBSl3eH C)l(eCTKOH H BepOSITHOCTHOH 3aBHCHMOCTblO.B JIHHrBHCTHqeCKHX uenax .nOCTaTO'IHOyxasars 06ruHOCTh THITa CBSl3H. 3aMeTHM euie, 'lTO OHTOJIOrHqeCKHe CBSl3H (CBSl3H rrpezeaerasrx cYWHocTeH) MorYT 6bITh O,UHOHanpaBJIeHHbIMH (nerepMHHauHSl) HJIH B3aHMHbIMH (HHTep.neneH.neHUHSI), HO .nIDI KOHuenTYaJIbHbIX cBSI3eH 3TO pa3JIHqHe He cyweCTBeHHO. K npHMepy, He TOJIbKO KOHuenT npHqHHbI HMnJIHUHpyeT KOHuenT CJIe.nCTBHSI, HO H Ha060pOT, qeM H 06'bSlCHSleTCSICHMBOJI HMnJIHKauHH. IIpHMepbI HMnJIHKan;HOHHbIX CBSl3eH CJIOBO3HaqeHHH .nOCTaTO'IHOH3BeCTHbI, H MO)l(HO OrpaHHqHThCSI HeMHOrHMH, YKa3aB, 'ITO 3TOT THIT conepzcarerrsasrx CBSl3eH IlIHpOKO npezrcraanea KaK y HMeH aemea, TaK H HMeH npH3HaKOB: fire 1) orcas, nJIaMSI; 2) ronxa, nexs, KaMHH; 3) noacap; 4) Opy.nHHHbIH oroas; crpensfia; shoot 1) crpenars; 2) y6HBaTh; stand 1) CTOSlTb; 2) CTaBHTh (KaY3aTHBHaSi CBSl3b «CJIe.nCTBHenpasaaa»), TO )l(e float 1) nnasars, 6bITh aa nJIaBY; 2) crrycxars aa aozty; healthy 1) He 60JIbHOH; 2) nOJIe3HbIH .nJUI 3.nOPOBbSl, cp, healthy climate; CBOHCTBOPI (He 60JIbHOH) y A (qeJIOBeK) cnocofiao KaY3HpOBaTbCSICBOHCTBOM P2 (nOJIe3HbIH .nJUI 3.nOPOBbSl) y B (KJIHMaT) npa B3aHMo.neHCTBHH A H B - CBSl3b«CJIe.nCTBHe npHqHHa». HMnJIHKauHoHHaSi CBSl3b HMeeT MeCTO raxxe B CJIe.nYJOLUHX rrpnsrepax: write 1) asofipaacars, nepenasars pe% rpadnraecxa; 2) COqHHSlTh, cf. write poems, music, on gardening, for a living, from experience, etc.; saill) nnaaars; 2) Crry)l(HTh na Kopa6JISIX B nJIaBaHHH, cf, sailor; smear 1) Ma3aTb, HaMa3bIsars - rroxpsraars qeM-TO )l(H.nICHM;2) nasxars = aarpasasrs, noxpsraas qeMTO )l(H,UKHM; sit 1) caners; 2) sacenars; 3) cocpeztoroxeaao 3aHHMaTbCSI qeM-TO, cf. sit over a problem, for a scholarship; 4) OCTaBaThCSI, pefisraars n 6e3 ziena, to sit at home, the car sits at the garage unused; 5) ocaznrrs KO[OJIH60~6) YKPbIThCSIB sacane. BaJoH KOHuenTyaJIbHbIX cBSl3eH CJIY)l(aT He TOJIbKO .ne.nYKTHBHO-JIOrHxecxae nOHSITHSI )l(eCTIW .pHKCHpOBaHHbIM conepxaaaea, HO H HH.nYKTHBHOC 3MnHpHqeCKOe nOHSITHe CTOXaCTHqeCKOHnpapozrsr, HHbIMH CJIOBaMH, HM-

38

nJIHKaIlHSI H KJIaCCHCpHKauHSI OrYT OIlHpaTbCSI na CeMaHTHt{eCKHe npH3HaUm, M BXO,LlSIlUHe KaK B HHTeHCHOHaJI, TaK H B )KeCTKHl1: HJIH BepOSITHOCTHbIH HMIIJIHKaIlHOHaJI HCXO,LlHOrOCJIOB03Hat{eHHSI. Cp, C 3TOH TOtIKH 3peHHSI YKa3aHHbIe asnue 3Hat{eHHSI rJIarOJIa sit. MMnJIHKaUHSI TaM HOCHT BepOSITHOCTHbIH xapaxrep. IIpH3HaK «CH,LlSlt{eHn03bI» He SlBJISleTCSI 06S13aTeJIbHbIM ,LlJISI nOHSlTHH 2-<i, O,LlHaKOBXO,LlHTB HH,LlYKTHBHO-3MnHpHt{eCKYIO XapaKTepHCTHKY 3THX KJIaCCOB cHTyaUHH KaK BepOSlTHOCTHO-npHMet{aTeJIbHbIH. MMnJIHKau:HOHHaSl CBSl3b YCTaHaBJIHBaeTCSIMe)K,LlY KOHuenTaMH C BepOSlTHOCTHOHCTPYK-

2.3.4. OC060H PaJHOBH,LlHOCTbJOHMnJIHKaUHOHHbIX cBSl3eH B ceMaHTHt{ecKoH CTPYKType CJIOBa SlBJISleTCSI OHBepCHBHaSl CBSl3b CJIOB03HalleHHH. K ECJIH BeII.(H D, H D2 CBSl3aHbI OTHOllIeHHeM R H B 3TOM H TOJIbKO B 3TOM OTHOllIeHHH HM npHCYIUH CBoHcTBa P+ H p_, TO TaKHe CBOHCTBa HaJbIBaeM KOHBepCHBHbIMH. 0 COOTBeTCTByJOmHX xonuerrrax, HMeHax H 3Hat{eHHSlX TaK)Ke CJIe,LlyeT CKaJaTb, qTO OHH CBSl3aHbI KOHBepCHBHbIM OTHOllIeHHeM (SlBJISlJOTCSI KOHBepCHBaMH). M3BeCTHO, xro KOHBepCHBHbIe nOHSlTHSInepeztaIOTCSIJIeKCHlIeCKH (PaJHbIMH CJIOBaMH) HJIH rpaMMaTHt{eCKH (Pa3HbIMH CJIOBO<popMaMH O,LlHoro CJIOBa), cp. buy - sell, send - receive, bequeath - inherit, read - be read, saddening" - saddened H T. n. O,LlHaKO BnOJIHe B03MO)KeH H JIeKcHKo-ceMaHTHt{ecKHH cnocofi ssrpasceHHSI KOHBepCHBHbIX npH3HaKOB. 3Hat{eHHSI-KoHBepcHBbI Moryr CO,Llep)KaTbCSI B ceMaHTHt{ecKoH CTPYKType onaoro CJIOBa, cp. wear 1) HOCHTb, wear a hat, clothes, etc.; 2) HOCHTbCSI, the cloth wears well; sell 1) rrponasars, sell the book; 2) npO,LlaBaTbCSI, the book sells well; read 1) t{HTaTb; 2) qHTaTbCSI, rnacars, the notice reads; number 1) nacaarars, I numbered seven of them; 2) HaCt{HTbIBaTbCSI, they number seven; tire, weary 1) YTOMJISlTb;2) yrOMJISlTbCSI; smell 1) naXHYTb; 2) HIOXaTb; smart 1) acnsrrsrsan, 60JIb; 2) npHt{IDHITb 6oJIb; curious 1) mo60nblTCTBYIOII.(HH, curious idlers; 2) B036}')K,LlaJOII.(HH JII060nbITcTBo, curious happening; glad 1) 06pa.uOBaHHbIH, pa.uy;rotnHHCSI; 2) pa.uYIOmHH, cp, the glad news; CXO,LlHbIM 06PaJOM Y MHorHX zrpyrax npHJIaraTeJIbHbIX: sad 1) onet{aJIeHHbIH; 2) neqaJISIII.(HH; blind 1) CJIenOH, He BH,LlSlII.(HH;2) CJIenOH, He ,LlaIOmHH BH,LleTb, the pane is blind with showers (E. E. Housman 4-71)1; dubious 1) YCOMHHBWHHCSI; 2) 3aCTaBJISIIOII.(HHCOMH"eBaTbCSI; (un)lucky 1) (He)HMelOmHH Y,LlaqH; Z) (He)npHHOCSIII.(HH Y,Llatm; the trade 1) roprosnsr, npezmpameaarerra; 2) KJIHeHTypa, nOKynaTeJIH; TO )Ke Y npHJIaraTeJIbHbIX drowsy, joyful (-ous, -Iess) H .up . .HBJIeHHe 3TO 06bIqHO H ,LlJISI rpyrnx Sl3bIKOB. z 2.4. 06paTHMCSI rerreps KO BTOPOMY 06meMY THOY KOHuenTYaJIbHbIX "CBSl3eHCJIOB03HaqeHmt: - I<JIaCcH$HKau:HOHHbIM CBSl3S1M. 2.4.1. KaK Y)Ke rOBOpHJIOCb, 06'beKTHBHbIM OCHOBamieM KJIaCcH$HKau:HOHHblX cBSl3eH KOHuenTOB SlBJISleTCSI 6II.(HOCTb CYIUHOCTeH 06'beKTHBHOro 0 MHpa no 06HapY)KHBaeMbIM HMH npH3HaKaM. B OTJIHt{He OT HMnJIHKau:HOHHbIX cBSl3eH B 3TOM crrysae CYIUHOCTH 06'beKTHBHOro MHpa He 06'be,LlHHeHbI KaKHMH-JIH60 peaJIbHbIMH OTHOllIeHHSIMH, B3aHMO,LleHCTBHSIMH,HO ofinapy)KHBaIOT H3BeCTHYIO 06mHOCTb npH3HaKOB. CBSl3b Me)K,LlY,LlBYMSI OHuenTaMH K YCTaHaBJIHBaeTCSI B C03HaHHH, HO OTPa)KaeT He KaKYIO-TO peaJIbHYIO CBSl3b (3aBHCHMOCTb, B3aHMO.LleHCTBHe) Me)K.LlY COOTBeTCTBYIOtnHMH CYIUHOCTSlMH, a 06mHOCTb npHCYIUHX HM npH3HaKOB. KrraCCH$HKau:HOHHbIe CBSI3HxonuenTOB - 3TO MbICJIHTem.HbIH aaanor pacnpeneneans npH3HaKOB Y CYIUHOCTeM 06'beKTHBHOro MHpa. .
1 UH<ppa nOCJIe HaJBaHHSI npOH3Be,lleHHSI YKaJblBaeT HCTOqHHK, B KOTOPOM OHO nOMellleHO B «CnHCKe HCTOt{HHKOB HJIJIlOCrpaTHBHOrO MaTepHaJIa». \{epe3 THpe YKaJaHa crpanaua.

TYPOH.

39

KJIaCcHIPHKaIlHOHHble CBSl3H KOHuerrTOB YCTaHaBJIHBalOTCSI HCKJIlO1fHTeJIbHO aa OCHOBeH3BeCTHOH06~HOCTH CO)lepJKaHHSI OHuerrTOB. HaJIH'IHe K OTCyTCTBHe HMIIJIHKaIlHOHHOH 3aBHCHMOCTHKOHuerrTOB npa 3TOM HeC~eCTBeHHO. KJIaCcHIPHKaIlHOHHble CBSl3H MOryT 6b1Tb )lBOSlKOrO pozia: 1) [HIlOfHIlepOHHMH'IeCKHe (BH,IlO-PO.llOBble, HHKJIlO3HBHO-3KCKJIlO3HBHble) H 2) CHMHJISlTHBHble. 2.4.2. rHIlo-rHIlepOHHMH1feCKHe CBSl3HYCTaHaBJ1HBalOTCSI MeJK)lY xoauerrTaMH PaJHOfO YPOBHSIo606~eHHSI. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT HanpaBJIeHHSI CBSl3H; T. e. OT Toro, KaKOH KOHuenT II, B '1aCTHOcTH, KaKOe 3Ha1feHHe MHOr03Ha'laoro CJIOBa 6epeTcSI aa ornpasaoe, PaJJIHqaIOTCSI CBSl3b CrreUHaJIH3aIlHH (HHKJIlO3HBHaSI, PO.llO-BH,IlOBaSl) H CBSl3b feHepaJIH3aUHH, 0606~eHHSI (3KCKJIlO3HBHaSl, BH,IlO-pO)lOBaSl). IIHKJIlO3HBHaSl CBSl3b COOTBeTCTByeT OTHOlIIeHHIO MeHee cO)lepJKaTeJIbHOfO rrOHSlTHSI- rHIlepOHHMa K 60JIee cozrepacaTeJIbHOMY rrOHSlTHIO- rHIloHHMY, a 3KCKJIlO3HBHaSlCBSl3b, sanporas, - OTHOweHHIO 60JIee cO)lepJKaTeJIbHOfO nOHSlTHSI K MeHee cO)lepJKaTeJIbHoMY, T. e. rHIlOHHMa K rHIlepoHHMY. B nnaae 06'beMOB (3KcTeHCHOHaJIOB) nOHSITHH rHIlo-fHIlepOHHMHqeCKOH CBSl3HCOOTBeTCTByeTOTHOWeHHe 60JIee WHPOKOfO H 60JIee Y3KOfO rrOHSlTmf. Haxoaeu, B )lHaxpOHHqeCKOM (a TO'IHee cxasars, feHeTHqeCKOM, )lHHaMHqeCKoM) nnaae Te JKe COOTHOWeHHSI nacsro BalOTCSl H3BeCTHbIMH TepMHHaMH «CYJKeHHe» H «pacurapeaae 3Ha'leHIDI». rHIlo-rHIlepOHHMHqeCKHe CBSl3HWHPOKO npencrasnensr B CeMaHTH'le· CKHX cTpYKypax KaK HMeH seuiea, TaK H HMeH npH3HaKOB (CBOHCTB H oTHoweHHH) • B03MOJKHOCTb sroro porta cBSl3eH B ceMaHTHKe HMeH npasnaKOB 06'bSlCHSleTcSITeM, 'ITO rrpOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHe seurs - npH3HaK He aficoJIlOTHO, a OTHOCHTeJIbHO. ,llBe C~HOCTH OCMbICJISIlOTCSI KaK rrpH3HaKH rro OTHoweHHlO K KaKOH-TO Be~H HJIH semasr, HO no OTHoweHHIO ztpyr K .npyry OHH MoryT 6bITb OCMbICJIeHbI KaK nae Be~H HJIH KaK aents H npaanax, BbJpO)I(.IJ:aSlCb aennr, rrpH3HaKH TaKJKe 06PaJyIOT KJIaCCbI, H B 3TOM CMbICJIe B KJIaCC CBOHCTB HJIH OTHOWeHHH MOJKeT BXO)lHTb B 60JIee o6mHit: xnacc CBOHCTBHJIH OTHOWeHHl1:. IIpHMepbI fHIlO-fHIlepOHHMHqeCKHX CBSl3eHB ceMaHTHqeCKOH CTpYKType HMeH seurea H3BeCTHbI, H MOJKHOOfpaHHqHTbCSl HeMHOfHMH: woman 1) JKeHuraaa; 2) cnyxaaxa, CO)lepJKaHKa; 3) ouan, JKeHa; slope 1) YKJIOH, rrOKaTOCTb, HaKJIOH; 2) CKJIOH; train 1) JK.-)l. cocras; 2) JIlO60H COCTaB TpaHCrrOpTHbIX cpezrcrs, cp. a train of camels, baggage train; cat 1) KOIIIKa; 2) JKHBOTHOe CeMeHCTBa KOWa1fbHX; coat 1) naJIbTO, sepxaee nnarse; 2) qTO-JIH60 noxpsrsaioutee, cp, a coat of paint, snow. K 3TOMY THIlY OTHOCSlTCSI see HeO.D:HOKpaTHO paccMaTpHBaBWHeCSI B PaJHbIX Sl3bIKax cnysaa Cf)I(eHHSl H pacurapeaas 3HaqeHHH CJIOB, xorna o6a 3HaqeHHSl- HCXO.D:HOe rrpOH3BO.D:HOe coxpaH HSllOTCSIY CJIOBa. Oseas '1aCTO B 06meHapO)lHOM Sl3bIKe CJIOBO ssrcrynaer KaK ranepomoa ofauero 3HaqeHHSI, a B nozrssssncax paJBHBaeT 60JIee cneUHaJIbHOe TepMHHOJIOfHqeCKOe aaaseaae, cp. slope 1) YKJIOH; 2) ZOpH. HaKJIOHnaa BbIpa6oTKa; resistance 1) conporaaneaae; 2) nonum. ,n;BHJKeHHeconpoTHBJIeHHSI; 3) mexn. coxpaaaesrocrs, YCTOHqHBOCTb, cp. resistance to wear; 4) 3/1. COrrpOTHBJIeHHe H T. n. Oc060 aaao OTMeTHTb fHIlO-fHIlepOHHMHqeCKOe aapsaposaaae rro JIHHHH KJIaCC- rro,n;KJIaCCC BblCOKOH (rrOJIOJKHTeJIbHoH)- HH3KOH (OTpHl.{aTeJIbHoH)
TepMHHOB «fHlIO-fHlIepOHHMHqeCKHe, HHKmo3HBHO-3KCKmo3HBHble, (CBSl3H)) npezmosrrarensaee lIepBbIM, TaK KaK TpeTHM 06bI'IHO CBSI3bIBalOT C COOTHOlIIeHHeM KJlaCCOBBeLUeM, a He lIpH3HaKOB, BTOPOM lKe HexopOIII Ti'!M, 'ITO cnocofien OlIHCbIBaTb OTHOlIIem!e lIOHSITHM xax lIO HX HHTeHCHOHanaM (conepxaaaio), TaK H JKCTeHCHOHanaM (o6beMY). 1 I-h rpex sanc-ponoasre

40

CTeneHblO KJIacco06p3.3YIOmero rrpaanaxa, Cp. chance 1) CJIyqaH, B03MO)l(HOCTb; 2) CqaCTJIHBblH CJIyqaH, B03MO)l(HOCTb; luck 1) yziaxa, seaem,e; 2) o6CTOSlTeJIbCTBa,cp. bad luck, TaK)I(e: 1973 was a lousy year. The only hope is that luck will change (H3 aHrJI. r3.3eT); manners 1) MaHepbl; 2) xopourae MaHepbl, cp. People with manners do not read at table; consequence 1) (no )cJIe,nCTBue; 2) He)l(eJIaTeJIbHOe (no jcnencrsae, cp, you'll have to abide by the consequences ( = undesirable consequences); significance I 3HaIJeHUe 1) aaaseHMe, Ba)l(HOCTb; 2) fiorrsuioe saaxenae, Ba)I(HOCTb; quality 1) KaqeCTBO; 2) B1>ICOKoe Ka'leCTBO. Cpo PYCCK. noroaa 1) weather; 2) good weather; 3,llOpOBhe 1) health; 2) good health u T. n, PYCCKOMY SI3blKy BeCbMa CBOHCTBeHHO ceMaHTUqeCKOe aapsapoaanae HMeH )l(HBOTHbIX, xorna O,nHOM TO x<e CJIOBOHMeeT aaasenae M X<HBOTHoro KaKorO-TO sana H )l(HBOTHOro onpenenennoro nOJIa sroro BH,na, a HMeHHO: 1) BH)l X<HBOTHoro; casseu nora BH,lla; cp. «Me)lBe)lb, TMrp, JIeB, CJIOH,KPOT, operr, acrpefi, KPOKO,nHJI,MypaBeID> H T. n.; 2) BH,ll )l(HBOTHoro: casrxa sroro aana; cp. «xonrxa, K03a, CBHHbSl, JIaHb, aHTHJlOna, uiyxa, crpexoaa» H T. n, HanpoTHB, TepMHHaM aHrJIHHCKOH 300ceMHH npHBaTHBHaSI Onn03HQHSI MaJIO CBoHcTBeHHa. Bsrecro )lBYX TepMHHoB TYT 06bI'lH0 acrpexaesr TPH: 06mHH TepMHH sana H zraa TepMHHa ,nJISIKax<,noro nOJIa C 3KBHnOJIeHTHOH onrro3HllHeH, cp. goat 'K03a', he-goat 'K03eJI', she-goat (nanny-goat) 'K03a', sheep 'OBQa', ram '6apaH', ewe 'oBQa'. Ilpaxrepsr rMnO-rHnepOHHMUqeCKHX cBSl3eH B ceMaHTHqeCKOH crpyxrype npH3HaKOBbIx CJIOB: feel 1) QyacTBOBaTb, onrymars aoofinte; 2) ouiyntars aa outyns, ocasars: bury 1) XOPOHHTb; 2) nparars, sapsraars: dead 1) He 06HapYX<HBaIOmHH 6MOJIOrHQeCKOH <IlOPMbI ,nBH)I(eHHSI; 2) He)lBH)I(HbIH, He,neHCTBYIOmHH, cp. dead volcano, language; dumb 1) JIHllleHHbIH pexa; 2) 6e33BY'lHbIH, cp, dumb notes, piano; 3) JIHllleHHbIH OCHOBHOro xaaecrsa, cp. dumb nettle «rnyxas xpanasa»; defunct 1) nepecrasmaa cymecraoaan, 6HOJIOrHqeCKH; 2) nepecrasnraa cyurecraoaars, cp, defunct stars (suns). B ceMaHTHKe rJIarOJIOB )lBH)I(eHHSI come, go Ha6Jl1O,naIOTcSInOCJIe,nOBaTeJIbHbIe crynena 0606meHHSI nepaasaoro 3HaQeHUS! «npH6JIH)I(aTbcSI/y,naJISlTbCSI neuisoxs»: saaxane CTaHOBHTCSIHPpeJIeBaHTHbIM cnocof nepezrsrcseaas, cp. the train is coming, nanee -pa3JIHqHe Me)l()lY ,nMHaMMqeCKHM (<IlH3UqeCKOe ,nBH)I(eHHe) H CTaTHqeCKHM nOJIox<eHHeM sernea B rrpocrpaacrse, cp. the forest comes to the very bank, aa cJIe,nYIOmeH CTyneHH HPpeJIeBaHTHO paJJIHqHe npOcrpaHCTBeHHhIX H BpeMeHHbIX xoopzranar, cf, spring came H T. n, Cp, TaKx<e pyccxae npHMepbI: OOPOTbCJl 1) ,n06HBaTbcS! xero-nafiyns, npeozrorreaaa npenSlTcTBHSI; 2) CXBaTHBlllHCb zrpyr C ,npyrOM, CTapaTbCSI OCMJIUTb; CY,ll1lTh 1) BbICK3.3bmaTb, COCTaBJIJlTbMHeHHe, cyxzteaae; 2) paccsrarpaaart, 'lbe-JIH60 )leJIO B cy,ne6HoM nopsznce; 3) B cnopTHBHbIX nrpax CJIe,nHTb sa C06Jl1O)leHHeM npaBHJI arpsr H paspernars B03HMKalOmHe crropsr; oe'KaTb 1) 6bICrpO nepenaararscs npa noxroura aor; 2) 6blCTPO nepezmararscs, cp, «TOK 6e)l(HT no nposonasr» H T. n. Ilpencraanser mrrepec OC06bIH CJIyqaH BapbHpOBaHUS! 3HaqeHHSI no munm «sacraoe - ofiuree», OTMeqaeMbIff B cesraarasecsoa crpyxrype MHOrHX rJIarOJIOB. .l1:JISI apaKTepHCTHKM .n;eHCTBHSI, x nOMHMO ero KaqeCTBeHHoH cneQH<IlHKH, MoryT 6bITb peJIeBaHTHbI npH3HaKH, aaenraae no OTHOllleHHIO K xasecrsv' .n;eHCTBHSI:BpeMSI .n;eHcTBHSI,pacnpenerreaae ,neffcTBHSI BO apeMeHH, HJIH cnoco6 npOTeKaHHSI .n;effcTBHSI BO BpeMeHH (acnexr, HJIH BH.n; ,neHCTBHSIB TepMI1HOJIOfHqeCKOM CMbICJIe), OpI1eHTaQHSIaaasrsaesroro ,neff-

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seuiea.

CTpYKTypa CYIlleCTBeHHbIX CBOHCTB,ofiecnexaaaio41

CTBHSI(T. e. KOHQenTa ,lJ.eHCTBHSl) o OTHOllIeHHIQ K arerrry, 06'beKTY, HHCTpYn MeHTY (3aJIOrOBhle xapaKTepHCTHKH ,lJ.eHCTBHSl),npOCTpaHCTBeHHaSI opaenTaQHSI,lJ.eHCTBHSl, ~ro HHTeHCHBHOCTh, cnoco6 H YCJIOBHSl ro OCYIIIeCTBJIeHHSl, e CBSl3HMex<,lJ.Y,lJ.eHCTBHeM,QeJIhIO H pe3YJIhTaTOM, OTHOllIeHHSl aaasraaessoro ,lJ.eHCTBHSl peaJIhHOCTH H BhICKa3hIBalOru:eMY H ztp, YKa3aHHhle npH3HaKH: K speser, BH,lJ., areHTHBHOCTh, HHCTpYMeHTaJIhHOCTh, 06CTOSlTeJIhCTBeHHOCTh, pe3YJIhTaTHBHOCTh, QeJIeHaMepeHHOCTh, MO,lJ.aJIhHOCTHH ,lJ.p.- BhIpax<aIOTCSI B Sl3hIKax, KaK H3BeCTHO, Pa3JIH'IHhIMI1 cnocotiasoi: CHHTaKCH'IeCKH, T. e. CO,lJ.epx<aTCRB ceMaHTHKe CJIOBOCO'leTaHHH, rpaMMaTH'IeCKH, T. e. conepx<aTCR B rpaMMaTH'IeCKHX 3Ha'leHHSIX CJIOBO<pOPM,JIeKCHqeCKH, T. e. conepx<aTCR B JIeKCH'IeCKHX 3HaqeHHS!X Pa3HhIX CJIOB, H, HaKOHeQ, JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTHqeCKHM crrocofiosr, T. e. cozrepxarcs B JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTHqeCKHX sapaanTax O,lJ.HOrO CJIOBa, nO,lJ.KJIIOqaSlCh KaqeCTBeHHOH xapaxrepacraxe K ,lJ.eHCTBHS!. B ,lJ.BYXnOCJIe,lJ.HHXcnyxasx conepscaaae OT,lJ.eJIhHhIXCJIOB H CJIOB03HaqeHHH OTJIHqaeTCR BKJIIO'IeHHeM-HCKJIIOqeHHeM rex HJIH HHhIX YKa3aHHhIX rrpasaaKOB, H Mex<,lJ.YHHMH, TaKHM 06Pa30M, 06HapYX<HBaIOTCSI HHKJII03HBHO-3KCKJII03HBHhIe conepxarensasre CBSI3H. PaCCMOTpHM nexoropsre npasrepsr raxoro BaphHPOBaHHS! B ceMaHTHKe rJIarOJIOB: cut 1) I cut the cheese with the knife; 2) the knife cuts the cheese (HCKJIIO'IeHa cesra areHTHBHoCTH), the knife won't cut (HCKJIIO'IeHhI ceMhI areHTHBHOCTH H 06'beKTHOCTH .... the knife is blunt); shave 1) 6PHTh; 2) 6PHThCS! (nrnoc B03BpaTHOCTh); to house 1) nOCeJI5ITh, cp. they housed five families in the building; 2) ssretuars (0 X<HJIhe), cp, the building houses five families (MHHYC areHTHBHOCTh H npenensaocrs); cp, raxxe pyCCK. maTb 1) 3aCTaBJISITh ,lJ.BHraThC5I, «aerep rOHHT 06JIaKa»; 2) 3aCTaBJISlTh ,lJ.BHraThC5I npoxs, BOH, «,lJ.BOPHHKrOHHT c06aKY» (BKJIIOqeHa cesra npocrpaaCTBeHHOH opHeHTaQHH ,lJ.eHCTBHSI); 3aCTaBJISITh,lJ.BHraThCS! hICTPO, «SIMru:HK, 3) 6 He rOHH JIOllIa,lJ.eH» (cpaBHHTeJIhHO C m, BKJIIO'IeHa cesra HHTeHCHBHOCTH ,lJ.eHCTBHSI). B conOCTaBJIeHHH co C,lJ.BHraMH B KaqeCTBeHHOM conepxcaaaa ,lJ.eHCTBHSI (cp. write 1) H306pax<aTh pe'lL rpadraxecxa, aa nncsxre; 2) CO'lHH5ITh H H306pax<aTh COqHHeHHOe aa nacssre) BaphHPOBaHHe raxoro pona He H3MeHS!eT CYIIIeCTBeHHO conepzcanae CJIOBa H He ofipaayer OT,lJ.eJIhHhIX CJIOBO3HaqeHHH, a cxopee - OTTeHKH 3HaqeHHS!. OHO HaXO,lJ.HTC5I npOMeX<YTO'IHOH B 30He Mex<,lJ.Y CJIOB03HaqeHHeM H CJIOBoynoTpe6JIeHHeM (CP. wirite 1) he writes with a pen; 2) the pen wirites well). 3,lJ.eCh MhI CTaJIKHBaeMC5I C Mex<ypOBHeBhIM B3aHMO,lJ.eHcTBHeM B crpyxrype S!3bIKa: COBOKynHOCTh 3Ha'leHHH, peJIeBaHTHhIX ,lJ.JISI 6ru:eHHSl, pacnpenenena 0 no Pa3HhIM YPOBH5IM 3HaqHMbIX e,lJ.HHHQ; eCJIH Te HJIH HHhIe H3 3THX 3HaqeHHH He HaXO,lJ.S!TOT,lJ.eJIhHOrO Bh!pax<eHHS! B CHCTeMax JIeKCHqeCKHX, Mop<p0JIorHqeCKHX HJIH CHHTaKCHqeCKHX cpencrn, T. e. nocpencraov JIeKCeM, CJIOBO<pOPM HJIH CHHTaKCHqeCKHX KOHCTpYKUHH, OHH MoryT 6hITh BhIS!BJIeHhI KOM6HHaTopHO sa cxer Mex<ypOBnesoro B3aHMO,lJ.eHCTBH5I ,lJ.eCHrHaTopHhIX npH3HaKOB. C .lI.PyroH CTOPOHhI, TeM x<e cnocofiosr «npHrJIYIIIaIOTCS!», HeH:TpaJIH3y1OTCSI eMaHTHqeCKHe npH3HaKH, c npHBhI'lHO CB5I3blBaeMbIe C nepBH'lHhIMH 3Ha'leHH5IMH JIeKCeM, CJIOBO<pOPM H CHHTaKCH'leCKHX CTpYKTYP, cp. he cuts the cheese - the knife cuts the cheese, he cuts well - the cheese cuts well. Te x<e ceMaHTHqeCKHe npH3HaKH, ,lJ.OnOJIHSIIOru:He KaqeCTBeHHyIO xapaxTepHCTHKY OTHOllIeHHSl-,lJ.eHCTBHSI,MorYT BbISIBJISlThC5IJIeKCH'leCKH, Pa3HhIMH CJIOBaMH, cp. carry H bring (nrnoc npezrerrsaocrs, ueJIeHaMepeHHOCTb H npOCTpaHCTBeHHaS! opHeHTaQHSI ,lJ.eHCTBHS!),float H swim (,lJ.06aBJISleTcS! npH3HaK areHTHBHocTH). Cpo TaKx<e rJIarOJIbI (HO He C rnno-ranepomoaaqeCKHM, a C 3KBwnOJIeHTHbIM OTHOllIeHHeM): see H look (nmoc uerieaasre-

42

CBSI3H. OHa HMeeT MeCTO TOM crrysae, xorna 06Il(aSI tIaCTb He ncsepnsraaer conepxcaaaa B HH onnoro H3 KOHuenTOB: nOMHMO 06Il(HX ceMaHTHtIeCKHX npH3HaI<OB, KOHuenTbI coziepxar erne pa3JIHtIalOIl(He HK npH3HaKH, Ka)l(,UbIH CBOH. 3TO OTJIH'iaeT CHMHJISIUHIOOT rHllo-rHllepOHHMHlJeCKHX cBSI3eH. KpOMe Toro, 06Il(aSI ceMaHTHtIeCKaSI xacrs He pasaa rHllepOHHMY conOCTaBJISIeMbIXKOH-: uenTOB. 3TO OTJIHqaeT CHMHJUIQHIOOT 3KBOHHMHqeCKHXcBSIleH: npa CHMHJISlTHBHOH CBSI3H KOHuenTbI He COOTHOCSITCSI 3KBOHHMbI. KaK B OTJIHqHe OT rHllo-rHllepOHHMHlJeCKHX CBSI3eH, YCTaHaBJIHBaIOll.(HXCSI TOJIbKO aa 3HaKOBOM yposne C03HaHHSI, CHMHJISITHBHbleCBSI3HKOHuenTOB, TaK )l(e KaK HMllJIHKauHOHHble, CBOHCTBeHHbIC03HaHHIO na 3HaKOBOMH ,UO3HaKOBOM ypOBHSIX. I10HSlTHO n03TOMY, 'ITO rpa'uHUHOHHbIH TepMHH «srera$opa, MeTa$opHtIeCKHH» Hea,UeKBaTeH. I1pe,UnOlJTHTeJIhHee ofiuiee nOHSlTHe 06 aroro pozra KOHuenTYaJIhHbIX CBSI3SIX603HatIaTb TepMHHOM «CHMHJISITHB0 HbIH, CHMHJISIUHSI», TepMHH <<MeTa~OPHqeCKHH, eTaqlOpa» B COOTBeTCTBHH a M C 06bIqHbIMH ero onpe,UeJIeHHSIMH HCnOJIh30BaTb TOJIhKO ,UJISI sacrnoro CJIyqaSI CHMHJISITHBHbIXcBSl3eH, a HMeHHO ,UJISIcnysaea nepeHMeHOBaHHSI aa CHMHJISITHBHOHOCHOBe, eCJIH npn 3TOM KaKoe-TO HMSI He SIBJISIeTCSI OCHOBHbIM npHHSITbIM 0603HaqeHHeM ,UeHOTaTaH OTJIHqaeTCSI T nepBHtIHOrO O CJIOB03HaqeHHSI OCHOBHoro HMeHH nepeHOCHOCTbIO3HaqeHHSI H HenOJIHOH H (oCJIa6JIeHHOH) HOMHHaTHBHOCTbIO. Hanpmrep, Y cneztyrourax CJIOB napsr 3HaqeHHH 06be,UHHeHbI CHMHJISITHBHOH CBSI3blO:cloud II 061laKO 1) CKOnJIeHHe crYCTHBIlIHXCSIBO,USIHbIX napos B B03,Uyxe; 2) CnJIOlliHaSI Macca JIeTyqHX qaCTHU, cp, cloud of dust, smoke; wall II cmeua 1) BepTHKaJIhHaSI qaCTb 3,UaHHSI, cooPY)I(eHHSI; 2) CnJIOlliHaSI orpana; spindle 1) sepereao, 2) IlInHH,UeJIh; shock 1) ynap (MexaHHqeCKHH); 2) IlIOK; subside 1) crranars (06 YPOBHe BO,ubI); 2) oceziars, naaars OCa,UKy (0 rpynre, 3,UaHHH); soft 1) MSIrKHH(na outyrrs); 2) He)l(HbIH (na outyns, BKYC, CJIYx, 3pHTeJIhHO H T. ,U.). O,UHaKo srerarpopsr HeT. II nepnsre, H sropsre CJIOB03HalJeHHSI SIBJISIIOTCSI npHBblqHbIMH HMeHOBaHHSIMHCOOTBeTCTByroIl(HX ,UeHOTaTOB. Cp. co CJIY'laSIMH SIBHOH MeTa$opbI: baby (babe) U oemxa (xpotusa) 1) ,UHTSI, MJIa,UeHeu; 2) cy6cm. MHJIaSI, JII06HMaSI (0 ,UeBYIlIKe, )l(eHIl(HH e); desert U nycmuns 1) 6eCnJIo,uHaSI necxaaas CYIlIa; 2) HeHaCeJIeHHoe, 6e3JI1O,UHoe MecTo; dirt II ZPJl3b 1) TO, tITO nasxaer: 2) Mep30cTb, naxocrs, ranocrs; drink 1) rnrrs: 2) )l(a,UHO socrrpameaars, cp. drink in every word; steep 1) KPYTOH (0 CKJIOHe); 2) qpe3MepHbIH, npeyaenasenHbIH, cp. the story's rather steep. CHMHJISITHBHaSICBSI3bpe3KO ssrpaxeaa; aropsre 3HaqeHHSI SIBHOnepeaocasr; 3HaqeHHSI B3aHMo,UeHCTByroT, rax tITO B npOH3BO,UHOM (BTOpOM) 3Haqemm OTtIeTJIHBO npOSIBJISIeTCSI HCXO,UHOe (rrepnoe). Bropsre CJIOB03HaqeHHSI He SIBJlSIIOTCSI OCHOBHbIMH npHHSITbIMH HMeHaMH COOTBeTCTByroIl(HX,ueHOTaTOB.IIx HOMHHaTHBHOCTb,T. e. cnocofiHOCTb caMoCTOSITeJIbHO,6e3 nOMOIl(H KOHTeKCTa H pexesoti CHTyauHH (BHe peseaoa YCTaHOBKH, MOTHBaUHH) Ha3BaTb, «rrpencrasan,» COOTBeTCTByro .. IUHH ,UeHOTaT H axryanaaaposars B C03HaHHH COOTBeTCTBYIOIl(eenOHSITHe~ orpaaaseaa CneUHaJIhHbIMH YCJIOBHSIMH.
1 3aMeTHM, 'ITO onpenenenas MeTa!jJopbl 06blqHO crpanaior ,llBYMSI neziocrars KaMH: 1) cpaBHHBaJOT neaorarsr (BeUlH, npeznre'rsr, CymHOCTH), a He xomrerrna; 2) rrpOCTO YKa3bIBaJOT aa 06U1HOCTh rrpH3HaKOB, HO sroro : erne HC,llOCTaTOqHO: He BCSIKaSI 6urHOCTb npmaaxoa 0 J1elKHT B OCHOBe MCTa!jJopbI H - urape - CHMHJ1SIUHH, CM. orrpC,llCJ1CHHC TeKCTC. B

CMompemb, cnutuams - cnytuams. 2.4.3. 06paTHMCSI K CHMHJISITHBHOHKJIaccH(ilHKaUHoHHoH

peHHOCTb MHHYC pe3YJIhTaTHBHOCTb), TO )l(e B napax hear - listen II euoems

43

CHMHJ1S1THBHaSl CBSl3I. KOHl.{enTOB MO)l(eT 6I.ITI. OTPa)l(eHHeM peaJIbHOH 06W:HOCTH CBOHCTBY COOTBeTCTBYWW:HX petbeperrroa. CXO,a:CTBOBOCnpHSlTHSIH 06W:HOCTI. cO,a:ep)I(aHHSI OHl.{enTOBOCHOBI.IBaIOTCSl HaJ1H':IHH06Il1HX K aa CBOHCTB B OTPa)I(aeMI.IX CYIlIHOCTSlX. 3TO cnyqaH npe,a:MeTHO-J10fH':IeCKOH CHMHJISIIJ;HH. 06Il1HOCTI. coztepxaaaa KOHl.{enTOBMO)l(eT He OTPa)I(aTh peansHYW OHT0J10fH':IeCKYW npapozty perpepenroa, HO MO)l(eT 6I.ITh pe3YJIbTaTOM npHlIHCI.IBaHHSI pe4>epeHTaM HeKOTopI.IX 06Il1HX CBOHCTB. ,a:pyrOH CTOPOHbI, C petpepearsr A H B, ,a:a)I(e He 06HapY)l(HBaSI KaKOH-J1H60 peaJIbHOH HJ1H npHlIHcaHHOH 06Il1HOCTH, MOfyT B cany oc06eHHOCTeH OTPa)l(aIOIlIeH CHCTeMI.I, npHCYIlIefO eH MexaHH3Ma OTPa)l(eHHSI BOCnpHHHMaTI.CSl CXO,a:HI.IM 06Pa30M, rrpOH3BO,a:HTbcxoznroe outymeaae. 3TO cnyqaH CHHeCTe3H':IeCKOH CHMHJISIIJ;HH.CBSl3I. COOTBeTCTBYWIllHX KOHl.{enTOB OCHOBbIBaeTCSlHe aa 06W:HOCTH HX coztepscaaaa, a aa cxozrcrse OW:YIlIeHHSI, BocrrpHSITHSl, srre':IaTJ1eHHSI,HJ1H HHaqe, CXo,a:CTBOKOHl.{errTOB 06YCJ10BJ1eHOHe npHpo,a:OH pe4>epeHToB, a cnocofioss HX BocrrpHSlTHSI. IbBeCTHO, ':ITO o6a CnyqaSI CHMHJ1SlTHBHOH CBSl3HllIHPOKO rrpencraaneHbI B ceMaHTHqeCKHX cTPYKTYPax CJ10B.IIpHMepI.I rrpe,a:MeTHO-J10fHqeCKOH CHMHJISIIJ;HH: keleton 1) KOCTHbIH xapxac TeJ1a; 2) OCTOB,xapxac CTPOeHHSl; s 3) IIJ1aH, cxexra, nafipocox, «KOCTSIK»;ape 1) qeJ10BeKOo6pa3HaSI fiecxaoc'raa 06e3I.SlHa; 2) cy6cm. crrerro, fJIYIIO noztpaxarouraa; rubbish 1) MYCOP, XJ1aM; 2) xenyxa, B3,a:Op; fade 1) BSlHyTb, repsrs caezcecrs; 2) crapers, YTPaqHsars M0J10,a:OCTh;3) BbIrOpaTI., JIHHSlTI.; fast 1) 6bICTPbIH, CKOPI.IH; 2) Pa3rYJ1bHI.IH. IIpHMepI.I cHHeCTe3H':1eCKOHCHMHJ1S1l.{HH: lind 1) He 3PSlqHH; b 2) He 3aMeQaIOW:HH, He BocnpHHHMaIOIlIHH, YMCTBeHHO «CJ1errOH»,cp, blind to smb's faults; fast 1) npO':IHI.IH, TBep.LlI.m; 2) BepHI.IH, CTOHKHH, cp, fast friend; break 1) aapyurars l.{eJ10CTHOCTI. >H3HQeCKHXTeJ1 H3rH6aHHeM, 4 JlaBJ1eHHeM, ynaposr; 2) nO.LlaBJISITh (BOJIIO, COrrpOTHBJ1eHHe T. rt.); 3) 06'be3H )l(aTh (J10IIIaJJ:b); fade·1) BSlHyTb, TepSlTI. CBe)l(eCTI.; 2) rrOCTeneHHO 3aMHpars (0 3BYKax); 3) nocreneaao HCqe3aTI. H3 naMSlTH; embroider 1) BI.IIIIHaars; 2) npHYKpaIIIHBaTh, «pacnaerars» (paCCKa3 H T. n.). CHHeCTe3HQeCKHe CBSl3H KOHl.{enTOB YCTaHaBJ1HBaIOTCSlnocpencraosr MexaHH3Ma BTOPHQHI.IX OIl.{YIlIeHHH, T. e. MexaHH3Ma«OIllYIlleHHSl OIl.{YIlIeHHH», n03B0J1S11Oll.{erOCJ1HQaThH paanasars nepBHQHI.Ie ourymeaas 06'beKTHBHI.IX CyIl.{HOCTeH. CXO,a:CTBO BocnpHSlTHSI OHT0J10rHQeCKH He TO)l(JleCTBeHHbIX npH3HaKOB, O,a:HOPO,a:HOCTb OIllYIlleHJfH, BKJIIOQaSl a:a)l(eOIllYIlle, HHSI Pa3HbIMH opranasra QYSCTB, cxoztcrao nepsasrx peaKl.{HH npaaoztsr K cHHeCTe3HQeCKOMYC6J1H)I(eHHIO KOHl.{enTOB OHT0J10rHQeCKH Pa3HOPO,a:HbIX CYIlIHOCTeH. Cp, mild cheese, ale, cigar; light; voice; steel; attack, punishment, rebuke, criticism, measures; climate, weather, evening; answer; gaiety; man, nature, dove, lamb (npHMepI.I sroro pozta .LlOCTaTO':IHOH3BeCTHbI). Ha TOH )l(e cHHeCTe3H':IeCKOH OCHOBe C6J1IDKaIOTCSl 06Pa3bI (xoauerrrsr) npOCTbIX, BHeIIIHHX, 4>H3H':IeCKHX,a:eHCTBHI1(SlBJ1eHHH) H ,a:eHcTBHH (SlBJ1eHHH) CJ10)l(HbIX, BHYTPeHHHx, YMCTBeHHI.IX H 3MOl.{HOHaJIbHbIX. IIPH 3TOM Y HMeH npH3HaKOB pa3BHBaIOTCSI 60J1ee a6cTPaKTHI.Ie 3Ha':leHHSI OT fionee KOHKpeTHI.IX: seize 1) XBaTaTh (4)H3HQeCKHe TeJ1a); 2) YXBaTbIBaTbCSI (aa MI.ICJ1b, IIIaHC H T. n.); 3) OXBaThIBaTh, 06YSlTI. (0 crpaxe, naaaxe H T. n.); 4) nOHHMaTh; collect 1) C06HpaTb; 2) C06HpaTbCSl (c MI.ICJ1S1MH, CHJ1aMH); embrace 1) 06HHMaTI.(cSl); 2) npHHHMaTI., BocnpHHHMaTI. (YQeHHe, nepy); raise 1) nO.LlHHMaTI. (cpH3HQeCKHe TeJ1a); 2) no,a:HHMaTI. (nyx, HaCTPOeHHe); 3) CTaBHTI. (sonpoc, sanasy): loose 1) CBo60,a:HI.IH, He CTeCHeHHI.IH; 2) pacnYIlleHHbIH (0 nOBe,a:eHHH, apasax); 3) He TO':IHbIH, He a,a:eKBaTHI.IH; cp. loose translation, argument.

qacTHbIM CJ1Y'IaeM ClmeCTe3H'IeCKHX CBSI3eHSIBJ1SIeTCSI 3MOTHBHaSICHMHJ1SIUHSI, rrpa KOTOPOH xoanerrrsr C6J1H1KaIOTCSI CXO)tCTBY3MOUHOHaJ1bHOH no OUeHKH. Conepxarerrsaaa 06mHOCTb )tBYX KOHuerrTOB npa :nOM MO)l(eT 6bITb MHHHMaJ1bHOH.B rrpe)tMeTHO-J10rH'IeCKOM (c06CTBeHHO cejaaara-rec"OM )teHOTaTHBHOM) nrraae zma xonuerrra MorYT He HMeTb HH'IerO ofimero, )tJ1SI'C6J1H)I(eHHSIHX )tOCTaTO'IHO cxoncrsa cy6'beKTHBHO-3MOUHOHaJ1bHOH oueHKH COOTBeTCTByIOmHXpediepearos (ofimero npan-rarasecxoro KOMnocO)tep)I(aHHSI). Cp. lousy 1) BWHBbIH; 2) napurassni; Mep3KHH; fHHJ10H; 2) noraasni, )tPSIHHOH, OTBpaTHTeJ1bHbIH; capital 1) rnaaHbIH OCHOBHOH, caMbIH Ba)l(HbIH; 2) rrpesocxormsni, OTJ1H'IHbIH; bloody 1) KPoBaBbIH; 2) npOKJ1SITbIHH T. rr. IIpe)tMeTHO-JIOrH'IeCKaSI H 3MOTHBHaSI CHMHJ1SIUHSI nepenxo .LJ:OnOJIHSIIOT ztpyr npyra; colt 1) )l(epe6eHoK, 2) HOBH'IOK (B KpHKeTe); filly 1) Ko6bIJIKa; 2) WYCTpaSI )teB'IOHKa; hound 1) rOH'1aSIeofiaxa; 2) penoprep; 3) nOCJ1e.LJ:HHH rOHmHK B rpynne (B BeJIOCnopTe); Hottentot 1) rOTTeHTOT; 2) .LJ:HKapb. 2.5. TaKoBbI OCHOBHble THIIbI coztepxarerrsastx cBSI3eH CJ10B03Ha'leHHH. HMH onpe)teJISIIOTCSICOOTHOWeHHeH B3aHMo)teHCTBHe 3Ha'leHHH MHOr03Ha'lnoro CJ10Ba H YBSI3bmaHHe 3THX 3Ha'leHHH B e)tHHyIO CMbICJIOByIO CTPYKTypY, a TaK)I(e onHCbIBaIOTCSI C coztepacarerrsnca CTOPOHbInYTH B03HHKHOBeHHSI Y CJ10B HOBbIX 3Ha'leHHH aa fiaae CTapbIX. B JII060M cnyxae cozrep)l(aTeJ1bHOH3aBHCHMOCTH,HMIIJIHKaQHOHHOH HJlH KJ1aCcH<I!HKauHOHHOH, KOHnerrrsr 06HapY)I(HBaIOT H3BeCTHyIO 06mHOCTb conepscaaaa, COOTBeTCTBeHHO H napsr 3Ha'leHHH MHOr03Ha'lHOrO CJ10Ba, 06'be)tHHSIeMble 3THMH CBSI3SIMH, 06J1a)taIOT 06meH CeMaHTH'IeCKOH lJaCThIO. O)tHaKO pOJIb sroro ofiuiero KOMnOHeHTa B CTPYKType 3HalJeHHSI pa3JIH'lHa H 3aBHCHT OT THIIa co)tep)l(aTeJ1bHOHCBSI3H.CpaBHHM HX no 3TOMY npH3HaKY. 25.1. Ha'IHeM cKoHBepcHBHoH HMnJIHKauHH. 06maSI ceMaHTHlleCKaSI ."IaCTh KOHBepCHBHbIX CJ10B03HalJeHHHpaana nOHSITHIO 0 HeCHMMeTPH'IHOM OTHoweHHH R, KaY3HpyIOmeM B apryraenrax sroro OTHOWeHHSIKOHBepCHBasre CBOHCTBaP+ H P_. Pa3J1HlJaIOmHe ceMaHTH'IeCKHe lJaCTH KOHBepCHBHbIX 3Ha'leHHH aro nOHSITHSI0 Pa3HbIX crarycax aprYMeHTOB B HeCHMMeTpH'IHOM OTHOWeHHH R. Cpo C :nOH TO'IKH 3peHHSI npHMepbI B § 2, 3, 4 aroro paszrena. TaK, B KOHBepCHBHbIX CJ10B03HalJeHHSIX rJ1arOJ1anumber 1) 'HaclJHTbIBaTh' H 2) 'HaClJHTbmaTbCSI' anea C'IeTa COCTaBJ1SIeT X 06myIO ceMY, H a nOHSITHSI 'IHTaIOmero H C'IHTaeMOro - HX )tH<I!cI>epeHUHaJ1bHbIe C npH3HaKH~ B OCTaJ1bHbIX crrysasx HMnJ1HKaUHOHHoH CBSI3H 06maSI cesra paaaa conepacaamo nepBH'IHOrO (npassoro) 3Ha'leHHSI. BTOpH'IHOe (nepenocnoe) saaxenae HMeeT 6oJ1ee CJIO)l(HyIO CTPYKTYPY: 06maSI cesta 3.LJ:eCb oxassrBaeTCSI rarrocesroa, a OCTaJ1bHaSI1aCTh HMnJ1HUHPyeMoro nOHSITHSICOCTaB' J1SIeTranepcesry BTopH'lHOrO 3Ha'leHHSI. B COCTaB rHIIOCeMbI BTOpH'lHOrO 3Ha'leHHSI BXO.LJ:HTaK)I(e nOHSITHe 06 oTHoweHHH, CBSI3bIBaIOmeM)teHOTaTbI T rHIIOCeMbI. Cpo bottle 1) 6YTbIJIKa; 2) BHHO B 6YTbIJIKe, cf. fond of the bottle; shoot 1) CTPeJISITh;2) y6HBaTh BbICTPeJ1aMH.HMnJ1HKaUHH: 6YTbIJIKa-'"' co,nep)l(HMOe X BHHO B 6YTbIJIKe; crperrsrs -+ y6HBaTh BbICTPeJ1aMH.CTPYKTypa HMnJ1HUHpyeMbIx 3Ha'leHHH: B nepsoxr npHMepe ranepcessa -(<BHHO», ranoceva - «6YTblJlKa» rrJIIOC OTHOllIeHHe Me)l()ty BHHOM H 6YTbIJIKOH «x HaXO.LJ:HTCSI y» - «B 6YTblJIKe», BO BTOPOM npassepe ranepcexra - «y6HB aars», ranocesra - «BbICTPeJI» nJIIOC OTHOllIeHHe KaY3aUHH Me)l(.LJ:Y BbICTPe-, JIOM H y6HHCTBOM «x HMeeT CJ1e.LJ:CTBHeM = «BbICTPeJIaMID>. Cp, TaK)I(e y» npHMepbI B § 2.3.3. aroro paaaena. CKa3aHHOe BnOJIHe cnpaaennaao H ,nJISIroro CJIY'laSI HMnJ1HKaUHH CJ10B03Ha'leHHH, xorna OHH COOTHOCSITCSI KaK HMeHa npasaaxa (cBOHCTBa HJ1H OTHOllIeHHSI) H seura. Cp. sleep 1) H3BeCTHoe COCTOSIHHe; ) TOT, KTO cnar 2 HeHTa

rotten 1)

4S

(OKKa3HOHaJIbHO, Cpo Y Illexcnnpa: Macbeth doth murder sleep); love 1) H3BeCTHoe ornoureaae; 2) TOT, xoro mo6HT. I1HTeHCHOHaJI nepnasaoro 3Ha'leHHH aaecs raxxe CTaHOBHTCHranocevoa BTOpH'lHOro. I'anocesra B HMnJIHUHpyeMoM nOHHTHH npezrcraanaer C060H MOCTHK nepe6paCbmaeMbIH OT BTOpH'lHOrO 3Ha'ieHIDI K nepBH'lHOMY. Ee ,ll.H<p<pepeH: UHp)'lOI.QaSl POJIb B xaxecrae cnenadiaxaropa rarrepcesrsr MO)l(eT 6bITb neCyI_QeCTBeHHa,H B TaKOM CJIY'lae BTOpH'I}{Oe anaxeaae 0606I.QaeTCSI, npnpan, HHBaSlCb K coztepxaaaio ranepcesrsr, HO BMeCTe C TeM YTPa'lHBaeTCSI CBSl3b nepsasnoro H BTOpH'lHOrO 3Ha'leHHH. Cpo board 1) zrocxa; 2) CTOJI; 3) ynpasrrenae; interest 1) 3aHHTepecoBaHHOCTb; 2) npouear aa KanHTaJI;

green 1)

3eJIeHbIH (0 U:BeTe); 2) CBe)l(HH, nOJIHhIH CHJI; cp. green old age, a green memory, green years; green 1) 3eJIeHhIH; 2) CO'lHhIH (0 xopxsax); CBe)l(HH, He cynrensra (06 OBOI.QaX, <PPYKTax); ChIPOH, C KOPHSI(0 JIeCOMa'repaanax); He O'lHI.QeHHbIH, He 06pa60TaHHhIH, B COCTOSlHHHnOJIy<pa6pHxara, cp, green sugar; cp, TaK)I(e green timber, film, brick, wound H T. n.; film 1) nJIeHKa; 2) KHHO-(<PoTo-)nJIeHKa; 3) KHHO<PHJIhM; 4) KHHO (KaK pozi HCKyccTBa). I1PH rHnO-rHnepOHHMH'leCKOH CBSl3H 06I.QaSlCeMaHTH'leCKaSI acrs ,ll.BYX s CJIOB03Ha'leHHH paBHa HHTeHCHOHaJIY O,ll.HOrO H3 HHX: HHTeHCHOHaJI O,ll.HOrO H3 nOHSlTHH axrnosea B ,ll.pyroH aa npasax ranepcexrsr, Conepxarensnsni OCTaTOK B ,ll.pyroM nOHSlTHH ofipaayer ero rHnOCeMY, T. e. pa3JIH'lHTeJIbHhIH npH3HaK aa HH)I(HeM yposae 0606I.QeHHSI. Cp, man 1) MY)I('lHHa; 2) qeJIOsex; 3) MY)l(; divorce 1) paspsraars 6pa'lHbIH COlO3 3aKOHHhIM 06Pa30M; 2) paspsraars KaKoe-TO e,ll.HHCTBO ,ll.BYX, cp. to divorce soul from body. TaK )l(e MorYT 6hITb HHTepnpeTHpOBaHhI see npHMephI B § 2.4.2. nora

pasnena,

sroro paanerta.

I1PH CHMHJISlUHH o6I.QaSl ceMaHTHqeCKaSl qaCTb ,ll.BYX CJIOB03Ha'leHHH CBSl3aHa C HHTeHCHOHaJIOM O,ll.HOrO H3 HHX )l(eCTKOH HJIH CHJIbHOBepOHTHOCTHOHHMnJIHKau:HeH: O,ll.HOnOHSITHe 3aCTaBJISIeTnonarars ztpyroe, Ta )l(e 06I.QaSl 'laCTb BO BTOPOM CJIOB03Ha'leHHH COCTaBJISIeTero rHnOCeMY. Cp, fox 1) JIHCa ()I(HBOTHOe, C KOTOPhIM TPa,ll.HUHSI BSl3hIBaeTnpH3HaK XHTpOCTH); C 2) xarpeu, XHTPhlH 'leJIOBeK. CM. TaK)J(e B 3TOM nnane npHMepbI § 2.4.3.

C Y'leTOM H3JIO)l(eHHOrO ssnne coztepxarensnsre MO)l(HO CHMBOJIH3HpOBaThCJIe,ll.)'lOI.QHM 06Pa30M':


1) .I1MnJIHKaLlHlI ofiurero
shoot THna:

CBSl3HCJIOB03Ha'leHHH

2)

llMITJIHKaLlI1S1 KOHBepCI1BHall:

1) CTpeJUlTb (ml - ~ }

2) 3)

y6HBaTb

m2 = a-

Ii

smell

1) naXHYTb

rn,

BbICTpeJIaMI1

2)

HfOXaTb

m2 -

-f+) %A~
b

rHno-rHnepOHHMI1QeCKaSl CBSl3b: train 1) COCTaB JK.-A. TPaHCITOPTHbIX cpencra

p+-p_

2)

COCTaBrpaacnoprusrx cpellCTB

m2~B

m,-t1

4)
filly

CI1MHJIlITHBHali CB1I3b:

1.) MOJIOAali Iml Ko6bIJIKa 2)


WYCTPaSl lleBQOHKa

b)

m2 = C

2:5.2. Cozrepacarensnsre Cn'Sl3HCJIOB03Ha'leHHH 06pa3)'lOT cxesay, xapxac CeMaHTH'leCKOH CTPYKTYPbI CJIOBa. Y CTaHOBHB 3TH CBSl3H) MO)J(HO rrpencraBHTh CeMaHTH'leCKYIO CTPYKTYPYCJIOBarpa<pH'leCKI( Hanpmrep.
t. CTPOQHbIMH 6YKBaMI1 YKaJaHbICeMbI; r- CeMa-OTHOWeHHe;'p+ p_ -ceMbIncnspasre KOHBepCHBHbIe npI13HaKI1; B QI1CJIHTeJIeIIOMel.J_(eHbIrHIIOCeMb!, B 3HaMeHaTeJIe- ranepcesrst; 3arJIaBHbIMH. 6YKBaMll. 06mIHaQeHbI I1HTeHCI'IOHliJIbI;""" -06l.J_(HW CHMBOrr HMnJIHKaLlI1H. ..

if

'4ti

corn

board

1) ,n:OCKa (urapoxas) 2) nOJIKa 3) npafiopaaa ,n:OCKa 4) HaCTHJI 5) cueaa 6) 60PT (Kopa6JISI) 7) KapTOH (nJIOTHbII1) 8) xpsnnxa nepenrrera 9) CTOJI 10) nama, rnrraaae

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

rnuenana

co6up.

3epHO

aepnsnuxo
qmpH
xpynamca

xJIe6 na KOPHlO

green

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

11)

(yjrrpaaneaae, COBeT 3eJIeHOrO usera nOKpbITbIH 3eJIeHblO (60JIe3HeHHo) 6JIe,n:HbIH CblPOH, COlfHbIll, BJIaJKHbIH B HaTypa.JIbHOM BH,Ue, He norrseprurmica ofipafiorxe

6) coxpaaasuraa nepaonaxarrsHoe Kal{eCTBO He,n:aBHOnOJIYl{HBlUHH csoe Kal{eCTBO 8) MOJIO,n:OH 9) nOJIHbIH C~fJI,60,n:PbIH 10) necnensnr, He3peJIbIH 11) He3peJIbIH (nepeu.) 12) HeOnbITHbIH

7)

13) npocronyurasnr,
l{HBbIH

ztosep-

ilOHSITHO, "ITO nozrofiasre rparpst, OTpa:>KalOLUHe TOJIbKO CBSI3H3Hal{eHHH no conepxaamo, npe,n:CTaBJISIlOTC060H BeCbMa ynpoureaayio Mo,n:eJIb ceMaHTHl{eCKOH CTPYKTYPbI CJIOBa. He rOBOpSI Y:>Ke 0 TOM, "ITO ,n:JISIHX nOCTpoeHHSI aeotixonasro YCTaHOBHTb KaKHe-TO KpHTepHH, nocpeztcraoss KOTOPbIX MOJKHO 6bIJIO 6bI C ,n:OCTaTOl{HOH 06beKTHBHOCTblO onpezienars HaJIHl{He-OTCYTCTBHe conepxarerrsaoa CBSI3H Me:>K,n:yrrapaera CJIOB03Ha'IeHHH, B TaKHX rparhax rraurs rpyfio oueaeno ceMaHTHl{eCKOe paCCTOSIHHe Me:>K,n:y T,n:eJIbHbIMHCJIOB03Hal{eHHSIMH(nanpnxrep, 3Hal{eHHSI 2 H 3 ua BTOO POM rpadie 6JIHJKe npyr K zrpyry, 'IeM 2 H 6, aa O,n:HOpaccrosaae). Ha caMOM :>Keztene CeMaHTHl{eCKOenpOCTPaHCTBOMHOr03Ha"lHOrO CJIOBa Hero ceMaHTHl{eCKaSI CTPYKTypa opraHH30BaHbI ropaano 60JIee CJIO:>KHbIM o6pa30M: ,n:JISI roro, l{To6bI npencrasars HX 60JIee a,n:eKBaTHO, Tpe6yeTcSI He nJIOCKOCTHaSI,a 06'LeMHaSI Mo,n:eJIb. C TeM, 'ITo6bI OTPaJHTb «crymeans ceMaHTHl{eCKHX Macc», HX B3aHMHoe pacnOJIO:>KeHHeH «CHJIbI rpaBHTauHID> MeJK,n:y«MaccaMH»-CJIOB03Hal{eHHSIMH. He MeHee BaJKHO H ztpyroe 06CTOSITeJIbCTBo. PaJHbIe CJIOB03Hal{eHHSI HepaBHoueHHbl no HX SI3bIKOBOMYCTaTYCY. L(JISI anexaamoro npezrcraaneHHS! ceMaHTHqeCKOH CTPYKTypbI CJIOBa He,n:OCTaTOl{HO oxeprars xapxac CO-

47

.n;ep)J(aTeJlbHbIX CBSl3eM, HO He06xo.1UfMO TaK)J(e OXapaKTepH30BaTb CnOBO3HaqeHHSI no HX Sl3bIKOBOM nOTeHl.\HH, no COBOKyrrHOCTH <PYHKI.\HOHaJlbHbIX , CHCTeMHbIX H KOnHqeCTBeHHbIX npH3HaKOB: no CBOHCTBeHHbIMHM nparsra. THqeCKHM KOHHOTaI.\HSlM, <PYHKI.\HOHaJlbHO-CTHneBOMt pacnpenerrenaro, napa.n;HrMaTHqeCKHM CBSl3S1M neKCHKo-ceMaHTHqeCKOH CHCTeMe, CHHTarB MaTH'IeCKHM CBSl3SIMB CHCTeMe SI3hIKa H KOnH'IeCTBeHHhIM nOKaJaTenSIM B peva, T. e. no TaKHM npH3HaKaM, KaK 3MOI.\HOHaJlbHO-3KCnpeCCHBHoe conepscaaae, rrpanaztneacaocrs K <PYHKI.\HOHaJlbHhIM no.n;'bSl3hIKaM, crerreas H)lHOMaTHqHOCTH, HOMHHaTHBHOCTH, CBSl3aHHOCTHcnOB03Ha'leHHSI H .n;p. (CM. HH)J(e). O.n;HaKO ztaxe ynpoureaasre Mo.n;enH ceMaHTH'IeCKOM CTpYKTYPbI crrosa apozie npaaezrenasrx BbIIIIe .n;aIOT, cpaBHHTeJlbHO co cnOBapHOM CTaTbeM, 60nee aarnanaoe H aepaoe npencraaneaae 0 TOM, KaK YCTpOeHa ceMaHTHKa cnosa, KaK CBSI3aHbIcnOB03Ha'leHHSI, npSIMO HnH onOCpe.D.OBaHHO, HaCKOJlbKO nanexo OHH OTCTOSIT.n;pyr OT npyra, KaK coaepuiaercs nepexon OT O.D.HHX 3HaqeHHM K .n;pyrHM, KaKHe H3 3HaqeHHlI uearpansasr H 3aMhIKaIOT na ce6S1 ceMaHTHKY crrona, a KaKHe nepH<pepHMHhI H HMelOT Mano CBSI3eM.OHH n03BOnSIlOT CY.D.HTb, HaCKOJlbKO KOMIIaKTHa ceMaHTH'IeCKaSI CTpYKTypa crrosa H KaK CHJlbHhI B HeM uenrpocrpesrarensnue CBSl3HHnH, nanporas, HaCKOJlbKO CeMaHTHKa cnoaa CKnOHHa K pacnazty, KaK CHJlbHbI B HeM uearpofieacasre canst. I'parpsr 3PHMO .D.eMOHCTPHPYIOT, HaCKOJlbKO ofiumocrs .D.eCHI'HaTOpa .D.OnOnHSIeTCSI BHYTpeHHeH conepxarensnoa 06mHOCTbIO cnOB03HaqeHHH HJIH )J(e OCTaeTCSInOCne.D.HHM<paKTopOM 06'be.D.HHeHHSIB O.D.HYCTpYKTYPY coztepscarerrsno .D.aneKHX3Ha'leHHM, JIHIIIb QnOcpe.D.OBaHHoCBSl3aHHhIXztpyr C .D.PyroM. O.D.HHM crrososr, OHH n03BonSiIOT YBH)leTb CeMaHTH'IecKYIO CTpYKTYPY cnosa, MO.D.enH 'raxoro pona nonesasr .D.mI nOcTpOeHHSI THIIonorHH ceMaHTH'IeCKHX CTpYKTYPH onHcaHHSI neKcHKo-ceMaHTHqeCKOM CHCTeMbI B O.D.HOM SI3hIKe, .D.nSI OCTpOeHHSIconocraaarensnoa n THIIonorHH ceMaHTHqeCKHX cTpYKTYP H CpaBHHTeJlbHorO H3yqeHHSIneKCHKo-ceMaHTHqeCKHXCHCTeM B PaJHbIX SI3hIKax, a TaK)J(e .D.nSI peIlIeHHSI npaxnaznnax 3a.D.aq (aarrpm-rep, rrpa 06Y'IeHHH neKCHKe aaocrpaaaoro Sl3bIKa). Kposre 'roro, HX aaanas H anrepnperanaa, BepoSITHo, nefessnrrepecnsr C TO'lKH 3peHHSI npoueccoa nopo)J(.D.eHHSI e'lH (BhI60p cnosa) H ee BocnpHSITHSI (ceMaHTH3aUHSI cnoaa), p

§ 3. 3Ha'leHHe - 3TO KOHI.\enT, CBSI3aHHbui3HaKOM. B carry sroro, nOMHMO cO.D.ep)J(aTeJlbHOM CTOPOHhI, eMY CBOJ1CTBeHHhICOOTHOCHTeJlbHbIecofiCTBeHHO Sl3bIKOBbIexapaKTepHCTHKH, xo ropsre MhI 06'be.n;HHSIeM06mHM noHSITHeM SI3 hI K 0 B 0 roc TaT Y ~ a 3 H a 'I e H H SI. CTaTYC 3HaqeHHSI- sro COBOKyrrHOCTb COOTHOCHTeJlbHhIX neconepxarensnsrx npH3HaKOB, onpezrenSIlOmHX MeCTO .D.aHHOrO cnOB03Ha'leHHSI B CHCTeMe Sl3bIKOBbIX cpe.D.CTB HOMHHaUHH. CTaTYC 3Ha'leHHSI ornrcsraaer ero peansnsni modus vivendi B SI3hIKe, 3TO xapaarepacrasa .D.eCHrHaTa xepea ero .D.eCHrHaTOp. CTaTYTasre npH3HaKH He onHCbIBalOT .roro, "ITO BXO.D.HT CO.D.ep)J(aHHe B .D.eCHrHaTa, HO onHCbIBalOT cnocof BbIpa)J(eHHSI KOHI.\enTa, <PYHKUHHnaaaoro crrocofia Bbrpa)J(eHHSIxoauerrra CpaBHHTeJlbHO C .n;PyrHMH, ycnosaa, MOTHBHpyromHe 3TOT cnoco6, ero pacnpocrpaaennocrs (xonaxecraeanue npH3HaKH), <popManbHbIe (He conepxarensasre) npanana H OrpaHHqeHHSI sa yrro rpefinerrae necarnaropa B .D.aHHOM 3Ha'leHHH H T. rr, 3.1. 3HaqeHHSI MHOr03HaqHOrO cnoaa pa3nH'Ia1OTCSI He TOJlbKO CO.D.ep)J(aHHeM H MeCTOM B CeMaHTH'leCKOH CTPYKType, HO H CTaTYCOM. Kaxnoe H3 HHX He TOJlbKO B3aHMO.D.eHcTByeTC .D.PyrHMH cnOB03HaQeHHSlMH BHyTpH CeMaHTH'leCKOH CTPYKTYPbI, HO SIBmleTCSITaK)J(e qaCTblO 06meH CHCTeMbI HOMHHaTHBHhIX Cpe.D.CTB Sl3hIKa, T. e. B3aHMO.D.eHcTByeTC .n;pyrHMH cnOBO48

3HaqeHlUIMH OTHOllleHHSlX 3aUHSI roro, HHSI BnepBbIe «OCHOBHbIe UeHHOCTb KPHTHKa yqecTb qT06bI Toro,

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[Banorpazton, 162-189]. ceMaCHOJIOrOM B. A. 3BerHHueBbIM, HO


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49

"<HBaeTC5I pe¢epeHUMOHHOe HeCOOTBeTCTBMeMMeHH B nepBMqHOM 3Haqe. HMM- OHO «He BnMCbIBaeTC5I»B npenver coofiureaaa, n03TOMY ero nepeoc. MbICnMBaIOT: PYKOBO,llCTBYRCb06ruMMH YHMBepCanbHbIMH 3aKOHOMepHOC· T5IMM aCCOUMMpOBaHM5I KOHuerrTOB, oT6MpaIOT M3 nepaaxaoro 3HaqeHMH 11 opraHM3YIOT B CTPYKTYPY ceMaHTHqeCKMe rrpM3HaKH, KOHrpY3HTHbIe neaoTaTY. lIMSI B nepeHOCHOM 3HaqeHMM axryananrpyer CBOMKOHuenT He rrpHMO, a xepea COOTHeceHHe neacrara co CBOMMrrepBMqHbIM rrpHMbIM 3HaqeHMeM. TaKoB peanbHbIM CMbIcn roro, qTO B nMHrBMCTMKe 0603HaqanOCb «TPaHcn03MUHeM ceMaHTHqeCKOM CTOPOHbI3HaKa» (C. KapueBCKMM), «BTOPMqHhIMH ceMaHTMqeCKMMH ¢YHKUHSIMM cnosa» (E. KYPMnOBMq). OHoMacMOnOrMqeCKM HopMaTMBHO 0603HaqeHMe M OnMCaHMe ,lleHOTaTOB nOCpe.llCTBOM MMeH B rrpSIMbIX 3HaqeHHSIX. Hcnorrssoaaaae B rex )f(e uensx nepeHOCHbIX cnOB03HaqeHMM, aanporaa, HeHopMaTHBHO. B o6rueM crrysae cneziyer CqMTaTb HeHOpMaTMBHbIMM0603HaqeHMSlMM see ynOTPe6neHMH cnosa He B nepBMqHOM npSlMOM, a BTOPMqHOM nepeaocaov 3HaqeHMM nesaBMCMMO OT roro, SIBnSleTCSI a 3TO nepeaocaoe n aaaxeutre ronsxo OKKa3MOHanbHbIM MnM B TOH HnM HHOM Mepe Y3yanbHbIM. B OHOMaCMonorHlJeCKOM nrraae paarraxae Me)f(.llY OKKa3MOHanhHbIM M Y3yanbHhIM nepeuocHbIM cnoaoyrro rpefineaaexr COCTOHTOTHIO.llb He B CTeneHM HopMaTMBHOCTM - 3TO nann, pasnasae Me)f(.llY e.llMHMqHOH, qaCTHOM, MH.llMBM.LlyanbHOH aHOManMeH M aHoManMei1 MaCCOBOH, pacrrpOCTPaHeHHOM, npl1BblqHOH. Paamorae B OHOMaCMOnOrMqeCKOMcraryce npsnrsrx M nepenocasrx 3HaqeHMfl, zrsycryneasaroe CTPoeHMeOHOMaCMOnOrMlJeCKOM CMCTeMbIncnorrsayerCSI B eCTeCTBeHHOMR3hIKe KaK crroco6 BbIpa3MTb KOrHMTMBHYIOH rrparsraTMqeCKyIO MH¢OPMauMIO, He ysenMqMBaSI qMCJIOe.llMHMU BbIpa)f(eHMR,MX CMHTaKCMqeCKOH CnO)f(HOCTM. OHOMaCMOnOrMqeCKaH HeHopMaTMBHOCTb nepeHOCHhIX 3HaqeHMM caraannaapyer SR, qTO SP sxrransrsaer B HMX OC06bII1 conepxarensusra aapsn. SR rrofiyxztaerca K OCMbIcneHMIO cnona BHe rrpnBbIqHbIX paMOK nepaasnoro xozia. Ilepeaocnue cnOB03HaqeHMH I1CrrOnb3yIOT, xorna CMCTeMa nepaaxnstx 0603HaqeHMM He anesnarna 3aMbIcny (purport) SP, +sro cnoco6 pa3BH3aTh MMrrnMKaUMOHHoe M KOHHOTaTMBHOe,llOMbICnMBaHMe MMeH. 2) Pe¢epeHUMoHHaR CaMO.llOCTaTOqHOCTb: ziocraro-nnae vs nenocraTOqHbIe cnOB03HaqeHMSI. Hexoropsre cnOB03HaqeHMSI perpepenuaonno He)lOCTaTOqHbI H HY)l(,llaIOTCSl B nonnepxse OKpY)f(eHMSl, KOHTeKCTa MnM cMTyaUMM pexa, qTo6bI axryamnapoaan, CBOH xoauenr, rtpyrne »ce 3HaqeHMSI B TaKOM nonzrepxxe He HY)l(.llaIOTCSI.Cp, head 1) rorroaa; 2) BepXHSISI xacrs, cp, head of the page (staircase); 3) nepezntss, ronoaaas sacrs, cp. head of a procession: 4) rnana, cp. head of the family (government): heart 1) cepzme; 2) ueurparrsnas qaCTb, cp. heart of the forest (matter, mystery), a cabbage with a good solid heart: hold 1) ynepaomanae, 3aXBaT; 2) cnopm. 3aXBaT B 6opb6e, cp. double body hold, standing holds. 3HaqeHMSI, KpOMe nepasrx, HY)l(,llaIOTCSIB YTOqHeHMM. Bep6anbHbIe YTOlfHMTeJIH He,llOCTaTormoro CJIOB03HaQeHHH He 06Sl3aTenbHbI nocne nepsoro ynoMMHaHMSI, HO B 3TOM cnysae MMeeT MeCTO 3nnHrrCMC cnOBOCOlJeTaHMSI. HM aootnne He Tpe6YIOTCSI, ecrnr ry )f(e ports O BbIIIonHHIOT cMTyaUMR pexa M JIOrMKa KOHTeKCTa, npens'rcraytounre axryaJIM3aUHM HOMMHaTMBHO 60JIee «BbIIISlqeHHbIX» cnOB03HaqeHMl1. B onperteJIeHHbIX YCJIOBMRXsausage 6Y,lleT nOHRTHO KaK sausage balloon, O,llHaKO see .ZleJIO MMeHHO B TOM, 'ITO aKTyanM3auMSI aroro cnOB03HaqeHMSI rpefiyer rronxpenneaaa, B TO BpeMSI KaK npyroe saaseaae «xonfiaca» al\TyaJIM3MpyeTcSI cnOBOM 6e3 .llOrrOnHHTenbHbIX YCJIOBHM. . 3) qacToTHOCTb: 60nee qaCTOTHbIe vs MeHee qaCTOTHbIe cnOB03HaqeHM5I. 50

IlpOTHBolll_?cTaBJIeHHe CJIOB03HalJeHHMno lJaCTOTHOCTHHe rpefiyer OC06hIX 1l0SICHeHHH: qaCTaSI aKTyaJ1H3aU;HSI,pexypperrraocrs 3HaqeHHSI B pexa yCHJ1HBalOT CBSI3h necnraaropa C ,llaHHhIM ,lleCHrHaTOM. 4) MOTHBHpoBaHHOCTh 3HaqeHHSI Mop<l>OJ1oruqeCKOMCTpYKTYPOMztecarHaTopa: CYPYKTYPHOMOTHBHpOBaHHhIe vs HeMoTHBHpOBaHHhIe CJ10B03HaqeHHSI. Iloscaeaae HaqHeM C npauepca. Cnenyiourae CJ10Ba 06HapY)l<HBalOT nsa 3HaqeHHSI: arrival 1) npH6hITHe; 2) TOT, KTO npH6hIJ1; acquaintance 1) 3HaKOMCTBO;2) cy6cm. 3HaKoMhui. Tlepasre H sropsre 3HaqeHHSI CTaTYTHO HepaBHou;eHHhI. Ilpennoxreaae OT,llaeTCSI nepssns, nOCKOJIbKY OHH MOTHBHPoBaHhI Mop<l>0J10rHqeCKOMcYPYKTYPOM: Cy<I><I>HKChI -al, -ance o6pa3YlOT oTrJIarOJIbHhIe cyw:eCTBHTeJIbHhIe co 3HaqeHHeM ,lleMCTBHSI,a He J1Hu;a,COBepwalOmero ,lleMCTBHe (HJIH CBH3aHHoro C HHM). B 06meM aaae: H3 ,llBYX 3HaqeHHM CJIOBa,necarnarop xcroporo HMeeT CYPYKTYPY,cBSI3aHHyIOC nocTaTOqHO onpezieneaaoa KOHu;enTYaJIbHOM06J1aCThlO, npenno-rnrrerrea CTaTYC roro, cozrepxaaae xoroporo BXO,llHT B sry 06J1acTh (HHhIMH CJ10BaMH, comacyeTcH C Mop<l>0J10rHQeCKOMCYPYKTYPOM, C «BHyTpeHHeM <l>OPMOID) CJ10Ba). 5) llOJ1HOTa cJIoBoo6pa30BaTeJIbHhIX PH,llOB (napanrms): CJ10B03HaQemm C 60J1ee nOJIHhIMH vs MeHee nOJIHhIMH cJ1oBo06paJoBaTeJIbHhIMH pSI.llaMH. lh ,llBYX CJ10B03HaQeHHMO,llHO Mox<eT HMeTh 60J1ee pa3BepHYTbIM CJ10BOo6pa30BaTeJIbHbIM PH,ll, B TO BpeMSI KaK pSl,ll zipyroro CJ10B03HaQeHHSI eHee M n0J10H. Ilpennoararensaee CTaTYC nepsoro CJ10B03HaQeHHSI.Cp, address n 1) anpec; 2) ofipamenae, pe%; 3) J10BKOCTh, HCKYCCTBO, aKT; address T v 1) anpecosars, aanpaansrs; 2) ofipamarscs (K KOMY-J1H6o); addressee 1) aztpecar; employ v 1) 3aHHMaTh pa60ToM, HCnOJIb30BaTb QeM-JIH60 YPY,ll; 2) ynorpefinars, npHMeHSlTh, HCnOJIb30BaTh; 3) 3aHHMaTb (ce6S1 QeM-J1H60); npoaasozrasre employ n, employability, employer, employee, (unjemployment H.llYT no nepBOMY 3HaQeHHlO; beauty 1) KpaCOTa; 2) xpacanana, CJ1oBo06pa30BaTeJIbHaSl napa,llHrMa beauty n - beauty v, beautify - beautician - beautiful, beauteous OTHOCHTCSI OJIbKO K nepsosry CJ10B03HaQeHHlO. T Boofiuie rosopa, B CTaTYTHOM nnaae BaX<Ha He TOJIbKO nOJIHOTa CJ10Boo6paJOBaTeJIbHOM napanarsssr CJ10B03HaQeHHSI,HO 06beM acero CJ10BO06pa30BaTeJIbHOrO rneana ztanaoro CJ10B03HaQeHHSI. aX<Ha TaKx<e CYMMapB naa QaCTOTHOCThCJ10BTaKoro rnesna. C TOlJKH 3peHHSI craryca OHH KaK 6bI CBSl3aHbIxpyronoii nOPYKOM. ECJ1H HMeeTCSI CJ10BO N' CO 3HaQeHHSlMH m] H m] TaKHMH, no m~3HaQeHHe nepeaocao-npoassonnoe OT m, H CJ10BO N2 CO 3Ha'leHHeM m~ TaKHM, QTO m, - ero nepBHQHOe npassoe 3HaQeHHe, TO N' B 3HaQeHHH m] 06bIQHO peanasyer J1HWb QaCTh CJ10Bo06paJOBaTeJIbHOrO pxzta (napaztarMhI), CBOMCTBeHHoro N' B m]. Kpoxie roro, N' B 3HaQeHHH m] HMeeT 06bIQHO 60J1ee 6e,llHyIO CJ10Bo06pa30BaTeJIbHyIO napazrarsry, QeM N2. Cp. sun 1) COJ1Hu;e;2) CBeTHJ10,saeazta, 06wHpHaSl ceMbSl npOH3BO,llHbIX H CJ10X<HhIX CJ10BCBSl3aHaC nepnsna 3HaQeHHeM. C ,llpyroM CTOPOHbI,star (= N2) B CBoeM npSlMOM 3HalJeHHH «sneana, CBeTHJ10)}(=m~) ofipasyer MHorHe npOH3BO,llHbIe H CJ1OX<Hble CJ10Ba. Cp, TaKx<e fruit 1) nnozuu); 2) nnozusr), pe3YJIbTaT(hI). Bee npoaasoznrue H CJ1OX<Hble CJ10Ba CBSl3aHbI C nepnsnr 3HaQeHHeM: fruit v, fruitage, frutarian, fruited, fruiter, fruiterer, fruiting, fruity, fruitbud, fruit-cake, fruit-knife, fruit-piece, etc. IIcKJIlOQeHHe COCTaBJ1S1lOT fruitful (-Iy / -ness), fruitless (-Iy / -ness), coztepscaurae o6a 3HaQeHHSI,H fruition TOJIbKOaropoe 3HaQeHHe. Hanporas, O,llHHaKOBaSl MOmHOCTh cJ1oBo06pa30BaTeJIbHbIX PSl,llOB 06hIQHO CBH,lleTeJIbCTByeT npn paBeHCTBe npOQHX rpaxropoa, QTO H CTa"TYCLI CJIOB03HaQeHHM npH6J1H3HTeJIbHO paensi. Cp. adhere 1) npannnars, 51

npacrasars, npHImeHBaTbCSI (PSlA: adhesive - adhesion, adhesive, ness); 2) TBepAO Aep)l(aTbCSI, rrpHAep)l(HBaThCSI,6bITh BepHbIM (0 rrprnuwnax peIIleHHSlX H T. A.) (pan: adherent - adherence, adhesion). ' 6) IIoJ1HoTa <popMo06pa30BaTeJIbHbIX napazrarsr: CJIOB03HaqeHHSIC nOJIHOM VS HenOJIHOM napanHrMoM. Hexoropsie CJIOB03HaqeHHSI HCnOJIb3YlOT BCIO napazrarsry <pOpMOH3MeHeHHSI,Y zrpyrax napazrarsra HeAOCTaTOqHa. Ilpenrrcsrarensaea craryc nepnsrx. Cpo drive 1) BeCTH, npasars (0 MaIIlHHe, 3KHIIa)l(e H T. n.); 2) lIeCTH, KJIOHHTh (K qeMY-JIH60 - at smth) - TOJIbKO B AJIHTeJIbHbIX <popMax; abuse 1) nJIOXO ofipautarsca; 2) 06MaHbIBaTbTOJIbKO B CTPaAaTeJIbHOM <popMe; get 1) rtorrysars; 2) HMeTh - TOJIbKO B neprpexraoji <popMe; 3) AOJI)l(eHCTBOBaTh TOJIbKO B nep<peKTHOM <popMe HH<PHHHTHB;number 1) qHCJIO, 2) qHCJIeHHOe npeBOCXOllCTBO- TOJIbKO B !l>opMe MH. 'I.; flower 1) UBeToK; 2) UBeT, xpaca, nyqwaSl sacrs qerO-JIH60 (TOJIbKOB en. 'I.). 7) 06beM paspeureansrx CHHTaKCHqeCKHX !l>YHKUHM: CJIOB03HaqeHHSI 6e3 OrpaHHqeHHM vs C OrpaHHqeHHSlMH CHHTaKCHqeCKHX!l>YHKUHM.Hexoro, pbIM CJIOB03HaqeHHSlM paspenreasr He ace CHHTaKCHqeCKHe !l>YHKUHH H3 nornroro HX nepexas, CBOMCTBeHHOrOllaHHOMY CHHTaKCHqeCKOMY xrraccy. B 3TOM CMbICJIe TaKHe CJIOB03HaqeHHSIHe BnOJlHe CB060AHbl CHHTaKCHqeCKH. Cp, pure 1) qHCTbIM, ozraopoznrsra; 2) SlBHbIM,pure mischief, nonsense, waste; right 1) npaBbIM, cnpaBeAJIHBbIM, BepHbIM; 2) TaKoM, KaKoM TPe6yeTcSI; absolute 1) a6COJIlOTHbIH, 6e3 OrpaHHqeHHH, oronopox, HCKJIIOqeHHM;2) noziJIHHHbIM, HecoMHeHHbIM. Bo BTOPbIX 3HaqeHHSlX nparrararensasre He ynorpe6JISlIOTCSlrrpeAHKaTHBHO. 8) Kpyr CHHTaKCHqeCKHXBaJIeHTHOCTeM:CJIOB03HaQeHHSI 60JIee IIlHpOC KHM vs MeHee IIlHPOKHM xpyross CHHTaKCHqeCKHXBaJIeHTHocTeM. CJIOB03HaQeHHSI MorYT OTJIHqaThCSITeM, sro Ha60p CHHTaKCHqeCKHX!l>OPMYJIcoxeTaeMOCTH, CBOMCTBeHHbIX OAHOMY CJIOB03HaqeHHIO,COCTaBJISleT JIHIIlb sacrs CHHTaKCH'IeCKHX BaJIeHTHOCTeM, aspeureaasrx APyrOMY. IIpelInOqTHTeJIbHeM p CTaTYC nOCJIeAHero. B aHrJIHHCKOM Sl3bIKe 3TOT cny'laM HaH60JIee narnsnHO HJlJlIOCTPHPyeTcSI 06IIlHPHbIM KJIaCCOM npaxrepoa - COqeTaHHSlMH V prep. N. ,llJISI CTaTYTHO OrpaHHqeHHbIX CJIOB03HaqeHHM 3TO aepezuco eAHHCTBeHHaSl CHHTaKCHqeCKaSll>opMYJIa (crpyxrypa), ! B KOTOPOMOHH peaJIH3YIOTCSI,B TO BpeMSI KaK AJISI CJIOB03HaqeHHM C IIlHPOKHM CTaTYCOMOHa JIHWb O)J.Ha H3 MHorHX. Cpo lead 1) BeCTH, aarrpaanars; 2) npHBO)J.HTh, HMeTh pe3YJIbTaTOM, lead to smth; stop 1) oCTaHaBJIHBaTh(cSI),npexpamars llBH)l(eHHe; 2) OCTaHaBJIHBaTbCSI nJISI spesreaaoro npO)l(HBaHHSI,

stop at a hotel, etc.; cut 1) pesars; KOJIOTb; 2) BMeIIlHBaThCSI, cut into a dialogue H T. n. B 60JIee 06meM cnyxae npezmoxrarenex CTaTYC CJIOB03HaqeHHMC 60nee MOIUHbIM Ha60poM BaJIeHTHOCTeM, He3aBHCHMO OT Toro, BKJIIOqeHbI HJIH He BKJIIO'IeHbI BaJIeHTHOCTH oznroro CJIOB03Ha'leHHSI B BaJIeHTHOCTH )J.pyroro, nepecexarorcs OHH HJIH HeT. 9) 06beM JIeKCHqeCKHX llHCTPH6YQHM: CJIOB03HaqeHHSIC IIlHPOKOM vs Y3KOMJIeKCHqeCKOH llHCTpH6YQHeM. Kpyr JIeKCH'IeCKOM COqeTaeMOCTH(a TaKIKe 0606meHHbIx !l>OPMYJInOM COqeTaeMOCTH- JIeKCHqeCKOM BaJIeHTHocTH) y ozmoro CJIOB03HaqeHHSIMOlKeT COCTaBJISlTb JIHIIlb qaCTb npyroro. IIpe)J.nOqTHTeJIeH, eCTeCTBeHHo, CTaTYC nOCJIe)J.Hero. B 06meM cnysae MO)l(HO rrpOCTO cpaanaaart, MOmHOCTH zmyx llHCTPH6YQHM, He3aBHCHMO OT roro, BKJIIOQeHbI JIH OHH oznra B rrpyryto HJIH HeT, nepecexasorcs OHH HJlH HeT. ECTb )J.Ba porta npaBHJI, onpenerrsnourax xpyr HopMaTHBHoM JIeKCHQeCKOH COtIeTaeMOCTH CJIOB03HaQeHHSIB CHHTaKCHqeCKHX crpyxrypax C nOnqHHHTeJIbHOM CBSl3bIO:HMnJIHKaUHOHaJIbHO-JIOrHtIeCKHeH KOJlJlOKaUHOH-

52

JlO_SI3bIKOBble. llOSICHHM cOqeTaHHM J(JIaCCOB HaK P2;

semea,

«H~R

Be~H

+ HMR

paanaxae

Me)K.QY HHMH npasaaxa».

na npnsrepe 1JTO PI

aTpH6YTHBHbIX

llpHMeM, npH3HaK

M-

MHO)KeCTBO npmA2Ph

C KOTOPbIMH

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1'1HeCOBMeCTHM

Nh

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KJIaCCOB B MHO)KeCTBe

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MMSI P2 (T. e. Al HMeeT 3Ha1JeHHe )!(e qTO PI OTHOCHTCR K 06JIaCTH

a A2-3Ha1JeHHe P:J.YCJIOBHMCR TaKcnafioro (cB060.QHoro) MMnJIHKaUHOHaJIa

MM~H N1···Nn, a He K HX HHTeHCHOHaJIaM, )l(eCTKHM HJIH CHJIbHO-SepORTHOcTfIbIM HMnJIHKauHOHaJIaM. qTO )Ke KacaeTCSI HeCOBMeCTHMoro rrpmaaxa P2 Ta~ Al TO OH npHHa.QJIe)l(HT NIH A2 JIOrH'leCKH He 06JIaCTH HerHMnJIHKauHoHaJIOB CBR3bIO, nOJIY'laeM HanpOTHB, nO.Q'lHHHTeJIbHOM N1, N2 •••Nn• C01JeB JII060M cJIY1Jae COCOqeTaHHe

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CBR3bIO Me)K.QY HHMH JIOrH1JeCKH HopMaTHBHO. HopMaTHBHOCTH B eCTeCTBeHHOM He.QocTaT01JHO, SI3bIKe. 06'be.QH.QBYX JIeKCeM

HMnJIHKaUHOHaJIbHO-JIOrH1JeCKOM CO'leTaHHe npaBHJIaM Ha3BaTh B He IlIHpOKOe

1JT06bI paapeunrrs HeHMe HO SI3bIKOBbIM npHHSIB

HX nO.Q'lHHHTeJIbHOM MO)KHO

CBR3bIO .QOJI)KHO erne JIeKCHqeCKOM BCJIe.Q sa

Y.QOBJIeTBOpSITh C06CTBeH(JIeKCeMOTaKTHKH), KOJIJIOKaUHOHHbIMH,

COqeTaeMOCTH C. AXMaHoBoM [CM. CO'leTaeMOCTb CO'leTaHHSI

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O.

nOHHMaHHe 3TOM

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KOnbIJIeHKO, JIeKCeM

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cnysae sa

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CBSI3aHbI C JIOrHKOM

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Me)K.QY .QeCHrHaTopaMH HMeeT nOJIHOMO~Hyro CB060.QHO.

1'1.QeCHrHaTaMH .QonOJIHHTeJIbHbIX CO'leTaeMOCTh, ECJIH, HanpOTHB,

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orpaaase1'10 HeM B HopMe ro-

TO CJIOB03HaqeHHe

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BbISIBJISIIOTCSI KOJIJIOKauHOHHble CJIOB03HaqeHHSI, 'lTO npa BOP SIT KaK 0 <ppaJeOJIOrH'leCKH O'leBH.QHO, sars npH3HaKY TaeMOCTH. HX He TOJIbKO no B nepaosr

aanpersr,

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I(

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I(QHBepcHBHble HH1JeHHSIMH.

§ 2.3.4.

Ilonspasre

3Ha1JeHHSI npHJIaraTeJIbHbIX npe.QCTaBJISIeT

PaJJIH'laIOTCSI

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O.QHY CHHTaKCH1JeCKYIO CBSI3aHbI C ceMaHTHKoH c~eCTBHTeJIbHOrO npmaaxa P_, P + 1'1

1JeCKHe PaJJIH'lHR 3TOM eCJIH seutaa), nOJISIpHbIX pa3HbIM 'IecKOH II:MeHHO

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MO)KeT

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P,

(paJYMeeTcSI, C TaKHM

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npanararern.noe, TOJIbKO B

orpascaroutee O.QHOM rJIaBHbIM

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B C01JeTaHHSIX

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B TOM, xoropoe

SIBJISIeTCSIero

53

06JIa.D.alOmHM 3HaqeHHeM. ::lTO snaseaae npHJIaraTeJIbHOrO nOJIHOMOmHO (cB060.D.HO) B YKa3aHHOM asnne CMbICJIe: npanararerrsaoe B 3TOM 3HaqeHHI1 MO)I(eT COqeTaTbCSIC JIlO6bIM cymeCTBHTeJIbHbIM, .D.eHOTaTKOTOpOrO cnoco. 6eH 06HapY)I(HBaTb .D.aHHbIH npH3HaK. To )I(e npanararerrsnoe B nOJISlpHOM KOHBepCHBHOM3HalleHHH ynorpefi, JISleTCSI OJIbKO C cymeCTBHTeJIbHbIMH, .D.eHOTaTbIKOTOPbIX cnocofiasr T 06Ha'PY)I(HBaTb JIHllIb 3TOT KOHBepcHBHbIH npH3HaK, HO He npOTHBOnOJIO)I(HbIH. ROJIee Toro, B 3TOM BTOPOM 3HaqeHHH npanararerrsnoe, KaK npaBHJIO, HeCB060.D.HO B coxeraevocra H He acxepnsrsaer acero xpyra KJIaCCOB .D.eHOTaTOB,C KOTOPbIMH TaKOH npH3HaK COBMeCTHM; 3TO ero saaseaae BTOPH1IH0, <ppa3eOJIOrHqeCKH CBSl3aHO,06'beM coaeraessocra Y30K H orpaaaqeH YCTaHoBHBllIeHcSI TPa.D.MUHeH,CeMaHTHlIeCKaSi MO.D.eJIbHe peanaayerCSIaa nOJIH}'1O MOmHOCTb, 3TO saaxenae C HenOJIHOMOmHOH KOJIJIOKal.{MeH.

Cp, sad n nellallbHblu I) onesaneaasni: 2) rresanauraa, HaBO.D.SIIUMH neqaJIb. Sad U neliallbHblu-1 COqeTaeTCSI C MMeHaMM KJIaCCOB JIlO.D.eHH nOJIHOCTblO acsepnsraaer MHO)I(eCTBO cnocofiasrx 06HapY)I(HTb 3TOT npM3HaK (ocaonaoe saaxeaae C nOJIHOMOmHOH KOJIJIOKal.{MeH).C TeMH )I(e MMeHaMI1 3TO npanararern.aoe He ynOTPe6JIS1eTCSI O BTOPOM 3HaqeHHH «HaB.O.D.SIIUHH B nesam,», XOTSI 3TOT npH3HaK COBMeCTHM C .D.eHOTaTaMH 3THX KJIaCCOB, lleliallbHblu-2 COqeTaeTCSI C HMeHaMH KJIaCCOB HeO.D.YIIIeBJIeHHbIX aeuren, aecrrocofinsrx npHHHMaTb npH3HaK «onexaneaasni» (news, result, event, lesson H T. n.), HO He OXBaTbIBaeT nOJIHOCTblO COOTBeTCTB}'1Omee MHO)I(eCTBo: KOJIJIOKal.{HSI HenOJIHOMOmHa, ee rpaaausr HelleTKM M onpenensnorCSI TPa.D.MUMeH,anaseaae CBSl3aHO<ppa3eOJIOrHlIeCKH. COqeTaHHSI sad H ne'lallbHblu-2 C KOHKpeTHbIMH HeO.D.YllIeBJIeHHbIMHcymeCTBHTeJIbHbIMH ouiynralOTCSIKaK HeHopMaTHBHbIe, HO 3TO )I(e CnpaBe.D.JIHBO OTHOCHTeJIbHOMHorHX cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX ztpyrax JIeKCHKO-rpaMMaTHqeCKHX Pa3PSl.D.OB. Cpo So she wistfully, sensitively sniffs the air I And then turns, goes off in slow sad leaps. (D. H. Lawrence, 4-131). Hapynrenae HMnJIMKal.{HOHaJIbHO-JIOrHqeCKOH HOPMbI nopoxztaer 6ecCMbICJIeHHbIe CoqeTaHHSI. B OCMbICJIeHHbIX coofiuieaasx OHO JIHllIb BH.D.HMOCTb H CHrHaJIH3HpyeT He06xo.D.HMOCTb nepeOCMbICJIHTb 3HaqeHHSI KaKHXTO liMeH. PeaJIbHO B OCMbICJIeHHbIX co06meHHSlX napyuraercs He HMnJIHKal.{HOHaJIbHO-JIOrHqeCKaSi opxra COqeTaHHSICMbICJIOB,a OHOMaCMOJIOrHqeCn xas aopxra, HopMa 0603HaqeHMSI (HMeHOBaHHSI,Ha3bIBaHHSI): KaKHe-TO HMeHa CJIe.D.yeTnOHHMaTb He B MX nepBH1IHbIX npsxrsrx, a BO BTOPHqHbIX nepeHOCHbIX 3HaqeHMSIX. B03HHKaIOmHe rrpa nOM BbIpa3HTeJIbHbIe 3<p<peKTbI, OCHOBaHHbIe na HeHopMaTHBHOH COqeTaeMOCTH JIeKCeM, IlIHPOKO HCnOJIb3}'1OTCSI n03THqeCKOH (xY.D.O)I(eCTBeHHoH,06pa3HOH) pellH. B 3.D.eCb )I(e .D.OCTaTOllHOYKa3aTb, sro .D.JISI poneasecxoro r OCMbICJIeHHSI CJIOBa He 06S13aTeJIbHOnapyurars HMnJIHKal.{HOHaJIbHO-JIOrMqeCK}'1OHOPMY, HO 6bIBaeT .D.OCTaT01lH0OTKJIOHHTbCSIOT KOJIJIOKal.{HOHHOHHOpMbI. TaK, rrpanararerrsnoe B 3HalleHHH O.D.HOrOH3 nOJISlpHbIX KOHBepCHBHbIX rrpasnaKOB OC03HaeTCSIKaK <pHrypa pe=ra B .D.BYXCJIYlIaSlX: 1) 3TO saaxenae BOBce He npe.D.CTaBJIeHOB CeMaHTHqeCKOH CTPYKType CJIOBa, T. e. B ero yayce, 2) aaaxeaae 3TO npe.D.CTaBJIeHOB ysyce CJIOBa, HO C KOJIJIOKal.{MOHHbIMH orpaHMqeHHSlMH, xoropsre B COqeTaHHH HapYIIIeHbI. B 060HX CJIyqaSlX B03HHxaer <pHrypa pexa, KOTOP}'1O CJIe.D.yeTOTHeCTM K MeTOHHMHqeCKHM 3nHTeTaM, TaK KaK B OCHOBe HMeHOBaHHSI JIe)I(HT csoeofipaaaaa «aCCOl.{Mal.{HSI no CMe)I(HOCTH»- HMnJIHKal.{MSIB3aHMO.D.OnOJIHHTeJIbHbIX nOJISlpHbIX rrpasnaKOB. Cp. 3llHTeT sad B npHBe.D.eHHOM ssnne npm-repe: .rpon OCHOBbIBaeTCSI TOJIbKOaa paCIlIHpeHMH KOJIJIOKal.{HOHHOH HOPMbI npHJIaraTeJIbHOrO, TaK KaK anaseaae «HaBO.D.SlmMH nexarrs» npe.D.CTaBJIeHO ero ceMaHTHqeCKOH CTPYKB
Type. 54

npO.IlOJDKHM

paCCMOTpeHHe

Q>aKTOpOB, Orrpe.IleJISIlOmHX CO'IeTaeMOcm C

Sl3blKOBOH CTaTYC B3aHMO.Ilei1OrpaHH'IHBaeCBSI3blO, HaKJIa.IlbIBaeT CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI-

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHi1. 10) JIorH'IeCKHe Mble. TO ECJIH CJIOBO raxoa

OrpaHH'IeHHSI HMeeT

B pe3YJIbTaTe

CTBMSI CJIOB03Ha'IeHHi1: B03MO)J(eH

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI 3Ha'IeHHSI 'ITO CJIY'Iai1, 're

OrpaHM'IHBaIOmHe

vs

rHIIo-rHIIepOHHMH'IeCKoi1 CO'IeTaeMOCTb

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHe-rHIIOHHM

JIOrM'IeCKHe rHlIepOHMMa,

OrpaHH'IeHHSI

Ha JIeKCM'IeCKYIO CO'IeTaHHSI,

xoropsre JIO)J(Hbl HJIM JIOrH'IeCKH He KOppeKTHbI .IlJISI CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI-rHIIOHHMa. B TaKOM CJIY'Iae SlBHO npezmoqTMTeJIeH CTaTYC rHIIOHMMH'IeCKOrO CJIOB03HaQeHHSI. Hanpasrep, man 06HaPY)J(HBaeT 3Ha'IeHMSI 1) MY)J('IHHa, 2) 'IeJIOBeK. B CHJIY B03.Ilei1CTBHSI nepsoro 3Ha'IeHMSI CJIOB03Ha'IeHHIO man ''IeJIOBeK' sanpemeasr CO'IeTaHHSI apozte
*A woman is a man man-2 HJIH *Here is Mrs Man Smith, the man we spoke about. Yrrorpe6JIeHMe SIMM ofiurero OrpaHH'IeHHSI CJIOB03Ha'IeHHi1 60JIee B 3Ha'IeHHH HOCHTeJIbHO JIaSi (m2) 'IaCTb 3TO OrpaHH'IeHO porta o6mei1 COOTHeCeHHOCTbIO is mortal). H npa 'IaCTH JIO)J(Hbl HMrrJIHKaQHOHHoi1 MO)J(eT 6blTb CO'IeTaHHSI 'roro HJIM He CBSl3M HaCTOJIbKO )J(e CJIOBa OTCBeT(BblcKaJbIBaHMCMblCJIa 0 KJIaCCaX THIIa sroro «'IaCTb QeJIOM. 3TH

sarrpeutas

B03MO)J(Hbl 3Ha'IeHHe CO'IeTaHHSI Cpo He BrrOJIHe

SlpKHM B ceMaHTHKe uenoro, nepsoro CYTOK; CYTKH», 2) C eCJIH

CJIOBa, 'ITO aanpetuaer

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI. CYTKM. rrOCKOJIbKY H eure T. 'rpn

B PYCCKOM KoppeKTHO 3TO

xoppexrnsr Sl3b1Ke: .IleHh 1)


ssrpaacenae «neas» CYTOK»,

«nens

O.IlHaKO HO'Ib -

Bblpa)J(eHHSI CYTKH npcxs» 're

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C

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(m.),
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rr.

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KoppeKTHbIMH. «nens», CJIOBOM 'IaCTb B peHCCJIeCJIO-

Paapeureasr

Bblpa)J(eHHSI

cnpaaertrransr B craryce erne

«nemo--l :
H «nens», CYTOK' 3TO 3YJIbTaTe .IlOBaTb M ero THBHblX QeM snecs HeHHO, )KHBaIOT

«rrpOIlIJIH

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Taxoe

HepaBeHCTBO H

CBSl3aHO C TeM, HeT HMelOT

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vis-a-vis

B aHrJIHi1cKoM,

day,
necs

day,

'CBeTJIaSi

'CYTKH'

rrpH6JIH3HTeJIbHO O.IlHOrO

paBHbli1

CTaTYC. CO'IeTaeMOCTH erne CO'IeTaeMOCTbIO CHCTeMe acnexr: CO'IeTaHHi1

npocrefiume xpyr ero

CJIY'IaM OrpaHH'IeHHSI 3Ha'IeHHH 3aBHcHMocTei1 B

JIeKCH'IeCKoi1

B3aHMO.Ilei1cTBHSI

CJIOBa. llpe,LlCTOHT

Me)J(.IlY paspeurennofi crpyxrype

B03Ha'IeHHSI,

CO.Ilep)J(aTeJIbHbIMH ceMaHTH'IeCKoi1 SI3b1Ka.

CBSI3SIMH C .IlPyrHMH CJIOBa H 3aBHcHMocTei1,

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSlMM HOMHHaIlIHPe, HeCOMcnep-

CTaTYCOM Cpe.IlCTB

HaMe'IeHO.

Kpyr Ilpofinexia

3THX HMeeT

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TaK)J(e reHeTH'IeCKHi1 H anOrH'IHOCTb OrpaHH'IHBaIOT OrpaHH'IHBaIOT xpyr

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CJIOBa,

B03MO)J(HOCTb rrOJIHOTY HCrrOJIb-

rrOSIBJIeHHSI'Orrpe.IleJIeHHbIX HbIX napanar-a

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CJIOBoo6paJOBaTeJIbHblX OrpaHH'IHBaIOT BapHaHTOB

H CJIOBOCO'IeTaTeJIbpaspemennoa JIeKCH-

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI.

11)

Ha60p

C .IleCHrHaTopHbIMH CJIOBO He HMeeT pacrrOJIaraeT cKHi1 npmKHMHcTbli1. HaC'IHTbIBaeT Q>eccop; 3TOT (BapHaHTbI:

vs

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI: BapHaHTOB. (06bI'IHbli1 Cpo CJIY'Iai1).

CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI 3Ha'IeHHSlX B rrpyrnx

6e3

O.IlHHX CJIY'Iai1),

BapHaHTOB 2)

HMH (pe.IlKHi1,

HO B03MO)J(Hbli1 Scottish); H

nyparancxaa, HMeIOTCSI Y

Bapaaursr-afitipenaarypsr
OTCYTCTBYIOT

Scotch 1) IlIOTJIaH.IlCYPOBbli1; 3) cxynojr,


06bI'IHO Y CTaTYTHO professor .IlO prof

«BH,LlHbIX» CJIOB03Ha'IeHHi1

BTopOCTerreHHbIX:

3Ha'IeHMi1,

HO TOJIbKO B .IlBYX COKpamaeTCSI HO npn paBeHCTBe

1)

npo-

2) Y'IHTeJIb. npmnax MaJIO cymecraeaea, rrpO'IHX diaxropos napaCTaTYC CJIOB03Ha'IeHHSI, HMeIOmero necarnaropmae

npe.IlrrO'ITHTeJIeH

55

aHTbI.

Cpo

TaK)Ke PYCCK. eJIKa C eJIKoH-l.

1)

BH.n nepesa

(BapMaHT:

errs);

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npa3,1lHMK

Ilocnezurae nsa <f!aKTopa KacaIOTCSI TOJIbKO CYllleCTBMTeJIbHbIX. 12) YnOTpe6JIeHMe B <f!YHKuMSIX perrpeaearauaa M ,Ile<f!MHMUMM ,IleHOTaTa: CJIOB03HaqeHMSI, ,IlJISI KOTOPbIX xapaxrepnsr 06e <f!YHKuMM, vs CJIOB03HaqeHMSI,
KOTOPbIM ,IleHOTaTa, tcOTOPbIH, ero KM )Ke KaTMB, B 60JIee cBoHcTBeHHa orma ,Ile<f!MHMTMBHaSi <f!YHKuMSI. cBoHcTBeHHa 3TO 6bIJIO 3aMeqeHO B. B.

Ilepeaocasnr

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CJIOB03HaqeHMSIM ornrcaaae. <f!}'HKUlfl1 0 <f!YHKuMM HeCKOJIbKO

He CTOJIbKO penpeaerrranas

CKOJIbKO ero

Baaorpanoasnr,

Y3KO KBaJIM<f!MUMPOBaJI npezraxaraaa MO)KeT

3TO SlBJIeHMe,

K caaraxcasecxoa crrenyer HO rosopars

[BMHOrpa,llOB, ceMMoTlfqecKoH He

npeofinanaaaa

184].

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nsrcrynars

TOJIbKO

npMJIO)KeHMe, KaKOBa ero

onpezieneaae TOJIbKO the

M cpaanenae.

onpeztenenrrsrx
nepssre
mpy6.

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,IlecPMHMTMBHYIO of a

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He,llOCTaTOqHOCTb» B C006lI.{eHMSIX, B sacrnoa MeHee

nepeHOCHbIX ocofiemro rrpa

nar JISI,IlHO npOSIBJISIIOTCSI npa KOHTeKCTOM M 06lI.{eH M cMTyaUMeH

He MOTMBMpOBaHHbIX

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M 06lI.{aSI, M qaCTHaSI COOTHeceHHOCTb, CBOHCTBeHHa COOTHeCeHHOCTh. penpeaenrapoHJIH HH,IlMBMMO)KeT

B BblCKaJbIBaHMM

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yncrpefinenae ofiurero feed sheep sheep

CJIOB03HaqeHMSIM ,IlJISI HMX

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are

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onpenenaronrae
CTpYKType nansneauree npH3HaKOB

(vs

conepacarertsnsre) cpencrs

B cosoxyrmocra

CTaTYC CJIOB03HaqeHHSI HOMHHaTMBHbIX rrraaasre craryca M3 HHX. C ueJIbIO a TaK)Ke

CJIOBa

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pacurapars

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(3KBMBaJIeHTHocTH),

56

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xapaxrep roro, pona CJIOBa H

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3.3. Herpynao
3HaqeHHH paH)!(HPOBKH

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qTO CTaTYTHble -

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3.3.1.
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pasnsrx

BHSlX aKTYaJIH3aQHH

OTCYTCTBHH pexesoa H cHTyaQHOHHOH sxcnepasseara npa

YCTaHOBKH • .llJISI 06eCneqeHHSI

sxcnepaxrerrre

He06xo~HMO

rrperrssanars
~OCTaTOqHOe sospacra,

CJIOBa

BCSlKOH KOHTeKCTYaJIbHOH KaK npaBHJIO, H B03MO)!(Hbl HH41opMaHTOB KOBOH CHCTeMbl TeM )!(e HbIMH, If cTa6HJIbHOCTb H

06YCJIOBJIeHHOCTH. Y PaJHbIX OT nOJIa,

Ilpa

3TOM, XOTSI

C OqeB~HOCTbIO pe3YJIbTaTOB npyrax

06HapY)!(HBaeTCSI

e~HHo06pa3He

HH41opMaHTOB,

OTKJIOHeHHSI B 3aBHCHMOCTH 4laKTOpOB, see

nporpeccna

~OCTaTO'IHOH

JIHHrBHCTH'IeCKOH

O~HOpO~HOCTH HH410PMaHTOB (T. e. npn HX ~HOJIeKTOB) TaKHe CJIOB03HaqeHHSlM. 06PaJOM,

~OCTaTO'IHOH OHH OT~aIOT

TO)!(~eCTBeHHOCTH HaJbIBaTb 3HaqeHHH

assrH rJIaB-

npezmosrreaae npHHSlTO

O~HHM

CJIOB03Ha'leHHSI

HJIH OCHOBHbIMH. paanaaae rJIaBHOrCi> I( eropocrenenastx CBSl3H ~ecHrHaTopa (roxaee, qTO onaoro rpanyaposaaae arorcsoe rJIaBHOrO YCTaHOBKe). COCTOMOTH)TOH aKTyaJIH3aQHH H ~ecHrHaTa onpezierraer necaraara npH3HaKOB B YCJIOBHSlX yposeas

TaKHM paBHOH BaQHH, B~HO, .llJISI noro

HT B CTeneHH pexesoa npa

MOTHBHPOBaHHOCTH creneas 6blTb npezmo-rreaaa SlCHO, qTO

B OTCYTCTBHe peqeBOH

CHSITOH peaenofi

aKTYaJIH3aQHH, Hac

ztpyrosry? OxeCJIOB03HaqeHHSI • MHOr03Haqcraryca onpezie-

OHH onpe~eJISlIOTCSI ~OJI)!(HO CJIOBa no

no CYMMe CTaTYTHbIX CYMMapHoe, pa3rpaHH'IeHHSI

3HaqeHHH

rJIaBeHCTBY -)TO OCHOBaHHeM

Bblpa)!(eHHe B aafopax,

CJIOB03HaqeHHH. 3HaqeHHH

H BTopOCTeneHHbIX

SlBJISleTCSIpaJJIHqHe

B HX Sl3bIKOBOM craryce,

JISiIOlL(HX 3TOT craryc

npH3HaKOB.

3.3.2. Bsnue 6blJIH paccxrorpensr c06cTBeHHo Sl3blKOBbie (He coztepxarensasre) OCHOBaHHSI CTaTYTHbIX npH3HaKOB. K HHM CJIe~yeT ~06aBHTb eme nsa npOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHSI: CJIOB03HaqeHHSI KOHKpeTHble vs aficrpaxrasre H
CJIOB03HaqeHHSI C 60JIbllIHM B CeMaHTHqeCKon CTPYKTYPe onHPaeTCSI KOHQenTbl VS MeHbllIHM CJIOBa. 3TO sa na qHCJIOM y)!(e fiaae no CO~ep)!(aTeJIbHbIX oc06eHHOCTb B By~yqH CBSl3en OIIII03HQHH CO~ep)!(aTeJIbHOrO C03HaHHSI: pe3YJIbTaTe HCXO~HOH, H SlPCHJlOH naMSlTH. KOHKpeT-

nnaaa, Ilepaas
a6crpaKTHble

4IYH~aMeHTaJIbHYIO

B03HHKaIOT

KOHKpeTHblX

OTBJIeqeHHSI npH3HaKOB H.neSi KOHKpeTHoro KOCTbIO.

HJlH 0606meHHSI

rrpH3HaKaM. C 60JIbllIeH aaasenae

orpafioraaa CJIOBY, C

B C03HaHHH 60JIbllIeH

qeTKOCTbIO C 60JIbllIeH B -

Ilpa

paBHbIX

YCJIOBHSlX KOHKpeTHoe rJIaBHOrO

«HaBSl3bIBaeTCSI» nOCKOJIbKY JIeMa

JIerKOCTbIO aa ~eCHrHaTOp»,

BCnJIbIBaeT 3HaqeHHH TO npH3HaK

np06JIeMa

H BTopOCTeneHHbIX

3TO npofi-

npeHMymeCTBeHHOrO

«rrpasa

57

HbCTH - a6CTpaKTHOCTH OKa3bIBaeTCSICYllleCTBeHHblM ,IJ)IS1 COOTHOCHTeJIbHOH XapaKTepHCTHKH CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHH. BTOpOe npOTHBOnOCTaBJ1eHHe OCHOBbIBaeTCSIaa 1.JHCJ1e CO,llep)KaTeJIbHbIX CBSl3eH CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHH CeMaHTH1.JeCKOH B CTpYKType CJ10Ba. HHbie 3Ha1.JeHHSI HMeIOT CeMaHTH1.JeCKHe1.JaCTH, fiuiae C 60J1blllHM 1.JHCJ10M o ,llPYfHX 3Ha1.JeHHH TOfO )Ke CJ10Ba, a HHbie - C MeHblllHM. Ilepasre 3aHHMaIOT u:eHTpaJ1bHYIO n03HUHIO B ceMaHTHKe CJ10Ba, sropsre - nepH!l>epHHHbI. 3TO XOPOllIO BH,llHO ua rparpax ceMaHTH1.JeCKOH CTpYKTYPbI CJ10B, CM. § 2.5.2. sroro paanerra, nanpsoaep, Y CJ10Ba green uerrrpansasr 3Ha1.JeHHSl , 8 (6 cBSl3eH) H nepmpe, 1 pmnn.I 2, 3 (1 CBSl3b), 4 (2 CBSl3H)H np, MO)KHO nonarars, 1.JTO 3TOT npH3HaK TaK)Ke CKaJbIBaeTCSIaa COOTHOCHTeJ1bHOH oueaxe CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHH.{eM 6oJIbl ure ceMaHTH1.JeCKHX cBSl3eH, TeM axryansaee CBSl3b riecarnaropa C TaKHM ,lleCHfHaTOM: aKTyaJ1H3aU:HSI HOfHX nepH!l>epHHHblX 3Ha1.JeHHHCJ10Bancerna M conpsacena C aKTyaJ1H3aU:HeHnOHSlTHH - 1.JaCTeH O,llHOfO H TOfO )Ke ztecarnara. 33.3. HMeIOTcSI, TaKHM o6pa30M, CJ1e,llYIOru:HeOCHOBaHHSICOOTHOCHTeJIb-

HOH xapaKTePHCTHKH CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHM:1) cnoco6 HOMHHaU:1m; 2) perpepenU:HOHHaSi,llOCTaT01.JHOCTb;3) 1.JaCTOTHOCTb; MOTHBHpOBaHHOCTb MOp!l>0J104) fH1.JeCKOM CTpYKTYPOH zrecaraaropa (coorsercrsne «BHYTpeHHeH ¢JOPMe» necnrnaropa); 5) nOJ1HOTacJ1oBoo6pa30BaTeJ1bHbIX PSlLlOB(napanarsr), 06'beM crroaoofipasoaarensasrx mean, CYMMapHaSi 1.JaCTOTHOCTb CJ10B cnosoofipasoBaTeJIbHOfO rneaaa; 6) nOJ1HOTacPopMoo6pa30BaTeJIbHbiX napazrarsr; 7) 06'beM paspeureausrx CHHTaKCH1.JeCKHX ¢JYHKU:HM; 8) KPYf CHHTaKCH1.JeCKHX BaJ1eHTaocrea; 9) 06'beM H nOJ1HOMoru:HOCTb J1eKCH1.JeCKOH 01.JeTaeMOCTH; 10) J10C fH1.JeCKHeOfpaHH1.JeHHSIC01.JeTaeMOCTH pe3YJIbTaTe B3aHMOneMcTBHSI CJ10BOB 3Ha1.JeHHH; 11) HaJ1H1.JHe necarnaropnsrx (cPOPMaJIbHbIX) BapHaHTOB CJ10BO3Ha1.JeHHM; 12) ynOTpe6J1eHHe B ceMaHTH1.JeCKHX ¢JYHKU:HSlXpenpeaearamm H ,lle¢JHHHUHH zieaorara; 13) yno rpefinenae B 1.JaCTHOHH o6ru:eM COOTHeceaaocra; 14) crerreas KOHKpeTHOCTH- a6cTpaKTHOCTH CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHM; 15) 1.J,HCJ10 conepacarern-nsrx CBSl3eM B ceMaHTH1.JeCKOM CTpYKType CJ10Ba. no Ka)K,llOMY OCHOBaHHIO CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHe MO)KeT nOJ1Y1.JHTb n0J10)KHTeJIbHYIO HJ1H OTpHUaTeJIbHYIO ouenxy, a HMeHHO: 1) npSlMoe vs rrepeaocnoe; 2) perpepernraomro ,llOCTaT01.JHOevs aenocraroxnoe: 3) 6oJ1ee vs MeHee xacTOTHoe; 4) MOTHBHpOBaHHOe CTpYKTYPOM necarnaropa vs HeMOTHBHpOBaHHoe; 5) HMeIOru:ee 6oJ1ee nOJ1HbIH vs MeHee nOJ1HbIM cJ1oBoo6pa30BaTeJ1bHbIM pszt (rrapanarsry), 60JIbllIee vs sreasuree cnoaoofipasoaarerrsnoe rneano, 60J1bllIYIO vs MeHbllIYIO CYMMapHYIO 1.JaCTOTHOCTbCJ10B TaKOfO rneaaa; 6) HMeIOru:ee nOJ1HYIO vs He,llOCTaTO~YIO napanarvy ¢JopMoo6paJOBaHHSI; 7) He OfpaHH1.JeHHOe VS OfpaHH1.JeHHOe B penepryape CHHTaKCH1.JeCKHX ¢JYHKU:HH; 8) HMeIOru:ee 6oJ1ee vs MeHee llIHpOKHH xpyr CHHTaKCH1.JeCKHX BaJIeHTaocrea; 9) HMeIOru:ee fionee vs MeHee llIHPOKYIO J1eKCH1.JeCKYIO ,llHCTpH6yu:HIO, nOJ1HOMoru:HYIO vs HenOJ1HOMoru:HYIO J1eKCH1.JeCKYIO01.JeTaeMOCTb; 10) orpaC HH1.JHBaIOru:eeJ1eKCH1.JeCKYIO01.JeTaeMOCTbnpyroro C CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHSI orpavs HH1.JHBaeMOe B C01.JeTaeMOcTH; 11) HMeIOru:ee necaraaropnue BapHaHTbI VS He HMeIOru:He HX; 12) He OfpaHH1.JHBaeMOe VS OrpaHH1.JHBaeMOe B ¢JYHKU:HH penpesearanaa e,llHHH1.JHOfOH 13) KJ1aCCa; 14) KOHKpeTHoe vs a6cTpaKTHOe; 15) uearparrsaoe vs nepH¢JepHHHoe B conepacarern.aoa crpyxrype CJ10Ba. COOTHOCHTeJIbHblH CTaTYC CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHSI onpeneJ1S1eTCSIBceM COBOKynHOCTbIO npH3HaKOB. ECJ1H nsa CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHSI npa paBeHCTBe np01.JHX npa3HaKOB OTJ1H1.JaIOTCSI O,llHOMY OCHOBaHHIO, TO rJ1aBHbiM SlBJ1S1eTCSI no TOCJ10B03Ha1.JeHHe, Y KOTOPOfO COOTBeTCTBYIOru:HHnpH3HaK n0J10)KHTeJleH, a BTOpocreneaasrx - TO, Y xoroporo 3TOT npH3HaK OTpHl.{aTeJ1eH. npaKTHQeCKH, O,llHaKO, npHXO,llHTCSI HMeTb neno C fOPaJ,110 6oJ1ee CJ10)KHOH KapTHHOH: CTaTYTHble npH3HaKH cpaenaaaeusrx CJ10B03Ha1.JeHHH He pasnsr no HeCKOJIb-

58

OCHOBaHlliIM, HX COBOKYIIHOCTb coztepaorr KaK nonozorrensmre (J1eBbIe), TaK H OTpHuaTeJIbHbIe (npassre) npH3HaKH. B nO,Ll06HbIX CJ1Y'IaSlx CJIOBO3Ha'leHHSI OueHHBaIOTCSI, O'leBH):(HO, no CYMMapHblM COOTHomeHHSlM nOJIOiKHTeJIbHhlX H 0TPuuaTeJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB. O):(HOMY CJ10B03Ha'leHHIO OT):(aIOT npe):(llO'lTeHHe nepen ):(PyrHMH, H OHO ontyutaercs B Sl3bIKOBOHHHTYUUHH (<<qYBCTBe,qyTbe R3bIKa») KaK rJIaBHOe, KaK 3HaqeHHe necarnaropa par excellence, eCJIH, cpaBHHTeJIbHO C ):(PyrHMH CJIOB03HaqeHHRMH,COBOKynHOCTbero CTaTYTHbIX npH3HaKOB 06HapYX\HBaeT 3aMeTHbIH cYMMapHbIH nepesec nOJIO)l(HTeJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB. 3.3.4. CTaTYTHhre npH3HaKH aepaeaouemrsr ):(JISIpaH)l\HpOBKH CJIOB03HaqeHHH. MO)l(HO nonarars, 'ITO onpe):(eJISlIOIUHMH SlBJISlIOTCSI cnocof HOMHa) HaUHH, 6) perpepenuaonnaa caMO):(OCTaTO'lHOCTb,B) '1aCTOTHOCTh,r) CJIOBO06pa30BaTeJIbHhle CBSl3H (ocnonaaae 5 B nepenaej. n) CHHTarMaTHqeCKHe JIeKCH'IeCKHe CBSl3H (ocnoaaane 9) He) KOHKpeTHOCTb- a6CTPaKTHOCTh3Ha'leHHR. OCTaJIbHhle npH3HaKH «Cpa6aThIBaIOD> BO BTOPyIO oaepens, xorna cnpezteJISllOlUHe npH3HaKH BCTynalOT B KOH$JIHKT H He OT):(aIOTxsnoro npezmcxreHHSIKaKOMY-TOO):(HOMYCJIOB03Ha'leHHIO B 06IUeH «osepena aa JleCHrHaTOp». 3.3.5. llOSICHHM npHMepaMH npennaraesmo MeTO):(HKY BbIRBJIeHHSI pan)l(HPOBKH CJIOB03Ha'leHHH. Ha Ta6JIuue 3 6YKBhI B JIeBOM BepTHKaJIhHOM PSlJlY 0603HaqalOT OCHOBaHHSIB nepe'lHCJIeHHOM ssnne (§ 3.3.4.) nopsnxe, B ropH30HTaJIbHOM party YKa3aHbI CJIeJlyIOlUHe CJIOBa H 3Ha'leHHSI: deep 1) rny60KHH, He MeJIKHH; 2) rJIy60KHH, cepseausni, oCHOBaTeJIhHbIi1; extinguish 1) racnrs (orcas, CBe'lY H T. n.); 2) racars, rroztaansrs (qYBcTBa, HaJle)f():(Y); fire 1) orcas, nJIaMSI; 2) orons, crperrsfia; grunt 1) xpioxars: 2) sopsars: heat 1) )f(apa, 3HOH; 2) )f(ap, nbIJI, rOpSl'lHOCTb; heaven 1) He60, He6ecHbIH CBO):(;2) nefieca, uapCTBO aefiecaoe; hunger 1) rOJIo):(, rOJIOJlaHHe; 2) nOTPe6HOCTb; install 1) o$UUHaJIbHO BBO):(HTbB JlOJI)f(HOCTb; 2) YCTaHaBJIHBaTb, MOHTupOBaTb. 3HaK YKa3bIBaeT na nOJIO)f(HTeJIbHhIH (JIeBbIH) npH3HaK, 3HaK - orsreaaer OTPuuaTeJIbHbIH (npaBbIH) llPH3HaK, x osnaaaer npH6JIH3HTeJIbHOe paBeHCTBO CJIOB03Ha'leHHH no JlaHHOMY oCHoBaHHIO, (+) YKaJhIBaeT aa HeCYlUeCTBeHHoe npeofinanaane no ):(aHHOMY npH3HaKY. Haxoaeu, npa nYCThIX KJIeTKaX oueaxa CJIOB03Ha'leHHH KaKOMY-TOOCHOBaHHIO He npOH3BOJlHJIaCb. Y'ITeHbI CJIOBo06pa30BaTeJIbHhIe CBSl3H:deep adj, deep n, deep adv, depth, deepen, deepie, deeping, deeply, deepmost, deepness, a TaK)f(e CJIO)f(HbIe CJIOBa (B ueJIOM He3Ha'lHTeJIbHOe rrpeofinaztaaae no JIHHHH deep.); extinguish, extinguishable, extinguished, extinguisher. extinguishment (npeofinananae no JIHHHH extinguish.); fire n, fire v, fired, fireless, firer, firing (06a 3HaqeHHR pasaoueaasr) H CJIO)f(HhIe CJIOBa (onpezteneaaoe npeofinanaaae no JIHHHH fire.); grunt v, grunt n, grunter, grunting n, ad], gruntingly, gruntle, gruntling (06a 3Ha'leHH5I paaaoneansr); heat n, heat v, heated, heatedly, heater, heating n, adj H CJIO)f(HbIeCJIOBa(no JIHHHH heat.); heaven, heavertlike, heavenly adj, adv, heavenward(s) H CJIO)l(HbIe crrosatrrpeofinanaer JIHHHR heavens); hunger n, hunger v, hungered, hungry, hungrily H CJIO)f(HbIe CJIOBa (nexoropoe npeofinaztanae no JIHHHH hunger.); install, installation, instal(l)ment (06a 3Ha'ie1-1HSrnpH6JIH3HTeJIbHO paanonenasr). 113 Ta6JIHUbl BHJlHO, 'ITO no cosoxynaocra npH3HaKOB BhlSlBJISlIOTCR KaK rJIaBHbIe B CJIOBaX deep, extinguish, heat, hunger rrepssre 3Ha'leHH5I, B CJIOBaX heaven, installsropsre. Hanporns, B fire H grunt HeT oCHoBaHHH nonarari, KaKOe-JIH60 H3 JlBYX 3Ha'leHHH rJIaBHhIM, CTaTYTHOOHH npH6JIH3HTeJIhHO paBHOueHHhI. YKa3aHHaSi MeTO):(HKa HMeeT CMhICJI He CTOJIhKO B ueJISIX BhI5IBJIeHHR TJIaBHOrO H aropocreneaaoro 3HaqeHHH - 3TO MO)f(eT 6bITh CJleJIaHO B
((liM

no

59

aCCOU:HaTHBHOM 1I0JIyqaeMbIX IIPH'IHH, nepezr

3KClIepHMeHTe,

CKOJIbKO

.ztIDI

HHTeplIpeTaU:HH a HMeHHO TO, 'ITO

,l{aHHbIX,

B aCCOQHaTHBHblX

3KClIepHMeHTax, 06pa30M,

.l{JISi BbISlCHeHH51 JIe)l(HT B OCHOBe

na OCHOBaHHH KOTOPblX O,l{HOMY 3HaqeHHIO ,l{pyrHMH. BbISlBJISIeTCSI, TaKHM K ceMaHTH'IeCKHM

OT,l{aeTCSI IIpe,l{IIOqTeHHe CTpYKTypaM CJIOB.

«'1YBCTBa SI3b1Ka» IIpHMeHHTeJIbHO

Tatinuua 3
to:

:s: :c

'"
t.)

deep 12

extinguish 12

fire 12 x x
X

grunt 12

heat 12

heaven 12

hunger 12

install 12 xx

III 0

:c a

+
x
X

x
X

x x
X

+
x

+ + + (+)

(-)

6
B

xx
X X

xx
X

xx

-+ x

x x

(+) + + +

(-)

-+ -+
x x x x

(+)
x

(-)

+x

- (+)
x

(-)

n e

x
'ITO

+
x

-+
(+)
(-)

-+ -+

+
ECJIH

He

ClIpaBe.l{JIHBO, IIO

CTaTYC CJIOB03Ha'leHHSI

ou:eHHBaeTCSI Ha6JIIO,l{aeMOe

IIO CYMMe 1I0JIO)l(e-

IIpH3HaKOB, TO BIIOJIHe HHe, 'ITO TeJIbHOCTH

O,l{HOMY, a O,l{HOBpeMeHHO OKa3blBaeTCSI TO CTPYKTypax

IIO HeCKOJIbKHM CJIOB

OCHOBaHHSIM, IIpe,l{IIO'lTH-

eCTeCTBeHHblM B ceMaHTH'IeCKHX

peansao

pa3HbIX

creneas

sapsapyer
HHSI aazt HH rJIaBHOrO paBHO

CJIOB03Ha'lemrn H SIPKOCTb BblSlBJIeHHSI rJIaBHOrO 3Ha'leHHSI B llIHPOKOM naanaaoae: OT SIBHoro IIpe06JIa,l{aHIDI O,l{HOrO aaaxeno IIOJIHOrO HeJIb3S1

,l{pyrHM

npyroxsy

ornars +1-

paBeHCTBa 3aMeTHOro

CJIOB03Ha'leHmf, IIpe,l{IIO'lTeHHSI.

xorna

HH TOMY, HaJIH'IHH SlPKOCTblO, IIPHHSlB

II
x-

IIpH TaK,

3Ha'leHHSI ouenxa:

OHO BblSlBJISleTCSI BCSlKHH pas H «3aTeHeHHOCTb»

C pa3JIH'IHOH 3HaQeHHH. heat!

KaK pa3JIH'IHa

CJIe):{yIOIQHe extinguish!

=+ 2/deep! sane

2, (+)/(-)

HerJIaBHbIX

-+ 1/-1,

CJIe.IJ:YlOllIYIO rpanamno MeTO,l{HKa

SlPKOCTH maBHbIX

3Ha'leHHH:

(6), hunger, (6) B H3JIO)l(eHHOM ECJIH 6bl aroro

(5) - heaven, (2).


1I03BOAAeT JIHIUb CJIOBa IIO 1I0CTPOHTb 1I0Cpe,l{CTBOM HX O,l{HOBpeMeHHO 6bI sa 3TO BpeMSI.

(9) - install, (8) HepapXHIO 1I0lIapHoro rpazryapoaars IIpH

0,

'IIOJIY'lHM

npeztHX see ,l{aHHOM oueaxa T. e• OHO

1I0'lTHTeJIbHOCTeH COIIOCTaBJIeHHSI. CJIOB03Ha'leHHSI necaraarope, IIpH3HaKOB .l{HalIa30HOB TPY,l{OeMKaSi 06'beMe, IIO H3JIO)l(eHHOM IIO

CJIOB03Ha'leHHH Mbl MHOr03HaqHOrO

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KOJIH'IeCTBeHHoro sanasa, KpaHHeH aazte H

CTaHOBHTCSI peJIeBaHTHblM Mepe

H «OIQYllIaeTCSI». B aacrosuree

CJIO)l(HaSI H B IIOJIHOM 'ITO Y)I(e B IIPH-

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CJIOB03Haqemni

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na

PSI.n:Tpy.n:HOCTeH:. Tpy.n:HOCTH KOHKpeTHOCTH oCHoBaHHlO; -

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COCTOSIT B TOM, qTO 3HaqeHHH:, 3HaqeHHH: HOCTH H

1)

He BnOJIHe YSICHeHbI nOHSITHSI KOHKpeTHoro CTeneHH no 3TOMY 60JIee HeH3BeCTHa KaKaSI-JIH60 3HaqeHHH: orrpezreneaas OTCYTCTBYlOT

H a6CTpaKTa6CTpaKTKOJIHy6e.n:HHe BnOJIHe

HeH3BeCTHbI TeM

MeTO.D:HKa

qeCTBeHHOH: ySIcHeHbI TeJIbHaSI

OI.~eHKH CJIOB03HaqeHHH: YCTaHOBJIeHHSI OT rrpasroro;

2)

rrOHSITHSI npassoro MeTo.n:HKa

H nepeaocaoro raxoro

H HeH3BeCTHa Me)l(.n:y creneaa

COOTHOUIeHHSI

CJIOB03Ha-

qeHHSIMH H TeM 60JIee nepenocnoro ]10 6bI

KOJIHqeCTBeHHoro

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3HaqeHHSI

3)

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CJIe.n:OBasacCJIOB,

o qaCTOTHOCTH CJIOB03HaqeHHH:, yqHTblBaTb scex TOTHOCTb a TaK)I(e

TeM fionee

qTO B H.n:eaJIbHOM crryqae CJIOB03HaqeHHSI,

He npOCTO qaCTOTHOCTb

a CYMMapHYlO

CJIOBO<pOPM, O.n:HOKopHeBbIX SICHbI

rrpOH3BO.D:HbIX H CJIO)l(HbIX H 3anpeLUeHHOH: BaJIeHTHOCTH He 're scerna HJIH H HHbIe eure

CJIOBOCOqeTaHHH, JIeKCHqeCKOH: CKa3aTb, H

CBSI3aHHbIX C paCCMaTpHBaeMbIM pa3peUIeHHOH: 'roro, CHHTaKCHqeCKOH: PSI.n:OB; 60JIee HJIH

CJIOB03HaqeHHeM; COqeTaeMOCTH, nazce 06'beMbI C ysepen-

4)

He scerna

rpaaausr

06'beM HOCTblO

CJIoBo06pa30BaTeJIbHbIX B napananae BHTb creneas

paspeurensr

sanpemeasr

MO)l(HO

CJIOBO<bOPMbl He 06cJIe.n:0T. e.

CJIOB03HaqeHHSI;

K TOMY )l(e ace

3TH

BaHbI H He H3yqeHbI onpenernrrs,

C .n:OCTaTOqHOH: rrOJIHOTOH:; HMnepaTHBHa YKa3aTb TaK qTO

5)

sorrpocsr
3aqaCTYlO

CJIO)l(HO YCTaHOyrosnraCJIO)l(HOCTb TO,

pe<pepeHUHOHHOH: HaCKOJIbKO cnenyer 6e3

caMo.n:OCTaTOqHOCTH norpefiaocrs aa rJIaBHYlO

CJIOB03HaqeHHSI, B Bep6aJIbHbIX

TeJISIX .D:JISI tecaraaropa z

B .n:aHHOM 3HaqeHHH. Tpy.n:HOCTb qTO aaorna npHxo.n:HTCSI B TOM, corrOCTaBJISITb

H,

HaKOHeu,

neMapKaUHH CJIOB03HaqeHHSI qTO HY)l(HO. 3TH

nOJIHCeMHH,

.n:OJI)I(HOH: y6e)l(.n:eHHOCTH ozmaxo, He OTMeHSIlOT

cpaaaaeaeurs scex

Tpy.n:HOCTH,

peaJlbHOCTH

OTMeqeHHbIX peans.n:aHHbIMH H HX no

KaTerOpHH:

H nOHSITHH:. OHH

CYLUeCTBYlOT 06'beKTHBHO oueaxa,

H onpenensior C

asre

pa3JIHqHSI

B nCHXOJIHHrBHCTHqeCKOM IlpH6JIH)I(eHHbIe aanpassep

H c06CTBeHHO MorYT oueaxa B 6bITb

SI3bIKOBOM craryce .n:OCTaTOqHbIMH HOMHHaTHBHbIX

CJIOB03HaqeHHH:. axcnepasreara, nOKa3aTeJIbHbIMH CTa-TYCY B cpencrs SI3bIKa.

corJIaCYlOLUHecSi

aCCOUHaTHBHOrO, COOTHOCHTeJIbHOH: CTpYKType

.D:JISI

CJIOB03HaQeHHH: CHCTeMe

ceMaHTHqeCKOH:

CJIOBa H

rJIABA II

KOMBMHATOPMKA nEKCMQECKMX 3HAQEHMH cnOB B cnOBOCOQETAHMBX


BBO~IIbIe
HaCTOSIl.u;aSl rnasa tIHBIlIeH ofimenpanramroro 3HatIeHHH CMhICJ10B» .J1eKCHtIeCKHX «CJ10)l(eHHH 3HatIeHHSlMH no )TOH CHX nop nocssmeaa CJ10B B

3aMe'lallBJl
06J1aCTlf ceMaCH0J10nm, erne He nOJ1y-

HaHMeHOBaHHSI.

Pexs

aaer 0

B3aHMo.n;eHCTBl:U:I 3aKOHOMepHOCTSIX 06'be.n;HHSIMe)l(.n;y

CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHSlX, e.n;HHH.QhI, 0 uenoro 'reopna,

OT.n;eJ1hHhiX n0J1H03HatIHhIX HOMHHaTHBHhle H 3HatIeHHeM 0603HatIeHHH pa3pa6oTaHHOH sanasa B )TOH erne XOTH

CJ10B (HMeH), COtIeTaHHSI.

lOr.u;HXCSI B CJ10)l(Hhle OTCYTCTBHe npernrernoii

COOTHOIlIeHHSlX

HMeH-KOMnOHeHTOB ofiurenpansroro .n;OCTaTOtIHO 06J1aCTH. aarrpaarremte B. Illep60H 60-x HeT

nOKa3aTeJ1hHO: pa3pa60TKH nOnbITKH ecrs

B J1HHrBHCTHKe «CJ10)l(eHHSl pona 0 6bIJ1H H 3Ha-

COOTBeTCTBYlQr.u;ei1: reopaa sroro

CMhICJ10B» H ofiuree CcPOPMYJ1HPOBaHbI

npennpanarsr
npezcne tIeHHH, scero ero paapaficraaaocrs

JI.

pa3pa60TKH

He

panee

rozron,

1931 r.,
3TO

6hIJ1H .n;OCTaTOtIHO tIeTKO HeCKOJIbKO npHtIHH,

Ha

He.n;OCTaTOtIHOCTb cHHTaKCHtIeCKOH COCTOHT B J1eKCHtIeCKHX

J1HHrBHCTHtIeCKHX reopaa, 3HatIeHHH C .n;pyroH.

Ilpe.n;cTaBJ1eHHH

THn0J10rHH aanaxa

H CTpYKType,

C O.n;HOi1: CTOPOHbI,

H He.n;OCTaTOtIHaSi saxoaoxrepaocrea

Haura
pYCCKHe .aart, BCJ1e.n; sa

HCCJ1e.n;OBaHHH OCHOBHbIX CJ10B B npHBo.n;HTCSI paszren

B3aHMo.n;eHcTBHSI aHrJ1HHCKOM

CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHSlX TaK)I(e

MaTepHaJ1e

(.n;J1SI paBHeHHSI c

npnsrepsr). Y.
0

aaanorasasre
0603HatIHM,

na

CooTBeTcTBYlOr.u;HH ceMaCH0J10rHeH, KaK

ceMaCH0J10rHH 06J1aCTb CeMaHTHKY»

6y.n;eM Ha3bI-

KOM6HHaTopHoH rOBOpSi

a npe.n;MeTHYlO

189].

BeHHpeHxoM, caMOM npOCTO

«KOM6HHaTopHYlO «CeMaHTH'IeCKaSi

[Beanpefrx,
6y.n;eM (anorna, TepMHH KOM6HCO-

B3aHMo.n;eHcTBHH

J1eKCHtIeCKHX TaKHM pe3YJ1bTaT

3HatIeHHH, 06pa30M, .n;eHcTBHSI

TaK)I(e

n0J1b30BaTbCSI

TepMHHOM

KOM6HHaTopHKa»

.n;J1H KpaTKocTH, {(KOM6HHaTopHaSi casro HX .n;eHCTBHe.

«KOM6HHaTOpHKa»).

ceMaHTHKa»

onacsrsaer
'a

HaTopHo-ceMaHTHtIeCKHX B3aHMo.n;eHcTBYlOr.u;He CTaBJ1S1lOT J1HIlIb nOMHMO aroro CHHTaKCHtIeCKHe eTCSI npeznaerosa naropaas TaHHH, HaMH B a paCCMaTpHBalOr.u;HH HMeHHO CJ10B. B COtIeTaHHe 6HHapHbIX tIaCTb

npaBHJ1,

«CeMaHTHtIeCKaSi 3HatIeHHSI He

KOM6HHaTopHKa»

J1eKCH'IeCKHe 06r.u;eH

acseprrsrsaror,
B H,

CeMaHTHKH

CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHSI, 3Ha'leHHSI

KOTOPYlO SlBJ1S1-

BXO.n;SlT TaK)I(e 3HatIeHHSI.

rpaMMaTH'IeCKHe ceMaCH0J10rHH. paaaen cososvnaoa

B tIaCTHOCTH, KOM6H-

COBoKynHaSi ecrs

ceMaHTHKa

CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHSl COOTBeTCTBeHHO CeMaHTHKH 3HatIeHHH

CHHTaKCHtIeCKOH

ceMaCH0J10rHSl

CHHTaKCHtIeCKOH J1eKCHtIeCKHX

ceMaCH0J10rHH, CJ10BOCOtIeBXO.n;SIr.u;HX

O.n;HH H3 acrrexroa B3aHMo.n;eHCTBHe

HCCJ1e.n;yeTcSI npeaxrymecraeaaoceaaaraxecxaa no.n;tIHHHTeJ1bHbIX ytIHTbIBalOTCH (B B npnauane CB060.n;HbIX TaK)I(e H ceMaHTHtIeCKHe crpyxrypax

KOM6HHaTopHKa HO npa CBSl3H CJ10B B 60J1ee 60J1bIlIeH CJ10)1(06r.u;HX MO)l(eT )I(e

CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHSlX,

He06xo.n;HMOCTH IlIHPOKHX HOCTH). 3Toro

OKpY)l(eHHSlX

CHHTaKCHtIeCKHX .n;OCTaTOtIHO

.n;J1S1 BbISlBJ1eHHSI caMhlX CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHeM CJ10B. OHO, npasax nOHSITHO,

3aKOHOMepHOCTeH COtIeTaHHe BKJ1IOtIaTb tIeCKHM H

KOM6HHaTopHKH. CJ10Ba, HO

Ilozt
He na

nOHHMaeTCSi roro

3HaMeHaTeJ1bHbIX CJ1Y)l(e6Hble -

(n0J1H03HatIHbIX) CJ10Ba.

YPOBHSI, tITO

saasreaarerrsasre

11aorna

KOMnOHeHTa

B OCHOBHOM no

CTHJ1HCTH-

C006pa)l(eHHSlM

rOBopHTCSI

He «CJ10BOCOtIeTaHHe»,

a «COtIeTaHHe»,

62

«CJIO)l(HOe rOBOPSI, 3Ha'lHMhiX IIoMHMo o,llHa pe'lh

ssrpascenne»,
06~Hl1: enos e,[(HHHU; rnotioro

XOTSI nsa CMhICn: ecrs

rrOCne,[(HHX BCSIKOe

TepMHHa

HMeIOT,

aootiure

fionee

CHHTarMaTH'leCKOe

COe,[(HHeHHe

YPOBHSI ecrs CnO)l(HOe HMelO~aSI 'rpex

CO'leTaHHe,

H BCSIKOe CHHTaKCH'leecrs HnH eure nexce-

CKoe COe,[(HHeHHe ,[(HCu;HIInHHa,

asrpascenae. cesracaonortra
TepMHHa), T. e. CROHM oaaaaaesroe )J;PyroH H CBOHM npensreroer 3aHHMaeTCSI lloCKOJIhKY a C cnOBOCO'leTaHHe. acnexrosr cnOBO-

KOM6HHaTopHOH raxxe

H CHHTaKCH'leCKOH (B lllHPOKOM

~iOTaKTHKel.

Kazcnaa H3 CJIOBOCO'leTaHHSI. Ilepssre


cJIOBOCO'leTaHHSI CO'leTaHHSI 06HapY)f(HBaeT CO'leTalO~HecSI HX KOM6HHaTopHOH co CTOPOHhI 3Ha'leHHH,

H,[(eT 0 4lpa3eonorHH

rrOHHMaHHH 3Ha'leHHeM,

)J;HCU;HrrnHH osnaaaesroro.

)J;Be 3aHSIThi

paCCMaTpHBalOT

CO CTOPOHhl

CTPYKTYPY, B KOTOPOH BhlSIBJISIIOTCSI, C O)J;HOH CTOneKCH'IeCKHe aaaseaae, 3Ha'leHHSI, 3TO coe)J;HHSIIOrrpenCJIOBOHe rrofiyzczraer pasrpaaaaars paCCMaTpHBaeT IIpe)J;MeT

pOHbI, mee MeThI

CHHTaKCH'leCKOe

(KOM6HHaTopHo-neKCH'leCKOH) HJIH neKceMOTaKTHKa, T. e. )J;eCHrHaTopOB 0603Ha'lalO~erO, a HX ofipauieaa nexcesr.

CHHTaKCH'leCKOH K CO'leTaHHIO

ceMaCHOJIOrHH. CO'leTaHHe neKCH'leCKHX raKTHKH npanana

<l>pa3eonorHSI,

COCTaBJISIIOT He CO'leTaeMOCTH rOBOpSI,

conepxarensao-aasrxoeue,
rrpOSIBJISIIO~HeCH JIeKCeMOTaKTHKa CJIOB.

JIeKCeMOSI3hIKOBhIX

a 4l0PMaJIhHO-SI3hIKOBhle CJIOBa.

cnoa,

B BH)J;e co6CTBeHHO

HOPM H OrpaHH'leHHH, KOPOTKO npaBHJIaMH

He MOTHBHpOBaHHhIX

HMIInHKaU;HOHaJIOM 3aHHMaeTCSI

KOJlJlOKaU;HOHHhIMH

CO'leTaeMOCTH

3KCDJlDKallBOHBlde

3J1B3BOHHhIe

CJIOBOCO'leTaHBJI

§ 1. 3KCWIHKa[(HOHHble COqeTaHHSI, OTHoweHHe 3KCWIHKa[(HH Hero apryxretrrsr: 3KCIIJ1HKaH,llYM H 3KCIIJ1HKaHT. § 2. 3J1H3HOHHble COqeTaHHSI: ofiuree IIpe,llCTaBJ1eHHe (2.1.), YCJ10BHSIHepaBH03HaqHOCTH COqeTaHHU (2.2.), BeKTOp cHHTaKCHqeCKOU 3aBHCHMOCTHH ceMaHTHKa COqeTaHHSI(2.3.), onpeneneaae H BH,llbI 3J1H3HOHHbIX COqeTaHHH (2.4.), BbIBO,llbI K § 2 (2.5.). § 3. 3aKJIlOqeHHe.

§ 1. B
,D;Ba porta UHOHHhIMH

KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTH'leCKOM CJIOBOCO'leTaHHH: Ha3hIBaeM rrO)J;'lHHHTeJIhHhle OTHOIlleHHe 3KCIInHKaH,LJyMoM 3KCIInHKaU;HH CMeHe caer -

nnaae

cy~eCTBeHHO H 3JIH3HOHHhle.

paanaaars 3KCIInHKa-

3KCIInHKau;HOHHhIe H ee rrpasaax HMeH

CJIOBOCO'leTaHHSI, B KOTOPhIX ,D;eHO(CBOHCTBO HJlH ortronrenae). B TaKOM a Be~H) rrO)J;'lHHHTeJIhHOM aroro OTHOK H 3KCrrJIHKaHTOM npasaaxa rrozraa-

TaThI HMeH COOTHOCSITCSI aK aenrs K CeMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCH'leCKOe CO'leTaHHH weHHSI (HMSI HMeHH HeHHSI Ha3bIBaeM COOTBeTCTBeHHO OTHOIlleHHeM

3KCIInHKaU;HH, (HMSI nanpaanea aexropa 6eJI,

aprysrearsr
OT HMeHH

npmaaxa). Bexrop
Be~H (T. e. CO'leTaHHSI H B HHX «6eJIbIH, rrOCKOJIhKY

H He MeHSIeTCSI npa BeKTOpa HMSI Be~H 6eJI, «6eJIh1H

CHHTaKCH'leCKOrO 6eJIH3Ha KaK caera» -

4l0PMaJIhHO-CHHTaKCH'leCKOH caer, «CHen> 3KCIIJIHKaH)J;yM, 'ITO

3aBHCHMOCTH): 3KCIIJIHKanpasaaxa 3KCIIJIHKa(onpeztenaxaxoe a HMeHa BHJntM,

Hanpmaep,
U;UOHHhle, :nOH Be~H U;UOHHoe tensaoe),

6eJIH3Ha»

3KCIIJIHKaHThI. OIIHCbIBalOTCSI

CJIOBOCO'leTaHHe

He TO )f(e casroe, ,l:{eHOTaTOB)

aTpH6YTHBHoe

3KCIIJIHKau;HeH

rny6HHHo-CHHTaKCH'lecy~eCTBeHHO,

CKHe OTHOIlleHHSI

(OTHOIlleHHSI

H TYT He

1 <l>pa3eOJIOrHSI B Y3KOM CMbICJ1e TepMHHa OrpaHHQHBaeT CBOU npenner CIIeIlHaJIbHbIMH THIIaMH CJ10BOCOqeTaHHU: If)J;HOMaTHQeCKHMH, YCTOUQHBbIMH H T. II. <l>pa3eonorHSI B WHPOKOM IIOHHMaHHH BKJ1IOQaeT B CBOU npenaer J1I060ro pozta coxeTaHHSI, HCCJ1e,llYSIHX C TOqKH 3peHHSI COqeTaeMOCTH neKceM (a He neKCHqeCKHX HJIH CHHTaKCHqeCKHX 3HaqeHHH). eM. [KoIIbIJ1eHKO, IIoIIoBa). . QT06bI H36elKaTb CMeweHHSI yaxoro H uraposoro CMbICJ10B TepMHHa, MOlKHO 80 BTOPOM CMbICJ1erOBOpHTb 0 J1eKCeMOTaKTHKe.

63

H3 ~BYX CJIOB nO~lJHHeHO zrpyrovy H R'BJIR'eTCH JIH HX CBH3b aenpezm. ICaTHBHOH HJIH npe~HKaTHBH0I1. Baxao rrmns, lJT06bl ~eHOTaTbI HMeH COOTHOCHJIHCbICaICseurs H ee npH3HaK. Cp. TaK)Ke «~eTH CnR'T, CnHW;He ~eTH, COH nereir» H T. n, llpH3HaKH-CBOHCTBa BbIpa)KaIOTCH O~HOMeCTHbIMH npe~HICaTHbIMl1 CJIOBaMH(B nepBYIO osepens rJIarOJIaMH H npanararensmnra). Flpasaaxasr, OTHOllleHHR'M COOTBeTCTBYIOT HOrOMeCTHble npeziaxarsr (B nepBYIO osepern, M rJIafOJIbI, OTqaCTH TaK)Ke npanararensasre), T. e. npeztaxarsr, YKa3bIBalOW;He 60JIee O~HOfO aprysreara. B 3TOM cnysae 3KCnJIHKaU110HHOeOTHOllleHHe OTMeqaeTCR' B Ka)K~OH nape «HMH BeW;H (aprysreara) - HMa npasaaxa (OTHOllleHHSI)>>. anpassep, H B nsrpaaceaasx-rpancrpopsrax «nHCaTeJIb nparnaCHJI nerea», «nacarens, npHrJIaCHBlllHH nereir», «~eTH, nparnanrenasre nl1CaTeJIeM», «rrparnanreaae nerea nHCaTeJIeM» 3KCnJIHKaUHOHHoe oraonreHHe 06HapY)KHBaeTC5! He TOJ1bKOMe~y npe~HKaTHbIMH CJ10BaMHC H~eeH rtparnanrenaa 11 HMeHeM nepaoro aprysrerrra - cyfit.exra (rracarerrs), HO H Me)f(~y npe,llHKaTHbIMH CJ10BaMH H HMeHeM BTOPOfO aprysreara (nern), T. e. He TOJIbKO B cnysasx «nacarern, npHfJIaCHJI (nerea)», «nacarens, npHfJIaCHBlllHH «nparrranrerrae

xasx «(nacarens)

(nerea)», «nparnameaae nHCaTeJIeM (zierea)», HO H B CJIynpHfJIaCHJI nerea», «nera, nparnaurenasre (nacarenesr)», zterea (nHCaTeJIeM)>>.

§ 2. Ho KpOMe 3KCnJIHKaUHOHHbIX B03MO)KHbI erne ~ByqJIeHHble rronxaHHTeJIbHbIe CJIOBOCOqeTaHHSInnoro ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCHqeCKOrO rana, nassraaesrsre 3JIH3HOHHbIMHCOqeTaHHaMH. 2.1. K 3TOMY THny OTHOCHTca secssra 06blqHbIe H pacnpocrpanennsre CJIOBOCOqeTaHHSI pozre «oren MaTepH», «oreu COJI,llaTa»,«BHHTOBKa COJInan ra», «OTUOB nH,ll)f(aK», «MaTb COJI,llaTCKaa»,«npHTOK pexa», «ropon Y osepa», «oaepo y ropona» H T. U. XOTR' 3aBHCHMoe CJIOBO B TaKHX coxeraaasx H Ha3bIBalOT onpenenenaexs, a see COqeTaHHe onpenemrrerrsnsrsr (arpafiyTHBHbIM), OqeBH,llHO, 'ITO 3aBHCHMoe CJIOBOHe Ha3bIBaeT npH3HaK nenorara rJIaBHOrO CJIOBa.Cxopee OHOHa3bIBaeT npyryio seun., H3BeCTHoe OTHOllleHHe K KOTOPOHCOCTaBJIR'eT npH3HaK zieaorara rJIaBHOrO CJIOBa. Haase rosops,
neHOTaT cneUH<PHUHPyeTcSI epes OTHOllleHHe, HO TaK, 'ITO casro OTHOllleHHe x He Ha3BaHO OT,lleJIbHbIM HMeHeM, a Ha3BaH npyroH aprysrear OTHOllleHHH KaK cneUH<PHKaTOpnepaoro. Crreziyer HeCKOJIbKO nonpofiaee paCCMOTpeTbceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCHqeCKHe oc06eHHOCTH nora THna CJIOBOCOqeTaHHH.

2.2. aBa CJIOBOCOqeTaHHaMorYT pa3JIHqaTbCSI TOJIbKO JIeKCHqeCKHMH 3HaqeHHaMH axozrsurax B HHX CJIOB,H rorna OHH ceMaHTHqeCKH pa3JIHqHbI, cp, mother's neighbour n noopyza uamepu H father's neighbour H noopyza oouepu. aBa CJIOBOCOqeTaHHSI MorYT pa3JIHqaTbCSITOJIbKO CHHTaKCHqeCKHMH 3HaqeHIDlMH BXO,llHW;l1X B HHX CJIOB, H rorna OHH ceMaHTHlJeCKH raxsce pa3JIHqHbI, cp. letter to John I nUCbMO omua, letter from John n nUCbMO omuy. Haxoaen, ,llBa COqeTaHHa MorYT paanasarscs TOJIbKO BeKTopOM conepzcaTeJIbHOH JIOfHKO-cHHTaKCHqeCKOH 3aBHCHMOCTH(HanpaBJIeHHeM 3KCnJIHKa· UHH), H Tor na OHH raxxe ceMaHTHqeCKH pa3JIHqHbI, cp. mother's neighbour U noopyea uamepu H neighbour's mother I Mam.b noopyeu, friend's brother II tipam oPY2a H brother's friend I OPY2 tipama.
2.3. llOCJIenHHH cJIyqau ocofieaao aarepecea C TO'lKH 3peHHa CHHTaKCHqeCKOHceMaCHOJIOfHH (nonpo6HbIH aHaJIH3 CM. HH)f(e) H HafJIR',llHO noxa3bIBaeT, 'lTO aanpaaneuae 3KCnJIHKaUHHCTOJIb)f(e ceMaHTHlJeCKHpeJIeBaHTHO, KaK H caMH JIeKCHqeCKHe H rpasoaarasecxae (CHHTaKCHqeCKHe) aaaxenas,
64

co)lep)I(amHeCSI B CJIOBOCOtIeTaHHH.3TO H nOHSlTHO, eCJIH ysecrs 1C0H<lmrypaUHOHHYlO npapony CeMaHTHKH nO~tIHHHTeJIbHOrO COtIeTaHHSI. Ha pOJIb BeKTOpa CHHTaKCHtIeCKOH 3aBHCHMOCTH B CeMaHTHKe CJIOBOCOtIeTaHHSICnpaBe.ll,1IHBOYKa3aHO C. ,U. Ka~He.J1bCOHOM(C. ,U. KaIUie.J1bCOH rOBOPHT 0 (<HanpaBJIeHHH CpameHHSI aaaxeaaa» [KaQHe.J1bCOH(2), 179-180]). O)lHaKo npHBO)lHMble HM npHMepbI «)I(e.J1TbIl1UBeTOK- )l(e.J1TH3HaQBeTKa, X03$lHH )lOMa - .o;OMX03$lHHa, 6e.J1bIl1cner - 6e.J1H3Hacaera, 'IeJIOBeK nonra+ .o;on£' xenoaexa» He BnO.J1HenOKa3aTe.J1hHbI.,Ue.J10B TOM, xro rrapasr COOTHOCHTe.J1bHbIX COlleTaHHl1 raxoro porta COOTBeTcTByeT onaaaxoaoe «06CTOSlHHe rrerr» na .o;eHOTaTHBHOM (ceMaHTH'IeCKOM) YPOBHe: OTHoweHHSI .o;eHOTaTOB He MeHSllOTCSI,H rea)l(.o;bIHpas OTpa)l(aeTCSIoziaa H 'ra )l(e OHTOJIOrHlIeCKaSlreapTHHa, O.o;HOH TO )l(e nonoxeaae rten (CHTyaQHSI) B rrpezu-rernosr MHpe. MeHSleTCSl .J1HIllb, TaK CKa3aTb, yron OCBemeHHSI. OOJIee .o;OKa3aTeJIhHbIMH MorYT 6hITb TaKHe npasrepsr, B KOTOPbIX napsr COlleTaHHH, HHKaK He OTJIHqaSlCb ceMaHTHlIeCKHMI1 COCTaBaMH KOMnOHeHTOB, onl1CbIBaJIH 6bI paansre CI1TyaUl1Y1 rrpern-reruosr Ml1pe aa ClIeT pa3JIHlIHSI B BeKTOpe CHHTaKCHlIeCKOH B 3aBHCHMOCTH.I1MeHHo TaKOH xapaxrep HMelOT asrpascenaa spone friend's brother - brother's friend, brother's fiancee - fiancee's brother, family's friend - friend's family, mother's enemy - enemy's mother, sister's employeremployer's sister, son's teacher - teacher's son" 6pam opyea - opyz tipama, neeecma 6pama - 6pam neeecmu, opye ceusu - CeMbJl opyea, epae seamepu uams epaea, :>ICeHUX cecmpu - cecmpa :>ICeHUXa, yuumens cuua - CblHyuumenn H T. rr, B caMOM zrerre, COtIeTaHHlO friend's brother" 6pam opyea 06bItIHO COOTBeTcTByeT cHTyaUI1S1:
r:

brother U 6pam

r-

RI

X2(

friend g

R2 - xa)
opyz

rne x., x2, X3- pasnsre neaorarsi (seura), R I - OTHoweHHe pozrcrsa, R2 - OTHoweHHe .o;PY)l(6bI.Brother's friend '.ll.pyr fipara' onacsrsaer cHTyaQHIO C .o;pyrHM COOTHoweHHeM H HHbIMH yqaCTHHKaMH:

x5-R2 frield U opy:

x4(-

brother II 6pam

R' - xa)

XOTSl bl B 060HX cnyxasx H 6hlJI coxpanea O.o;I1H TOT )l(e X3' .LJ:BYM 6 H paCCMaTpHBaeMblM Bblpa)l(eHl1SIM COOTBeTCTBOBa.JIO 6bl OJJ;HHaKOBOe «06CTOSlHHe zten» TO.J1bKO npa C.J1e,nYlOmeM ye.J10BHH:

XI
XI {

~/" "
RI

........

"-

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2

brother U 6pam friend B opyz

friend"

opyz } X

brother H 6pam

CpaaHHTe.J1bHO C ceMaHTH'IeCKI1MH COCTaaaMI1 OT.o;eJIbHbIX CJIoa brother II 6pam H friend II opyz B CJIoaOCOtIeTaHHX friend's brother" 6pam OPyza I.f brother's friend n opye 6pama a03HHKaeT .o;onO.J1HMTeJIbHhIHeMaHTHc
!

65

'leCrmM I(OMnOHeHT - HeKOTOpOe OTHOUIeHHe. CO'leTaHHSI conepxar HeI(O_ cevaaraxecxoe npnpaureaae caepx CYMMhI 3HaqeHHM KOMnOHeHTOB. 06HapY)KHBaeTCSI, qTO sro ceMaHTH'leCKOe npapauienae B 060HX cJIyqaSlx pa3JIHqHO, B nepaosr -:nO OTHOUIeHHe pO)J;CTBa,a BO BTOPOM- )J;PY)l(6hI. E)J;HHCTBeHHoepa3JIH'lHe B necarnaropax .nBYXCOqeTaHHM,06eCneqHBalOlL(ee paraoe HX OCMhICJIeHHe,COCTOHTB BeKTOpe 3aBHCHMOCTH. ECJIH reneps conOCTaBHTh nap hI COqeTaHHM, BpO)J;eyellow flower - (the) yellowness of the flower, rising prices, prices rise - the rise of prices " »cesmut; 1I8emoK - JlCeAmU3Ha 1I8emKa, pacmytque ueuu, ueuu pacmym - poem 'IeH H T. n., T. e. BhIpa)KeHHSI, HaXO)J;SI~HecSI B TpaHCIPOpMaU;ffOHHOM OTHOUIeHHH, TO B HHX 1) onHChIBaeTCSIO)J;HHaKOBoe «06CTOSlHHe )J;eJI), 2) COqeTaHHSIHe COnepxar KaKOfO-JIH60 CHHTaKCHKO-CeMaHTH'leCKOfO npapautenaa caepx CYMMhl 3HaqeHHM KOMnOHeHTOB. 061>SlCHeHHe, OqeBH)J;Ho, COCTOHTB TOM, qTO Bhlpa)KeHHSIyellow flower - (the) yellowness of the flower, rising prices prices rise n »cenmuu ueemo« - JlCeAmU3Ha ueemxa, pacmytque uettu>: poem 'IeH H T. n. perpepeauaoaao COOTBeTCTBYlOTBe~aM H HX CBOMCTBaM,B TO BpeMSI KaK nsrpaaceuna friend's brother - brother's friend I tipam opyza-« opye 6pama onacsrsaior OTHOUIeHHSIMe)K)J;YBe~aMH. 2.4. ECJIH cnpaBe)J;JIHBO, qTO B COqeTaHHSlXfriend's brother II 6pam opyea H brother's friend II opyz 6pama nsrpaaceast )J;Bapa3HhIX ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCH'leCI<HX OTHOUIeHHSI:pO)J;CTBa )J;PY)K6hI,TO B03HHKaeT sorrpoc, ICaKBhIpa)KeHhI H 3TH OTHorneHHSI, B KaKHX KOMnOHeHTax :nHX CTPYKTYP OHH cO)J;ep)KaTCSI. ECTeCTBeHHO, MhI He MO)KeM npanacars HX KaK conepzcaaae BeKTOPY 3aBHCHMOCTH HJIH OKOHqaHHlO npHTSI)KaTeJIhHOfo/pO)J;HTeJIhHOfO nanexa (B HHhiX CJIyqaSlX nopSI)J;KYCJIOB, KaK, nanpasrep, B aHZJl. pot flower - flower pot HJIH npeztnorasr, KaK B CJIyqaSlX the water in the glass - the glass in the water 0 800a 8 cma «a He, cmaxan 0 800e H T. n.). HanpaUIHBaeTCSI napazioxCaJIhHhIM, na nepBhlM B3fJISI)J;,OTBeT: B COqeTaHHSlXrana friend's brother n 6pam opyza ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCH'leCKOe ornourenae )J;BYX)J;eHOTaTOBssrpa)KeHOfJIaBHhlM CJIOBOM CJIOBOCOqeTaHHSI. caMOM )J;eJIeHHKaKOfO napazioxca Ha 3)J;eChHeT. ECJIH, norrycran, HMelOTCSlBe~H x, H X2, CBS13aHHhle OTHorneHHeM R, TO MO)KHO nOCTpOHTh BhICKa3hIBaHHe 06 3TOM caryauaa, 0603HaqHB 3JIeMeHThi caryamra HMeHaMH: x, - Nh X2- N2, R - N3. IIpH 3TOM HeT He06xo)J;HMOCTH KBaJIHIPHl.(HpOBaThx, H X2 no OTHorneHHlO K R, TaK KaK TaKoe asrcxassraaaae 6hIJIO 6hI nJIeOHaCTHqHO, cp., nanpaxrep aHZJl. the employer employed the employees U ecmpeuatotuuii ecmpeuan ecmpeuaeuux H T. n. I1HlPopMaTHBHhlM 6Y)J;eT raxoe asrcsaasraaaae, B KOTOPOM x, H X2 KBaJIHIPHl.(HpOBaHhlBHe OTHorneHHSI R, aanpaseep, the pilot met his fiancee U semuu« ecmpeuan neeecmy, HJIH 0603HaqeHhi Ka)K)J;hIMCBOHM HMeHeM C06CTB~HHhIM, nanproaep, Pete met Mary U Heau ecmpeuan Mapuo RllH x, met II ecmpeuan X2' IIOCKOJIhKY CHTyaUHSI x, R X2 casra MO)KeT ssrcrymm, KaK 3JIeMeHT 60JIee CJIO)KHOM cHTyaUHH, cymecrnyer nOTpe6HOCTh B nenpezmxaTHBHhlX asrpaacenaax )J;JISIx, R X2' IIpH :.JTOM B eCTeCTBeHHOM Sl3bIKe, napsziy C Bblpa)KeHHSlMH rnna (the) author admitting his mistake - (the) mistake admitted by the author - (the) admission of the mistake by the author - the admission of the mistake - the author's admission N aemop. npusnatotuuii oUlu6Try - otuutisa, npU3HaOaeMaJi a8mopOM - npU3HaHue oLUu6KU aemopou - npusnauue oUlu6KU - npusnanue aemopa H T. n., rzte ornoureaae H: ero apryverrrsr (nOCJIe)J;HHe Cpasaoa crenensro nOJIHOThI) Ha3BaHhI 3KCnJ1l1UHTHO, B03MO)KeH TaK)J(e KJIaCCBblpa)KeHHM C JIeKCHqeCKOM3JIH3HeM OTHOweHHSI,cp. the pilot married a stewardess - the stewardess's husband, the pilot's wife; the soldier defended his country - the defender of the country (the country's defender); the author makes a mistake - the author's mistake;

ropoe

66

the driver has a new car - the driver of a new car, the driver's new car; the town is situated near the lake - the town near the lake, the lake near the town II nemuu« »cenumcs na yuumensnuue-r :»ceHUX yuumensnuuu, ueeecma }1em'lUKa; COIUJam saiuuiqaem POOUHY- 3aUjUmHUK POOUHbl; LUKOllbHUK CO'lUHJlem CmUXU - cmuxu LUKO.!lbHUKa; eooumens patiomaem ua uoeoii MaLUUHe- eooumellb HOeOU MaLUUHbl, HOGaJl MaLUUHa eooumens; ZOPOO pacnoao.scen 6.!lU3 oJepa - eopoo 6.!lU3 osepa, 03epO 6.!lU3 eopooa H T. II. non Bblpa)l(eHHHMH C JleKCHqeCKOH 3JlH3HeH OTHOllleHHH (3JlM3HOHHbIMM coqeTaHHHMH) MbI IIOHHMaeM TaKHe He3JlJlMIITHqeCKHe Bblpa)l(eHHH 0 seutax (aprYMeHTax) x, H X2, CBH3aHHbIX OTHOllleHHeM R, B KOTOPbIX OTCYTCTByeT IIOJlH03HaqHOe HMH OTHOllleHHH R, a ecrs JlHlllb IIOJlH03HaqHbIe HMeHa aprYMeHTOB, CBH3aHHble IIO.n:QHHMTeJlbHOHCBH3bIO. BCJlH, HaIIpHMep, Xlbook N xuuza, X2- brother II 6pam, R - npaaannescars, TO brother's book II KHuza 6pama - ssrpazceaae C JleKCHQeCKOH3JlH3HeH HMeHH R. 3aMeTHM, QTO eCJlH OTHOllleHHe Me)l(")Jy x, H X2 HeCHMMeTpHQHO H, CJle.n:OBaTeJlbHO, craryc Xl H X2 B OTHOllleHHH R pa3JlHQeH (cp., HaIIpHMep, pa3JlHQHH B cTaTyce areHTa - 06beKTa - HHcTpYMeHTa - IIocpe.n:cTBa - a.n:pecara H T. n, onnoro H roro )l(e OTHOllleHMH .n:eHCTBHSI),TO JleKCHQeCKaSI 3JIH3HSIHMeHH OTHOllleHHSI He oCB060)l(.n:aeT OT Heo6xo,nHMOCTH KaK-TO BbIpa3HTb CTaTYCaprYMeHTOB B OTHOllleHHH R (cp. brother's letter, (a) letter to (my) brother, (a) letter about (my) brother, (a) letter with (my) brother II nUCbMO 6pama, nUCbMO 6pamy, nUCbMO 0 6pame, nUCbMO Y 6pama H T. II.). KaK ssipazceao OTHOllleHHe IIPH JIeKCH'l.eCKOH 3JlH3HH HMeHM R? B03MO)l(Hbl TPH CJIYQaH.Bo-nepasrx, H x, H X2 MorYT 6bITb KBaJIHCtm:QHpOBaHbI no OTHOllleHHIO R, T. e. OIIHCbIBaIOTCSI MeHaMH KJIaCCOB,06pa3yeMblx 3THM H OTHOllleHHeM, cp. liar's lie, commander's command, lender's loan, herdsman's herd, playwright's play, (her) son's mother n MY:»C ceoeu »cenu (Ha3BaHHe CIIeKTaKJISI), aemop CO'lUHeHUJl, uams ceoux oemeii (Ha3BaHHe CIIeKTaKJISI), cnyza 08YX eocnoo (Ha3BaHHe rrsecsr), eooumens aemouotiuss H T. II. Herpyzmo aaners, QTO COQHHeHHSI 'raxoro pona IIJIeOHaCTHQHbI, TaK KaK O.n:HH aprystear OTHOllleHHSI C He06xo.n:HMOCTbIO HMIIJIH:QHpyeT .n:pyroH. BO-BTOPbIX, O,nHHH3 aprYMeHTOB OTHOIlIeHHSI KBaJIH<I>H:QHpyeTcSI (OIIHCbIBaeTCSI) no 3TOMY OTHOllleHHIO, a ,npyroH Ha3BaH BHe aroro OTHOllleHHSI, cp, soldier's mother, pilot's fiancee, dog's master, (the) addressee of (the) letter, leader of masses, student of human nature, fortune hunter, speech recipient, fish cannery, hay spreader, cattle-breeder, taxi-driver, stock-holder U uams conoama, ueeecma nemuusa, X03JlUH c06aKU, aopecam nucsua, enacmumens OYLUU uyecme uapoonux, 3HamOK ifjoAbK.!lOpa, cotiupamens CKa30K, npumox BOAZU, 3aUjumHUK Jl enuuzpaoa, I{AeH npaeumenscmea, npeoceoameis xouumema, COJlOamCKaJl eooea (uams) H T. n, H T. II. Herpyzmo saners, qTO OTHOllleHHe «aarraerca» rJIaBHblM CJIOBOMCOqeTaHHSI,xoropoe H Ha3bIBaeT O.n:HHH3 apryMeHTOB oTHOllleHHSI, M KBaJIM<I>M:QMpyeT (OIIMCbIBaeT) 3TO oTHOlIIeHMe, B TO BpeMSI KaK 3aBMCHMoe CJIOBOCOqeTaHMSIKBaJIM<I>H:QHpyeT ,npyroH aprysrerrr BHe OTHOllleHHSI K IIepBOMY HJIH Ha3bIBaeT ero MMeHeM co6CTBeHHbIM. na,ne)l(Hble OKOHqaHHSI MJIH ansre CHHTaKCH'leCKMe IIOKa3aTeJIM (<I>OPMbI cOrJlaCOBaHHSI,IIOPSI,nOKCJIOB) IIPM 3TOM K Bblpa)l(eHHI{} OTHOllleHHSI HeIIOCpe,nCTBeHHO IIpHqaCTHbl, OHH rnrurs IIOMoraIOT onpezremrrs, r JIaBHOe He enOBO, cozrepscamee KBaJIM<I>HKa:QI1IO OTHOllleHHH aprYMeHTOB. nOCKOJIbKY HMeHHO rJIaBHOe CJIOBO«aaztaer» OTHOllleHHH aprYMeHTOB, TO nepextena MeCT HMeH B TaKHX nsrpaaceaaax QaCTOztaer 6eCCMbICJIeHHble COQeTaHHSI:the river of (the) tributary, *the Ohio of the tributary H*peKa npu* mOKa~ BOAza npumoxa. TpaHcIIo3H:QHSI naer 3Hal.fHMble ssrpaxeaas, TOJIbKO .. CJIH 1) rrrasnoe CJIOBOpesynsrapyrourero e COqeTaHHSIMO)l(eT 6bITb OCMbICJIe3~ 67

HO KaK OnHCaHHe OTHOlIIeHHSI Rl aprYMeHTOB x, H X2 , cp, friend's brother II 6pam opyea M brother's friend II opyz 6pama; 2) eCJ1M N 1 H N 2 MorYT 6bITb 1 nOHSITbI KaK aprysaeirrsr OTHOlIIeHMSI R , xaanarpauaposaaasre BHe aroro OTHOlUeHHSI, cp. mother's soldier II conoam uamepu He oaaasaer the soldier who is the mother's son II conoam - cu» uamepu, a MO)I(eT 0603 aasars, aanptorep, COJI,lJ;aTa, crosurero aa nocroe Y 'IbeH-J1H60 MaTepM, R 1 - CTOSITb aa nocroe Y KorO-HI16Y,Llb. TpeTHH CJ1Y'IaH, xorna 06a aprysreara OTHOlIIeHHSI R KBaJImlmU;HPYlOTcSI H Ha3bIBalOTCSI BHe aroro OTHOlIIeHHSI, CTOJ1b )I(e 06bI'IeH B CO'leTaHHSlX C J1eKCH'IeCKOH 3J1H3MeH HMeHM R, KaK H BTOpOH. Cp. the soldier's rifle, children's institutions, roof of the house (house-roof), cup of tea (tea-cup), seaside village, street traffic, tree boughs, books about children, books for children, road to the sea, road on the slope, flight over the sea, race down the hill II 6UHm06Ka conoama, xnuea 0 oemsx, xnuea 011J1 oemeii, oemcxas numepa-

mypa,

TaKoro porta oTHolIIeHMe, zma apryxreara, He HaXO,LlMT Bblpa)I(eHHSI B cnocofie MX Onl1CaHHSI (B MX KBaJImlmICaUMH). Bsrpazcaerca OHO CMHTaKCHKo-rpaMMaTH'IeCKMMM (He J1eKCH'IeCKHMH) e,llMHHu;aMM: na,lle)I(HbIMM OKOH'IaHHSlMM, npennorasra (nOCJ1eJ10raMH), noPSJ,llKOM CJ10B, xoropsre B 3TOM CJ1Y'Iae, B OTJ1H'IHe OT nepsoro H sroporo, ceMaHTH'IeCKH CO,Llep)I(aTeJ1hHhI. Korzra onMCbIBalOT ceMaHTHKY CHHTaKCM'IeCKHX nOICa3aTeJ1eH, TO HX 3HaQeHHSI YCTaHaBJ1HBalOT He B onacaaaux ssnne CO'leTaHHSlX nepaoro H nroporo 'rana, a CO'leTaHMSlX .rpersero TMna MJ1M B Bblpa)I(eHH5IX 6e3 J1eKCH'IeCKOM 3J1H3MH MMeHM R (B Bblpa)I(eHMSJX C HOMMHHpOBaHHhIM OTHOlIIeHHeM). TalCHM 06pa30M, B BbIpa)I(eHHSlX C J1eKCl1qeCICOH 3J1H3MeH HMeHH OTHOlIIeHHSI casro OTHOIlIeHHe He HC'Ie3aeT 6eCCJ1e,LlHO: B nepsosr H BTOPOM cnyxae OHO aMaJIbraMHpOBaHO C HNleHeM O,llHOrO H3 aprYMeHTOB - r J1aBHbIM CJ10BOM CO'leTaHHSI, a B rperi.esr CJ1Y'Iae CO,llep)I(HTCSI B CHHTaKCH'IeCKHX nOKa3aTeJISlX npa 3aBHCHMOM CJ10Be. ECTeCTBeHHO, 'ITO BbIpa)I(eHHSJ raxoro pona He HMelOT HHqerO ofimero C 3J1J1MnTM'IeCKHMH. ECJ1H B paCCMOTpeHHOM BTOPOM cnysae 3aBHCHMoe CJ10BO- HMSI ICJ1aCca, 06pa30BaHHOrO KaKHM-TO OTHOlIIeHHeM, TO nOJ1Y'laeM CO'leTaHHe, B KOTOPOM 06a CJ10Ba, M rJ1aBHOe, H 3aBHCHMoe, - HMeHa ICJ1aCCOB, ofipaayesisrx OTHOweHHSlMM, C TOM pasaanea, 'ITO rJ1aBHOe CJ10BO xaanarpauapyer CBOM ,LleHOTaT no OTHoweHHlO R aprYMeHTOB ,LlaHHOrO CO'leTaHHSI, a 3aBHCHMoe CJ10BOno ICaKOMY-TO HHOMY OTHOlIIeHHlO Rl, cp, friend's brother, mother's defender, neighbour's debtor II 6pam opyea, 3aUjumHUK uamepu, OOA:JKHUK coceoa H T. rr, nOCKOJ1hKY OTHOlIIeHMe aprYMeHTOB B TaICHX COqeTaHMSIX YCTaHaBmmaeTCSI HMeHHO no rJ1aBHOMY CJ10BY, TO TpaHcn03MUHSl MMeH pa,llHICaJ1bHO MeHSIeT ceMaHTHKY CO'leTaHHSl: Rl CTaHOBMTCSI OTHOlIIeHMeM aprYMeHTOB. Bortee 'roro, 06bIqHO H CaMI1 aprysierrrsr, KaK MbI MOrJ1M BM,LleTb, Y)I(e ztpyrne aeuur. Cp, friend's brother - brother's friend, mother's defender -defender's mother, neighbour's debtor - debtor's neighbour II 6pam opyza +opye 6pama, 3aUjumHUK uamepu - uams saiqumnuxa, iJOA:JICHUK coceoa - coceo OOI1:JICHUI>:a T. n. H KOJ1b CICOPO J1eKCM'IeCKHe KOMnOHeHTbI TaKI1X nap CO'leTaHMM TO)I(,lleCTBeHHbI, a H3MeHeHHe B ceMaHTHICe HHKaIC HeJ1b3S1npanacars CHHTaICCMqeCICOMY

oepeea, cmaxan uas, oopoea K nod 20PY H T. n, B CJ1Y'IaSix

maescuuu

nOCeIlOK, OOpO:JICHOe npouctuecmeue,


MOPJO,

«puiua

oopoza no

C/ozOHY,

nonem nao MOPeM, casasmarouree

ooua,

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1 3TO B03MOJKHO, eCJlIf (eM. HIfJKe).

N,

If N2 -IfMeHa

nenapnsrx

KOHBepcHBHbIX KJIaCCOB

68

flOKa3aTemo TO BbIBO,ll flpaBHJIOM

3aBMCMMOrO KOH'bIOHKUMH, BH,llHM,

CJIOBa

(sztecs -

OKOH'IaHMIO

pO,llMTeJIbHOrO 6bITb brother 03HaqaeMbIX. -

nanexa)' ,
onacana HM brother's

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TaKMX

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2.5.
friend TaK pOJIb cHqeCKOH KaK

KaK

Bblpa,)I(eHMH nossoraer ee pa3,lleJIa

U 6pam opyea - opyz 6pama


ceMaCMOJIOrHM npa :HOM

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1)

,llOCTaTOqHO

HarJISI,llHO

UMOHHaSI npapona MMpOBaHMM

sexropa conepscarensnoit
ceMaHTMKM KOMllOHeHTHblX HM

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nO.ll'lMHHTeJIbHbIX cMHTaKCHqeCKOH KaK (T. 3HaqeHMH HM

2)

BbISIBJISIeTCSl CJIOB B rpop-

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e. KOH<I>MrypaUMM); KOH<I>MrypaUMoHHOH 3HaqeHMH TaK pas

3)

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,,(HBaeTCSI, 'ITO snaxenae paBHSITbCSI (BKJIIOqaSl KOMllOHeHTOB Me)l(,llY

COqeTaHMSI B CMJIY ero CYMMe, nOKa3aTeJIM KaK

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KOHbIOHKUMM

JIeKCMqeCKHX, JIMUIHMH CTpYKTypbI

M ceMaHTMKO3aBMCMMOCTb nsrpaB3aHMonpoM HeB03MO)l(-

CMHTaKCMqeCKMX a<eHHSI H ee

3HaqeHMH);

4)

o6HapY)I(MBaeTCSI 3Ha'leHMeM

ceMaHTMKO-CMHTaKCMqeCKMM JIeKCM"IeCKHM CMHTaKCMca

CJIOlKHOrO

HanOJIHeHMeM O,llHOrO

M nessoacrpapvercs sssrxax OT ,llPyroro. asrson:

HMKHOBeHMe

M ceMaHTMKM

B eCTeCTBeHHbIX He3aBMCMMO 06ruMH

HOCTb pasnensnoro

onMcaHMSI cyrnecrseaea

§ 3. Erne
HhIX

60JIee

,llPyroH,

npacrynas nsa C pozia

K KOM6MHapC MMeHM

6MHaTopHo-ceMaHTM"IeCKoMy llO,ll"lMHMTeJ1hHbIX B nepsosr neura )KCnJ1MKaUMOHHbIM OTHOllIeHMSI. syer CJIY'Iae OTHOllIeHMe HMeHa

aHaJIH3Y, COlJeTaHMH

cnezryer M

paJJIH'IaTh CO'leTaHMSI

nOJIH03Ha'lHhIX

CJ10B:

CO'leTaHMSI

OTHOUIeHMeM CJIY'lae M ee

MMeH

3JIM3MeH

npmaaxa

CO'leTaHMIO

MMeH pe<I>epeHUMoHHO MJ1MoTHollIeHMSI). aprysrearasa He MMeHM COqeTaHHM 3J1M3MeH neaorara CJIOBa.

COOTBeTCTBo BTOPOM OT-

(cBOHCTBa B

pe<I>epeHUHoHHO

COOTBeTCTBYIOT OTHOllIeHMe C JIeKCM'IeCKOH

KaKorO-TO

HoweHMSI, JIeKCMqeCKH. 3aBMCMMoe a HeKYIO 3Ha'lHhIM npaanna,

npM'IeM

casro

3TO

nOMMeHOBaHO OTHOllIeHH$[ CJIOBa, nOJIHOH

CO'leTaHHSIX OTHOllIeHMe

CJ10BO Ha3bIBaeT CJ10BOM) ecrs

OTHIO,llb

He npM3HaK

rJ1aBHOrO

seurs,

K KOTOPOH (B zieaorara TaK KaK

CO'leTaHMM rJ1aBHOrO cesraarasecxas

He Ha3BaHHoe

npM3HaK

Pa3JIM'IMe

3TO aeofixozneao,

KOM6MHaTopHKa

ee onacsrsaromae,

B KalK,llOM

cnysae

pa3JIM'IHhI.

CeMaHTJI1IeCKaJl KOMfiBBaTopBKa 3KCDUDUKaUBOHHLIX cnoBOCOqeTaHBH

§ 1. Ilpeztsrer H sanasa KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTliI'IeCKOrO aaanasa. § 2. OT60p H opranaaauas MaTepHaJIa .n;ml aaamua, § 3. 3KcnnHKaumi HHTeHCliIOHana. 3.1. .L{y6nRpoaaane HHTeHCliOHana 3KcnnHKaH.n;YMa B nOrH'IeCKOM li nliHrBHCTli'leCKOM acnexrax, 3.2. Taaronoraa, 3.3. CTPYKTYPHo-rpaMMaTli'leCKHe IPYHKUHR ascnnaxauaoansrx COqeTaHliH C neKCHKo-ceMaHTHqeCKMM .n;y6nHpoBaHlieM. 3.4. CHoBa 0 nOrMqeCKOM M nHHrBHCTliqeCKOM acnexrax, 3.5. Resume K § 3. § 4. 3KcnnHKaWHI zcecrsoro H cHnbHOBepOllTHOCTHOro HMMMKaUMOHaJIa. 4.1. «Haysaroutaa: IPYHKUliSl. 4.2. II03TI1'IeCKaSi IPYHKUI1Sl. 4.3. Kparxoe resume K § 4. § 5. 3KcnnHKaUHlI cB060.n;HO liMnJIHlUlpyeMblx npaaaaxos. § 6. 3ICCllJIHKaUliSl HerHMllJIHKaUHOHaJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB. 6.1. ECTecTBeHHbIH 113b1Kli HefHMnJIHKaUHOHaJIbHble COqeTaHHSI. 6.2. «l>HrYPbl n03TH'IeCKOH pexa: neperroztsaaeaae (6.2.1.), KOHTpaKUliSl (6.2.2.), nepenozraaaenae npe.IJ;MKaToBnpa cpaaaenaa (6.2.3.), MeTOHliMHqeCKHe li CI1HKpeTH'IeCKlle Bli.n;bl 3TIlITeTOB (6.2.4.), npl1eMbl CeMaHTliqeCKOH JIli6epaJIli3aUHli B coapexeeaaca n033liH (6.2.5.).
1 IIPI111IJIOCb 6bI csarars, 'ITO B KaX<,llOM coxeraaaa CllHTaKCHqeCKliH rroxasarens 3aBl{CI1MOrO CJIOBa liMeeT liHoe aaasemre li BCSlKHH Pal 3TO aaaxeaae 6bIJIO 6hl TeM JKe, 'ITO aaaxenae OTHOllIeHHSI B rJIaBHOM CJIOBe.

69

6.3. Banst
(6.4.1.), A
.

HefHMrrJIHKaUHOHaJIbHblX CO'leTaHHH. JKCrrJIHKaUHeH HeCOBMeCTHMbIX aHTOHHMH'leCKHX


<--

CHMBOJIHKa. 6.4. CO'leTaHIUI C rrpH3HaKOB: A+- B rrpa B ~ - A


,C d

B npa A

C d

B =- C (6.4.2.), A =

-c d

(6.

43

.),

resume K 6.4. (6.4.4.). 6.5. 3KCrrJIHKaUH5I HeCOBMeCTHMbIX HeaHTOHHMH'IeCKHX rrpH:3HaKoB: B03MOlKHble CJIY'laH (6.5.1.), nepsasnsre H aropaaasre 3Ha'leHH5I B KOJIJIeKTHBHOM H HH,nHBlwyaJIbHOM xo.aax (6.5.2.), KpaTKOe resume K 6.5. (6.53.).6.6. AJIOm'leH JIH nO)TH'leCKHH H3bIK? 6.7. ECTecTBeHHblH vs <popMaJIH30BaHHbIH 513bIK. 6.8. Raisons d'etre HerHMrrJIHKaUHOHaJIbHblX CO'leTaHHH: ,1lHaJIeKTH'lHOCTbMHpa H eCTeCTseHHbIH 513bIK. (6.8.1.), Hea,neKBaTHOCTb OHOMaCHOJIOfH'leCKHX CHCTeM norpefiasn« 3a,na'laM ssrpazceHH5I H npeoztorreaae JTOH Hea,neKsaTHOCTH (6.8.2.), KpaTKOe resume K 6.8. (6.8.3), 6.9. Mepa ceMaHTH'leCKOrO 3KcnepHMeHTHpOBaHH5I: OCMblCJIeHHe HerI1MIIJIHKaUHOHaJIbHhIX CO'leTaHHH (6.9.1.), nonycneasre npenensr ceMaHTH'leCKOH csooonsr B n033HH (6.9.2.), OCMbICJIeHl1e fHrrepceMaHTH3HpOBaHHbIX n03TH'leCKHX C006ll1eHHH C pa3JIa,nOM CeMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCH'leCKHX CB5I3ei1 (6.9.3.). 6.10. Resume K § 6. § 7. 3KCIIJII1KaUI151 pa3HOIIOp5l,llKOBbIX ceMaHTH'leCKHX rrpH3HaKOB.

§ 1. Teneps,
(T. ImH) e. ceMaCHOJIOrll'leCKHe

xor na
(T.

OTHOC5IllJ;HeC5I K

conepxamno

Y5ICHeHbI

OCHOBHble

JIeKCllKO-ceMaCHOJIOrH'IeCKHe CJIOBa) H CHHTaKCHKOC 60JIbllieH KOMCJIO)l(HbIX ssrpaaceMO)l(HO II 'ITO

OTJ(eJIbHOrO

e. OTHOC5IllJ;HeC5I K cOJ(epx<aHHIO

npezmocsrnxa

ceMaHTH'leCKOH aHaJIH3a. 6y J(Y'lH ee

reopaa
BCJIll sacrsro,

513bIKa, 3aJ(a'lH csarars,

onpeJ(eJIeHHOCTblO HMeeT

CctJOPMYJIHpOBaTb npernrer,

ocofieanocra
pona,

6llHaTopHo-ceMaHTH'leCKOrO J(eJIO C cozrepacaaaesr ceMaCHOJIOrH5I, Bblpa)l(eHHH nOCJIe.llHeH eJ(HHHu), KaK II 'leM CHqeCKa51 CJIO)l(HbIX TeHQHIO CJIO)l(HbIX CHOJIOrHH ofipaurenae qeHHH na B .llaHHOM coficrseaaoro napananaarasecxax cesr, T. e. ofipaayesnax npernser YPOBeHb B3aHMO.lleHCTBHH BeHHO CKllMH UHTHbIH BllH

ceMaCHOJIOrHSI a CHHTaKconepacaaaesr npeJ(JIO)l(eHHH, CJIO)l(HbIX acnexra cesra3Ta 3Ha-

S13bIKOBbIX Bblpa)l(eHHH ypOBWI

JII06oro

3aHHMaeTCSI ceMaHTHKa

pasaoro

(CJIOBOCO'leTaHHH, acnexr

caepxtppaaonsrx
Bblpa)l(eHHH.

TO KOM6HHaTOpHa5I

onpezreneaasra

BXO.llHT B KOMne-

cOJ(ep)l(aHHSI

oco6eHHOCTb 'ITO

KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTH'IeCKOrO KOM6HHaTopHOH ceMaCHOJIOrHll? a HMeHHO

Bblpa)l(eHHH KaK pa3J(eJIa 'ITO K ceMHOH raxae

COCTaBJISleT npensrer

CllHTaKCHqeCKOH CTPYKType

Oc06eHHOCTb

COCTOHT B TOM,

KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTH'leCKllH 3Ha'leHHH, He

aHaJIH3

rrpezmonaraer

KOMnOHeHTbI ziecaraaropa), HMll

conepxaaas,

nassraaestsre
(T.

1)

pa3JIO)l(eHHe ceMaMH,

xoropsre

CJIOBe HenocpeJ(CTBeHHO COOTHOllIeHllSlX ceMHblX

Bblpa)l(eHbI

e. He HMelOT

B HeM B

a CYllJ;eCTBYIOT II 3HaqeHHH; CTPYKTYP, HJIll

BbISlBJISlIOTCSI peJI5IQHOHHO

2)

BbISIBJIeHHe 3aBHcHMocTeH

KOHctJIITypaQHH, H

3)

BbI5IBJIeHHe CooTBeTcTcesraara-re-

CTPYKTYP COqeTalOllJ;HXCSI cenacaonoraa 60JIee CJIOB aa rJIy6oKoM

3Ha'leHHH. YPOBHe,

KOM6HHaTopHoH 3Ha'leHllH

onpeJ(eJISleTC5I

B3aHMoJ(eHcTBH5IMH

'leM

3KCllJIllconepsca-

KaK l(eJIOCTHbIX yposrre

Bblpa)l(eHHbIX

eJ(llHHQ

HH5I, a aanasa

ee COCTOHT B BbISIBJIeHHH npasan

ceMaHTH'leCKHX

B3aHMO.lleHCT-

CJIOB aa 3TOM llMllJIHUHTHOM ,L{JISI onHCaHH5I

conepxaaaa
HH

cOJ(ep)l(aHHSI. na KOMMYHllKaTHBHO-CHHTaKCHHeo6xoJ(llMOCTH npnfierarr, nopoacnemra yposae cozrepco 3Ha'leHH5I. 6e3 He KaKoHraiose, nonnaK HH

Bblpa)l(eHllH

qeCKOM H

yposae

HeT

B03MO)l(HOCTH, na

KOM6llHaTopHo-ceMaHTH~IecKoMY nOHHMaHHH BblpalKeHHH KPynHbIMll noxexry na 'HOM onepapyror )l(aHH5I», fIoH5ITHO CBOllMH JIH60 nO'IeMY 60JIee noarcsry, 3aJ(a'laMH

aHaJIH3Y na YPOBHe cev. eJ(llHHQaMH, caoero pozta

Ilpa

KOMMYHHKaTllBHO-CHHTaKCH'leCKOM «6JIOKaMH B ceMHOM pa3JIO)l(eHHH

HCKJIIO'lalOllJ;HMH

norpefirrocn, yposne

Tpa.llHQHOHHbIH orracamrs

CHHTaKCHC

CnpaBJI5IJIC5I

SI3bIKa, 06XO.ll5ICb ceMaHTHKll

reopaa

coapevennsre

KOMnOHeHTHoro reopmr onacaaas

CTpOeHH5I 3Ha'leHHI1 KOM6HHaTopHoH conepacaaas

CJIOB. fIOHSITHO

MalOTC5I J(O nOJIHOrO

rrpennoxeaaa:

OHH npOCTO He

70

B COCTOSlHHH06bSlCHHTb KOMMYHHKaTHBHbIH acnexr COAep)KaHHSl npenJIOlKeHHH. Ilpeznaer KOM6HHaTOpHOH CeMaCHOJIOrHH OrpaHHlJHBaeTCSl npemaeraoJIOrHqeCKOH CTOPOHOHCOAeplKaHHSICJIOlKHbIX BblpalKeHHH, T. e. TOH lJaCTbJO CO)leplKaHHSI CJIOlKHbIX BblpalKeHHH, KOTOPasrKaCaeTCSlOnHCaHHSITaK naasiBaeMOrO «06CTOSlHHSlzien» B OTpalKaeMOM MHpe. Hrax, KOM6HHaTOpHO-CeMaHTHlJeCKHHaHaJIH3 He MOlKeT npereanosars na acsepm.raarouree onacanae CO.ll.ep)KaHHSI npe)lJIO)KeHHH. Ho TaKOe orpaaaxeaae ero aaztau n03BOJISIeT BMeCTe C TeM OTBJIelJbCSI OT scex KaTerOpHaJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB CJIO)KHbIX Bblpa)KeHHH, xapaKTepH3YJOl.QHX HX aa KOMMYHHKaTHBHO-CHHTaKCHlJeCKOM yposne. C KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTHlJeCKOH TOqKH 3peHHSI He CyI.QeCTBeHHbI cyfi'sexrno-rrpezraxarnsre, TeMOpeMaTHlJeCKHe H HHbie nonofiasre OTHOllIeHHSI Me)KAY CJIOBaMH. HpperieBaHTHO TaK)Ke - 'ITO HeCKOJIbKOMeHee OlJeBHAHO- pa3JIHlJHe MelK,Lly rrpezmKaTHBHblM H Henpe)lHKaTHBHbIM CJIOlKHblMH BblpalKeHHSlMH. HaKOHeQ, C nOH TOqKH 3peHHSI He CYl.QeCTBeHHbITaK)Ke - H 3TO BeCbMa BalKHO, XOTSI euie MeHee OqeBH.ll.HO, ceMaHTHKO-CHHTaKCHlJeCKHH <l>opMaJIbHO-CHHTaKH CHlJeCKHHpaura rJIaBHOrO H 3aBHCHMoro CJIOB,paBHO KaK H Bll)l <l>OPMaJIbHOCHHTaKCHlJeCKOHCBSl3H Me)K,ily HHMH - aTpH6YTHBHOH HJIH KOMnJIeTllBHoH. HanpOTHB, aarrpaaneaae 3KCOJIHKaQHH(BeKTOp JIOrHKO-CHHTaKCHlJeCKOH co)lep)KaTeJIbHOH 3aBHCHMOCTH,HJIH, HHaqe CKa3aTb, COOTHOCHTeJIbHaSI xapaxTepHCTHKa )lBYX CJIOB KaK 3KCnJIHKaHTa H 3KCOJIHKaH,LlyMa)BnOJIHe peJIeBaHTHO. IIoSlcHHM CKa3aHHoe npHMepaMH. 1) (the) ship sails II uopatin» naueem=(the) sailing ship U MbI8YU/UU Kopa6Jlb; 2) the cottage is very nice II OOMUK ouen« MUJl - a very nice cottage • ouen» MUJlblU OOMUK,' 3) retreated rapidly Y omcmynun nocnetuno - a rapid retreat U nocneiunoe omcmynnenue - (the) rapidity of the retreat U nocnetuuocms omcmynnenus; 4) chooses words II nepeeooum mexcm - choice of words (word choice) D nepeeoo mekcma - chosen words U nepeeoouuuu mexcm - words are chosen U mexcm nepeeooumcs (HO He choice words U mexcm nepeeooa); 5) (a) yellow flower U »cesmui; 1J8emOK- the yellowness of the flower II :JICeIlmU3Ha ueemxa. Bee 3TH Bblpa)KeHHSI B KalK.ll.OH rpynne HAeHTHlJHbl B KOM6HHaTOPHOceMaHTHqeCKOM OJIaHe, HeCMOTpSIaa TO, 'ITO B HHX Ha6mOAaJOTCSIpa3JIllqHSI no npmnaxaxr 1) npe)lHKaTHBHOCTH - Henpe)lHKaTHBHocTH, 2) <l>opMaJIbHOCHHTaKCHqeCKHXpaaron, 3) BH)lY <l>opMaJIbHO-CHHTaKCHlJeCKOHBSI3H C (narrpaMep, chooses words, choice of words, word choice II nepeeooum mescm, nepeeoo mescma - KOMOJIeTHBHaSICBSl3b,a chosen words, words are chosen II nepeeoouuuu mexcm, mexcm nepeeooumcs= aTpH6yrHBHaSI CBSl3b),H HeCMOTpSl naxe aa TO, 'ITO B aexoropsrx CJIyqaSlX ecrs pa3JIHlJHe B ceMaHTHKe sa ClJeT rpaMMaTHlJeCKHX 3HalJeHHH (cp., aartpasrep, chooses words - choice of words, word choice II nepeeooum mexcm - nepeeoo mescma), Ho B KalK.ll.OH rpynne Bblpa)KeHHH narrpasnerrae 3KCnJIHKaQHH OAHHaKOBO (cp. chooses wordswords are chosen - chosen words - choice of words II nepeeooum mexcm+ mexcm nepeeooumcn - nepeeoouuuii metccm - nepeeoo metccma, Bblpa)KeHHSI word choice (choice of words) II nepeeoo mexcma H choice words n mexcm nepeeooa He H.ll.eHTHqHbI B KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTHqeCKOM OJIaHe, TaK KaK BO BTOPOMCJIYlJaeJIeKCHqeCKOeaaaseaae HMeHH choice II nepeeoo CO.ll.ep)KHT AOnOJIHHTeJIbHO cesry « (BbI60p) JIYlJllIerO / pe3YJIbTaT (.ll.eSlTeJIbHOCTH)>>, KOTOPOHHeT B nepaoss cnysae.

§ 2. Bsnne c<l>oPMYJIHpOBaHbIOCHOBHble nOCblJIKH H3JIaraeMOH 3AeCb TeopllH KOM6HHaTopHoH ceMaHTllKH. C TeM qT06bI OQeHHTb, HaCKOJIbKOOHH
71

.reoperasecxa
qeCKOMY IIocJIe,nHHe He 6bIJIO

COCTOSlTeJIbHbI

H rrpOJzyKTHBHbI,

Ha.110 06paTHTbCSI CJIO)l(HbIX

K npaxrnBblpa)l{eHHH.

aHaJIH3Y

CeMaHHI'leCKOH

KOM6HHaTOpHKH paCCMOTpeHlUI 'lTO

,nO)l(HbI 6bITb XaOTH'lHbIM.

C006pa)l(eHHeM. H3 CJIe.llYlOmHX CJIa6bIH MO)l(eT T. e. K

Bsnne xacrefi:

Ilopanox
6bIJIO H

KaK-TO pa3YMHO nOKa3aHO,

ynopanoseasr, qT06bI onpenenserca


ceMaHTHKa H CHJIbHbIH CeMaHTI1KH 3Ha'leHHe

paCCMOTpeHHe CJIeJzylOmHM

CJIOBa CKJIa,nbIBaeTCSI HMnJIHKaUHOHaJI, 3KCnJIHKaHTa 3KCIlJII1KaH,nYMa, 3KCrrJIHKaH,nYMa, 11ztazce rpyrmaponxy 6y,nYT 3KCrrJIHB KOTOPhIX

HHTeHCHOHaJI,

)l(eCTKHH

HMrrJIHKaUHOHaJI rrOJIHOCTblO

HerHMIlJIHKaUHOHaJI.

nezcars cosnaztars

B O,nHOH H3 YKa3aHHhIX HJIH 'laCTH'lHO

sacrea
3TO

C I1HTeHCHOHaJIOM H

OTHOCHTbCR K ero

)l(eCTKOMY, CHJIhHOMY HJIH CJIa60MY 3KCIlJIHKaH,nYMa. H BbIpa)l(eHHH paCCMOTpeHbI 6y,neT npH3HaKOB.

Herl1MrrJIHKaUI10HaJIY CJIO)l(HbIX

(orfiop)

nopanox

onpenenaer

I1MIlJIHKaUI10HaJIY

HX paCCMOTpeHH}l. 'laCTeH

Bnasane

rrOCJIe.llOBaTeJIbHO 3KCrrJIHKaHT KaH.llYMa • .llaJIee H

3KCIlJII1KaUHOHHhIe 113 YKa3aHHbIX rrOHHTHe

CO'leTaHH}l,

OTHOCHTCSI K Ka)l(.lloH paCCMOTpeHbI

npnsnaxa

onpeneneao
11

ceMaHTHKH

nopanxa
HMeHH 6Y.lleM

ceMaHTH'leCKOrO

CO'leTaHHH

C 3KCIlJIHKaUI1eH 6y,neT

paanonopanxossrx
CeMaHTI1K

ceMaHTH'leCKHX

B 3aKJIlO'leHl1e

HCCJIe.llOBaHa

secxaa KOM6HHaTopHKa B COqeTaHHRX C 3JIH3HeH B noncxax HJIJIlOCTpaTHBHoro MaTepl1aJIa


JIH'lHbIM HO oco6oe 'leCKHH 6HHaTopHKH. Q>YHKUI10HaJIbHbIM BHHMaHHe .llOJI)I(eH 6y,neM R3bIK pa3HOBH,llHOCTSlM Y.lleJIHTb rrOJIHbIH Ha60p

OTHOlIIeHHSI.

ofipautart.ca
l1MeHHo CeMaHTI1'leCKOH H3bIKe llo33HH

pasKOM-

R3bIKa 06pa3UOB

(rtozrsaasrxa
H3bIKY.

H CTI1JIH), rr03TH-

aecs

aa npenerre
THKH

sees cnexrp

Crrezryer O)l(H.llaTb, 'ITO B rr03TI1'leCKOM rnranaaon npnesroa KOM6HHHpOBaHHH CMbICJIOB.


ceMaHTH'leCKOrO OCMbICJIeHHOrO, R3bIKa HayKH CKa3aTb, KOM6HHHpOBaHHH. MaKCHMaJIbHO aHTHrro,na 3TH ilO3TbI HCrrOJIb3YH

nars

rr03TH'leCKOMY

rrpencrasnea
HCnOJIb3yeT pa60TalOT

perrepryap
Sl3hIKa -

aepenxo

«rpasora6bIJIO 6bI

CMbICJIOB». rr03TH'leCKOrO }l3bIKa JKeCTK0I1 H Y3KOM «rpaMMaTHKOH 'ITO CMbICJIa». CMbICJIa». CO'leTaHHH

CTporOCTb B 'laCTHOCTH, pa3HbIMH R3bIKe Ho 06pa3YlOT JIOrl1'leCKOrO BbIpa)l(eHI1S1. 60JIee HaH60JIee rrpeYBeJIH'IeHHeM

«rpaMMaTHKaMH paUHOHaJIbHbIH «CJIO)l(eHHH CHHTaKCI1C H

Ilpaanrra
He

nsa

Bnpoxexs,

06YCJIOBJIeHa, COBeplIIeHHO

nOJIb3YlOTC}l rpaMMaTHKH

CMbICJIOB B HaY'lHOM 3Ha'leHHH, HMH. OHH ceMaHTHKH.

COCTaBJIHlOT

JIOrl1'IeCKYlO

OCHOBY JI1060H BCHKOH

Q>YH.llaMeHT CMbICJIOB)) 3Ha'IeHHH H CBo60.llHbIMH. B

KOM6HHaTopHOH .llPyrHMI1,

xynoacecraeanoe

CJIOBOTBOp'IeCTBO

OrpaHH'lHBaeTCH KaK

.llOnOJIHHlOTCH n033HH

JIOrHKO-KOM6I1HaTOPHbIX 06WHPHbIM, WHPOKHMH

HOpM HCnOJIb3yeTcSl rH6KHM H30mpeHHbIM,

Ilpanana aapyurenae MeTaceMHOTH'leCKHH npnera


OKa3bIBaeTCH a HecpaBHeHHO HX CO'leTaHHH

Iloasaa

npanana

nOJIb3yeTcH

caoeotipaaaoa

«rpaMMaTI1KOH

sepr.

CMbICJIa)),

H 3TO Ha.110 C'IHTaTb

O.llHOH H3 ee OTJIH'lHTeJIbHbIX

§ 3. Paccvorpaxr 3.1.
CHOHaJIY ECJIH

3KCrrJIHKaUHOHHble

CO'IIeTaHI1S1, B KOTOPbIX

3KCrrJIHKaHT I1HTeH-

OTHOCHTCSI K HHTeHCHOHaJIY. 3KCIlJIHUHPYlOmee TO H 3KCIlJIHKaHJzyMa MeCTO square, tell 3KCIlJIHUHPyeMoro,

aaaxenae conepscarensao
npa
3TOM HI1'lerO He

paBHO 11M H

rrpH6aBJISleTCSI

csepx

conepscaaaa
BaeTCSI. I1MeeT HHe (a) occur quadratic (happen),

npocroe
oily

anaxeaae
H clandestine

CJIOBOCO'leTaHHH I1HTeHCHOHaJIa,

ncxeprrsr(incidents)

Jzy6JIHpOBaHHe

CJIOBOCO'IeTa-

TaBTOJIOrH'lHO,

He3KOHOMHO oil, a tale

JIOrH'leCKH secret,

aHOMaJIbHO. happenings

Harrpassep:

cexpem,

npoUCWeCm8UJI
06pa30M

seaopamnuu «eaopam, MaCIIO MaCIIJlHOe, maiiuuii (CIIY'JaU) CIIYlJalOmCJI (npoucxoosm) If T. rr.


H36bITO'lHbI If JIOrH'leCKIf aHOMaJIbHbl

II

PaBHbIM

IfHQ>opMaUIfOHHO

72

CJ10BOCOqeTaHlUI, B 1C0TOPblX .ny6JIHPyeTcSI qaCTb HHTeHCHOHaJIa 3ICCnJIHKaH,UYMa HJlH 3ICCnJlHlCaHTa. Hanpasrep: a rectangular square, accidents (will) happen, tell a story II npJlMOYZOllbHblU xeaopam, ZpOM epeuum, uemen»
(MemellUl/a)

uemem

H T.

n.

O,UHaICO COqeTaHHSI C ,UBYKpaTHmi 3ICCllJIHlCal.(HeH qaCTH HJlH acero HHTeHCHOHaJIa ,UOCTaTOqHO06blqHbi B eCTeCTBeHHbIX assrxax H BbIllOJlHSllOT pan ceMHOTHqeCKHX H MeTaceMHOTHqeCKHX <!JYHKl.(HIi.OHH HH<!JopMal.(HOHHO H36bITOqHbi H JlOfl1'leCICH aHOMaJIbHbl B TOM crry-rae, KOf,Ua HHTeHCHOHaJ1bl 3HaICOB O,UHHaICOBO H3BeCTHbi H co,Uep)ICaTeJIbHO TO)IC,UeCTBeHHblY 060HX yqaCTHHICOBceMHOTHqeCICOro ana: SP H SR. IloCICOJlblCY)ICe npHXO,UHTCSIHMeTb neno C cfJopMHpoBaHHeM H ssrpaaaaBaHHeM CI1CTeM 3HaHlrn H 3HaKOBblX CI1CTeM, C orrpenenenaexr KJIaCCOB, nOHSITHI1 H COOTBeTCTBYlOll.(I1X3HaKOB, TO He06xo,Ul1MO 3KCnJlHl.(HpOBaTb HHTeHCHOHaJIbIO.nHHX3HaKOBqepe3 coziepxaaae zipyrax (cp. the elephant has a trunk, the swine is omnivorous, the tiger is predatory, clandestine is secret, a square is a rectangular equilateral quadrangle II CIIOH uueem xo6om, C8UHbJI 8CeJlOHa, muzp - XUUjHUK, ceKpem - 3mo mauna, xeaopam - npsuoyeonsnui: paenocmopounuii uemupexyeonsnu« H T. n.). TaKHM o6pa30M, COqeTaHH5IpacCMaTpHBaeMOfO pona HeCYT ceMHOTHqeCKYlO cfJYHKl.(HlOH3b5ICHeHH5I HMeH. 3KCllJIHKaHT npa 3TOM 06bIqHO rrpeznnrapoaan, H CJlOBOCOqeTaHHe HMeeT CTaTYC npe,UJlO)ICeHHSI, O He 06H3aTeJlbHO. HapSl,UY C tigers are predatory II H muepu XUUjHbl B03MO)ICHOH predatory tigers II xuiquue muepu, aanpavep, B npennoxeaaa Predatory tigers were separated II XUUjHblX muepos nOMeCmUJlU OmOeJIbHO (THfpOB KaK XHll.(HHKOB rrOMeCTMJlHornern.uo). Henpe,UHKaTHBHOe' ynorpefinenae HHTeHCHOHaJIbHOfO 3KCllJIHKaHTa B03MO)ICHO, eCJIH 1) OH sxcnnaunpyer 'IaCTb (OTzrensnsre ceMbI) HHTeHCHOHaJla H eCJlH 2) Me)IC,UY 3THM npH3HaKOM l1HTeHCI10HaJla l1 npH3HaKoM, npenanapoaanasn« B npenJIO)ICeHHl1, HMeeTCSI onpeneneaaas JIOfH'leCKaSi 3aBHCHMOCTb (npl1'lHHHO.cnezrcrneaaaa, YCTynHTeJIbHa5I H ,up.) H aa 3TY 3aBHCl1MOCTbHe06xo,uHMO yzasars: Tl1fPOB nOMeCTHJll1 oT.neJIbHO, nOTOMY 'ITO OHH XHIl.(Hbl. 3.2. K paCCMaTpHBaeMOMYrnny OTHOC5ITC5I TaBTOJIOfHH C npe,Um<aTHBHbIM Y,UBoeHHeM HMeHH, BpO)J.emeat is meat; let bygones be bygones; the cubists are not cubist enough (G. K. Chesterton, 21-3l3); in this other girl the new virtues were virtues, whether or not they were new (G. K. Chesterton, 21-409); London is London U MJlCO ecms MJlCO, OCeII ocmauemcs OCIIOM (xomb OCbtnb
ezo 38e30aMu), Y '1e1108eKa Hem

(CT. E. Jleu), MOCK8a ecms MOCK8a H T. n. Kax H B npezrstzryurax CJIY'IaSIX, anecs HMeeT MeCTO xaxoe-ro H3bSICHeHHe HMeH (H, eCTeCTBeHHO,COOTBeTCTBYIOll.(HX nOH5ITHI1 H perpepeuros). TaBTOJIOfHH HMeIOT BH,U KJIaCCH<!JHlCal.(HOHHbIX npe,UJIO)ICeHHHrarra the tiger is a carnivore II muep - XUUjHUK, B ICOTOPbIXpediepenry npHnHCblBaeTCSI xaxoa-ro npH3HaIC nocpertcraoxr OTHeceHHSI K KaKOMY-TO xnaccy. O,UHaKo HeSleHO, 'lTO MO)ICeTnars .!(JISIonncaaas perpepeirra npe)J.HKal.(HSITOfO )ICe HMeHlf, 1C0TOPbIMOH pertpeaenrapoaaa B BbICKa3b1BaHHH. e)IC)J.Y M TeM B eCTeCTBeHHOMSl3bIKe3T0 .!(OCTaTOqHO 06bI'IHbIH ICJIacc BblcKa3bIBaHHH. CB5I3KOH o6be,UHHSIlOT yzraoeaasre HMeHa KJIaCCOB. HMeHa e.nHHlfqHOfO H HMeHa npH3HaKOB. TaBTOJIOfHSI B JIOfH'IeCKOM acnexre - BH.!( HeKoppeKTHOfO onpenerrenax ICOHl.(enTa, JIOfH'IeCKaSi onrafisa onpe)J.eJIeHHSI idem per idem. TaBTOJIOfHSI
1 Pa3YMeeTCSI, MOlKHO yrnepxnars, 'ITO aa yposue rJIy6HHHoro CHHTaKCHca «XHIUHbIl1» B npezrnoxeaaa «XHIUHbIX THrpOB nOMeCTHJlH OT.neJlbHO» raxzce npmMaK rrpe.nIU.lHpyeMbIM H nOBepXHOCTHOHcrpyxrype COOTBeTcrnyeT cnezmouras rny6HHHaSl: «THrpOB rrOMeCTHJIHOT.neJIbHO,TaK KaK rarpsr - XHIUHb!».

eutiopa -

OH

OOIl:>ICeH

tium«

'1e1108eKOM

73

B CeMMOTI1'leCKOM TeHTHOCTI1 Xe3MTal.{HH

acnexre

aneJ1J1SIl.{MSIK CeMMOTM'leCKOH, 3TO

SI3bIKOBOH KOMneXe3HTal.{HMnpH'lHH SP sa-

M 3HaHMlO

cnyurarotnero.

CJ1Y'laH cBoe06pa3HOH

B onperreneana

H H3bSICHeHHM zrars

MMeH. B CHJ1Ypa3J1M'lHbIX xapaxrepa MMeHM sroro (M, npH3HaK onpezrenenae

n03HaBaTeJ1bHOrO, TpY.IlHSIeTCSI CTBeHHO, pye r J10nm nOWlTHSI

CeMHOTH'leCKOrO M .IleHOTaTa) peJ1eBaHTHbIH

M ztaace MOpaJ1bHOrO KaKOH-TO BMeCTO

HJ1M B03.Ilep)KHBaeTCSI

COOTBeTB HHTeH-

HJ1M H3bSICHHTb .IlJ1SI C006meHMSI. 3HaKa

CMOHaJ1e HMeHH,

K SI3bIKOBOH M n03HaBaTeJ1bHOH J1e)KHT 6MJ1aTepaJ1bHOCTb ceMMOTM'leCKOH H .IlecPHHI1THBHYlO, M .IleHOTaTHBHoe, B KaKOM-TO means red"

KOMneTeHTHOCTH H pacnrennenae

SR.

OH aneJ1J1I1CTO-

B OCHOBe TaBTOH 3Ha'leHI1e perrpeaeuCI1rHMcPI1aa

OT.IleJ1bHbIXero aa

POH na zma acnexra, (.IleCHrHaT), TaTHBHYIO KaTI1BHOe

a HMeHHO pacurennenae cPYHKl.{MH 3HaKa KorHMTHBHoro

3HaKa na .IleCHrHaTOp B BbICKa3bIBaHHH 3Ha'leHHSI 3HaKa na 3Ha'leHHSI is fast

CMrHMcPHKaTMBHoro rOBopSIT fast

HH.IlYKTI1BHO-

3MTIHpM'leCKMH

M .Ile.IlYKTMBHO-J10rH'leCKMH

Korna
HJ1M red HMMHO Topa. J1HPYIOT <illOH.IlOH H T• n., MOCKBY:

acnexrt.r.

«p acumii 3HalJUm

KOHTeKCTe

II tiucmpo ecms tiucmpo


K 3HaHMIO SIBJ1SIeTCSI BTOa )Ke .IleCI1rHaTO ane.nKpynHbIH JIOH.IlOH, HeatraxeC06CTBeHHoro: HaCeJ1eHHeM» roro

«pacnuu,

TO aneJ1J1MPYlOT Cy6bCKTOM 3Ha'leHI1e aroro

SR 3Ha'leHHSI

COOTBeTCTBYIOmHX zrecaruarop, London 06bI'lHbIX KYJ1bTYPHbIH cxere rOBOpSIT 3HaHHIO H

.IleCHrHaT0pOB: a npe.IlI1KaTOM is London npe.IlHKaTOB ueirrp, KaK

Ha3BaHHbIH K -

Korzia

II MOCKea - smo Mocsea;


HMeHH

CTOJ1H1..(a BeJ1MK06pHTaHHH»,

«Mocxsa ropon

CTOJ1I1l.{aCCCP,

npOMbIWJ1eHHbIH

C 60J1bWHM

T. e. B KOHe'lHOM cy6beKToM

aneJ1J1HPYIOT K TOMY, 'lTO SR 3HaeT e.IlHHH'lHOe, B sroro e.lll1HH'lHOro. .IleHOTaTHBHOM sroro,

SIBJ1SIeTCSIropozt CBOHCTBa

a npe.IlHKaTOM

3KCnJ1Hl.{HpOBaHHble HaKOHeu:, BalOT

HHH HeSIBHO BbI'lJ1eHSIeTCSI CMrHHcPHKaTHBHbIH TaBT0J10rHH .IlByX aa ypoane pa3J1H'lHe acrrexroa nOHSITHSI:

KOMnOHeHT.

HMeH KJ1aCCOB, nOMHMO perrpeaearnpyer onpene.nser)

ofisrrpsr-

HH.IlYKTHBHO-3MnHpH'leCKOrO KJ1aCC H nOHSITHIO 3TOT KJ1aCC H 0 HeM.

.Ile.IlYKTHBHO-J10rH'leCKoro. TeJ1bHO COOTBeTcTByeT

MMSI-cy6beKT (onacsmaer,

conepxa-

HH.IlYKTHBHO-3MnHpH'leCKOMY .Ile.IlYKTHBHO-J10rH'leCKOMY asnue WYTJ1HBbIH

npezmxar
B03HHKaeT T0J10rHM pH'leCKHM

KBaJIHcPHl.{HpyeT

conepxa-

MMS!-

TeJ1bHO COOTBeTcTByeT o KJ1aCce. npHBe.IleHHbIH «'leJ10BeK Ee .Ilep)KaTeJ1bHa. J10rH'leCKHM Hoe rvsraanoe

nOHSITHIO 0 TOM )Ke KJ1aCce. nOHSITI1SI He 6eccoJleua CBOJ1I1TCSIK TaB-

3cPcPeKT He3KCnJ1Hl.{HpOBaHHoro J10J1)KeH 6bITb 0 KJ1aCCe sroro

YCTpO)KeHI1SI, YTO'lHeHHSI acPopH3M 3Ta H TaBT0J10rHSI

'leJ10BeKOM». «'leJ10BeK» paaysra

3cPcPeKT CTPOI1TCS! aa Pa3J1H'lHH

Me)K.IlY HH.IlYKTHBHO-3MnI1B03MO)KHbIM «'leJ10BeK .Ile.IlYKTHBHO3TO pa3YMnpeJ1CTaBJ1eHbI

nOHSITHeM

onpenenenaev
CYll.leCTBO».

KJ1aCCa, aanpasrep: nOHSITHM 06

npH3HaKM

H rYMaHHOCTI1

1'1 B HHJ1YKTHBHO-3MnHpH'leCKOM 6e3YCJ10BHO MMeHHO HHTHBHYlO, 'leCKHH C KaH.IlYMa CP.: the Love remover 06S!3aTeJ1bHbIX. pacurennenae a nOHSITHS! zienaer

3TOM KJ1aCCe, HO He na npasax na penpe3eHTaTHBHYlO H J1ecPH-

cPYHKl.{HH HMeHH OCMbICJleHHbIMH Ha060pOT, KaKHM-TO alters

na HH.IlYKTHBHO-3MnHpH'leCKHH npenaxaraansre npa when Sonnet 3TOM alteration

H .Ile.IlYKTHBHO-J10rHYJ1BOeHHSI HMeH 3KCnJ1Hwith 3KCnJ1HKaHTOM). 3KCTeHCHOHaJ1 finds

acnexrsr

OTpHl.{aHHeM is to

(TaBT0J10rHS! not love

OrpaHH'lHBaeTCS!

.IlOnOJ1HHTeJ1bHbIM

I Which
rpynne

remove TaK)Ke the

(Shakespeare, HMeeT storm MeCTO raged, MOIlHUR

116).
occurred), passes the

I Or

bends

3.3.
CJ10Ba: the sun

B an

cneztyrourea incident shines, ZPOM

CJ10BOCO'leTaHHH .Ily6J1HpOBaHHe time (happened,

(npe.IlHKaTHBHbIX HHTeHCHOHaJ1a wind is

H uenperJ1aBHOrO blowing,

.IlHKaTHBHbIX)

toek

place

eemep eeem,

zpeuum,

II CIlYlJUJ10Cb npouctuecmsue, ceepxaem, uemess (uemenuua) uemem 74

If T. n. OLlHaKO C06CTBeHHO CeMaHTMlJ:eCKaSl cneuarpaxauaoaaaa cflYHKllMSI 3aBHCl1MbIX CJIOB B TaKMX CJIOBOCOlJ:eTaHMSIXoo6111e He cyuiecrseaaa. B I1x OCHOBHaSlcflYHKlll1SI- CTpYKTypHaSI: OHM n03BOJISIIOTnocrporrrs npeztno)l(eHMe H C006lllHTb COlJ:eTaHl1IO rJIarOJIbHbIe rpaMMaTMlJ:eCKMe 3HalJ:eHMSI BpeMeHM, BMLla M LIP. KaK CnpaBe)lJ1HBO OTMelJ:aeT C . .Ll. Kanaenscoa, rnarOJIb! B nOLl06HbIX COlJ:eTamUIXMJIMnpeLlJIO)!(eHHSIXnOJIHOCTbIOMJIH xacrasHO nOBTopSIIOT conepxaane l1MeHM M CJIy)!(aT npe)!(Lle scero «csoero porta "Bep6aJI113aTOpaMM", YKa3blBaIOlllMMM rJIarOJIbHOe BpeMSI» [KaU;HeJIbcoH (2), 59 M CJIeLl.) Ta )!(e CTPyKTYPHo-rpaMMaTMlleCKaSI cPYHKU;l1SI npenanapyer M B CJIYlJ:ae BHYTpeHHHX LlOnOJIHeHMH, nOBTOpSiIOllll1X nOJIHOCTbIO MJIM lJ:aCTl1lJ:HO JIeKCl1'.JeCKoesaauenae rnarorra: to dream a dream, to fight a fight (a battle), to plod a way, to run a run (a race), to sleep the sleep (of the just/that Knows no waking), to sleep a (dog-) sleep, to die a (dog's/ natural) death, to laugh a laugh II npOJICUmb :JICU3Hb, oyuams ()YMY, npoumu nyms, taymums tuymxu M T. n. OHM n03BOJISIIOT H36e)!(aTb CHHTaKCMlleCKMXorpaHMlleHMH rrpa Pa3BepHYTOH KBaJIMcPMKaU;l1l1leHCTBMSJ. po he lived a happy life = he lived L C happily, HO... lived the modern life (G. K. Chesterton, 21- 394) = *lived modernly II OH JlCU6em cnoxouuou :JICU3HblO = OH :JICU6em cnoxouuo, HO «OH )!(MBeT )!(M3HbIO, nOJIHOH npMKmolJ:eHMH =? OH )!(l1BeT C npMKmolJ:eHHSIMH = =*OH )!(l1BeT npHKJIIOlfeHlfecKID>; «OH IKl1BeT )!(M3HbIO, nOJIHOH pncxa 11npaKJIIOlfeHMH = *OH IKMBeT C Pl1CKOMM npl1KJIIOlJ:eHMSIMl1» 11T. n. OTMeTMM - Ha PYCCKOM MaTepMaJIe - ellle OLIHY rpynny CJIYlJ:aeBnrna «Lll1BHOe Al1BO, paHHeH pansro, (casrsre) TaHHbIe cexpersr, (caMbIH) xenoae-rHbIH 'IeJIOBeK»1 M T. n., B KOTOPbIX HenpeLlHUMpOBaHHbIH 3KCnJIMKaHT nOJIHOCTbIO Ay6JIMpyeT HHTeHC110HaJI3KCnJIMKaHAYMa. ECJIM OTBJIelJ:bCSI H3OT BeCTHOH MA110MaTMlJ:HOCTM, BOHCTBeHHOH HeKOTopbIM CJIOBOCO'leTaHMSIM C sroro pozta, TO aHaJIH3 ceMaHTMKM npHBOAMT K napaAOKCaJIbHOMY BbIBOAY: naxe eCJIM JIeKCMlJ:eCKl1e 3HalJ:eHMSI KCnJIHUI1pYIOlllero 113KCnJIHu;I1pyeMoro 3 CJIOBTO)!(LleCTBeHHbI, nepsoe, TeM He MeHee, cnocofiao OrpaHM'IMTb 3KCTeHCMOHaJInroporo M 06pa30BaTb C HHM Cl1HTeTMlJ:eCKOe, He aHaJIHTM'IeCKOe a COCTaBHoe nOHSITl1e. B caMOM AeJIe, «AMBHoe Al1BO» osnaaaer «fiorn.uroe (TaK CKa3aTb, «oxennoe») AMBO», «paaaefi paasro» = «oxem, pano», «casrsre raansre cexpersi»? = «castsre 60JIblIlMe cexpe rsr» 11T. A. .Lly6JIMpOBaHMe CJIY)!(MT cpeACTBOM YKa3aTb fiorrsuroe KOJIl1lfeCTBO MJIM BbICOKYIO creneas KaKorO-TO KalJ:eCTBa. B npaseneaasrx asnne npasrepax MMeeT MeCTO, nO-BMLll1MOMY, 11 CTPyKTYPHO-CMHTaKCMqeCKMH cflaKTop - HeB03MOIKHOCTb COeAMHl1Tb «HHTeHCHcPl1KaTOpbI»«ovens, caMbIH» aerrocpeztCTBeHHO C cymecTBMTeJIbHbIM: «*OlJ:eHb LIMBO, *caMbIH cexper» M T. n. TaK )!(e aHaJI113MPYIOTCSI CJIOBOCOlJ:eTaHMSI pOAe «onnrfiaa B OW1160K, qYAO xynec, M3 (ncex) npenarenen npeziarens, (acesr) ropneuasr ropneu, BceM LlBopu;aM zrsopeu» 11 T. n. Bee OHM BbIcTynaIOT KaK csoeofipaaasre cynepnarnasr MJIM 3JIaTl1BbI cymecrnarensasrx, AonYCKaIOlllMX KaqeCTBeHHoe TOJIKOBaHMe.CPo TaK)!(e aH2I1. in one's heart of hearts, the heaven of heavens. 3.4. Jlornxa rpefiyer B KalJ:eCTBe npeABapMTeJIbHOrO YCJIOBl1SI,'IT06bI reaaypycsr 3HaHl1H M S13bIKOB SP M SR 6bIJIM BbIpaBHeHbI, - TOJIbKO 'rorna Y
I 3aMeTHM, 'ITO B :nou dipaae B. Masxoncxoro «qeJIoBe'lHblfm ynorpefinsercs B CMblCJIe 60JIee WHPOKOM, qeM «rYMaHHbIH». 2 eM. «KOMCOMOJIbCKali npasna», NQ 250, 1972 r.: «Y lKypHaJIHCTOB ecrs raxas npHBbJlIKa: BblBe.QblBaTb Y Hac, rpeaepos, casrsre TaUHbie cexpersi..» (H3 HHTepBblO P. 11. Kasuua, rpeuepa fHMHaCTKH O. Kopfiyr),

7S

OHa ncrynaer ace aexoppexrasre, HOMHble. rana The tigers OHa

B CBOM npasa. CJIyqaM

HCXO,n:SI M3 )TOH ,n:y6JIMpOBaHMSI M36bITOqHble re nanrs Great

npe,n:nOCbIJIKM, MHTeHCMOHaJIa

OHa ouenaaaer KaK JIOrMqeCKM He3KO-

paccssorpeaasre
rOTOBa is the

MH<popMaU;MOHHO npMHSITb capital of onpe,n:eJIeHMSIMM (carnivorous)

M KOMMYHMKaTMBHO

M3 HMX, xoropsre

SIBJIsnoTCSI HeTaB-

TOJIOrMqeCKMMM London tiger were

MJIM M3'bSICHeHMSIMM MMeH, T. e. BblpaJKeHMSI Britain

is a carnivore separated

3bIBaHMSI,

conejixamae
CTOPOHbI,

II Tuzp -

II Mocxea - cmonuua CCCP MJIM XUU{HUK (xutqeu) . .[{aJKe nsrcxanOHSITMe TMna Predatory ssrcxa-

aHaJIMTMqeCKOe

COCTaBHOe

II XUU{HbIX

muepoe nouecmusu
oT,n:eJIbHO, see 'rarpsr TaK KaK XMllIHbI. MHbIM

omoessno,
rnrpsr

nefieaynpe-mo M MOJKeT

C JIOrMqeCKOH 3bIBaHMSI noporrars SI3bIKY BblpaJKeHMH, BCTynaIOIUMM M SR, noofipasmae PbIBHOCTM C npa BblpaJKeHMSI, «no,n:CKa3KOH» B )TMX (rarpos

TaK KaK 3aTeMHSIeT He

nOrMqeCKYIO

CTpYKTYPY XllIUHbI)

nOMeCTMJIM 'ITO He

MJIJII03MIO, npMxo,n:MTCSI HO

O,n:HaKO

eCTeCTBeHHOMY npaBMJIbHOCTbIO nepe.nxo 3peHMSI SP pasnenpe-

TOJIbKO

CqMTaTbCSI MHorMM C zrpyror«:

C JIOrMqeCKOH pa3nMqMSI

M y,n:OBJIeTBOpSITb

Tpe6oBaHMSIM, B TOqKaX

B KOH<pJIMKT zipyr npanaarasecxae

Pa3JIMqMSI B MX n03HaBaTeJIbHbIX <paKTOPbI, ,n:aBJIeHMM nOTpe6HOCTb SI3bIKa, ero CTpYKTYP

M ceMMOTMqeCKMX ofiecrrexeane MX M ynorpefinenas

'reaaypycax; BO

KaqeCTBeHHOH HOBbIX M

M HOPM

BpeMeHM,

O,n:HOH CTOPOHbI, C zipyroa; npa B03MO)J(HOCTM

npn

MHHOBaU;MH

nOTpe6HOCTeH Bblpa)J(eHMH cMTyaQMOHHOH SI3bIKa M T.

B SICHOCTM M 3KOHOMMM KOHTeKcTyaJIbHOH Bblpa)J(eHMH;

BOCnOJIb30BaTbCSI YCTaHOBJIeHMM SI3bIK nonycxaer KpaTKMH nror

CMbIcna

B03MO)J(HOCTM M OCO-

6eHHOCTM nCMXOJIOrMQeCKOrO ycnoBMSIX no,n:qMHSISI MX BbmOJIHeHMIO

M <pM3MOJIOrMqeCKOrO nOrMqeCKM cnyqaSIM onpeztenenasrx aanas.

cy6CTpaTOB

aexoppexrmre

zr,

Bblpa)J(eHMSI, MHTeHCMOHaJIa nOJI-

3.5. Ilozrseztev
3KCnJIMKaH,n:YMa.

,n:y6JIMPOBaHMSI

1)
HMeHM

3KCnJIMKaHT

MO)J(eT zryfimrpona'n, CooTBeTcTBeHHo MHTeHCIfOHaJI MMeHIf) MMeHM

MHTeHCMOHaJI MMeeT ceMaHTMqeCKM

3KCnJIMKaH,n:YMa npocroe

HOCTbIO

MJIM qaCTMqHO. cnysae

MJIM 3KCnnMKaQMSI (orrpenenenae Y,n:BoeHMe ynaoenaa B MorYT

nocpencraov
MO)J(eT

MeCTO

ynaoenae BO BTOPOM -

HeTO)J(,n:eCTBeHHbIX MMeHM M ,n:pyIIpM 3KCnJIMKaHT qaCTSIM (a) pirate

MMeH. B nepaoxr nOJIHOCTbIO rae crrysaa). CKPbITHOM

,n:y6JIMPyeTcSI nOJIHOCTbIO, (M3'bSICHeHIfe 6bITb SIBHbIM

MJIM qaCTMqHO

MJIM CKPbITHbIM.

MCnOJIb3yeTcSI rrpaaannescars KOTOPbIX

CMHOHMM 3KCnJIMKaH,n:YMa. K O,n:HOH MJIM pa3HbIM npernnraposaa (TMn 3KCm1lfKaH,n:YMa

If 3KCnJIMKaH,n:YM

pexa,
is a ortpe-

2)
sea

COqeTaHMSI, (ceMHbIH
-+

3KcnnMKaHT

M pacxpsraaer

saasenae robber

nupam -

COCTaB M cTpYKTYPY)

MOPCKOU

pastiounu«)
(TMn

SIBJISIIOTCSI peryJISIpH'hIMM M pedieperrros. KaKoH-To carnivore (nerronnsre a M ,n:y6JIMPyeT tiger is

,n:eJIeHMSIMM MMeH M COOTBeTCTBYIQIUMX TaHMSI, B KOTOPbIX 3KCnJIMKaHT MHTeHCMOHana rous) IfMeH 3KCnnMKaH,llYMa XUU{HUK

MM KOHQenTOB (the/a)

CoxenpM3HaK (carnivoorrpezreK (MeTO,n:y). caMbIM ce-

npe,n:MQMPOBaH

II muep -

(xutqeu),

SIBJISIIOTCSI perYJISIpHbIMM M perpepenroa M M3'bSICHeHMSI MMeH

M3'bSICHeHIfSIMM (OTHOCSITCSI He M TeM

M COOTBeTCTBYIQIUMX KOM6MHaTOpHOH BCKPbITb MX

KOHQenTOB cesracnorrortm, ceMHbIH

neHMSI).

BbIpa)J(eHMSI-onpe,n:eJIeHMSI

rrpemrery
OHM npOM3BeCTM

a K ee MHCTpYMeHTaM

n03BOJISIIOT

conepxarensuoe
06Pa30M,

COCTaB If CTpYKTYPY cpasaenae.

Ilpezerer

MMeH

KOM6MHaTOpHOH He pacnpocrpaztyfinapyer

MaCMOJIOrMM, onpezterreaas

TaKMM

MCKJIIOtIaeT M aa

npeznrxartraasre npaBMJI.

Bblpa)J(eHMSI-

If M3bSICHeHMSI IfMeH, B KOTOPbIX

HMX, eCTeCTBeHHO,

HSIeTCSI ,n:eHCTBMe KOM6IfHaTOpHO-CeMaHTMqeCKMX

3)
BnOJIHe

COqeTaHIfSI, MnM xoppexrnsr,

Henpe,n:IfKaTMBHbIH 6bITb

3KCnJIIfKaHT

nOJIHOCTbIO

qaCTMqHO

MHTeHCMOHan

3KCnJIMKaH,n:YMa,

JIOrMqeCKM

He

TaK KaK MorYT

nOHSITbI KaK cneU;M<pMKaQMSI MHTeH-

76

CIiOHaJIa. I1JIIiKaHT

CeMaHTIiqeCKIi .Ily6.rrnpyeT HX

OHIi

Ii36bITOqHbI

(rrJIeOHaCTIi~bI), aMaJIbraMaQHH aHaJIOrHH npezicraanea CKOJIbKO pas

TaK

KaK

3KCIIpH nan CBOCO-

OCMbICJIeHHH MHOrOKpaTHO MHO>KeCTBaMH

scryrraer

IiH!l>opMaQlllO,

Y>Ke co.Ilep>KamYIOCSI

B 3KCrrJIIiKaHTe. C OrrepaQHSIMH CYTb OH ero B 3HaqeHHH

B CHJIY rrpaBHJIO

TO>K.IleCTBeHHOrO

BbIpa>KeHHOrO ero qTO -

cO.Ilep>KaHHSI. IIo rrpaBHJIOM npasnax OT roro, COqeTaHHSI.

MO>KHO Ha3BaTb ceMaHTHqeCKHl1 He3aBHCHMO KOMrrOHeHTOB porta H

KOH'bIOHKQHH.

.IlHTCSI K TOMY, qeTaHHSI

e.IlIiHO>K.IlbI nora

CO.Ilep>KHTCSI

B 3HaqeHHSIXCJIOB COqeTaHHSI JIHPyeMbIM HMeeTCSI

.IlOCTaTOqHO rrpH3HaKOM,

06bIqHbI

B pesnr, H ee

eCJIH Me>K.IlY .Ily6: B rrpe.IlJIO>KeHHH, aKQeHTHCJIe.IlyeT

rrpH3HaKOM orrpe.IleJIeHHaSI

rrpe.IlHQHPyeMoM

ponars .IlJISI SR (ran the predatory tigers were separated II XUUfHblX muepoe nouecmunu omiJe/lbHo). BbIpa>KeHHSI raxoro pozta conepzcar KOCBeHHoe Ii3'bSICHeHHe HMeH (= SIBJISIIOTCSI aHaJIHTHqeCKHMH), qTO o6HapY>KHBaeTCSI npn rpancoopaanaa HX B TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIe rJIy6IiHHbIe CTpYKTYPbI (the tigers were separated, as tigers are predatory II muepoe nOMeCmU/lU omoensno, max KaK muzpu XUUfHbl).

JIOrHqeCKaSI

3aBHCHMOCTb

4) Herrpenasarasaue
pa3BepHYTOH: B aopsse

COqeTaHHSI

C .Ily6JIHPoBaHHeM ofiecnevaaarouraa

ceMaHTIiKH

3KCrrJIHnsrpaofipa-

KaH.IlYMa KaK >KeHHe

HCrrOJIb3YIOTCSI SI3bIKaMH B pa3JIHqHbIX rrpHeM, MbICJIH SI3bIKa; B KaK

HeKorHHTHBHbIX

!l>YHKQHSIX: OrpaHHqeHHH:, npnej« H nsrpaxceBbIpa>KeHHSI necer KorHH-

CTPYKTYPHo-cIiHTaKCHqeCKHH:

rrOJIHOe

YCJIOBHSIX CHHTaKCHqeCKHX CTPYKTYPHo-cHHTaKCHqeCKHH: C KaqeCTBeHHbIM OQeHKH pediepenra (crroco6

rrpHHSITbIX

30BaHHSI 3JIaTHBa

cymeCTBHTeJIbHbIX 3HaqeHHH:). ynsoeaae HMeH

3HaqeHHeM

HHSI cy6'beKTHBHo-3MOQHOHaJIbHOH:

rrparvaranecxax
H KorHHTHBHOH:

IIpe.IlHKaTHBHoe

(TaBTOJIOrHSI)

TaK>Ke He

THBHOH: !l>YHKQHH H HCrrOJIb3yeTcSI KOMrreTeHTHOCTH nanee

KaK crroco6

arreJIJISIQHH K ceMHOTHqeCKOH:

SR.
COqeTaHHSIM, B KOTOPbIX HMlIJIHKaHa3bIBaeT 3KCrrJIHCJIyqaSIX H CHJIbHOBepOSITHOCTHOMY xorna 3KCrrJIHKaHT IiHTeHCHOHaJI

§ 4.
QHOHaJIY.

06paTHMcSI

K 3KCrrJIHKaQHOHHbIM >KeCTKoMY

3KCrrJIHKaHT

OTHOCHTCSI K

4.1.

3.Ilecb

paCCMaTpHBaeTCSI

TOT cnyqaH:,

rrpH3HaKH, KaH.IlYMa, 'rnna white

COCTaBJISIIOmHe HO 3KCrrJIHQHPyeT snow, panna TaKHe snow HJIH

>KeCTKHH: H CHlIbHOBepOSITHOCTHbIH: 3KCrrJIHKaHT TaKHe ero He .Ily6JIHPyeT rrpH3HaKH, snow TO H was xoropsre

!l>OH HHTeH-

CHOHaJIa 3KCrrJIHKaH.IlYMa. >KeCTKOH: H

CBSI3aHbI C HHM H.IleT 0

CHJIbHOBepOSITHOCTHOH: is white, 6JIH3Ka (the) IIoCKOJIbKY BbIpa>KeHHSI qTO Ii3

HMIIJIIiKaQHeH:. white

Pe-n,

116e/lb1U CHez, CHez tie»;

CHez 6bl/l 6e/lbIU.


KOTOPbIX CHCTeM

Ha3bIBaIOTCSI rrpH3HaKH, e.IlIiHHQe, H3~bITOqHbI

O>KH.lla~MaSI BepOSITHOCTb O,lJ,HaKO OHH

.IlJISI paBHoHH!l>opMHpoBaHHbIX HeIiH!l>opMaTHBHbI, (TepMHH nnexarnenae TO xce BpeMSI

BrrOJIHe YMeCTHbI

B «nayxaionrea npnaenennsrx rrpOH3BO.IlHT (the) white

KOMMYHIiKaQHH» npm-repon is white CMbICJIa. snow snow

Xapaxrepao,
apexreaaoe THBHoe was white

H. 11. )l{HHKHHa).
aenpermxa(the)

HopMaTHBHOCTH

II CHez tien-«
B

HaH6oJIbIlleH: naysaroutee BHesnow

BbICKa3bIBaHHe

ofiurero

COqeTaHHe nepsoe

II CHez 6bl/l 6e/lblU


BbICKa3blBaHHeM O.IlHHaKOBbIH: the (HlIH snow norrra

II 6e/lblU CHez
HMeHeM White B03HHKaeT snow

H nsrpaxcenae crpamroe

rrpOH3BO.IlSIT HeCKOJIbKO

nneuarrrenae:

HOpMaTI1BHO a sropoe CHOHaJI, HOM 06MaHYToro

.IlOJI>KHO 6bITh

rrO.IlKJIaCCa KJIaCCa snow caoeofipanrsni HMeeT snow

II CHez
3KCTeH-

0 e.IlHHHqHOM.

«3!l>!l>eK;

O>KH.IlaHHSI» naofiopor. HJIH was white HHqero)

II 6e/lblU CHez

rrpH6JIH3HTeJIbHO csepx

O,lJ,HHaKOBbIH: C He coofimaer KJIaCca.

BbICKa3bIBaHHe HHqerO

II CHez 6bl/l 6e/lblU 77

II CHez.

0 e.IlHHHqBbIpa>KeHHSI

rrpIi3HaKOB

aroro pozta CTaHOBSlTCSII1HcjJOpManmHhIMI1, eCJlI1 YKa3aHO oco6oe KalJeCTBO rtpmnaxa: the snow was dazzlingly white II CHez 6blA ocaenumeasno tienu», dazzlingly white snow II ocnenumensno 6e,lblU CHez 11T. rr. TaKI1M 06P3.30M, 06HapYIKI1BaeTCSI forrsuroe CXO,llCTBOMelK,llY 3KCnJlI1KaUl1eH lKeCTKorO H CIiJlhHOrO IiHTeHCHOHaJla Ii COlJeTaHIiSIMIi, 3KCnJlHUIiPYlOlQIiMlf HHTeHCHOHaJI 3KCnJlIiKaH,llYMa. H re, H ztpyrae HopMaTIiBHhI KaK cnoco6 «HaYlJalOlQeH KOMMYHIiKaUHlI», KaK Cpe.llCTBO BhIpaBHIiBaHIiSI IiHcjJOPMaUHOHHhlX nOTeHUHaJIOB Ii Te3aYPYCOB SP H SR, KaK cpencrso C006lQeHIiSI 3HaHIiH. 11 B TOM, Ii B ,llpyroM cnysae 06bIlJHhI BhICK3.3bIBaHIiSI ofimero CMhICJla, B KOTOPhIX 3KCnJll1KaH,llyM H3.3hIBaeT xnacc. CeMaHTHlJeCKaSi KOM611HaT0pIiKa ccxeraaaa B 060IiX CJIyqaSIX nO.llqHHSIeTCSI KOH'hIOHKUIiOHHOMY npaaany, TaK qTO coseraaae He 60JIee HHcjJopMaTliBHO, lJeM O.llliH 3KCnJlIiKaH.llYM. 4.2. COqeTaHHSI C 3KCnJIHKaUIieH liHTeHCIiOHaJIa HJIH lKecTKoro/CHJlhHOrO IiMnJIIiKaUIiOHaJIa KaK 6Y,llTO npOTHBonOKa3aHhI xY.llOlKeCTBeHHoH pesra, C TOqKH speuaa ee aanax OHH KalKYTCSI6aHaJIhHhIMH, TPIiBIiaJIbHOCTb y611saer n03TIiqeCKIiH 3cjJcjJeKT.Ho BOT xpecrovarmiaoe CTIiXOTBopeHIie noarecChI, OTJIHqalOlQeHCSI OTTOlJeHHOCTbIO H KJIaCCIilJeCKHM H3SIlQeCTBOM crnxa: VELVET SHOES Let us walk in the white snow In a soundless space; With footsteps quiet and slow. At a tranquil pace, Under veils of white lace. I shall go shod in silk, And you in wool, White as a white cow's milk, More beautiful Than the breast of a gull. We shall walk through the still town In a windless peace; We shall step upon white down, Upon silver fleece, Upon softer than these. We shall walk in velvet shoes; Wherever we go Silence will fall like dews On white silence below. We shall walk in the snow. (Elinor Wylie, 1-527) Henorpesoxeaaas 6eJII13Ha TIiXO nanaiomero caera IiCnOJIh30BaHa KaK crepxens n03TIilJeCKHX accouaauaa, Ilern, KOHHoTaUIiH OCHOBaHa IiMeHHO na 3TOM, a He IiHOM xaxecrse caera. KOHCTaTaUIiSI yxce B nepaoa CTpOKe 6eJIIi3HhI cnera, caMa no ce6e TPHBIiaJIhHaSI, aaztaer IiHTeJlJleKTyaJlhHyIO H 3MOUIiOHaJlhHYIO YCTaHOBKY n03TIi'leCKOrO C006lQeHIiSl, onpezrenaer nanpaaneaae ero pa3BI1TIiSI Ii n03BOJlSIeT nexsennenao p3.3BepHYTh KapTIiHY eCTeCTBeHHO Ii rapMOHIilJHO conpsosennsrx o6pa30B (soundless space, footsteps quiet and slow, at a tranquil pace, veils of white lace, windless peace, silver fleece, the still town, white silence Ii np.) 43. B 60Jlee o6meM CMblCJle MOIKHO CK3.3aTb, 'ITO rrOMIiMO KOHTeKCTOB «HaY'IaIOlQeH KOMMYHHKaUlUi» COlJeTaHIiSI C 3KCnJlIiKaHTaMIi nora pozta B03MOIKHbl B umpOKOM xpyry KOHTeKCTOB, BKJlIO'IaSI noanorecsne, ecna CMblCJl BblCKa3bIBaHIiSI MOTliBIipOBaH IiMeHHO npIi3HaKOM, BXO.llSlmIiM B IiH78

TeHCHOHaJI3KCnJIHKaH,llYMa HJIH CBSl3aHHblMC HHM )KeCTKOHH CHJIbHOBepO5ITHOCTHOH HMnJIHKal..{HeH(aHaJIOrHSl CJIY'IaeB C aHaJIHTHqeCKHM nOHSlTHeM rnna «XHIUHbIX THrPOB nOMeCTHJIH ornerrs HO»). B n03THqeCKHX KOHTeKCTaX )KCnJIHKaI..{HSl aKHX CeMaHTH'IeCKHX npH3HaKOB HaMepeHHO HCnOJIb3yeTcSl, T QT06bI paaaasars nrpy KOHHOTal..{HH HMnJIHKal..{HH(nparMaTH'IeCKHX H HMH CIJIHKal..{HOHHbIX 3HaqeHHH), CBSl3aHHbIXC HMeHeM naaaoro npamaxa, Cp. TaK)Ke: But somewhere, beyond Space and Time, I Is wetter water, slimier slime! (R. Brooke, 12-607). With yellow gold and white jewels, we paid for songs and laughter. (E. Pound, 12-614)

§ 5. PacCMOTPHM CO'leTaHHSl,B KOTOPbIX3KCnJIHKaHTnaasrsaer npH3HaKH, KBaJIHcPHUHPyeMbIe no OTHOIlIeHHIO IC HHTeHCHOHaJIY 3KCnJIHKaH,llYMa xax npl13HaKH He)KeCTKOH H CJIa60BepoSlTHoH HMllJIHKaI..{HH. B 3THX CJIyqaSlX 11HTeHCHOHaJI 3KCnJI11KaHTa npHHa,llJIe)K11:T 06JIaCTH CB060,llHOH (He)KeCTKOH K 11CJIa60BepoSlTHoH) 11MnJIHKaI..{HH HHTeHCHOHaJIa 3KCnJIHKaH,llYMa.llOCKOJIbKY CB060,llHO HMnJIHI..{HpyeMbIH npH3HaK - 3TO TaKoH npH3HaK, KOTOPbIHMO)KeT 6bITb, a MO)KeT H He 6bITb y ,lleHOTaTOB nannoro K:JlaCCa,TO aTPH6YUHSl raxoro rrpamaxa HHcPopMaTHBHa H ,llJISl CHCTeM, paBH011HcPOPMMpOBaHHbIX Ha YPOBHenOHSlTHH,T. e. 06JIa,llalOmHX O,llHHaKOBbIMH'resaypycavia nOHSlTHH. ECJIH COqeTaHHSlC 3KCnJIHKal..{HeH HHTeHC110HaJIa, KeCTKoro H CHJIbHOrO ) (06Sl3aTeJIbHoro) HMllJIHKal..{HOHaJIan03HaBaTeJIbHbI aa YPOBHe KJIaCCa, TO COqeTaHHSl C 3KCnJIHKaQHeH CB060,llHOrO HMnJIHKal..{HOHaJIa n03HaBaTeJIbHbI Ha HH3IlIHX YPOBHSlX0606meHHSl: aa yposne nO,llKJIaCCOBKJIaCCa 3KCnJIHKaH,llYMa H aa yposae e,llHHHqHOrO B KJIaCCe 3KCnJIHKaH,llYMa. Pa3YMeeTCSl, CB060,llHO HMllJIHI..{MpyeMbIenpH3HaKH pa3HOMOmHbI, T. e. rroxpsraaror B KJIaCce nO,llKJIaCCbI Pa3HbIX 06beMOB, HO nee OHH HMelOT 06111YIOxepry: 3HaSl KJIaCC neaorara no 3KCnJIHKaH,llYMY, HeJIb3Sl CY,llHTb C ,llOCTOBepHOCTblO, ofinanaer JIH zieaorar TaKHM npH3HalCOM HJIH HeT. MO)KeT noxaaarsca, 'ITO OTHOCHTeJIbHO npH3HaKOB sroro pozta HeYMeCTHOrosopars 06 HMnJIHKaI..{HH. Ho 3TO He rax, MbICJIHTeJIbHa}l onepauas HMnJIHKaUHH HMeeT MeCTO: CB060,llHa}l HMnJIHKal..{HSl xep-ranaer o npu ,llaHHOM HHTeHCHOHaJIexpyr B03MO)KHbIX,COBMeCTHMbIX, XOTSlH He acerna COBMemeHHbIXCBOHCTB OTrpaHHH 'IHBaeT ero KaK OT xpyra CBOHCTB,xoropsre 06Sl3aTeJIbHbI, TaK H OT xpyra CBOHCTB,KOTOPbIX6bITb He MO)KeT. Bpan JIH TPe6YlOTCSlnpocrpaaasre HJIJIIOCTPal..{HH aroro crryxas, OH zroCTaTOqHO oueaanen. Crena OTHOCHTCSl nonaansrouree 60JIbIlIHHCTBO BCTpe'IaeMbIX B pean aTPH6YTHBHbIX COqeTaHHH,npe,llHKaTHBHbIX H aenpenaxarasHbIX. CTaTHCTH'IeCKH H JIOrHqeCKH 3TO HOpMaJIbHbIH THn. ConOCTaBHM CJIertyiounre BbIpa)KeH11Sl:
3) The house is empty.II,OOM nycm. II. 1) a predatory tiger IIXUUJHblU 3) an empty house II nycmou dOM.

I. 1)

The

tiger

is predatory.

II Tuzp XUUJeH. 2)
muep;

Snow white

is white. snow

II CHez tie».
CHez;

2)

II 6eAbiU

Ilpezraxauas npH3HaKOB HHTeHCHOHaJIa HJIH 06Sl3aTeJIbHOrO HMnJIHKaUHOHaJIa (I, 1-2) HMeeT ueJIbIO H3bSlCHeHHe HMeH 11 KJIaCCOB(nOHSlTI1I1 0 xrraccax). 3KCnJIHKaH,llYM Ha3bIBaeT KJIaCC(ofiuraa coornecennocrt, HMeHH). Henpezmxaraanas aTPH6Yl..{HSlrex )Ke np113HaKOB (I, 1-2) coanaer H36bITO'IHble, He BnOJ1Hexoppexrnsre COqeTaHHSl.Ilpezraxanaa CB060,llHOHMnJIHKaUHOHHoro npanraxa Hapl1uaTeJIbHOMY HMeHH (1,3) ecrs H3bSlCHeHHeezraHH'IHOrO, 3KCnJ1HKaH,llYMY)Ke He penpesearnpyer KJ1aCC, H HMeeT nenoraO THBHoe anaseaae. HaKOHel..{, nenpenaxarzenaa aTPH6Yl..{HSl roro )Ke rrpmaaxa (II, 3) ofipaayer HMSl nO,llKJIaCCa KJ1aCCa3KCnJI11KaH,llYMaC perYJ1SlpHbIMH CBOI1CTBaMH HapHl..{aTeJIbHOrO HMeHH: OHO MO)KeT penpesearapoaars B BbI~ 79

(:Ka3bIBamHIX CBOH nO,I:lKJIaCCH rorzta HMeeT CHrHHcpHKaTHBHOe saasenae (cp. How saddening is an empty house! II Cfmo uootcem tium« neuansnee nycmoeo ooua'I) HJIH )Ke MO)KeT penpeaearapoaars e,I:llfHHqHOe H rorna HMeeT ,I:leHOTaTHBHOe 3HaqeHHe (cp, How saddening was the empty house. II KaK neuanen 6blJl 6UO nycmozo oOMa).

'rnna npHHa,I:lJIe)KaT n03THqeCKOMY SI3bIKY, cp. HeCKOJIbKO npaerepon H3 cOBpeMeHHoH n033HH: joyous alarms, yesterday's silences are much louder, a poem should be wordless, furnished souls, delighted fingers, peevish gutter, the day blinks, the river sweats oil and tar, eyeless road, a white sleep, the hyenna despair, breasted tree, the conceiving moon, gooseskin winter, dunghill sky, in its box of sky lavender and cornerless I the moon rattles like a fragment of angry candy, sour cream wall, my blood stings, winds that knive us, with fingering stealth; the seeds, assuaged, peep from nested spray; lifelong the fishlipped lovers lie I kissing catastrophes, smothering mountains of my silence, lizards of reminiscence 116ecCJla6HblU nooeue (comeopenus menu), tiecneuuo MY'lUJlaCb (oyusa), c606o0HblU pa6, COJleHaJipa6oma, uecmuuii nom, 6eJlblU MUP, 6eJlaJl MY3blKa, tiesa» saeucms, sauopooceunue 2POMbl, mY20u 36YK, cnsuias 2p03a, ocmueaioiuuii nenem U3MeH'IU6blX ycm, tuunens :>fCYXJlblX mpae, 2POMKUU seo, npospauuue KOJlOKOJ1a, npu epycmttux (/joHapJlX, patiomaem tieccounuua, tumun» U3Hb16aJ1, lUXYHa opeuasa, npOKJ1IOHem cnexcuue csopnynu mpaea, (/jJ1eUmbl 6000CmO'lHblX mpy6, 80

npapozm, 6.1. COqeTaHHSI paccsrarpaaaesroro

§ 6. IlepeH.lleM ztanee K paccsrorpeumo COqeTaHHH, ,I:lJISI OTOPbIX xapaxK TepHa 3KCnJIHKal.{HSI erHMnJIHKal.{HOHaJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB. H HanoMHHM, qTO HenfMnJIHKal.{HOHaJI - COBOKynHOCTb nOHSITHH orpauaTeJIbHOH IfMnJIHKal.{HH, T. e. cexraarnxecxax npH3HaKOB, HeCOBMeCTHMbIX C IfHTeHCIfOHaJIOM 3KCnJIHKaH,I:lYMa. ECJIH 6bI eCTeCTBeHHble SI3bIKH 6bIJIH crporo JIOrHqHbIMH, TO COqeTaHHSI, B KOTOPbIX 3KCnJIHKaHT npanacsmaer 3KCnJIHKaH,I:lYMY npH3HaK, HeCOBMeCTHMbIH C ero HHTeHCHOHaJIOM,6bIJIH 6bI sanpeuteasr. Mezcny TeM npaxrepsr aroro porta BOBce He KaKaSI-HH6Y,I:lb pe,I:lKOCTb.ECJIH HallieH l.{eJIbIO SIBJISIeTC5I orracaaae H TeOpH5I He KaKorO-TO npenapaposannoro SI3bIKa, a eCTeCTBeHHoro SI3bIKa BO scefi nOJIHOTe ero np(>SIBJIeHHH: CPYHKl.{HH, H eCJIH l.{eJIH H MeTO,I:lbIJIHHrBHCTHKH onpe.lleJISIIOTCSI eCTeCTBeHHhIM 5I3bIKOMKaK 3MnHpHqeCKOH ,I:laHHOCTbIO TeOpH5Iaroro 3MnHH pHqeCKOrO 06'beKTa ,I:lOJI)KHaCOrJIaCOBblBaTbCSI ero peaJIbHOH CYIl.{HOCTbIO C H He ,I:lOJI)KHaBO BC5IKOMcnyxae HaqHHaTh C pa3pYllIeHH5I ero OHTOJIOrHqeCKOH CyTH, C nO,I:lMeHhI ero peaJIbHOH rrpapozrsr, TO H CJIyqaH raxoro porta npa scea HX BH,I:lHMOH: JIOrHqHOCTH He MorYT 6hITb cfipoureusr co csera, a HO ,I:lOJI)KHhIYJIQ)KHThC5IB TeopHIO ceMaHTHqeCKOH: KOM6HHaTopHKH eCTeCT~eHHbIX 5I3hIKOB. CJIe,I:lyeT BhI5ICHlfTh B03HHKaIOIl.{He npn HOM 3cpcpeKTbI H onpezierrars CPYHKl.{HH COqeTaHHi1:C 3KCIl.I1lOOU:(HeH HerHMllJIHKaL{lfOHaJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB. MTaK, paCCMaTpHBaeMbIH pasnerr ceMaHTHqeCKOH KOM6HHaTopHKH npaHa,llJIe)KHT K qHCJIY TaKHX CBOHCTBeCTeCTBeHHbIX 5I3bIKOB, xo ropsre ,I:laIOT nOBO,I:lynpexars HX B JIOrHqeCKOM HeCOBepllIeHCTBe. Cp. C 5IBJIeHHSIMH nOJIHceMHH, OMOHHMHH, HeCOOTBeTCTBHSI JIOrHqeCKOH H rpaMMaTHqeCKOH CPOPMbI npe,I:lJIO)KeHH5I.BMeCTe C TeM 3TO YHHBepCaJIbHhle CBOHCTBaeCTeCTBeHHhlX SI3bIKOB, XOT5I OHH H ,I:leJIaIOT eCTeCTBeHHbIH 5I3hIK He BnOJIHe y,I:106HbIM HHCTPYMeHTOM JIOrHqeCKOrO aHaJIH3a H BbI3bIBaIOT nOTpe6HOCTb B HCKYCCTBeHHbIX cpopMaJIH30BaHHbIX SI3bIKax, crreuaansrro npHcnoc06JIeHHhIX ,I:lJISI uerrea JIOrHqeCKOrO aHaJIH3a aayxaoro 3HaHHSI, 3TO- cpYH,I:laMeHTaJIbHble H neofixonaxrsre CBOHCTBa eCTeCTBeHHOrO SI3bIKa, noxasarerrsasre ,I:lJISIero

mpeyco.nbHa.fl epytua H T. n. Ilonaas ouenxa CMhICJIa3THX rrpzxrepoa, eCTeCTBeH110, rpefiyer 60JIee llIHpOKOrO n03THqeCKOrO KOHTeKCTa,H 3.L{eChOHH npHBO;lsncSI JIHllIh .L{JlSI YSlCHeHHSI CeMaHTHqeCKOrOrnna coseranaa: 3KCllJIHKaHT KaK 6Y.L{TO rrpaaaaneaorr K 06JIaCTH npe.L{HKaTOB, IOrHqeCKH «npOTHBonOKa3aHHhIX» J 3KCnJIHKaH.L{YMY, . e. K 06JIaCTH ero HerHMnJIHKaUHOHaJIa. T 6.2. BCSlKoe OCMhICJIeHHOeHerHMnJIHKaUHOHaJIbHOe COqeTaHHe CO.L{ep)KHT qJHrypy pexa: O.L{HHH3 ero KOMnOHeHTOB HJIH 06a SlBJISlIOTCSI HeHopMaTHBHhIMH 0603HaqeHHSlMH COOTBeTCTBYIOmerOxonuerrra H npe.L{CTaBJISllOT C060H rporrsr: MeTa<pophl, MeTOHHMHH H OKClOMOpOHhl.3.L{eChHeT He06xo.L{HMOCTH B OC060M paCCMOTpeHHH 3THX rporrca, nOCKOJIbKYOHH .L{OCTaTOqHO XOP0ll10 YI3BeCTHhI. TIoSlcHeHHSI 3aCJIY)KHBalOT J1Hll1h nexoropsre pa3HOBH.L{HOCTH <pHryp, HMelOmHX MeCTO B HerHMnJ1HKaUMOHaJ1hHhIXCOqeTaHMSlXM He OCseurenasrx B reopaa n03THqeCKOrO Sl3hIKa. TI03TOMY rrpezcne qeM ofipaTMThCSI HenOCpe.L{CTBeHHO K ceMaHTMqeCKOMY aHaJ1M3Y HerMMnJ1MKaUHOHaJIhHhIX COqeTaHMH, onmueea S1BJ1eHMSI e pen 0 .L{q MH e H M 51 M K 0 Hn T P a K U M M, BeChMa xapaxrepasre .L{J1S1eMaHTHqeCKOH KOM6MHaTopMKM c cOBpeMeHHoH n033HM, a TaK)Ke paCCMOTpMM pa3HOBHL{HOCTH MeT 0 H MM H q e C K H X 3 n H T e T 0 B. 6.2.1. Iloaraxecxoe n e pen 0 .L{q M H e H He C M hI CJ1a - 3T0 napyureane J10rMqeCKMX HOPM nO.L{qMHeHMSI (J10rMqeCKOH CBSl3M)CMhICJIOBB 003THqeCKOM TeKCTe. Ilepenozrsaaeaae BhI3hIBaeTCSI TeXHHqeCKHMM YCJ10BMSIMM n033MM, cneUH<pHqeCKMMM Tpe60BaHHSlMM n03TMqeCKOH <pOPMhI (pMTM, paassep H T. n.) H BMeCTe C TeM C03.L{aeT3<p<peKTKOHTpaKUHM CMhICJ1a.Cp.: I will make a palace fit for you and me I Of green days in forest 1 and blue days at sea. (R. L. Stevenson, 12-570) (....days in green forest, at blue sea). - ,,' There rises the hidden laughter I Of children in the foliage. (T. S. Eliot, 12-625) (+- the laughter of hidden children) The huddled warmth of crowds I Begets and fosters hate. (E. Wylie; 12-610) (+- the warmth of huddled crowds) ... the terrible white malice I Of waves high as cliffs. (J. Wain, 1-419) ( ....the malice of white waves) ... the bud's tipped rage. (T. Gunn, 17-379) (....the tipped bud's rage) in the lion's intolerant look. (W. H. Auden, 12-628) (+- in the intolerant lion's look) MaTh peBOJ1lOUMSI! Herrerxal I Tpexrpaanaa ompoBeHHOCTh nrrsnca, (3. oarpHUKMH) ( ....OTKpOBeHHOCTh'rpexrpannoro urrsixa) ... Bna.L{aJ1M ,llJIHHHLIH B01,llYX KOpH,llOpa. (B. AXMa.L{YJ1HHa,29, 1970 r., B NQ 8, c. 71) (+- Boa.L{aJIHB B03.L{YX.L{JIMHHOrOKOpM.L{Opa) 6.2.2. KaK BM.L{MM,n03TMqeCKMe C006meHMSI Hepe.L{KO, XOTSI H CO.L{ep)KaT see He06xo.L{HMhIe KOMIIOHeHThI CMhICJIa, KOM6MHMPYlOT HX B .L{OCTaTOQHO npOM3BOJIbHOM IIOpSl.L{Ke,TaK QTO npn OCMhICJ1eHMM co06meHMSI MX He06xo.L{MMO paCCTaBMTb no MeCTaM co06pa3HO J10rMQeCKMM CBSl3S1M. BCJIH N 1 +- (N2 +- N3) - nO.L{QMHeHHeHOpMaJIbHOrO BM.L{a,KaK B the malice of white waves II 6030YX O.nUHHOZO «opuoopa, TO nepenonsaaeaae MMeeT BHL{ (N 1 .... N2) +- N3 - the white malice of waves II OJ1UHHbIU6030YX «opuoop a, Ilpa no,nQHHeHHH HOpMaJIbHOrO BH.L{a N2 arpaer pOJIb nocpezicrayrouiero TepMHHa ceMaHTMKO-CHHTaKCHQeCKOrOOTHOllIeHMSI N 1 M N3; N3 SlBJ1S1eTCSI HOpMaJIbHhIM npe.L{HKaTOM N2, H 3TO <pMKCHpyeTcSI CHHTaKCMCOM COQeTaHHSI. Ilpa nepenO.L{QHHeHMH N3 H3bSlTO H3 CHHTaKCHQeCKOrOnon-

1 3JleCb H zranee B npasrepax H3 rr03TH'leCKHX HJIJIlOCTPHPYlOlilHe pacCMaTPHBaeMOe SlBJIeHHe.

TeKCTOB Bbl,lleJIeHhl

CO'leTaHHlI,

81

'umeHHSI N2 H nO.ll'IHHeHO N" HO N2 coxpaase rca B xaxecrse H3bSlCHSlJOutero TepMHHa OTHoweHHSI NIH N3• ECJ1H )!(e nOCpe,llCTBYJOruIU'1: 'repMHH N2 onyuten, TO HMeeT MeCTO K 0 H T P a K U H SI ssrpaacenaa CMblCJ1a: N 1'" N3. TIPH KOHTpaKUHH N 1 nOMHMO C06CTBeHHbIX npezraxaros «rrpacsaHBaeT» npenaxarsr, HOpMaJ1hHO npnnaztrrezcaurae N2: huddled warmth, tipped rage, white malice II OAUHHblU e030Yx, mpexepaunas omkpoeeuuocms, Kpo_~/eluHblu 'lac. TIOCKOJ1bKY MHO)!(eCTBa npeziaxaron NIH N2 06hIlfHO He3KBHBaJ1eHTHhI, N 1 npnofiperaer 3KCnJ1HKaHThI H3 06J1aCTH csoero HerHMnJ1HKaUHOHaJ1a. 3TO H ecrs KOHTpaKUHSI. TIocpe,llCTBYJOLUHH TepMHH N~ MO)!(eT 6hITh npaxro He Ha3BaH, HO CO,llep)!(HTCSI B co06meHHH XOTSI 6hl HMnJ1HUHTHO H ,llOJ1)!(eH 6hITh BOCCTaHOBJ1eH npa J10rHlfeCKOM nexozrapoBaHHH CMhICJ1a co06rueHHSI. Pacnpenerreture nperraxaroa no aprycreirraxr COCTaBJ1S1eT xacrs cosoxynaoro 3HaHHSI SP H SR H HX YMeHHSI nOJ1b30BaThCSI Sl3hIKOM. He06hIlfHOCTh npenaxara ouiyuiaercs SR H nofiyscnaer ero K nOHCKaM nocpencrayiourero TepMHHa. Cp.: His form began its senseless change. (R. Eberhart, 17-35) (senseless change +- change of senseless body) How can those terrified vague fingers push I The feathered glory from her loosening thighs? I And how can body, laid in that white rush I But feel the strange heart beating where it lies? (W. B. Yeats, 12-595) (feathered glory ... feathered god's glory, white rush +- white bird's rush). No mortal eye could see. (Th. Hardy, 4-58) (mortal eye ... mortal man's eye). In a fiercely mourning house. (D. Thomas, 12-635) (mourning house-smourning family's house) The spellbound horses walking warm out of the whinnying green stable. (D. Thomas, 6-449) (the whinnying stable +- the whinnying horses' stable) . Miss WoirslWispers to me her international fears. (J. Berryman, 8-8) (international fears ... fears on the account of international affairs) l1,lleT-rY,lleT 3eJleULIH WYM,13eJleubIH WYM, BeceHHHH WYM! (H. A. Hexpacon, 27-243) , 3aJlaTaUUblH: CTapHK (A. TIpeJ10BCKHl1:, 29, 1968 r., NQ 3, c. 78) (... CTapHK B 3aJ1aTaHHOl1: onexne), Cp, raxzce amorous sojourn (Shakespeare) ... amorous men's sojourn, hated back (Shakespeare) ... hated daughter's back, sentimental journey (Stern) +- sentimental traveller'S journey, temperate valley (Eliot) ... valley of temperate climate, scarlet soldiers (Auden) ... scarlet uniform soldiers" coAeHa~9 patioma (B. KOP)!(HKOB- 0 pafiore rpyasnxa) ... pafiora zro (COJ1eHoro) nora, uecmnuu nom (B. KOP)!(HKOB) +- nOT xecraorc rpyna, 6eAbiU nup (11. Kauiezceaa - 0 3HMHHX safiaaax) +- aecern,e, 3a6aBhI, nnp aa (6eJlOM) CHery, »cenesnas uepa (0 TSI)!(eJ10H aTJ1eTHKe) +- arpa, cnopr ()!(eJ1e3HoH) WTaHrH H T. n. Hapsny c oKKa3HOHaJ1hHOH n03TH'leCKOH KOHTpaKUHeH, OTMeTHM CJ1YlfaH Y3yaJ1hHOH KOHTpaKUHH, YTBep,llHBWHeCSI KaK npHBhl'lHhle nsrpazceans, cp. mad house (doctor), dead list, retired list, Stone Age" cyuacuieoiuuii OOM, tiena» onuunuaoa, 6POH306blli (KaMeHHblU H ztp.) ee« (BeK 6POH30BhIX, xaMeHHhIX H zip. OPY,llHH) H T. n. Becsxra xacra KOHTpaKUHSI «anrponosroprprroro» nma (KaK OKKa3HoHaJIbHaSi asrpanrrerrsnaa, TaK H Y3yaJ1bHaSi crepraa), T. e. npHnHChIBaHHe npH3HaKOB, CBOHCTBeHHhIX lfeJ10BeKY KaK ueJ10MY, lfaCTSIM lfeJ10Be'leCKOrO TeJ1a, npH3HaKaM (,lleHCTBHSIM, COCTOSlHHSlM T. n.) senoaexa, H seurasr, CBSI3aHHhIM C HHM. Cp. distressful (automatic, patient, delicate, mad, anxious, 82

loving, etc.) hand(s), faithless arm, terrified vague fingers, patronizing kiss, indifferent eye (beak), insistent feet, angry stick, etc. (extracted from R. Eberhart, W. Owen, W. B. Yeats, St. Spender, R. Wilbur, E. Dowson, W. H. Auden, T. S. Eliot, H. MacDiarmid, J. Hollander) II HO opotienas PYKa I IIOKP06bl xnaouue xeamaem, PYKOlO uucmou U 6e36u/-I/-IOU I B nop atiotqenIIble 6Pa30bll Bpocan »cueumensnoe CeMJI (A. C. Ilymxna), MUMO znas MOUX muXUX npoiuen (T. KY30BJ1eBa), uemsm «aeepsuuu CHe:JICKOM (H. Kaureacesa), U uua 60U/Ia, U ZO/lOO/-lO U mJl:JICKO :JICU/lOCb uoei; HampYJlCeHHOU cmpane CA. llpeJ10BCKMli), nemepnenueoe (pO 6KOe, npUCmbl:JICeH/-IOe, eopoenueoe, uaoueunoe H T. rr.) 06U:JICe/-lUe,»cecm, KU60K H T. n. ,L(mI aHrJ1HMCKOro Sl3hIKa secssea xapaxrepna rJ1arOJ1hHaSiKOHTpaKQHSI, Kor,n:a B rJ1arOJ1e «crrpeCCOBhIBaeTCSI» saasenae ,n:eMcTBHSIH cnocofia ero HCrrOJ1HeHHSI:to blink about for smth, to curse through smth, to limp on, to wince out, to trickle, to flap, etc. Hanporas, PYCCKOMY Sl3hIKY 60J1ee CBoMcTBeHHa azrsexrasnaa KOHTPaKQHSI. P., B nonornreaae C K npnae,n:eHHhIM ssnne, rrpHMephl H3 raser: tiena» cmpaoa, 6e/lblU peuc, zO/ly60u nampyns, senenas »camea, 6blcmpblu »eo, cepetipsnui; mpeuep (JIr, No 27, 1973 r., nonfiopxa A. KaJ1HHHHa). KOHTpaKQHSI- liacThIM CJ1yqaM KOMrrpeCCHH Bhlpa)KeHHSI. ,L(0J1S1 MhICJ1a, C npnxortsutasca na e,n:HHHQYBhIpU)KeHHSI, yserrasena rrpOTHB HOPMhI, co-reTaHHSI rHIIepceMaHTH3HPOBaHhI. O,n:HaKOnpa 3TOM pacnrarsraarorca npnnarsre B Sl3hIKe HOPMhI COOTHOrneHHSlMe)K,n:y <l>opMYJ1aMHJ1eKCHlieCKOMcolieTaeMOCTH CJ10BH <l>opMYJ1aMH rr0J10)KeHHOrO liM CMhICJ1a.llHalie roaopa, THIIy oraoureaaa KOMIIOHeHTOB CJ10)KHOrOrrOHSITHSICOOTBeTCTByeTHeHOpMaTHBHhIM THII J1eKCHlieCKOMCOqeTaeMOCTH. B03HHKalOmHe npa nOM J1eKCHqeCKH rrOJ1YOTMeqeHHhIe crpyxrypsr HY)K,n:aIOTCSI rr03TOMY B nonzrepaoce 60J1ee rnHPOKOrO KOHTeKCTa, C TeM liT06hI MO)J(HO6hmo nexozraposars HX CMhICJ1.Casta rro ce6e CTPYKTypa C KOHTPaKQHeM crpanaer perpepeauaoaHOM aeorrpezreneaaocrsro. llOCKOJ1hKY ,n:J1S1 hIpa)KeHHM aayxnoro B Sl3hIKa perpepemraoaaaa He,n:BycMhICJ1eHHOCTh cyntec'raennoe YCJ10BHe, TO 3TOT BM KOMrrpeCCHH BhIpa)KeHHSl ,n:J1S1 Hero nerrparoztea. KaK H3BeCTHO, KOMrrpeCCHSIBhJpa)KeHHSIB HaYliHOM Sl3hIKe ,n:OCTHraeTCSI npeasiyutecrneano 3aMeHOM paasepayroro CnO)KHOrO 0603HalieHHSI HOBhIM rrpOCThIM TepMHHOM. HarrpOTHB, QeJ1eBaSiYCTaHOBKa rr033HH HHaSl. 3,nech He CTOJ1hKO Ba)KHO TOqHO 0603HaqHTh, CKOJ1hKOaKTyaJIH3HPOBaTh y SR rrepe)KHBaHHSI, MeHTHliHhIe rrepe)KHBaHHSlM SP. TOQHee CKa3aTh, Ba)KHO, liT06hI SR nepezcaaan npezn-rer coofiuteaaa COOTBeTCTBeHHO 3aMhICJ1Y (purport) SP. ll03TOMY rr033HSI CKJ10HHa orrepnpoaars rJ106aJ1hHhIMH e,nHHHQaMH CMhICJ1a,B KOTOPhIX rrp'arMaTHlieCKHM 3J1eMeHT, H B QaCTHOCTHcy6'heKTHBHO-OQeHOliHhIM, He OTrplll'lHliHBaJ1CSI 6hI OT c06CTBeHHO HHTeJ1J1eKTYaJ1hHOro. OJ1ee roro, O rr03T CKJ10HeH nepedropjaynapoaan, Bhlpa)KeHHSI TaK, liT06hI aroro pasrpaHHlieHHSI He 6hmo. KOHTpaKQHSI H ecrs O,nHH H3 cnocofioa TaKoM nepeCTPOMKHHopMaTHBHhIx BhIpa)J(eHHM. CTaJIKHBaSiCh C HerrpHBhlliHhIM COQeTaHHeM, SR B noacxax CMhICJ1asoaepauraercs na acxoznrsre rr03HQHH neKo,nHPOBaHHSI: OH HIQeT ero B rJl06aJ1hHOM CMhICJ1e e,nHHHQ BhIpa)KeHHSI, cHHTaKCHQeCKOMCTPYKTYPhI, KOHHOTaTHBHhIX aCCOQHaQHSlXH oT6HPaeT H3 aroro rJ106aJ1hHOrO CMhICJ1aTO, QTO cornacyercs C QeJ1hIM rr03THQeCKOrO C006meHHSI. Ho ecrs H ztpyras npaxaaa, nofiyacztarouras K KOHTPaKQHH arpnfiyTHBHhIX COlieTaHHM: 3aTPy,nHeHHSI B HMeHOBaHHH nocpencrayroutero rrOHSITHSI, OTCYTCTBHe HMeHH, anexsaraoro 3aMhICJ1Y. «3eJ1eHhIlI uryv», rro saMhICJ1YH. A. HeKpaCOBa, - 3TO rnYM He rrpOCTO,3eJ1eHhIX nyfipaa, HO HaQHHalOmHX 3eJ1eHeTh ,ny6paB, H He TOJ1hKOziyfipaa, HO H J1eCOB,pout, zte-

83

penses, KYCTapHHKOB,rpaa, JIHCTBbI- WYM BCeX pacrenaa, np06Y)l(,llalOllUIX_ CSI K HOBOH )l(H3HH aa BeCeHHeM BeTPY. Haxonen, 3TO CHMBOJI paziocr. HOrO H CTpeMHTeJIbHOrO np06Y)l()leHHSI BCerO )l(HBOrO. KOHTpaKUHSI n03BOJISieT H36e)l(aTb 3aTPY)lHeHHH B HMeHOBaHHH aroro 06UIHpHoro coztepxa, HHSI. Bynyxa peQ:>epeHUHOHHO paCnJIbIBqaTbIM, KOHTpaKUHOHHoe COqeTaHHe He rrperrarcrayer aCCOUHaTHBHOMY,llOMbICJIHBaHHIO H CB060,llHO BMeIl.(aeT aBTopCKHH 3aMbICeJI. Ho HeJIb3S1 He anners, qTO ,llOCTHraeTCSI no ueHoi1 H3BeCTHOH aMopQ:>HOCTH, HeOnpe)leJIeHHOCTH MbICJIH. Coziepacanae asrpa. )l(eHHSI caxro no ce6e yrpaxaaaer qeTKHe rpanaust, asrpaxeaae B 3Ha'lHTeJIbHOH Mepe «sepnae r» CBOH CMbICJI H3 uenoro, ovep-rasaer ero C He06XO)lHMOH onpezieneaaocrsto JIHWb non B03,lletfcTBHeM npyrax nsrpazceHHH B C006Il.(eHHH. 6.2.3. OC06bIM cnyxaeja nepenonmrneuas SlBJISleTCSInepenozrsnaerme npezraxaroa rrpa cpaBHeHHH no Q:>opMYJIeW ~ N2 .... N3 (P) > N1 .... N3 (P) ~ ~ N2, r)le + - CHMBOJIcpaBHeHHSI, a .... - BeKTOp 3KCnJIHKaUHH. ITpe)lHKaTbI, onHCbIBalOLUHe O)lHH H3 aprYMeHTOB cpaBHeHHSI, nepeHOCSlTCSI aa ,llpyroH. Ilepenozrsnaeaae npn cpaBHeHHH - secssra xapaxrepnas Q:>Hrypa pexa B cOBpeMeHHoH n033HH. Cp.: And his answer trickled through my head I Like water through a sieve. (I.. Carrol, 6-455) The door still swinging to, and girls revive, I Aeronauts in the upmost altitudes I Of boredom fainting, dive I Into the bright oxygen of my nod. (K. Amis, 8-5) Down the road someone is practising scales, I The notes like little fishes vanish with a wink of tails. (L. Mac Neice, 12-633) What happens to a dream deferred? I Does it dry up I like a raisin in the sun? lOr fester like a soar - I and then run? lOr crust and sugar over - I like a syrupy sweet? I Maybe just sags I like a heavy load? lOr does it explode? (L. Hughes. 1-551) Your hair I Wept round your face like a willow I Unstirring I Your eyes were dry. (A. Alvarez, 8-4) ITo JIHUY npOHOCJlTCJI OlIn, I KaK 6yKcyromnH MOTOnHKJI. (A. B03HeceHcKHH,25-17) ,[{yma MOJl, Moli 3BepeHhIW, I Mezc rOp0,llCKHX KYJIHCI meHKoM C o6pbmKOM BepeBKU I TbI HOClIUIbCJIU cKYJtnillb! (A. B03HeceHcKHH, 25-41) Ofisrxuoe aanpaarreune nepenoca - OT 'roro, C lleM CpaBHl1BaIOT, na cpaaHliBaeMOe (er-r, npm-repst Bblwe). Ho B03MO)l(HO neperrozrsnnenae nperraxaTOB 11C 06paTHhIM sexropoxr N (p) -+ N1 ~ N2 > N1 ~ N2 ~ N3(p): Their eyes sunk jellied in their holes I Were held up to the sun like begging bowls. I Their hands like rakes with finger-nails of rust I Scratched for a little kindness from the dust. (St. Spender, 1-4-7) Buba sits a wrinkled monument in Old Ladies Home. (A. Ginzberg, 9-580) Bare skin is my wrinkled sack. (A. Ginzberg, 1-575) The town froze, close as a fist I Winter was setting about us. I Like birds the bare trees shivered, I Birds without leaves or nests. (A. Alvarez, 8-3) AprYMeHT cpaBHeHI1S1 MO)l(eT HCnOJIh30BaThCSI KaK MO,lleJIh OnI1CaHI1S1 CpaBHI1BaeMOro, 11 rorna B03Hl1KalOT paasepayrsre cpaBHeHI1S1 C MHO)l(eCTBeHHhIM nepenon-nmeuaexr npe)lI1KaTOB. Constantly risking absurdity I and death I whenever he performs I above the heads I of his audience the poet like an acrobat I climbs on rime I to a high wire of his own making I And balancing on eyebeams I above a sea of
84

faces I paces his way I to the other side of day I performing entrechats I and slight-of-foot tricks I and other high theatrics. (L. Ferlinghetti, 1-563) KaK H3BeCTHO,B OCHOBeMeTacpopbI TaK)J(eJIe)J(HTMbICJIeHHOecpannenae, 1{O srerarbopa - sro orpafio ramroe, OCBoeHHoe H cxpsrroe cpaanenne, xorna y6paH aprysrenr cpaBHeHHSI, aero HMSI HCnOJIb3YCTCSI aK HMSI cpaaaasaK ·eMorol. Ilepenonsaaenae npenaxaros npa cpaJ3HeHHH CTOHT na nOJInYTH ·OTcpaBHeHHSI K qHCTOH MeTacpope. MbICJIHTeJIbHbIH MexaHH3M raxoro nepe'Hoca MO)J(HO npezrcramrrs TaK. l:IMeeTcSI nenrs 01 KJIaCCa K 1, HMSI N1; y nee 06HapY)J(HBaeTCSInpH3HaK pI, He naxoztauma B OHOMaCHOJIOrHqeCKOH HopMe y.nOBJIeTBOpHTeJIbHOrO 0603HaqeHHSI. l:IMeeTcSI TaK)J(e seuts 02 KJIaCca K~f HMSI N~2; co CXO.nHbIM, XOTSI H He TO)J(.neCTBeHHbIMnpH3HaKOM p2, HMSI 1"13. l:IMSI 1"13 HCnOJIb3yeTcSI .nJISI0603HaqeHHSI pI, a OTCbIJIKaK 02 nOMOraeT npaBHJIbHO OCMbICJIHTb N3 B COqeTaHHH N3 -+ N1 .j: N2. 0603HatIeHHe pI rrocpencraoxr N3 omyuiaercs KaK MeTacpopHqeCKHH nepenoc aroro HMeHH (MeTacpopHqeCKHH 3nHTeT) 2. llepeno.nqHHeHHe npH cpaBHeHHH cymecTBeHHO OTJIHqaeTCSIOT paHee 'OTIHCaHHbIX cnysaen rrepenorraaaenaa. llOCJIe.nHHe COBepIIIalOTCSI B uerrsx C TIOCJIe.nOBaTeJIbHbIM rrozrvaneaaesr, QTo6bI He CMeIIIHBaTb O.nHOC .npyrHM, MO)J(HOrosopars 0 JIHHeHHOM nepenozrsmrenaa (KaK B cnyxae white malice of waves II mpexepaunas omxpoeeuuocms UlmblKa) H CHMHJISlTHBHOM nepenort'iHHeHHH (KaK B crrysae his answer trickled like water II cmonnu OIIU, KaK 6orJa). 6.2.4. llOCKOJIbKY npa JIHHeHHOM neperrozrsaaenaa H KOHTpaKU;HHTaK)J(e HapYIIIeHa HopMa 0603HatIeHHSI, COqeTaHHSIcozrepacar cpHrypy pexa. HenopMaTHBHO 0603HatIeHHe npmnaxa 3KCnJIHKaH.nYMa: N3 BMeCTO N2 -<- N3. 3KCnJIHKaHT COtIeTaHHSIC JIHHeHHbIM rrepenonsmremrev HJIH KOHTpaKU;HeH npe)lCTaBJISIeT C060H BH)l MeTOHHMHtIeCKOrO 3nHTeTa, OCHOBaHHoro na caoeo6pa3HoH aCCOU;HaU;HH no CMe)J(HOCTH:npH3HaK KaKoH-To BeIUH, ssrcryrralOIUeH B KatIeCTBe npasnaxa )lpyroH BeIUH, rrpanacsraaercs HenOCpe)lCTBeHHO :nOH nOCJIe)lHeH. .llpyroH BH)l MeTOHHMHtIeCKOrO 3TIHTeTa OCHOBaH na KOHBepCHBHOM czraare 3HatIeHHSI B aTpH6YTHBHbIX CJIOBaX,na caoeofipaanon KOHBepcHBHoH 3HaHTHoceMHH (KoHBepcHBHoH nOJISlpH3aU;HH3HatIeHHSI) HMeH npH3HaKOB. Ilpn 3TOM aTpH6YTHBHoe CJIOBO, Y3yaJIbHO ofosnasaronree KOHBepcHBHbIH npH3HaK pI, pa3BHBaeT 3HatIeHHe napaoro KOHBepcHBHClro npnanaxa p2. ECJIH 'raxoe yno rpefinemre CJIOBa He CPHKCHpOBaHO OHOMaCHOJIOrHtIeCKOH B nopxre, OHO BocnpHHHMaeTCSI KaK 06pa3HaSI cpHrypa - BH)l MeTOHHMHtIeCKOrO 3nHTeTa, cp. slow sad leaps II neuassuue nonsnu H T. n. llOMHMO nepenon-nmeanoro (KoHTpaKU;HoHHoro) H KOHBepcHBHoro MeTOHHMHtIeCKHX 3nHTeToB, OTMeTHM euie cHHKpeTHqeCKHH 3nHTeT, coxeralOIUHH MeTacpopy C MeToHHMHeH. K npasrepy, y 10. TblHSIHoBa rOBopHTCSl o «3HMHHX rnasax HHKOJIaSi 1»: «XOJIO)lHble rnaaai (MeTacpopa) - «3HMHHe rnasa» (MeToHHMHSI: XOJIO)l- 3HMa). 6.2.5. 3a CtIeT KaKI1X cpHryp ,LlOCTHraeTCSI ee 60JIbIIIaSI JIlr6epaJIH3aU;I1SI s ceMaHTlfl.JeCKHX HOpM, xapaxrepnas )lJISI cOBpeMeHHoH n033HH? I1MeeT JIH , 3aMeTHM nonYTHO, qTO CJIyqaH rnna: the long flat skis of her legs, that steel-strong snake of a tail (I). H. Lawrence), the lake of my eyes (R. Eberhart) II (/j!leUmbl 6000CmO'lHbiX mpy6, sues ysuuu (U. Maaxoacxua), OP06UHKU UKPUHOK: motmeounu eoptiyu: (P. PO)!(neCTBeHcKHi1) - C KOMnJIeTHBHOI1 CBll3bH) KOMnOHeHTOB CJIeLlyeT c-nrran, cpaBHeHHllMH. B HHX OTCYTcTByeT 3HaK cpaaneuua, HO npencras-neHbl o6a aprysrexra cpaaaenns, I1x raxace He 6e3 OCHOBaHHlI Ha3blBaH)T cpaelieHHllMH-MeTaqlOpaMH. 2 OLlHaKO B cnyxae N3(P) --+ N' .'f- N2 > N' .'f- N2 .... N3(P) N3(P) ynorpefinae rca B CBoeM npllMOM 3HaqeHHH, cpo Buba sits a wrinkled monument.

85

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(N H - N). Taxoe pasrpaanxeaae 0606maeT qaCTO Ha6moLJ:aeMhIH peaJIhHhlH MOLJ:YC aeuiea H HMeeT 60JIhWYIO n03HaBaTeJIhHYIO H npOrHOCTHqeCKYIO ueHHOCTh. Ho, KaK H BCSIKOe 0606meHHe, OHO KOHCTPYKTHBHpyeT LJ:eHCTBHTeJIhHOCTh, «Y)J(eCTOqaeT» 061>eKTHBHOe nOJIO)J(eHHe semea, Haw OnhIT HepeLJ:KO noncxaasmaer, qTO 'raxoe npOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHe LJ:eHCTBHTeJIhHO He B a6COJIIOTHOM, HO B CTOXaCTHqeCKOM CMhICJIe. Ha npaxraxe npHXOLlHTCSI CTaJIKHBaThCSIco CJIyqaSlMH, KOrLJ:a061>eKT 06HapY)J(HBaeT H P H - P H HMeeT MeCTO HeKOTOpoe HaJIO)J(eHHe KJIaCCOB K (P) H - K (- P). 06a rrpasaaxa P H - P MorYT 6hITh npncyura OLJ:HOMY TOMY )J(e 061>eKTY, HO 1) paaaospeH MeHHo, 2) OLJ:HOBpeMeHHo, HO B OTHoweHHH K Pa3HhIM 061>eKTaM, 3) OLJ:HOspesreano, HO C Pa3HhIMH napasterpasta (narrpasrep, P MO)J(eT 6h1Th nOCTOSIHHhIM, xapaxrepasrsr, CymHOCTHhIM KaqeCTBOM 061>eKTa, a - P - CnOpaLJ:HqeCKHM H T. n.), 4) HaKOHeu, P H -P MoryT 6hITh OLJ:HHaKOBOxapaxrepnsr LJ:JISI KaKoH-To OC060H <pa3hI 061>eKTa, npHqeM Me)J(LJ:Y H - P HeT HH OLJ:HOrO P If3 OTJIIfqIfH, YKa3aHHbIX B 1-3. CJIyqaH 3TH LJ:OCTaTOqHOOqeBHLJ:Hhl. Hx HJIJIIOCTPHPYIOT MHOrOqHCJIeHnsre npasrepsr, KOrLJ:a aHTOHHMHqeCKHe CJIOBa B CBSl3HOM TeKCTe onacsrBaIOT OLlHH H TOT )J(e LJ:eHOTaT. 06blqHO 3TH CJIQBa COOTHOCSlTCSI KaK OLlHOpornrsre sneasr (ro=mee H unrpe - KaK cononsaaeansre qJIeHhI, T. e. CJIOBa aa OLJ:HOMYPOBHe nOLJ:qHHeHHSI KaKOMY-TO LJ:pyrOMY CJIOBY):

Eberhart, 17-38) What is this face, less clear and clearer, I The pulse in the arm, less strong and stronger - I Given or lent? More distant than stars I And nearer than the eye. (T. S. Eliot, 12-620) I live and yet I die. (Bonar, 15-60) )la! HeHaBIDKY H see )J(e moomo. I KaK B03MO)J(HO, ThI cnpocanrs? He 061>SlCHIO SI.I Ho TaK qYBCTBYIO, CMepTHO TOMSICh. (KaTYJIJI) POCCHSI- C<pHHKC. JIHKYJl H CKOPOJl,I M 06JIHBaSiCh qepHOH KPOBblO, I OHa fJISlLJ:HT, rJISlLJ:HT B Te6S11U C HeHaBHCTbIO, H C JIIOOOBbJO! (A. bJIOK) COqeTaHHSI H nensre co06meHHSI, B KOTOPhIX aHTOHHMHqHbIe CJIOBa B LJ:e<pHHHTHBHOH<PYHKU;HHonHCbIBaIOT OLlHH H TOT )J(e LJ:eHOTaT, CHrHaJIH3HPYIOT OTHOCHTeJIbHOCTb npOTHBOnOCTaBJIeHHSI npH3HaKOB P H -P, HenOJIHOTY aHTOHHMHH COOTBeTCTBYIOmHX HMeH. ECJIH LJ:eHOTaTHMeHH N ofiaapy)J(HBaeT npH3HaKH PI H P 2, xoropsre MhI CKJIOHHbI CqHTaTh B3aHMOHCKJIIOqaIOmHMH (P H - P), TO, coveras N 3KCnJIHKaQHOHHOH CBSl3bIO C HMeHaMH 3THX npH3HaKOB NIH - N h eCTeCTBeHHhIe SI3bIKH JIHWb <PHKCHPYIOT peansHbIH MO,llYC 3THX npH3HaKoB, CBH,lleTeJIbCTBYSI OTHOCHTeJIhHOCTh npo rasonoCTaBJIeHI1S1,Hea6coJIIOTHbIH xapaxrep HeCOBMeCTHMOCTI1. Ilpn 3TOM ofinapy)J(I1BaeTcSI, qTO npI13HaHHe P H - P B3al1MOHCKJIIOqaIOmHMH npI13HaKaMH CBSl3aHO C Qpe3MepHOH KOHCTPYKTHBaUHeH LleHCTBHTeJIhHOCTH, H BbISlBJIl'IIOTCl'I npenerru, sa KOTOPbIMH nocTYJIHpOBaHHaSi HaMH HeCOBMeCTHMOCTh npH3HaKOB He LJ:eHCTBHTeJIbHa. TaKHM 06pa30M, npH3HaKH ou;eHHBaIOTCl'I He npOCTO no COBMeCTHMOCTHHeCOBMeCTHMOCTH, a 3HaqHTeJIhHO CJIO)J(Hee: no CTeneHH H YCJIOBHl'IM COBMeCTHMOCTH - HeCOBMeCTHMOCTH. A TPH6YU;HSIN O,llHOBpeMeHHO H NIH - N 1 OC03HaeTCSI 6eCCMbICJIeHHOH, JIOrHqeCKH HeHopMaTHBHOH HJIH HeO)J(HLJ:aHHOH BOBce He B mo60M crryxae, HO TOJIbKO KOrLJ:a OHa BbIXOLJ:HT aa npeziensr

1: He's now sad, now joyful II To rpYCTHT, mo paayerca, 2: He loves the truth and hates falsehood II JhoOHT npaeoy U HeHaBMHT /lO:JICb. 3: He's always merry, but at the moment he's dejected II Bceeoa secen, a mym 3arpYCTHJI. K 4: Victor and victim of humility, I I closed in the wordless ecstasy IOfmistery.
K K K

(R.

87

TaKHX «.!lOnYCKOB». KaK npaBHJIO, KOHTeKCT cozrepsorr 3KCnJIHUHTHOe HJIIi HMnJIHUHTHOe, npsxsoe HJIH KOCBeHHOe YTOqHeHHe YCJIOBHl1, npa KOTOPblX KOHTpa.!lHKTOpHOCTbnpH3HaKOB CHHMaeTCSI. Ilpasenenasre C006pa)f(eHHSI cnpasennaasr H OTHOCHTeJIbHOCOqeTaHIi» B KOTOPbIX N J H - N J COOTHeCeHbl KaK 3KCnJIHKaH.!lYM H 3KCnJIHKaHT: O.!lHaKO HenOCpe.!lCTBeHHaSi- He xepea rperse HMSI N - «KOH<l>POHTau;HSI» NIH - N 1 YCHJIHBaeT 3<l><l>eKT ceMaHTHqeCK0I1 aHTHTe3bl, JIOrHqeCKOH HeHopMaTHBHOCTH. 3TO nOHSITHO. JIorHqeCKOH HOPMOH 3KCnJIHKalJ,HOHHoro COqeTaHHSI SlBJISIeTCH 0603HaqeHHe nO.!lKJIaCCa KJIaCCa 3KCnJIHKaH.!lYMa. 3Ta HopMa 6blJIa 6bI aapyurena, eCJIH 6bl nO.!lKJIaCC KJIaCCa KOHCTHTYHpOBaJICSI npH3HaKOM BHenOJIO)f(eHHOrO KJIaCca. B03HHKaJIH 6bl npOCTO 6eCCMbICJIeHHble COqeTaHHSI KOHTpa.!lHKTOpHblX nOHSITHH, conepxauiae contradictio in adjecto. IIoCKOJIbKY COqeTaHHSI N <- - N conepxar BH.!lHMOe napytnenae nOH HOPMbl, nasrepeaaoe HX ynorpefinenae OC03HaeTCSIKaK ocofiaa <l>Hrypa peqH - OKCIOMOpOH. O.!lHaKO JIOrHqeCKaH nopsra He MO)f(eT 6blTb aapyurena 6e3 yrparsr CMbICJIa. Ee napyurenae B OKCIOMopOHe JIHlllb BH.!lHMOCTb. OCMblCJIeHHblX COqeTaHHH C a6COJIlOTHOH aHTHTe30H HHTeHCHOHaJIa A ..... A He MO)f(eT 6blTb. OKCIOMOpOHHble COqeTaHHSI OCMblCJIeHHbl nOCTOJIbKY, nOCKOJIbKY 1) KOHTpa.!lHKTOpHOCTbA H - A OTHOCHTeJIbHaH CHSITa.!lJISl.!laHHOrO crrysras HJIH )f(e 2) HMeeT MeCTO ceMaHTHqeCKHH C.!lBHr B 3KCnJIHKaHTe HJIH 3KCnJIHKaH.!lYMe, TaK 'ITO B HOBblX 3HaqeHHSlX OHH He aHTOHHMHqHbl. 3TO cnpaaertJIMBO .!lJISI scaxoro pozta COqeTaHHI1, B KOTOPblX HMeHa rtpnrracsraaror HeCOBMeCTHMble npH3HaKH O.!lHOMY H TOMY )f(e n;eHOTaTY: nO.!lqHHHTeJIbHbIXO.!lHHaKOBO.!lByqJIeHHbIX H MHOrOqJIeHHblX - H CO'lHHHTeJIbHbIX. 3TO cnpaBe.!lJIMBO He3aBHCHMO OT roro, CBSl3aHbI JIH TaKHe HMeHa npSlMOH CHHTaKCH'leCKOH 3aBHCHMOCTblOHJIH onocpenosanaoa (xepea zrpyrue CJIOBa). CJIe.!lYIOIlJ,He npasrepsr HJIJIIOCTPHPYIOT orpaHHt{eHHYIO KOHTpa.!lHKTOpHOCTb ceMaHTHqeCKHX npH3HaKOB B JI3 3KCnJIHKaHTa H 3KCnJIHKaH.!lYMa, CHHMaeMYIO B OKCIOMOPOHHbIXCOtIeTaHHSlX: Beautiful tyrant! fiend angelical! IDove-feather'd raven! wolfish-ravening lamb! I Despised substance of divinest show! I Just opposite to what thou justly seem'st; I A damned saint, an honourable villain! (w. Shakespeare, "Romeo and Juliet", act III, scene II) Ballad of the Unmiraculous Miracle. (Ha3BaHHe CTHXOTBopeHHSI,aBTOpV. Miller, 17-314) The miniskirt is ajoy to behold,1 Coyly revealing, racy and bold, I Unashamedly caressing the bounciest charms I Filling the mind with joyous alarms.

(H. D.

Atherton,

15-35)

pes, 29, 1970 r., NQ 8, c. 72) NQ 8, c. 71)


6eCCJlaBllhlB: nonsar

CBOHX crpacrea cBo6o.lllD>m pa6 ... I CBOHX crpacrea Ka6aJ1bllhm KBJl3b, I B py6axy JIe3Y roponscs •• 1Ilpourairrecs, MHJIble, C OTlJ,oM,1CJIYI'OB: CBOHX CBo6o.ll:.1 Hanezcnsr BOJlbllhie pa6bl, ITeneps nOMtIHMCSI KTO xyzta. (.LI:M. CyxaCOTBOpeHHSI TeHH

(E.

AXMa.1lYJIHHa,

29, 1970

r.,

AXMa.1lYJIHHa, TaM )f(e, c. 71) OKCIOMOPOHbIroro )f(e pona: «nocneuraa, He ' 'roponacs; ropsxas panocrs, CJIa.!lKaSI 60JIb, YHblJIbIH onTHMH3M» H T. n. Bo scex npHBeAeHHbIX npie-repax OKCIOMOpOHHble COtIeTaHHSIOCMblCJISIlaTCH KaK 0603Hat{eHHSI nOJ].lmaCCOBKJIaCca 3KCnJIHKaH.1lYMaC orpaHHt{eHHOI1 lCOHTpan;HKTOpHOCTblO HHTeHCHOHaJIbHbIX npH3HaKOB, CHHMaeMOH B KOHKpeTHblX YCJIOBHSIX. 6eCne'lHO MY'lHJlaCb .ll:Yma

(E.

Cp. 'raxzce 60JIee npaasrsnsre

88

PaCCMOTpIIM reneps OKCIOMOPOHbIC CeMaHTIIy.eCKIIM C,[{BIIrOM B 3KCnJIHJ(aHTe HJIH 3KCnJIHKaHJzyMe,YCTpaHSIIOllJ;HM KOHTpa'[{HKTOpHbIenpH3HaKH B HX IIHTeHCHOHaJIax: Yesterday's silences are much louder. (D. Anderson, 15-27) Dark, dark my light, and darker my desire. (The Roethke, 17-77) Shape without form, shade without color, I Paralised force, gesture without motion. (T. S. Eliot, 1-530) The smile on your mouth was the deadest thing I Alive enough to have strength to die. (Th. Hardy, 4-53) Living death (H'[{HoMa, cp. «~BoiI rpyn»), )KH3Hb He myna I HOOT mYToK OTKa)l(IICb -I If 6el~lHeHHoiI ror-rac )I(e ICTaHeT ~lHb. (B. TaTapIIHoB, A nezn, see nOJIyy.HJI 6bI, IB03JII06SI peMeCJIO, -I ... fieccsreprt,e npa If )I(H3HII, I If nOCMepTHYro ~lHb. (B. KOPHHJIOB, 29, 1971 r., NQ 8, C. 27) KpaCHOpe'lHBOe MO.ll'laHBe (l1llIIOMa), lBOHKaJl TBDIBHa.

29, 1963, N~ 9, c. 112)

Ilpasrepsr rnna loud silence, dark light II 3BOHKaJl mUUlUHa HJIJIIOCTPHPYIOT y.acTHbIH CJIyy.aH CHHeCTe3Hy.eCKoro cztaara B 3Hay.eHHH 3KCnJIHKaHTOB. «Ee3)I(H3HeHHaSI )I(II3Hb» osaaxaer He «)I(H3Hb 6e3 )I(H3HII», a «CKyy.HaSI, npecnas, BSIJIaSI )I(H3Hb», - TaK)I(e crraar B 3KCnJIHKaHTe. CPo TaK)I(e «xpacaopeaasoe MOJI'IaHHe» - MHOr03Hay.HTeJIbHOe, nOKa3aTeJIbHOe MOJIy.aHHe. Living death II JlCUBOU mpyn, nocuepmuas JlCU3Hb, nanporas, HJIJIIOCTPHPYIOT CllBHT B 3KCnJIHKaHllYMax. «nOcMepTHaSI )I(H3Hb» - He 6110JIOrHy.eCKaSI )I(H3Hb nOCJIe CMepTH, a «)I(H3Hb» B nenax, naMSITH. no cyuiecray ceMaHTHKa TaKHX COy.eTaHHHY)I(e He HMeeT BH,[{ A +- -A, 01lHaKO 3QJQJeKT OKCIOMopOHacoxpanen BO BHYTpeHHeH QJopMe CJIOB.KoenenHO aHTOHHMH'IHOCTb npHCYTCTByeT B CHJIY B3aHMo'[{eHcTBHSI 3Hay.eHHH B ceMaHTH'IeCKOH CTPYKType CJIOBa: CJIOBaCOy.eTaIOTCSI aHTOHHMHy.eCKHMH He 3Ha'leHHSIMH, HO nOCJIellHHe npeztcraaneasr B HX ceMaHTH'IeCKHX crpyxrypax H SIBJISIIOTCSI rJIaBHbIMH 3Hay.eHHSIMH. HX 6.4.2. 2) A+- B npa A = II B = -C. B 3TOM cnyxae COy.eTaIOTCSI CJIOBa, HHTeHCHOHaJIbI KOTOPbIX He nOJIHOCTblO aHTOHHMH'IHbI, HO conepscar aHTOHIIMH'IHble ceMbI, roxaee CKa3aTb, aHTOHHMIIY.HbI ranocesra 3KCnJIHKaHllYMa H HHTeHCHOHaJl 3KCnJIHKaHTa. COBoKynHbIH CMbICJI COy.eTaHHSInpH 3TOM paaen A +- B = T. e. rnnocejaa 3KCnJIHKaH)JYMa 3aMeHSIeTCSIaa KOHTpallHKTOPHYIO. Hanpassep:

f,

1) tell U

CKOJOmb -

e006UHITb cnosasra: -dd

c
-

tell without words


2) song U
neCHJI•••

H CK030mb

6e3

C!l00 I:

e00611.1HTb6e3 enos:

-d-' Cpo TaK)I(e: «cyxOnYTHbIU MOPSIK,HepO'[{HbIU oren (srars), 3eMHbIe Op6HTbl (KocMoHaBToB -06 HX BH3HTax sa rpaHHUY)>>, «CJIaBHble 6bIJIH C06a'leHl.{HH! MbI 0 HHX rpenacs. Ilenxa )I(HBbIe!» (A. Kaaaaues). HOpMaJIbHO B HHTeHCHOHaJIe aTpH6YTHBHoro COy.eTaHHSI rnnepcevy
1 Cp.: «AKTep norrscen HMen, 'ITO cxasars 6e3 eJlOB» (CT. E. JIeLl).

cdc

e MY3blKaJlbHOe rrpOH3Be)leHl1eHa cnosa: -dd e song without words U neCHJI 6e3 CJ108- ••• MY3blKaJIbHOe poaaaenenne 6e3 enos: n

sparemo,

naxe eeJIH y Hero pOJIb

89

COCTaBJI~eT HHTeHCHOHaJI 3KCWIHKaH.LlYMa, a ranocesry - HHTeHCHOHaJI '3KCWIHKaHTa. 3Llecb )l(e B CHJIYKOHTpa.LlHKTOpHOCTHKCruIHKaHTa H rnnocesrsr 3 3KCWIHKaH.LlYMa nOCJIe.LlH~~ HCKJIIOllaeTC~H3 conepxasas COlleTaHH~: 3KCnJIHKaHTY OT.LlaeTC~npezmoxremre nepen nmoceMOM 3KCnJIHKaH.LlYMa.I'nrtepcesra COlleTaHH~ npa 3TOM OCTaeTC~ paBHOM rnnepceste 3KCnJIHKaH.LlYMa B ero nepBHlIHOM 3HalleHHH. Ho reneps eM YJKe COOTBeTcTByeTco6cTBeHHbI11 '.LleCHfHaTOp, H HeH36eJKeH napaJIJIeJIbHbIM ceMaHTHlIecKHM rrpouecc: 3Haxeaae 3KCnJIHKaH.LlYMa 0606111aeTc~, H3 ero coztepzcaaas HCKJIlOlIaeTCSI ranocexra. B caM OM nene, tell I I cxasams B tell without words II cxasams 6e3 CAOB yzce osaaxaer He «C006111HTb CJIOBeCHO», a TOJIbKO «C006111HTb». KOM6HHaTopHo-ceMaHTHlIeCKHM npouecc B u;eJIOM HMeeT BHLl:

-d-

(A)+- - C> -D-(

-c
-c

= D+- - C).

6.4.3. Cesrarrraaecxoe
C

B3aHMoLleMcTBHe no <p0pMYJIe

-d- (A) +- - C> -d->

D+-- C

06Hapy)l(HBaeTC~ rrpa YCJIOBHH, sro 3KCnJIHKaHT ynorpefinen B np~MOM CMbICJle, a 3KCnJlHKaHLlYM OTKJlOHSleTCSI T OHOMaCHOJIOfHlIeCKOMHOpMbI. O 3KC£IJIHKaH.LlYM B 3THX cnysaax, KaK MbI BH.LlHM,nepeOCMbICJIHBaeTCSl,0606&naSi csoe nepsnuuoe anaseaae. ECJIH )l(e, nanporas, 3KCnJIHKaHLlYMHCnOJIbsyerca B CBoeM npSlMOM 3Hallelnm, a 3KCnJlHKaHT He COOTBeTcTByeT HopMe 0603HalleHHSI, TO nepeOCMbICJlHBaeTCSI)TOT nOCJleLlHHM. B ero nepBJilIHOM 3HalleHHH norauraercs aHToHHMHlIecKHM npH3HaK, H 3HalleHHe ero TaKJKe o606111aeTcSI. Ilpouecc B nerrosr paaseprsrsaerca no cxesre:

(A) ... -e- (B)> -d-(A)

-c

+- E.

Cp.: living volcano (language, hope, faith, etc.), dead volcano (soil, matter; fingers; eyes; match; ball; river; wine, beer; law; colour; motor, etc.) II »cueou cmuns (peu», KpaCKU; OmKJIUK, yuacmue; oeno H T. n.), uepmeuu ssu« (sanuman; Ce30H, mULUUHa H T• n.), MOpCKaJl nexoma, CBOU napens Ceema, cecmpa 6blJla MHe uamepsto H T. n. 6AA. TaKHM 06pa30M, OCMbICJIeHHe COlieTaHUM C aHToHHMHlIecKoM 3J(CnJIHKaUHeM npezmonaraer B xa lIeCTBe nenpesseaaoro yCJIOBH~ HJIH pasJIHlIHSI B 3KCTeHCHOHaJIaX aHTOHHMHlIeCKHX npH3HaKOB (OTHoCHTeJIhHaSl, orpanaaeanas aHTOHHMHSI HMeH) HJIH H3MeHeHHSI B HHTeHCHOHaJIaX CJIOB (nepeocsrsrcnenae 3KCnJIHKaH.LlYMaHJIH 3KCnJIHKaHTa nYTeM 0606111eHHSIHX nepBHlIHbIX 3HalleHHM). B JI1060M CJIYlIae KOHTpa.n:HKTOpHOCTbceMaHTHKH KOMnOHeHTOB OKa3bIBaeTCSI HSITOM. .LlHaKOcoxpaaserca C O <poHoBoe npOTHBOnOCTaBJIeHHe BHPTYaJIbHOMceMaHTHKH CJIOB,liTO H C03.n:aeT3<p<peKTconeraHHSIHeCOBMeCTHMbIX .n:eCHfHaTOB. 6.5. Teneps 06paTHMcSl K 3KCnJIHKaU;HOHHbIMCOlleTaHHSlMC HeCOBMeCTHMbIMH HeaHTOHHMHlIeCKHMH npH3HaKaMH. 3TO aecsxsa xapaxrepasni H HaH60nee pacnpocrpanenasni B n03THlIeCKOM S13bIKe BH.LlHefHMnJIHKaU;HOHaJIhHbIX COlleTaHHM. Cneziyer, OLlHaKO, cpasy )l(e YTOllHHTb, xro H B 3TOM CJIYlIae HeCOBMeCTHMOCTbnpH3HaKOB HMeeT MeCTO TOJIbKO na YPOBHe BHpTyaJIbHOM ceMaHTHKH KOMnOHeHTOB, a He B KOHKpeTHOMaKTyaJlH3aU;HH. HHKaKoe coneTaHHe He MO)l(eT HMeTb CMbICJIa, eCJIH B HeM COlleTalOTCSI .n:eMCTBHTeJIbHO HeCOBMeCTHMble soanenrsr, OCMbICJIeHHble COlleTaHHSI pacueaanarorca KaK HerHMnJlHKaU;HOHaJIbHble He nOTOMY, -rro B HHX aapyuieaa JIOfHlIeCKaSi HOpMa - B TaJ(OM CJIYlIae OHH npOCTO He HMeJIH 6bI CMbICJIa,- a nOTOMY, xro OHH OTKJIOHSIlOTCSI HOPMbI OHOMaCHOJIOfHlIeCKoM. OT

90

)I(eHI1S1.1cnOJIb3YSl re )I(e I1MeHa BO BTOPI1qHbIX, OHOMaCI10JIOrliQeCKI1HeHOpI MaTJ1BHbIX 3HaQeHI1S1X resp, C3 li C4, MOIKHO, oznraxo, rrorryxms OCMbICJIeHHble CO'leTaHI1S1npn ycnosaa, QTO CII1 C4 liJII1 C2 li C3 liJII1 C3 li C4COBMeCTHMble KOHuenTbI. TaKI1M 06pa30M, HerliMnJIHKaUl10HanbHble arpafiyTI1BHble COQeTaHI1S1 HeaHTOHI1MI1QeCKHMI1 C npH3HaKaMli B03HHKaIOT: 1) eCJII1 3KCnJIliKaH.n;YMN 1 SIBmreTCSI OpMaTlfBHbIM MMeHeM perpepeura D, a 3KCnJIliH KaHT N2HeHopMaTliBHhIM nepeHOCHbIM 0603HaQeHI1eM npmnaxa P, COBMeCTI1MOrO C 0, npl1QeM HOpMaTI1BHO N2 0603HaQaeT npasaas, He COBMeCTMMbIH C D; 2) eCJII1 N 1 SlBJISleTCSI HeHOpMaTI1BHbIM nepeHOCHbIM I1MeHeM D, a N2 - HOpMan:IBHbIM 0603HaQeHMeM npnanasa P, COBMeCTI1MOrO c 0, npMQeM HopMaTMBHO N 1 0603HaQaeT perpepenrsr, He COBMeCTI1Mble C npl13HaKOM P; 3) eCJIM 11 N 1 11 N2 SlBJISlIOTCSI HeHopMaTI1BHbIMI1 I1MeHaMM resp, 0 H P, npl1QeM P TaK)I(e COBMeCTI1MOC 0, a HOPMaTl1BHble 3HaQeHI1S1Nll1 N2 HecoBMecTMMbI; 4) eCJIM N2 - HopMaTHBHoe I1MSI P, COBMeCTI1MOrO, ozntaxo, He C 0, a 01 (HMSI N3), HO rrpn N3 _...N, (3 KCllJIHKaUl10HHOe OTHOllIeHMe), N2 nepenonaanserca N, no cxexie (N 2 - N3) -+ N 1 N 2 - (N 1 - N 3) liJIl1 IKe I1MeeT MeCTOKOHTpaKIJ;I1S1 3 onycxa(N eTCSI)no cxeMe(N2- N3) - N, N2-N1• Cneziyiounre npliMepbI MJIJIIOCTPI1PYIOTnepBbIH CJIYQaH, xorna 0603HaQeHHe 3KCllJII1KaH,LzyMa(BbI.n;eJIeH nOJIY)l<HpHbIM WPl1lPTOM) HOPMaTI1BHO, 3KCnJIMKaHTa (BbI.n;eJIeH paapsnxoii) - HeHopMaTMBHO:

6.5.1. Ilycrs C 1 H C2 - ztecaraarsr HMeH NIH N 2 H BMeCTe C TeM npaasrrsre B OHOMaCHOJIOrH'-IeCKOHHOpMe 3HaqeHHSI 3TI1X HMeH, T. e. HX nepaamu.re CeMaHTHqeCKHe (OHOMaCI10JIOrl1qeCKl1e) lPYHKUI1I1,11aTpI16YTI1BHOe coxeraaae I1MeH B 3TliX 3HalleHI1S1X ofipasyer 6eCCMbICJIeHHble ssipa-

>

>

And

The gaunt houses put on majesty. (W.B.Yeats, 12-593) Words s t r a i n,l C r a C k and sometimes b rea k under the burden, I Under the tension, s 1 i p, s 1 ide, per ish, IDe cay with imprecision, will not stay in place, I Will not stay still. (T. S. Eliot, 12 - 625) The river s w eat s oil and tar. (T. S. Eliot, 4-158) I am long weaned. I My mouth, puckered on gall, I Sucks dry curd. I My thoughts, tho s est e r i 1 e w ate r C 0 u r s e s, I S car r i n g a desert. (Brother Antoninus, 8-7) And the 1 a k e of my eyes is sweet. (R. Eberhart, 9-528) Mope C Me SIno C b. (M. [OpbKI1H) Bparn npI1XO.n;I1JIM na TOT IKe CTYrr ICananacs H PYllIHJIMCb B nycr ory.f Hx HeIKHble KOCTM c o c a rr a rpHlb.IHa.n; HI1MM 3 a x n o n sr s an H C b pBbl. ( 3. EarpHUKHH) po K rr IO H e T cne cxoprrynsr l aa, 29,
II xasre Tpaaa, (11. Kame xe

17-36)

the seeds, ass u age d, pee p from the nested spray. (R. Eberhart,

mTHJlb 11J H bi Ban. Ha cnOl(oHHOH sone I mXYHa .n;P e Man a. ( B. KOPIKI1KOB, 29, 1972, NQ 9, c. 51) CBe)I(aK Ha.n;pbIBaeTCSI. IIpeT aa PO)l(OH I Aaoscxero MOPH K 0 P bi TO. ( 3. EarpI1UICI1H, 26-237) BTOPOH cnYQaH npOTI1BOnOnO)I(eH nepBOMY B TOM, 'lTO HeHopMafHBHO 0603HaQeHI1e 3KCllJIHKaH.n;YMa, a HMSI 3KCnJIl1KaHTa - HOpMaTI1BHO: W hen men were all asleep, the snow came flying I ... T hen boys I heard, as they went to school, calling; I They gathered up the cry s t a I manna to freeze I Their tongues with tasting. (R. Bridges, 12-573) 91

1968 r., NQ 3, c. 11)

March was able to examine the man almost as if he had been a statue for some minutes before the statue s p 0 k e. (G. K. Chesterton, 21-312). In the groin of the nat u r a I doorway II crouched like a tailor ISewing a shroud for a journey IBy the light of the meat-eating sun. (D. Thomas, 17-196). And in the col d sheet of the sky ILifelong the fishlipped lovers lie I Kissing catastrophes. (G. Barker, I, 1-408) And those in the restaurants of Greek street eat in g income tax did not hear the laugh. (D. Abse, 8-2) JI PYKOTIIfCbcnana, xorna B cyrpofiax xrapra IC JI a 6 e JI 0 If T e KJI 0 B o n 0 10 cepe6po. (E. AXMa.nYJIIfHa,nr, 1.1.1974 r.) IlpOKJI1OHeT CH e x H bI e CKOPJIYIlhII pasa. (11. Kaurexesa, 29, 1968 r., T N2 3, c. 11) Iloxpsrraa llIIfHeJIbIO )KYXJIbIXrpaa, I3eMJI}J TIp 0 TIa x JI a I'OpeM If MaxpoIO. (3. Bansuroaox, 29, 1971 r., N2 3, C. 5) B .rpersesr cnysae HerIfMTIJIIfKal.(IfOHaJIbHbIX COqeTaHIfH HeHopMaTIfBHbI IfMeHa If 3KCTIJIIfKaH.nYMa, 3KCTIJIIfKaHTa: If ...Heaven's great lamps do d i vel Into their west and straight again rev i v e: I But soon as once set is our little light, IThen must we sleep one ever during night. (Th. Campion, 1567-1620, 6-296) I wept out the dar k load of human love. (R. Eberhart, 17-38) The glacier k n 0 Ck s in the cupboard, IThe desert s i g h s in the bed, I And the crack in the tea-cup opens IA lane to the land of the dead. (W. H. Auden, 22) Soft is the coolied night, and cool IThose regions where dreamers rule IAs Summer, in her rose and robe, IAstride the horses of the globe, I D rag s, fig h tin g, from the midnight sky, IThe mushroom at whose glance we die. (G. Barker, 1-409) JI YMqaJIC}J yzra, rne sa ropHbIM xpefiroi« IMHo r 0 r 0 p 6 sr H CTapHKr OKeaH,I Paapsrnasuracs, 6arpoBble BOJIHbI-I'0PULlI a 3 6 If B a e T 0 JJ6bl P BaJIYHOB.(H.Py6l.(oB,29, 1971, N2 8, c. 26) 11 6enbIH TIIfP aner B caerax.l 3.necb cner C 3eMJ1If He y6Ifpa1OT, I3.neCb UeJIH1HLIHey 6 If B a 10 T. (H. Karuezceaa, 29, 1968 r., N2 3, c. 11) B qeTBepTOM crrysae HerIfMTIJIIfKal.(IfOHanbHble COqeTaHIf}JB03HIfKa1OT peB peayrrsrare nepenonsaneaas 3KCTIJIIfKaHTOB KOHTpaKl.(IfIf.OH Y)Ke anrnoIf CTpIfpOBanC}Jpaaee. 6.5.2. Bsnne npaseneasr npIfMepbI HerIfMTIJIIfKal.(IfOHanbHbIX COqeTaHIfH, B KOTOPbIXKOMnOHeHTbIynorpefinensr B OKKa3IfOHaJIbHO-TIepeHOCHbIX 3HaqeHIf}JX. Ho nonoxeaae He MeHSIeTC}J, CJIIf BTOpIfqHOe nepeaocnoe saaxee aae TIpe.nCTaBneHO B ysyce CJIOBa If peracrpapyerca CJIOBapSiMIf.CTaTYC 3HaqeHIfSI B ceMaHTIfqeCKOHcrpyxrype cnosa, a IfMeHHOrreneaae 3HaqeHIfH MHOr03HaqHbIX enos na rrepsasnsre npSIMbIe If BTOpIfqHbIe nepeaocasre (rrpoaaaozrasre OT rrepaaxasrx), OTpa)KaeTCSI a ouenxe OHOMaCIfOnOrIfqeCKOH n HopMaTHBHOCTH COqeTaHHSI. CJIH m] H mf - nepsaxaoe TIp}JMoeH BTOpHqHOe E nepenocaoe 3HaqeHHSIN 1 - 3KCTInHKaH.nYMa, m] If m] - nepaaaaoe rrpasroe a H BTOpHqHOe nepenocaoe 3HaqeHH}J3KCnJIIfKaHTaN2, TO coseraaae N, +- N2 HopMaTHBHo TOJIbKOB crrysae m] +- mr H HeHopMaTHBHO(conepzorr q:mrypy pexa) B cnysaax m] +- m~, m~ +- m] If m] +- m], HopMaTHBHbIMHOKa3bIBa1OTCSI ronsxo COqeTaHHSICJIOBB HX nepsasnsrx np}JMbIX3HaqeHHSIX.3TO neofixo.LU1MbIH XOTSI, CTeCTBeHHO, e eIl.(e He.nOCTaTOqHbIH npH3HaK HopMaTIfBHOCTH COqeTaHHSI.
92

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Conepzcanae
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cnpasennaao
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cosnaaaejaoro coofiuieaaa,

[Benapeax, 169
6acHSI, HHKaK HO

C npHHSITHeM

JIHlIIb

OTHOCHTeJIbHO CHMBOJIHqeCKOrO HHOCKa3aHHSI, T. e. TaKHX

II03TH'IeCKOrO Te3HC. 'ITO

nparsa,
KO)l,

aJIJIeropHSI He

)leHCTBHTeJIbHO MaJIO

BBOlU1TCSI OC06bIH 06bSlBJIeHHe )106aBJlSIeT JIHlIIb K BCSIKoro

cnpasennaao
HJIJIIO-

H T. n.,

ofipaaaoro

SI3bIKa caoeofipasnsna

KO)lOM

paCKpbITHIO

CYW:HOCTH xY)lO)KeCTBeHHoro CHJIY !lJH3HKaJIHCTCKHX

Bblpa)KeHHSI, 'ITO, eCJIH

a cxopee TOJIbKO

)leMOHcTpHPyeT coofimeaae

3HH, rHnHOTH3M IfHOCKa3aHHe

eCTeCTBeHHoHayqHOH n03TH'IeCKOe

TepMHHOJIOrHH. He

Hazro

nonxepxnyrs, H306pe-

CTaBHT

CHMBOJIHqeCKOe

CBoeH HaMepeHHOH Bblpa)KeHHSI,

UeJIblO, n033HH B

HeT Heo6xo)lHMOCTH Cpe)lCTBaX

TaTb cneuarpavecxae B03MO)KHOCTSIM oco6oro SI3bIKa no B xozta, Sl3bIKa.l1cnOJIb30BaHHe 06W:HM

KO)lbI, a )lOCTaTOqHO 06paTHTbCSI 3aJIO)KeHHbIM Ha fiase

K MeTaceMHOTHqeCKHM 06menpHHSITOrO C03)laHHIO

3THX B03MO)KHOCTeH BOBce He paBH03HaqHO ofimerrpaaaroro HopMaMH 6bI, 'ITO H nCHXHKH, npHBbIqHbIM

OHO npOHCXO)lHT

xozia eCTeCTBeHHoro B COOTBeTCTBHH necarnaropaer SI3bI-

3aKOHOMepHOCTSIM MbIlIIJIeHHSI xona 03HaqaJIa

C JIOrHqeCKHMH C03HaHHH. eCTeCTBeHHoro TOM xozte KOBbIX Cpe)lCTB, B

H nCHXOJIOrHqeCKHMIf CMeHa SI3bIKa npl1nHCbIBalOTCSI 3HaqeHHSI. He O)lHaKO,

aCCOl.(HHpOBaHHSI KOHuenTOB HM B o6w:enpI1HSIB TaKOM H CMbICJIe

HeCBOHCTBeHHbIe CMeHbl xozra

nepaasasre

MeTaceMHOTHqeCKOe CHCTeMY na

HCnOJIb30BaHHe 3HaqeHHH.

npezmonaraer fiase

If He OTMeHSIeT 06w:enpHHSITYIO 3HaqeHHSI xepea HHX. TeKCTax Bblpa3HTeJIbHbIH

nepsasnsrx
3!lJ!lJeKT

cyw:eCTBYIOT

nepaaaasrx

BTOpHqHbIe 0603HaqeHI151

OCMbICJISIIOTCSI

06pa3HbIH

BTOpHqHOrO

1 B 3TOH: CBSI3H rrpe.IlCTaBJISIeTCSICrrpaBe.IlJIHBbIM B3fJISI.Il aa rrepaaxaoe saaseaae CJIOBa KaK na aaaxenae, He onpertensexroe KOHTeKCTOM, a aa BTOpl1QHOe - KaK na 06YCJIOBJIeHHOe KOHTeKCTOM. B caMOM nerre, OCMhICJIeHl1e KOHTeKCTa, KaK MO)!(HO BI1.IleTh, ormpaerca aa nepaasasre 3HaQeHI1SI I1MeH, a I1MeHa BO BTOPI1QHhIX 3HaQeHHSIX CaMI1 OCMbICJII1BaIOTCSI orropoir na I<OHTeKCT. C

98

.n.OCTMraeTCSIMMeHHO sa nepBM'IHbIM.

C'IeT B3aMMO.n.eMCTBMSI BTOpM'IHOrO 3Ha'leHMSI C

6.9.2. IIpMHHTMe OC06bIX KO.n.OBB n033MM, He MOTMBMpOBaHHoe rrorpefiHOCTSlMM CMMBOJIM'IeCKorOMHOCKa3aHMSI MJIMKpMnTOJIOrM'IeCKOrO Bblpa)!(eHMH MbICJIM, nopozcnaer n03TM'IeCKYIO «3aYMb», nerraer n033MlO HeKOMMYHMKa6eJIbHOH, OTHMMaeT Y nee KaqeCTBO Hapo.n.HOCTMM rnnuaer ee n03HaBaTeJIbHOH H nparMaTH'IeCKOM (3CTeTM'IeCKOH M B03.n.eMCTBYlOmeH) ueHHOCTH. IIo33HH npa 3TOM BblpO)!(.n.aeTCSI 6ecco.n.ep)l(aTeJIbHbIH !popMaJIHCTHqeCKMM B sxcnepreaerrr. MMeHHO anecs npoxoznrr .n.onYCTMMbIM rrperrerr caofiozrsr n03THqeCKOrO BbIpa)l(eHMSIM, B '1aCTHOCTM, aofiorrsr B cnoco6ax MMeHOBaHMSI c H KOM6HHaTopMKe MMeH. CeMaHTM'IeCKOe 3KcnepMMeHTMpOBaHHe, nOJIyqMBuree B COBpeMeHHOH aanazraoa n033lJM «He6bIBaJIOe pacnpOCTpaHeHMe» [Bejmpeax, 195], aepernco nepexonar 3TOT pa3YMHbIM npezterr, B KpaMHMx !popMax Mo.n.epHMCTCKoro MCKYCCTBa3TO 3KcnepHMeHTMpOBaHMe noseneao no nOJIHOrO 06eCCMbICJIMBaHHH Bblpa)!(eHMM MMeHHO aa caer Toro, 'ITO n03TbI paspyuraror 06menpMHSlTbIH KO.n. CMCTeMbI nepBMqHbIX 3Ha'leHMM eCTeCTBeHnoro Sl3bIKa H M306peTalOT HH.n.MBM.n.YaJIbHble O.n.bIad hoc. K MTaK, OHOMaCMOJIOrMqeCKaSi KOM6MHaTopHo-ceMaHTM'IeCKaSi caofiozra M n03TMqeCKOrO Sl3bIKa M CBSl3aHHaH HMMM csofiozra HerHMnJIHKaUMOHaJIbHbIX C CO'leTaHMM He fiecnpeziensnsr, a ynpaBJIHIOTCSI JIOrHKO-nCMXOJIOrHqeCKMMM
3aKOHOMepHOCTSlMM,06mHMM Y SP M SR, M OCHOBbIBalOTCSI na CMCTeMe nepBM'IHbIX 0603Ha'leHHM, raxzce 06meM Y SP M SR. Qpe3MepHaSi 3KCnJIyaTaUMSI nOM csofiozrsr MO)l(eT HapYIIlMTb pa3YMHYIO Mepy M cnenars n03TMxecxoe coofiureaae 6eCCMbICJIeHHbIM. Mepa ceMaHTMqeCKOrO sxcnepasreaTMpOBaHHSI onpenensercs B03MO)!(HOCTblO OCMbICJIMTb coofinrenae na 6a3e ofiurenpnnaroro zona eCTeCTBeHHoro Sl3bIKa, He npnfieraa K KaKOMY-TO CneUHaJIbHOMY xoziy, C03.n.aBaeMOMY ad hoc, .D.JIH zianaoro n03TMqeCKOrO coofiuteaas. (Hacro TaKoM ICO.n.He H3BeCTeH HHKOMY, KpOMe ero anropa, a anorna He BnOJIHe nOHSITeH H eMY caMOMY!)'. ECJIH' non OCHOBbIBaeTCSI na 06menpHHHTOM OHOMaCHOJIOrH'IeCKOM nopsre eCTeCTBeHHoro Sl3bIKa, TO ceMaHTH'IeCKHM 3KcnepHMeHT orrpaaaaa H, no- BH.n.MMOMY, lBJISleTCSI S e.n.MHCTBeHHoM COOTBeTCTBYlOmeHcneUH!pH'IeCKHM ueJISIM n03TH'IeCKOrO coofimeaas B03MO)!(HOCTblO BbIpa3HTb, He YBeJIHqMBaH CJIOBapb e.n.MHMUasrpaxenas, conepxaaae, .D.JIH xoroporo B aopjae He npe.n.YCMOTpeHO anexsaraoe Bblpa)l(eHHe. He C03.n.aBaSi uosoro CJIOBapSi ecarnan TOpOB, csepx MMelOmerocSi B aopxse - TaK nocrynan 6bI Y'IeHbIH, - n03T HCnOJIb3yeT MeTaCeMHOTH'leCKHe B03MO)I(HOCTH e.n.MHMUrorosoro CJIOBapSl, MX nOTeHUHaJIbHbIM co.n.ep)l(aTeJIbHbIH surcharge. IIpM 3TOM B03HHKalOT coztep)l(aTeJIbHO OCJIO)l(HeHHble,HO zrocrynasre nOHMMaHHIOrHnepceMaHTH3MpOBaHnsre coofimenna, B KOTOPbIX na e.n.MHHIzynsrpazceaaa npHxo.n.HTCSI 60JIbIIle conepzcanna, '1eM B HopMe • .LJ:eJIoB TOM, 'ITO nepeaocnsre 3HaqeHMSI MMelOT 60JIee 60raToe (XOTH H MeHee onpeztenemroe) conepxaaae, '1eM nepnaxmre. obIJIO 3aMe'leHO, 'ITO ortpeztenenne nepeHOCHbIX BTOPMqHbIX 3Ha'leHMH BKJIIO'IaeT MMeHa B nepBMqHOM 3Ha'leHHM, xoropsre, TaKMM 06PaJOM, COCTaBJISIIOTqaCTb conepacanaa BTopM'IHorO 3HaqeHMSI [ApHOJIb.n., (1)]. K 3TOMY erne .n.o6aBJISleTCSI npan-rarnaecxaa KOMnOHeHT conepxaaas, 60JIee
1 K rrpaxrepy, HCCJIe,uOBaTeJIH rr03THKH Orrena (W. H. Auden) H 3JIHOTa (T. S. Eliot) OTMe'IaIOT 3Ha'IHTeJIbHble HH.n:HBH.n:yaJIbHble ocofieaaocra HX 06Pa3HO-CHMBOJIH'IeCKHX KO.n:OB. B rr033HH Onena 1928-36 rr. nona CHMBOJIH3HpyeT 06HOBJIeHHe, )KHBOTBopHoe HaqaJIO, ropo.na H .n:OJIHHbI MeCTa cOBpeMeHHoH IO.n:OJIH, crpaztanua JIIO.n:eH, OCTpOBa- 3eMJIlO o6eToBaHHYIO, MeCTO In6aBJIeHHSI OT crpa.n:aHHH H T. n, Y 3JIHOTa dry - dryness acerzta aCCOL{HHpOBaHOC 6eCrrJIo.n:HoH, HHK'IeMHOH, nycron )KH3HblO 6e3 L{eJIH, aepsr H Ha.n:e)K.n:bI.

99

BO BTOPHqHblX CeMaHTuqeCKHX q,YHKUH5IXHMeH, qeM B rrepaasnsrx, TIPH nepenozrsaaeaaa H KOHTpaKUHH HerHMITJIHKaUHOHaJlbHbUi 3KCITJUlKaHTceMaHTHqeCKH ,ll.OCTaTOqHO aBTOHOMeHno OTHoweHHlO K CBoeMY 3KCnJIHKaH.ll.YMY. HHTaKCHQeCKaSl BSl3bMe)l(.lJ.Y C C HHMH q,opMaJIbHa H He nonKpenJI5IeTCSloTpa60TaHHbIM OTHoweHHeM ,ll.eCHrHaTOB.3TO 06CTOSlTeJIbCTBO J1MeeT m060ITbITHble CJIe,ll.CTBHSl .ll.JlSlCTPYKTYPbIn03THqeCKOrO co06111eHHSl, H306HJIYJOlllero HerHMnJIHKaUHOHaJlbHbIMH COqeTaHH5IMHraxoro pozta: OHa paCCJIaHBaeTC5I BHeWHHH (nOBepXHOCTHbIH) TeKCTH BHYTpeHHIOIO(rJIy6HHaa HYIO) HHTepnpeTaUHIO, nO,ll.TeKCT co06111eHHSl. BHewHHH TeKCT npn 3TOM M03aHqeH B TOM CMbICJIe, qTO CHHTaKCHqeCKHe CBSl3H CJIOB ,ll.OCTaTOqHO q,OPMaJlbHbl H BHeWH5ISlCHHTaKCHqeCKaSl CTPYKTypa aeanexaaraa HMITJIHUHTHOH CTPYKType conejosarensasrx CBSl3eH.CJIOBa JIHWb 3anOJIHSlIOTCOOTBeTCTBYIOmHe n03HUHH (MeCTa) BO BHeWHeH CHHTaKCHqeCKOHCTPYKType, HO ceMaHTHqeCKH ,ll.OCTaTOqHO aBTOHOMHbI OT Tex CBSl3eH,xoropsre HaBSl3bIBaeT HM q,opMaJIbHbIH CHHTaKCHC.Hnrepnperarraa nOBepXHOCTHoro TeKCTa ecrs 1I0CCTaHOBJIeHHeB nOJIHOM 06'beMe HMITJIHUHTHOHCTPYKTYPbI JIOrHqeCKHX CBSI3eH ceMaHTHqeCKHX KOMnOHeHTOB coo6111eHHSl COrJIaCHO aBTopCKOMY 3aMbICJIY H B KOHeQHOMcxere opHeHTHpOBaHa aa BOCC03,ll.aHHe C006meHHSl B repsranax nopsraraaaoro 5I3bIKa, XOT5I H He 06Sl3aTeJIbHO, qT06hI OHa nosonanacs zro 3KCITJIHUHTHOro KOHCTPYHpOBaHHSl C006meHH5I B repxmnax HOPMbI, T. e. He06Sl3aTeJIeH 3KCnJIHUHTHbIH nepeson n03THqeCKOrO coofimerraa B TepMHHax aopxrarnaaoro Sl3bIKa. OHa MO)l(eT aanepxasart.cs na KaKOM-TO yponae BHYTpeHHeH pexa, HO ,ll.a)l(e HeOC03HaHHO nopsra saztaer aanpaaneaae HHTepnpeTaUHH, npa 3TOM BOCCTaHaBJIHBaIOTCSl nponyureaasre HMITJIHUHTHOconepxauraecs KOHueITTbI (HMeHa), npOHCXO,ll.HT nepecrpoeaae KOHuenTOB (HMeH) B JIorHqeCKHe ueITH. HJIJIIOCTpaUHIO Y,ll.06HO aasars C PYCCKoro rrpasrepa. B03bMeM CTHXOTBOpenae H. A. 3a60JIOUKOrO (zise nepssre CTPOq,bI,He BJIHSlIOlllHe cyurecraeaao aa aHaJlH3, onyuieasr): 60raTbui

6.9.3.

••• MO)l()I(eBeJIOBbIH KYCT, MO)l()I(eBeJIOBbIH KYCT,1OCTbIBaIOmHH nener H3MeHqHBbIX YCT,I JIerKHH nener, enaa ornarouraa CMOJIOH,ITIPOKOJIOBWHH MeHSl CMepTOHOCHOHurJIOH! 1 B 30JIOTbIX aefiecax sa OKOWKOM MOHM1 06JIaKa npOITJIbIBaIOT O,ll.HO ,ll.PyrHM,1 06JIeTeBWHH MOH cazmx 6e3)1(H3HeH sa H nycr •••1 .LJ:anpOCTHTTe65I 60r, MO)l()I(eBeJIOBbIHICyCT!(26-314)

T esra 5ICHa: ropsxoe, HO «npourarouree» BocnOMHHaHHe 0 paspsrae C JII06HMOH, H3MeHHBweH CBoeMY qYBCTBY; neqaJIbHbIM HanOMHHaHHeM H CHMBOJIOM paapsma OCTaJlCSlMO)l()I(eBeJIOBbIH KYCT: ero 3eJIeHb TaK )l(e aexaa, KaK qYBCTBO n03Ta, H TaK )l(e KOJIIOqa, KaK naMSlTb 0 paspsrse. 06JIeTeBUIHH, 6e3)1(H3HeHHbIHH rrycroji cart, HanpOTHB, aCCOUHHpOBaH rJIYC 6HHOH nepexasanna YTpaTbI. YMeHbWHTeJIbHaSl q,opMa «canax» BHOCHT HOTY ropecrnoro 6eCCHJIHSl.06pa3bI cana H MO)l()I(eBeJIOBOrO KYCTa KOHTpaCTHPYIOT KaK aaranonsr, rrapannensasre JIHpHqeCKOMY reporo H nesepaoa B03JII06JIeHHoH. Coasrenteaae HaCTOJIbKOCHJIbHO, qTO rrpourenae anpecosaao MO)l()I(eBeJIOBOMY KYCTY. Ilepsas H BTOpa5I CTPOq,bI xapnaaansno pa3JIHqHbI no ceMaHTHqeCKOMY CTpOIO. B nepaofr MHoro COqeTaHHH HeCOBMeCTHMbIX ,ll.eCUrHaTOB: OCTbIBaIOlllHH rrener (YCT); H3MeHqHBbIe YCTa; nener, ezma OT,ll.aIOmHH CMOJIOH; rrener, npOKOJIOBWHHcxreprorrocaoa HrnoH. Bo BTOPOHCOqeTaeMOCTbnOqTH HOpMaTHBHa, MeTaq,opbI «6e3)1(U3HeHHbIH can», «30JIOTbIe nefieca» H MeTOHHMHqeCKa5I KOHTpaKUHSl «06JIeTeBWHH cazrax» YMepeHHbI H ,ll.OCTaTOqHO npaasrsnsr. 3TO pa3JIHqHe XOPOWO corrracyerca C TeMaMH H purport ,ll.BYX CTPOq,. Ilepsas paCCKa3 0 ropeCTHOM 06'b5ICHeHHH, H «B36Y,ll.opa)l(eHHaSl»
+

100