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. . , . . , . . , . .

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073000


2010

581
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15 . . , . . ,
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: .
: - , 2010. 310 .
: . ,
-
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, -
, .
581

-


-871.2008.2;
2.1.1/3436;

02.740.11.0238

- ,
, .
..
- ,
, .
..

c .. , .. , .. , .. , 2010

c , 2010

c . , 2010

5
1.
6
1.
6
2.
8
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.
17
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.
54
5.
62
2.
70
6.
70
7. n n
71
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.
83
9.
89
10. 95
11.
100
3.
105
12.
105
12.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.2. , . . . . . . . . . . . 107
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
12.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
12.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
12.6. . . . . . . . . . . 124
13.
126
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
13.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
13.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
14.
131
14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
14.2. . . . . . 133
14.3. . . . . . 135
14.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
14.5. . . . . . . 138
14.6. , . . . . . . . . . . . 141
15.
149
15.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
15.2. . . . . . . . . . . . 153
15.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
15.4. . . . . 160
15.5. . . . . . . . 161
15.6. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
15.7. . . . . . 169

16.
171
16.1. . . . . . . . . . . 171
16.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
16.3. . . . . . 174
16.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
17.

177
18.
181
18.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
18.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
18.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
18.4. . . . . . 184
18.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
18.6. 185
18.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

190



: ,
.
.
ax + b = 0, .
.
, , , ,
.
, , . , , .
.

, , . .
,
. , ,
, XX .
,
.
, , : ,
.
, , .
, , , .


1.


,
.
, , : , ,
. .
1, 2, 3, . . . , n, . . . , , , , , ..
N.

. ,
x + 13 = 13,

x + 13 = 10.

 , , ,
0 Q.
p/q, q 6= 0.
, 1/3 = 0,3333 = 0,(3) (
).
, . , ,
, , x2 13 = 0. , 13.
, Q ,
13.

3
J, 13, 4, 1+2 5 ..
J ( 2 = 1,41 . . . ,
= 3,14159 . . . ).
 Q J R,
R. , R
(): Q
J .
R .
Ox, : 1) 0; 2) ( ) 3)
H (. 1). . R : a
M1 x = a, M1
, x > 0, , x < 0. ,
N x2 = b .
.

. 1.

1.

R :
1) . , a b

a < b,

a = b,

a > b.

2) R , .. a b,
x ( Q ,
J ), .. ,
a < x < b.
R . :
R
: A B, , A
.
( ) a, ,
A B. a
A ( B ), B ( A ).
.
.
.
 K ,
, . a b K c = a+b,
a b, d = ab ( d = ab), a b, a, b, c, d K.
.
I. , .. a, b K a + b = b + a.
II. : a, b, c K
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
III. a K 0 K, a + 0 = a.
IV. a K b K,
a + b = 0.
V. : a, b K ab = ba.
VI. a K 1 K, , 1a = a.
VII. : a, b, c K a(bc) = (ab)c.
VIII. a K b K,
ab = 1 ( b = 1/a = a1 ).
. : a, b, c K (a + b)c =
ac + bc.
a + b = 0 a K
. ab, , a+c, c
b + c = 0.
ab = 1 a K
a 6= 0. b/a bc, c
ac = 1.

1.

N , 4. Z ,
8 (, 1/2
/ Z).
R Q
.
z = a + ib, a b

z1 + z2 = (a1 + ib1 ) + (a2 + ib2 ) = (a1 + a2 ) + i(b1 + b2 );
z1 z2 = (a1 + ib1 )(a2 + ib2 ) = (a1 a2 b1 b2 ) + i(a1 b2 + a2 b1 )

(1.1)

. z = a+i0 (1.1)
a, z = a+i0 = a.
z = 0 + ib ib.
,
i2 = (0 + i1)(0 + i1) = 1.
i .
C.

2.

2.1.

 ajk K,
, m n , m n :
1

a1 a12 . . . a1n
2

a1 a22 . . . a2n = kaj km = kaj k.


A=
(2.1)
k n
k
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
am
am
. . . am
1
2
n
 A = kajk k B = kbjk k ,
ajk = bjk ,

j = 1, m,

k = 1, n.

(2.2)


. :



.
 A 1,
. -
( -)
1
a
a2
A = = kaj k.
...
am
n, -, .

2.

 1n - (
-)
A = (a1 a2 . . . an ) = kak k.
- .
,
, n
P
. , ,
k=l

k, l
n:
n
X
ak bk = al bl + al+1 bl+1 + . . . + an bn .
k=l

:
n
Y
k=l

ak = al al+1 al+2 an .

n .
.
1. , ..
n
X

x =

j=l

n
X

xk .

k=l

, .
2. , ,
:
n
n
X
X
j
ax = a
xj .
j=l

j=l

3. , ..
m
n X
X

ajk

k=l j=p

m X
n
X

ajk .

j=p k=l

: -
, (ak xk , k = l, n),
, ..
k

a xk =

n
X

ak xk .

k=l

1
aij bjn = aik bkn .

10

2.2.

1.

A = kajk k B = kbjk k m n,
K.
 mn- A = kajk k B = kbjk k mn-
C = kcjk k,
cjk = ajk + bjk ,

j = 1, m,

k = 1, n.

(2.3)

C = A + B.
 m n- A x K
C = kcjk k, cjk
cjk = xajk ,

j = 1, m,

k = 1, n.

(2.4)

C = xA.
(2.3) (2.4) , m n A, B, C, K, x, y
K :
1) : A + B = B + A;
2) : (A + B) + C = A + (B + C);
3) : x(yA) = (xy)A;
4) : x(A + B) = xA + xB;
5) :
(x + y)A = xA + yA.
 , , 0.
 (1)A A. ,
A + (1)A = 0.
A.
 A (1)B A B.
n n- A
. A a11 , a22 , . . . , ann ,
. a1n , a2n1 , . . . , an1 ,
.
 B = kbjk k m n n m- A = kakj k, akj = bjk , j = 1, m, k = 1, n.
A, At .
2.1.


0 1 2 0
A= 1 2 1 1 ,

B=


1 1 0 1
1 2 1 2 ,



2 2 4 0
C= 0 2 0 4

1) D = A + 2B 3C, 2) F = 2(A + B) + C/2.


. 2 4, , , . (2.3) (2.4),

 
 

0 1 2 0
2 2 0 2
6 6 12 0
D = A + 2B 3C = 1 2 1 1 + 2 4 2 4 + 0 6 0 12 =

2.


 

0 + 2 6 1 + 2 6 2 + 0 12 0 + 2 + 0
4 3 10 2
= 1 + 2 + 0 2 + 4 6 1 + 2 + 0 1 + 4 12 = 3
0
3 7 .

11


 
 

C
1 2 2 1
1 1 2 0
3 5 6 2
F = 2(A + B) + = 2 2 4 2 3 + 0 1 0 2 = 4 9 4 8 .
2
2.2. ,


0 1
A= 0 2 .
.



0 0
A = 1 2 .

2.3.


1 0 3
A = 2 3 2 ,

B=

1 2
1 0
3 1

A + B A + B , .
. A 2 3, B 3 2,
A + B .


1 1 3

B = 2 0 1 ,
2 3 A. ,
A + B

 
 

1 0 3
1 1 3
2 1 0

A + B = 2 3 2 + 2 0 1 = 4 3 1 .

, -.
.
 A = kajl k mp B = kbjk k
p n C = kcjk k m n,

cjk = ajl blk =

p
X

ajl blk ,

j = 1, m,

k = 1, n.

(2.5)

l=1

A B C = AB.

12

1.

, A B. , A
B:


...

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..
C = AB = j- m . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .
|
{z
}

k-
n

...
...
...
..
.
...
...
...

..
.

...
...
...
..
.
...
...
...

..
p .
.

C :
k-

...

...

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

j
l

al bk . . . m .
C = AB = j- m . . .

l=1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...

...
{z
}
|
n

m n C, ..
A,
B.
2.4.
A=


1 0 3
2 3 2 ,

B=

!
1 2
1 0 .
3 1

AB BA, AB AB ,
.
. ,

 

11+0133 12+0031
8 1
AB = 2 1 + 3 1 2 3 2 2 + 3 0 2 1 = 1 2 ;
!
!
1 + 4 0 + 6 3 4
5 6 7
BA = 1 + 0 0 + 0 3 + 0 = 1 0 3 .
3 + 2 0 + 3 9 2
5 3 11
, , AB 2 2, BA 3 3, .. .

13

2.

AB A B
(. 2.3)




1 0 3
1 1 3

A = 2 3 2 , B = 2 0 1 ,

.. 2 3. , AB , A (
), 3, B ( ), 2.
A B:
!
!
1
2
1 2

3 , B= 1 0 .
A = 0
3 2
3 1
, AB ,
A 2, B 3, ..
.
, ,
, ,
(.. AB = BA) . ,

.
 A B , AB = BA.
2.5.


0 1
A= 0 0 ,

B=


0 0
1 0 .

AB BA.
. ,


1 0
AB = 0 0 ,



0 0
BA = 0 1 ,

, AB 6= BA.
2.6. A = kaj k, B = kbk k, j, k = 1, n; A -, B
-. AB BA.
. , AB = kaj bk k n n-:
1
1
a
a b1 a1 b2 . . .
2
a
a2 b1 a2 b2 . . .
(b1 b2 . . . bn ) =
AB =

.
..
... ... ...
n
n
a
b1 an b2 . . .
a
BA (1 1-):
BA = (b1 b2

a1 bn
a2 bn
;
...
an bn

a1
n
X
a2
1
2
n
. . . bn ) = b1 a + b2 a + . . . + bn a =
bj aj .
...
j=1
an

14

1.

. (2.5)
1. : A(BC) = (AB)C.
, .
. (2.5)
q
p
! p q
!
p
q
X
X X
X X

X





j
j
j
l k
l k
l
k
al
bk ci =
al bk ci =
al bk ci = (AB)C,
A(BC) =




l=1

k=1

l=1 k=1

k=1

l=1

2. ,
..
(A + B)C = AC + BC;
A(B + C) = AB + AC.
.
3. x K
x(AB) = (xA)B = A(xB).
.
4.
(AB) = B A.

(2.6)

. ,
p

X


alj bjk ,
AB =

A = kalj k,

j=1

(AB) = kckl k,

A = kdjl k,

djl = alj ,

ckl

B = kbjk k,
B = kekj k,

ekj = bjk .

p
X

alj bjk .

j=1

p
X



B A =
ekj djl = kflk k.

j=1

(2.7)

flk =

p
X
j=1

bjk alj = ckl ,

(2.7)

15

2.

.
 ji ,
ji

1 i = j,
0 i=
6 j,

.
 ,
, ,

1 0 0 ... 0
0 1 0 . . . 0
I = In = E = En = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = kji knn .
0 0 0 ... 1
ji ,
b1 , . . . , bn
n
X
j=1

ji bj = ji bj = 0 b1 + 0 b2 + . . . + 0 bi1 + 1 bi + 0 bi+1 + . . . + 0 bn = bi . (2.8)

(2.8) ,
.
5. A :
AI = IA.
. ,
n

X

j l
al i = kajl il k = kaji k.
AI =
l=1


. ,
AA = A2 ,

A2 A = A3 ,

...,

An1 A = An

..
2.7. An ,


1 2
A= 0 1 .
.

1
A = AA = 0

1
3
2
A =A A= 0
2


2
1
1
0

4
1
1
0

 
 

2
1 2+2
1 22
= 0 1
,
1 = 0
1
 
 

2
1 2+4
1 32
= 0 1
,
1 = 0
1

16

1.



 
 

1 6
1 2
1 2+6
1 42
4
3
A =A A= 0 1
= 0 1
.
0 1 = 0
1

,
n 


1 2
1 n2
n
A = 0 1 = 0 1
.

n+1

(2.9)


 

1 2n
1 2 + 2n
1 2(n + 1)
= 0
.
0 1
0
1
1

, ,
(2.9) .
2.8. D = ABC,

!
0 0 1
1 1
1 1 2
2 ,
A = 2 2 3 , B = 2
1
1
3 3 4

 
4
C= 1 .

. 1, D , : D = A(BC) = (AB)C.
BC - 3 1, AB 4 2,
D = A(BC).
!
!
1 1  
5
4
2
10
BC = 2
1 =
1
1
5


!
0 0 1
5
1
5
1 1 2
15
3
D = A(BC) = 2 2 3 10 = 25 = 5 5 .
5
3 3 4
35
7
,
.

2.9. f (A) A, f (x) = 3x2 4



2 1
A= 0 3 .
. ,

2


2 1
1 0
f (A) = 3A 4I = 3 0 3 4 0 1 .
2

,


8 15
f (A) = 0 23 .

17

3.

3.
3.1.

 n 1, 2, . . . , n ( n
a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) ( ) .
n 1, 2, . . . , n,
n
.
n
n! =

n
Y

k=1

k = 1 2 n.

, 0! = 1.
 1, 2, . . . , n
, .
, n! . n 6 9
.
3.1. 1, 2, 3.
. 1, 2, 3 123, 132, 213, 231, 312, 321.
3! = 2 3 = 6.
, 123 132
2 3, 132 1 3
312 ..
 ,
; , .
P (a1 , a2 , . . . , an )
a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
.
( ),
, , , ,
.
3.2. 528371964 .
. 528371964 5 4 , 5:
2, 3, 1, 4. .
P (528371964) = 4 + 1 + 5 + 1 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 17.
 , , .
3.2 ,
17 .
3.3. 1, 2 1, 2, 3,
.

18

1.

. 2!: 12
21 1 2.
() : P (12) = 0, P (21) =
1. , 12 , 21 .
:
1) ;
2) 2!/2 = 1.
123.
3.1.
:
P (123) = 0,
P (231) = 2,

P (132) = 1,
P (312) = 2,

P (213) = 1,
P (321) = 3.

,
3!/2 = 6/2 = 3. , , 123
, 132, 2 3,
. , 312, 132 1
3, . , 312
123 : 2 3,
1 3, , , 123 312 , ..
.
, , .
n:

a11
a2
A= 1
..
an1

a12
a22
...
a42

...
...
...
...

a1n
a2n
.
. . .
ann

(3.1)

 , A

1 1
a1 a2 . . . a1n


det A = |A| = |ajk | = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
an an . . . an
1
2
n
X
k2
P (k1 ,k2 ,...,kn ) k1
=
(1)
a1 a2 aknn ,

(3.2)

n- , A
n > 1. ; k1 , k2, . . . , kn .
, (3.2) (3.1)
.
n- (3.2), (3.1), n! , :
n ,
, ,
,
.
, , (3.2)
, n!/2.

19

3.

(3.2) ,
, ..
1 1

a1 a2 . . . a1n
0 a22 . . . a2n
A=
= a11 a22 ann .
(3.3)
. . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 . . . ann


, , .

3.4. (3.2),
 1 1
a1 a2
A=
.
a21 a22
. , 3.3 P (12) =
0, P (21) = 1,


a1 a1
|A| = 12 22 = (1)P (12) a11 a22 + (1)P (21) a21 a12 =
a1 a2
= (1)0 a11 a22 + (1)1 a12 a21 = a11 a22 a12 a21 .

(3.4)
:





=


3.5.

a11
A = a21
a31

(3.4)

(3.5)

(3.2), -

a12 a13
a22 a23
a32 a33

. 3.3
1 1 1
a1 a2 a3


|A| = a21 a22 a23 = (1)P (123) a11 a22 a33 + (1)P (132) a11 a32 a23 +
a3 a3 a3
1

+ (1)P (213) a21 a12 a33 + (1)P (231) a21 a32 a13 +

+ (1)P (321) a31 a22 a13 + (1)P (312) a31 a12 a23 =
= a11 a22 a33 a11 a32 a23 a21 a12 a33 + a21 a32 a13 a31 a22 a13 + a31 a12 a23 . (3.6)

(3.6) 3- (
3- ) ( )











= + +

(1 2 3) (2 3 1) (3 1 2)
|
{z
}

20






(3






1)
(2

1.






1 3) (1






3 2)

(3.7)

( ):
()

a11
a12
a13




a12




a22




a32

a13
a23






a33

}|
a11
a21




a31

{z

{
a12 .
a22
a32

(+)

3.6. (3.7),
!
2 2 1
A= 1 2 1 .
3 1 0
. ,


2 2 1


|A| = 1 2 1 = 2 2 0 + 1 1 1 + 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 =
3 1 0
= 0 + 1 + 6 6 0 2 = 1.

3.2.

, (3.2). , det A A.
1. ,
..
det A = det A.
(3.8)
. A:
det A = det kaij k

A = kbji k,

bji = aij ,

i, j = 1, n.

(3.9)

A
(1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ai11 ai22 ainn .
aij = bji (3.9)
(1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ai11 ai22 ainn = (1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) b1i1 b2i2 bnin .
A. ,
A

21

3.

A . .
1 , .. , ,
.
. .
3.7. (3.4),




a b
a c

A= c d ,
A = b d .
. (3.4)


a b
|A| = c d = ad bc.





a c
a b



|A | = b d = ad bc = c d .

, det A = det A.

2. ,
.
.
1
a1 . . . a1i
2
a . . . a2i
j
det A = |ak | = 1
. . . . . . . . .
an . . . an
1

. . . a1k
. . . a2k
... ...
. . . ank


. . . a1n
. . . a2n
.
. . . . . .
. . . ann

(3.10)

B , A
i k.
aj11 aji i ajkk ajnn

(3.11)

(3.10), , B . , det A
det B , (3.11) A
(j1 , . . . , ji , . . . , jk , . . . , jn ),
B
(j1 , . . . , jk , . . . , ji , . . . , jn ).
,
. , A B , ..
det A = det B.

22

1.

3.8. (3.4),




a b
b a
A= c d ,
B= d c ,
.
. (3.1)


a b

|A| = c d = ad bc.





a c
b a
|B| = d c = bc ad = b d .

, det A = det B.

2.1. .
. . , . , 2, , ..
det A = det A,
, det A = 0.
3. .
. det A
. , (3.2),
,
,
(3.2), 3.
3
, ,


1 1
a1 a2 . . . a1n a11 a12 . . . a1n



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
an an . . . an an an . . . an
1


!
!
a11 a12 . . . a1n
a11 a12 . . . a1n
............... = ....................
an1 an2 . . . ann
an1 an2 . . . ann
,
det(A) = n det A,

(3.12)

n A. , (det) . , n = 1, ..
,
det(A) = A.

23

3.

3.1. , .
3, , .
, .
3.2. , ,
.
. i- k- . i- , , . , 2.1, .
4. j- A
al = bl + cl , l = 1, n,
(3.13)

det A = det B + det C.


(3.14)
, B C A
alj bl cl , .
. (3.2),
X
i
det A =
(1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ai11 ajj ainn

(3.13)
X
det A =
(1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ai11 (bij + cij ) ainn =
X
=
(1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ai11 bij ainn +
X
+
(1)P (i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ai11 cij ainn = det B + det C,

.
(3.14) (3.13)
, : A = B + C.
det(B + C) 6= det A + det C.

, -, (3.12),
det, -,
det(A + B) 6= det A + det B.

3.9. ,




a1 b1
a2 b2
A1 = c d ,
A2 = c d
1
1
2
2

det(A1 + A2 ) = det A1 + det A2 + det A12 + det A21 ,

A12 =


a1 b1
c2 d 2 ,

A21 =


a2 b2
c1 d 1 .

24

1.

. ,


a1 + a2 b1 + b2
det(A1 + A2 ) = det c + c d + d .
1
2
1
2
(3.13) (3.14)




a1
b1
a2
b2
det(A1 + A2 ) = det c + c d + d + det c + c d + d =
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2








a1 b1
a1 b1
a2 b2
a2 b2
= det c d + det c d + det c d + det c d =
1

= det A1 + det A2 + det A12 + det A21 ,

.
4 , (3.13)
.
 j- A
:
n
X
Xj =
l Xl ,
Xj = kaij kn1 ,
(3.15)
l=1
l6=j

, j- l, l 6= 0.
l (l 6= j) , j-
(n 1) . l , j l .
, j-
l = 0.
5. - , .
. j- . 4, , . , 2.1, . , .
6. , .
. j- (j-
). 4, , , , .. ,
.
, , . , 5 , .
,
, (3.2)
.

3.

25

7. , ..
det AB = det A det B.

(3.16)

, , , K. (3.2) , det A . ,
det A ,
K. , , 1, 3, 4
(3.3), , (3.2). . , ,
.
3.3.

(3.2) (. 3.3 3.4). , 4- 4! = 24 , 5-


5! = 120,
.
. ,

. 2- , , (3.4). :
, 2- 1- . 3-
(3.6), , 2- 1- . n-
(n1)- .
, ,
n- (n 1)- , (n 2)- ,
1- .
, , .
.
det A A n.
k, , 1 6 k 6 n 1, A k
.
 M ( minor ) k- A
, A, k k
. ,
M, , .
A n (Cnk )2 k- . 1- A.
 M M A (n k),
A k k ,
M.

26

1.

M 1- , A, ,
,
, .. 1- .
aij .
M A, M .
M ,
M. , M M
.
 M k,
i1 , i2 , . . . , ik j1 , j2 , . . . , jk ,

i1 ,i2 ,...,ik
SM
k
Aij11,i,j22,...,i
M j1 ,j2,...,jk ,
(3.17)
,...,jk = (1)
M M, SM
, , ..
SM = i1 + i2 + . . . + ik + j1 + j2 + . . . + jk .

(3.18)

aij ( 1- ) A,
,
i

Aij = (1)i+j M j ,

(3.19)

i, j , aij
A
i
M j .
Aij
aij (3.2). , .
(3.17), .
3.10.

1
4
A = 0
1

0
1
1
3

1
2
2
2

2
6
1
4

.
. 1- .
1. A, , 2- 3- . a23 = 2, 1- M32
a23 2, ..
M32 = a23 = 2.
A,
2
3, M 3 M32 , ..


1 0 2
2


M 3 = 0 1 1 = 1.
1 3 4

27

3.

(3.4) (3.19), M32 = a23 = 2:




1 0 2
2
2


A23 = (1)2+3 M 3 = M 3 = 0 1 1 = 1.
1 3 4

A 2- 2- .
a22 = 1, 1- M22 a22
1, ..
M22 = a22 = 1.
, A 4 1- ,
A, .
M22 = 1 A. ,
A 2- 2- ,


1 1 2


M 22 = 0 2 1 = 3
1 2 4

2

A22 = (1)2+2 M 2 = M 2 = 3.
2- .
2. A, , 1- 2- 3- 4- :

1 0 1 2
4 1 2 6
A = 0 1 2 1.
1 3 2 4

, , 2-
, 2- :


1 2
1,2
M3,4 = 2 6 = 2.

A,
2- , M 1,2
3,4 :


0 1
1,2
M 3,4 = 1 3 = 1.

1,2
M3,4
, ,
(3.17):
1,2
1+2+3+4
M 1,2
A1,2
3,4 = M 3,4 = 1.
3,4 = (1)

1,2
, M3,4
M 1,2
3,4 .
, A 3- 4- 1- 2-
:

1 0 1 2
A = 4 1 2 6 ,
0 1 2 1
1 3 2 4

28

1.

, ,


0 1
3,4
M1,2 = 2 6 = 1.
M 3,4
1,2
M 3,4
1,2



1 2

= 2 6 = 2,

3,4
3+4+1+2
A3,4
M 3,4
1,2 = (1)
1,2 = M 1,2 = 2.

,
1,2
M3,4

M 3,4
1,2

3,4
M1,2
= M 1,2
3,4


1
= 2

0
= 1


2
6 = 2,

1
3 = 1,

1,2
3,4
M3,4
M 1,2
3,4 = M1,2 .
:
1,2 1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
10
M3,4
A3,4 = M3,4
(1)1+2+3+4 M 1,2
3,4 = (1) M3,4 M 3,4 = 2,

3,4 3,4
3,4
3,4
3,4
10
M1,2
A1,2 = M1,2
(1)3+4+1+2 M 3,4
1,2 = (1) M1,2 M 1,2 = 2.

.
M M ,
.
, , 3- .
3. A , , 1-, 3-, 4- 1-, 2- 4-
:

1 0 1 2
A = 4 1 2 6.
0 1 2 1
1 3 2 4
, , 3-
, 3- :


1 0 2


1,3,4
M1,2,4
= 0 1 1 = 1.
1 3 4

A,
1- , M 1,3,4
1,2,4
1,3,4
M1,2,4 .
a23 , ..
2
M 1,3,4
1,2,4 = a3 = 2.

29

3.


(3.17),

A1,3,4
1,2,4

1,3,4
M1,2,4
,

1+3+4+1+2+4
15 2
A1,3,4
M 1,3,4
1,2,4 = (1)
1,2,4 = (1) a3 = 2.

,
1,3,4
2
M1,2,4
M 1,3,4
1,2,4 = a3 .
:
1,3,4 1,3,4
1,3,4
1,3,4 2
15
15
M1,2,4
A1,2,4 = M1,2,4
(1)1+3+4+1+2+4 M 1,3,4
1,2,4 = (1) M1,2,4 a3 = (1) 2 = 2,
1,3,4 2
a3 = (1)5 2 = 2.
a23 A23 = a23 (1)2+3 M 23 = (1)5 M1,2,4

,
.
, .
3.11.
 1 1
a1 a2
A=
a21 a22
1) ;
2) det A .
. 2- 1-
, , ..
M11 = a11 ,

M21 = a12 ,

M12 = a21 ,

M22 = a22 .

M 21 = a12 ,

M 22 = a11


M 11 = a22 ,

M 12 = a21 ,


A11 = (1)1+1 M 11 = a22 , A12 = (1)1+2 M 12 = a21 ,
A21 = (1)2+1 M 21 = a22 , A22 = (1)2+2 M 22 = a11 .
(3.2):


a1 a1
1
2

det A = 2 2 = a11 a22 a12 a21 .
a1 a2

det A
:


a1 a1
det A = 12 22 = M11 A11 + M21 A12 = M12 A21 + M22 A22 =
a1 a2
= M11 A11 + M12 A21 = M21 A12 + M22 A22 ,

(3.20)

30

1.

,
Mji = aij :


a1 a1
det A = 12 22 = a11 A11 + a12 A12 = a21 A21 + a22 A22 =
a1 a2
= a11 A11 + a21 A21 = a12 A12 + a22 A22 .

(3.21)

(3.20) (3.21)
: det A , ()
, :
k- k ()
.

. , (3.20) (3.21)
(3.2), (3.1).
, , ,


b1 a1
2

b2 a22
b1 a22 b2 a12
= 1 1 ;
x1 = 1 2
a1 a2 a12 a21
a12 a22
a1 a2


a1 b1
22

a1 b2
b2 a12 b1 a21
= 1 1
x2 = 1 2
a1 a2 a12 a21
a12 a22
a1 a2


a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 ,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2 .

, , ,
.
3- ,
.
3.12.
A=

a11 a12 a13


a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33

det A 2- , 2-
3- .
. A 2- 3- ,
2- , :


a2 a2
2,3
M1,2 = 13 23 = a21 a32 a22 a31 ,
a1 a2

3.


a2
2,3
M1,3 = 13
a
1

a2
2,3
M2,3
= 23
a2

a23
a33

31

= a21 a33 a23 a31 ,


a23
= a22 a33 a23 a32 .
a33


1
M 2,3
1,2 = a3 ,

2+3+1+2
1
A2,3
M 2,3
1,2 = (1)
1,2 = a3 ;

1
M 2,3
1,3 = a2 ,

2+3+1+3
1
A2,3
M 2,3
1,3 = (1)
1,3 = a2 ;

1
M 2,3
2,3 = a1 ,

2+3+2+3
1
A2,3
M 2,3
2,3 = (1)
2,3 = a1 .


1 1 1
a1 a2 a3


2,3 2,3
2,3 2,3
2,3 2,3
det A = a21 a22 a23 = M1,2
A1,2 + M1,3
A1,3 + M2,3
A2,3 =
a3 a3 a3
1
2
3
2 3
2 3 1
= (a1 a2 a2 a1 )a3 (a21 a33 a23 a31 )a12 + (a22 a23 a23 a32 )a11 .

(3.22)

, (3.6), aij .
,
2,3
M1,2
, a13 ;

2,3
M1,3
, a12 ;

2,3
M2,3
, a11

, . (3.22)
:
2,3 2,3
2,3 2,3
2,3 2,3
det A = M1,2
A1,2 + M1,3
A1,3 + M2,3
A2,3 = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13 .

, ()
, .
.
3.13.

det A.

1 3 1 2
3 0
0 1
A = 3 3 1 4
0 2 1 0

. A 2- 4- , .
(C42 = 6) 2- , ,



1 3
2,4

M2,3 = 2 1 = 7

. ,
.

32

1.

2,4
M2,3





1 2
1 2
2,4
2,4
2,4
2+4+2+3



M 2,3 = 3 4 = 2, A2,3 = (1)
M 2,3 = 3 4 = 2.

2,4 2,4
det A = M2,3
A2,3




1 3 1 2




1 3
3 0
0 1
3 3 1 4 = 2 1


0 2 1 0



1 2


3 4 = 14.

n.

3.1.
1 1
a1 a2
a2 a2
A= 1 2
.....
an1 a42

...
...
...
...

a1n
a2n
. . .
ann

(3.23)

k-
, det A,
, det A, (3.2).
1,2,...,k
. , M1,2,...,k

A, k .
M 1,2,...,k
1,2,...,k ,
(n k) k + 1, k + 2, . . . , n,

SM
A1,2,...,k
M 1,2,...,k
1,2,...,k = (1)
1,2,...,k .

SM
SM = 1 + 2 + . . . + k + 1 + 2 + . . . + k = 2(1 + 2 + . . . + k),
.. . (1)SM = 1,
,
1,2,...,k 1,2,...,k
1,2,...,k
M1,2,...,k
A1,2,...,k = M1,2,...,k
M 1,2,...,k
1,2,...,k .

(3.24)

(1)l a1i1 a2i2 akik

(3.25)

1,2,...,k
M1,2,...,k
, l, (3.2), (i1 , i2 , . . . , ik ), .. l = P (i1 , i2 , . . . , ik ).

k+2
n
(1)l ak+1
jk+1 ajk+2 ajn

(3.26)

33

3.


l
(jk+1 , jk+2 , . . . , jn ), .. l = P (jk+1, jk+2 , . . . , jn ).
(3.25) (3.26), n
(1)l+l :

k+2
n
(1)l+l a1i1 a2i2 akik ak+1
(3.27)
jk+1 ajk+2 ajn ,
M 1,2,...,k
1,2,...,k ,

det A. ,
(3.27) , ,
, (3.2).

, (1)l+l , 1,2,...,k 1,2,...,k


M1,2,...,k
A1,2,...,k , ,
det A. , (3.2),
k+2
n
(1)L a1i1 a2i2 akik ak+1
jk+1 ajk+2 ajn

det A (1)L , L
(i1 , i2 , . . . , ik , jk+1 , jk+2 , . . . , jn ), ..
L = P (i1 , i2 , . . . , ik , jk+1 , jk+2 , . . . , jn ).
L , i k, j k + 1, il jm k

. , L l + l,
.
M k-
i1 < i2 < . . . < ik j1 < j2 < . . . < jk .

SM = i1 + i2 + . . . + ik + j1 + j2 + . . . + jk .
, M
, k . M
k + 1, k + 2, . . . , n, . ,
det A. i1 - 1- , (i1 1)- , (i1 2)-
.., . , i1 1. , i2 -
2-, i2 2. ,
(i1 1) + (i2 2) + . . . + (ik k) = (i1 + i2 + . . . + ik ) (1 + 2 + . . . + k)
.
(j1 1) + (j2 2) + . . . + (jk k) = (j1 + j2 + . . . + jk ) (1 + 2 + . . . + k)
.
,
M M ,
det A ,
. det A
det A
(i1 + i2 + . . . + ik ) + (j1 + j2 + . . . + jk ) 2(1 + 2 + . . . + k) = SM 2(1 + 2 + . . . + k)

34

1.

,
det A = (1)SM 2(1+2+...+k) det A = (1)SM det A.
, det A det A (1)SM (
2(1 + 2 +. . .+ k) ).
, (1)SM det A = (1)SM MM = MA, ..

det A, , , (3.2), .
3.1.1. M M ,
.
. M M , SM
SM . , SM SM .
SM + SM det A:
SM + SM = (1 + 2 + . . . + n) + (1 + 2 + . . . + n) = 2(1 + 2 + . . . + n),
.. . SM
SM .
A A M M .
A = (1)SM M A = (1)SM M. , (1)SM =
(1)SM , MA = M A, .
3.1. det A
A = kaij knn

det A =

ai1 Ai1

ai2 Ai2

+ ...+

ain Ain

n
X

aij Aij .

(3.28)

j=1

. A , , i. 1- . M ij , Aij = (1)i+j M ij
. 3.1, aij Aij
det A.
, M ij
(n1)- , , aij Aij (n1)!
.
(3.28). ,

. , , ai1 Ai1 , ai1 i- ,
ai2 Ai2 ai2 , ..
, (3.28) n(n 1)! = n!.

35

3.

det A . ,
(3.28) (3.2).
 (3.28) i-
.
det A = a1i A1i + a2i A2i + . . . + ani Ani =

n
X

aji Aji ,

(3.29)

j=1

i- .
, 3.1 (3.28) (3.2), .. det A
(3.28), (3.2). : det A
(3.28), (3.2).
(3.28) (3.29). ,
, ,
3.1 .
3.2 (). det A
A = kaij knn
k- , k () A,
.
. A , , i1 , i2 , . . . , ik . k- , , Cnk = n!/[k!(n k)!]. ,
k! . M M, ,
, (n k)! . M. ,
k-
Cnk k!(n k)! =

n!
k!(n k)! = n!,
k!(n k)!

det A.
, 3.1,
, , M MA k- , , n!
, det A (3.2),
.
3.2.1. A , n n k , :
1

a1 . . . a1k
0
...
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
k
k
A=
0
...
0
a1 . . . ak
.
ak+1 . . . ak+1 ak+1 . . . ak+1
1
n
k
k+1
an1 . . . ank ank+1 . . . ann

36

1.

det A :

1


a1 . . . a1k ak+1
. . . ak+1

n
k+1
. . . . . . . . . . .
det A =
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ak . . . ak an
. . . an
1

k+1

det A
k ,
SM = (1 + 2 + . . . + k) + (1 + 2 + . . . + k) = 2(1 + 2 + . . . + k)
(1)SM = 1.
3.2.2. A n = 2k , k , :

0
...
0
a1k+1 . . . a12k
..
..
..
..
..
...
.
.
.
.
.

k
A=
...
0
ak+1 . . . ak2k
0
.
ak+1 . . . ak+1 ak+1 . . . ak+1
1
k
k+1
2k
2k
2k
2k
a2k
.
.
.
a
a
.
.
.
a
1
k
k+1
2k
det A :



1 k+1

a1
. . . ak+1
k+1 . . . a2k a1

k
k
det A = (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

akk+1 . . . ak2k a2k
. . . a2k
1
k

det A
k ,
SM = (1 + 2 + . . . + k) + [(k + 1) + (k + 2) + . . . + (k + k)] =
= k k + 2(1 + 2 + . . . + k) = k 2 + k(k + 1) = 2k 2 + k
(1)SM = (1)k .
, . ,
, (3.4).
, (3.28) (3.29),
7.
2. , A B,
i j. i < j.
, j = i + 1, ..
!
!
a11 . . . a1i a1i+1 . . . a1n
a11 . . . a1i+1 a1i . . . a1n
A = .......................... , B = .......................... .
an1 . . . ani ani+1 . . . ann
an1 . . . ani+1 ani . . . ann

det A i- , det B (i+1)- . ,


.
det A =

n
X
l=1

ali (1)i+l Mil ,

37

3.

det B =

n
X
l=1

ali (1)i+1+l Mil =

n
X
l=1

ali (1)i+l Mil = det A,

.
i j . B , A. , . j- ( B) (j i) . i- j-,
(j i 1)- .
(j i) + (j i 1) = 2(j i) 1 . ,
,
det B = (1)2(ji)1 det A = det A,
.

4. , , j- A
alj = bl + cl .
, det A ,
det A =

n
X

alj Alj

l=1

n
X
l=1

bl Alj +

n
X

(bl + cl )Alj =

l=1

n
X

cl alj = det A + det C,

l=1

B C A alj
bl cl , .
7. A B
n. 2n

1
a1 a12 . . . a1n 0 . . . 0
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
.
.
.
.
.
.

an an . . . an 0 . . . 0
2
n

1
1
1
C=
1 0 . . . 0 b12 . . . bn2 .
0 1 . . . 0 b1 . . . bn
.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
n
0
0 . . . 1 b1 . . . bnn
3.2.1 ,
!
!
a11 . . . a1n
b11 . . . b1n
..
det C = . .
= det A det B.
an1 . . . ann
bn1 . . . bnn

, det C
, . 1-
(n + 1)-, a11 ; (n + 2)-, a12 , .. 2- (n + 1)-,

38

1.

a21 ,


(n + 2)-, a22 , .. 3- , 4- , , n-.



0


.
..


det C = 0


1

..
.
0

...

..
.

..
.

...

... 0
..
..
.
.
. . . 1

n
X
i=1

n
X

a1i bi1 . . .
..
.

..
.

ani bi1 . . .

i=1

b11
..
.
bn1

...
..
.
...



a1i bin

i=1

..

.

n

X

ani bin .

i=1

1
bn
..

.

bnn
n
X

, 3.2.2 ,

n
n

X
X
1 i
1 i

ai b1 . . .
ai bn




1 . . . 0 i=1
i=1


.
.
.
n

..
..
..
det C = (1) . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 . . . 1 n
n

X
X

n i
n i

ai b1 . . .
ai bn


i=1

i=1

,
A B:
det C = (1)n (1)n det(AB) = det(AB).
det C
det A det B = det(AB),
.
1. 7 ,
:
det(ABC) = det(AB) det C = det A det B det C
.. ,
det(Ak ) = (det A)k ,

k = 1, .

2.
det(AB) = det A det B = det A det B = det A det B = det A det B ,
1 7.
8.
.

39

3.

. A i j . , , det A = 0. , det A ,
j- :
det A =

n
X

alj Alj = 0,

l=1

alj = ali (l = 1, n, i 6= j)
det A =

n
X

alj Alj

l=1

n
X

ali Alj = 0.

l=1

i j i 6= j, .
.
3.14. , (aij ) n

n
X

aij Aik

= jk det A =

i=1

det A j = k,
0 j 6= k,

(3.30)

Aik aik ;
det(A) = n det A,

(3.31)

.
. (3.30) 8 (3.28). (3.31)
a11 . . . a1n
det(A) = det . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
an1 . . . ann
.
3.4.


1

1
a1 . . . a1n
a1 . . . a1n




= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = n . . . . . . . . . . . = n det A,
an . . . an
an . . . an
1

I.
(3.2) (., , 3.4 3.5).
, 4-
(3.2) . , , 4- 4! = 24
, 5- 5! = 120 ..

40

1.

II.
1. ()

3.15. det A A 3.6.


. 1 . , (3.28):








2 2 1
2 1
1 1
1 2


1+1
1+2
1+3





det A = 1 2 1 = 2(1) 1 0 + 2(1) 3 0 + 1(1) 3 1 =
3 1 0
= 2(1) 2(3) (5) = 2 + 6 + 5 = 1.
. ,
3- 3- ,
. , , 1- .
2 . 3- :








2 2 1
2 1
2 1
2 2


3+1
3+2
3+3





1 2 1 = 3(1) 2 1 + 1(1) 1 1 + 0(1) 1 2 =
3 1 0
= 0 (2 1) + 0 = 1.
3 . , , , 1- 2-:







2 2 1




2
1
2
1

2 2
1 2 1 = 1 2 (1)1+2+1+2 0 + 1 1 (1)1+2+1+3 1 + 2 1 (1)1+2+2+3 3 =
3 1 0
= 0 (2 1) + 0 = 1.

,
3- 1- 2- . ,
,
. .
2.
()

, ,
, , , .

, (n 1)- . (n 1)-
(n 2)- .. () ,
, , .
3.16. det A A 3.6.

41

3.

.

2 2

det A = 1 2
3 1




1 S S 1
1 2
1 = 1
3
0

:

0 0

2 1 .
1 0

, , ,
1- 3- .
3-
2- , , :





1 0 0

2 1


1+1 2 1
1 2 1 = 1(1) 1 0 = 1 0 = 1
3 1 0


1 0

1 2
3 1

1-

0
1

1 =
3

0

3.17.

3-:




1 0
0
1+3+1+2
1 = 3 1 = 1.
1 (1)


3 1 2 3


4 1 2 4
1 1 1 1 .


4 1 2 5

. 2- ,
1- . 4-
2- :






3 1 2 3
3 1 2 3
7 4 7




+S1 7 0 4 7


4 1 2 4 S2=
4 0 3 4 = (1)3 4 3 4 =
1 1 1 1
S
+S
7 4 8 S3 S1

3 1

4 1 2 5 S4 +S1 7 0 4 8




7 4 7


7
4


= 4 3 4 = (1)6 4 3 = (21 16) = 5.
0 0 1

3.18.

12 19
7
9
A = 20 16
5
15

2 0
5
2
12 1 .
3 1

. , , .




12 19 2

12 19 2

0
0




9
7
5
2 S2 +2S
19
37 1
0

4
=
|A| = 20 16 12
1 S3 +S4 15 1 15
0 =



5
15 3 1
5
15 3 1


12 19 2


37 1 .
= 1 19
15 1 15

42

1.


1) :

12 19 2

37 1
|A| = 19
15 1 15




= [12 37 (15) +

+19 (1) (2) + (19) (1) (2) (2) 37 (15)


(19) 19 (15) (1) (1) 12] =
= 6660 38 + 285 + 1110 + 5415 + 12 = 13444,


2) . , ,




26 93 0
12 19 2

S1 2S


2
37 1 =
37 1 = 19
|A| = 19
15 1 15 S3 15S2 300 556 0


26 93
= 300 556 = (14456 27900) = 13444.

, . ,
, ,
- ().
3.19.


12 4 7


det A = 8 1 5 .
4 3 2

. ,
1- . ,


3 4 7


det A = 4 2 1 5 .
1 3 2

. . , , 1- 2- 3- .
, 1-,
1- . det A = 0:




3 4 7
0 0 0

S1 S=2 S3

det A = 2 1 5
2 1 5 .
1 3 2
1 3 2
3.20.


3

3
det A = 2

14

3
1
1
5


1 2
2 3
4 2 .
5 13

43

3.

. (). ,
. ,
4- 1-:




3 3 1 2
3 3 1 2




3 1 2 3 = 3 1 2 3
det A = 2 1 4 2

,

S4 S1 2 1 4 2
14 5 5 13
11 2 4 11
1- 4-:

3

3
det A = 2

11

3
1
1
2



1
1 2

R4 0
2 3 R1=
0
4 2


0
4 11

3
1
1
2


1 2
2 3
4 2 .
4 11

, , ,





1 3 1 2

1 2 3

1 2 3
S
S
2 1
2= 1
0 1 2 3
= 10.
det A = 0 1 4 2 = 1 4 2
0 2 1 =

2 4 11 S3 2S1 0 0 5 0 5
0 2 4 11

3.21.


1

1
det A = 2

3


2 1 3
2 2 2
4 1 4 .
4 1 3

. :




1 2 1 3
1 2 1 3




1
1 2 2 2 S2 S1 0 0 3
det A = 2 4 1 4 = 0 0 1
2 .
S3 2S2

3 4 1 3
3 4 1 3

2- 3- ,
.


1 2 1 3






3
1 3 1
0 0 3
2+3+3+4 1 2

det A = 0 0 1
=
(1)




2
1 2
3 4 = 1

3 4 1 3

2-

1
2



1 2


3 4 = 5(2) = 10.

,
. , 3- , , 4-
, 5- ,
.

44

1.

3.22.


2 5
0 1 3

1
0
3
7 2


3
1
0
5
5 .
det A =
2
6 4 1
2

0 3 1 2
3

. . ,






2 5
2 5
0
1
3
0
1
3




1
7
0
3
7 2 S +3S 1 9 0 13

2= 5

5 5 .
5 5
det A = 3 1 0
3 1 0
2
6 4 1
2 S4 4S5 2 18 0 7 10

0 3 1 2
0 3 1 2
3
3
3- ,





0 13 25

2 5 1 3
17




S
+2S
7
7 1 2 1 9 13
1 9 13
det A = 3 1 5 5 = 0 26 34 26 =


S3 3S2
2 18 7 10 S4 2S2 0 36 33 24






1 25
13 25
17
17
17 R +R 4 25



1 3

7 = 0 34 26 = 4 0 34 26 =
= 9 13
3 33 24 S3 3S1
12 33 24
36 33 24




1 25
17
34 26


= 4 0 34 26 = 4 108 75 = 4(2550 2808) = 1032.
0 108 75

, . ,
, , , ,
, 1. , , ,
, .
3.23.


3 5 2 4


3 4 5 3
det A = 5 7 7 5 .


8 8 5 6

.
, , 1- 2- :



3 5 2 4
0 1



+S2 3
4
3 4 5 3 S1=
det A = 5 7 7 5
5 7



8 8 5 6
8 8

, 1.

3 1
5 3
7 5 .
5 6

45

3.

, , ,



0 1 3 1
0



3 4 5 3 S2 +3S
1 3
=
det A = 5 7 7 5


S3 +5S1 5
8 8 5 6 S4 6S1 8





3 1 14
3 1 14
1

S2 2S

1
= 5 2 22 = 1 0 6 = 2
8 2 23 S2 +2S1 2 0 5


3 3 1
1 14 0
2 22 0 =
2 23
0

6
5 = (5 12) = 17.

2- 4-,
3- 4- , 3, 1- .

3.


, ,
() , . ( ,
(1)n(n1)/2 ).
(1)n(n1)/2 .
3.24. ,

0
0

0
0
.
..

det A = n = ..
.
0 an1

2
an an
1
2


...
0
a1n
. . . a2n1 a2n
n
Y
..
..
.. = (1)n(n1)/2
an+1i
.
.
.
.
i
n1
n1
i=1
. . . an1 an
. . . ann1 ann

. n
(n 1):

0
0


0
0
n = a1n (1)1+n ..
..
.
.
an1 an1
2
3


...
0
a1n
. . . a2n1 a2n
.. ,
..
..
.
.
.
n1
. . . an1
a
n1
n

1-
(n 2):


0
0
. . . a1n

..
.. .
..
n = a1n (1)1+n n1 = a1n a2n1 (1)(1+n)+(1+n1) ...
.
.
.
an2 an2 . . . an2
3
4
n
,

n = a1n a2n1 a3n2 an1 (1)(1+n)+(1+n1)+(1+n2)+...+(1+2) .


(1) ,
(n + 1) + n + (n 1) + . . . + 3 =

(n + 1 + 3)(n + 1 2)
=
2

46

1.

n(n 1)
(n + 4)(n 1)
=
+ 2(n 1),
2
2

(1)2(n1) = 1
(1)[n(n1)/2]+2(n1) = (1)n(n1)/2 ,
.
3.25.

5 5 5 ... 5
5 0 5 . . . 5

A = 5 5 0 . . . 5 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 5 5 ... 0
.


5 5 5 . . . 5


5 0 5 . . . 5


n = 5 5 0 . . . 5 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5 5 5 . . . 0




5 5
5 . . . 5

0 5 0 . . . 0


n = 0 0 5 . . . 0 = (1)n1 5n .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 0
0 . . . 5

3.26.


1

1
det A = 1

1

1
3
1
1

1
4
6
1


2
5
7 .
8

. ,


1 1 1 2


0 2 3 3
det A = 0 0 5 5 = 1 2 5 6 = 60.


0 0 0 6
3.27.

3 3

3 1
det A = 2 1

14 5
3.20.


1 2
2 3
2 3
5 13

47

3.

. 3.20,





3 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 1 3 1 2




3 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
det A = 2 1 2 3 = 2 1 4 2 = 0 1 4 2 ,




14 5 5 13 14 2 4 13 0 2 4 11

, , :


1 3 1 2


0 1 2 3
det A = 0 0 2 1 = 1 1 2 5 = 10.


0 0 0 5

. ,
. , ,
.
III.
, , .
n = f (n1 , n2 , . . . , nk ),
n > k. ( ) , n 1 , . . . , k n.
3.28.

p c 0 0 ... 0
c p c 0 . . . 0

A = 0 c p c . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 ... p

. .




p c 0 0 . . . 0
c 0 0 . . . 0




c p c 0 . . . 0
c p c . . . 0




|A| = n = 0 c p c . . . 0 = pn1 c 0 c p . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .




0 0 0 0 . . . p
0 0 0 . . . p

(3.32)


n = pn1 c2 n2 .

48

1.

p = a + b.



c2
n an1 = b n1 n2
b



c2
n bn1 = a n1 n2 .
a
2
2
2
c /b = a c /a = b, .. ab = c , ,

ab = c2 ,
(3.33)
a + b = p.
, z 2 pz + c2 = 0,
a b. , n-
:
n an1 = bn2 (2 a1 ),
n bn1 = an2 (2 b1 ).
1. a 6= b,

n = xan + ybn ,
a b (3.33)
x=

2 b1
,
a(a b)

y=

2 a1
.
b(b a)

(3.32) ,
1 = p,

2 = p2 c2 .

2. a = b, a = b = c, p = 2c


2c c 0 0 . . . 0


c 2c c 0 . . . 0


0 c 2c c . . . 0 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 0 0 0 . . . 2c

3
n = cn Dn ,



2 1 0 0 . . . 0


1 2 1 0 . . . 0


Dn = 0 1 2 1 . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 0 0 0 . . . 2

(3.34)

(3.35)

Dn , .


1 0 0 . . . 0


1 2 1 . . . 0


Dn = 2Dn1 0 1 2 . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 0 0 . . . 2

49

3.


Dn = 2Dn1 Dn2 .

(3.36)

(3.36), Dn1 Dn2


Dn1 = 2Dn2 Dn3 ,
Dn2 = 2Dn3 Dn4 .

(3.37)

(3.37) (3.36),
Dn = 2(2Dn2 Dn3 ) Dn2 = 3Dn2 2Dn3 ,
Dn = 3(2Dn3 Dn4 ) 2Dn3 = 4Dn3 3Dn4 .
,
Dn = [(n 2) + 1]Dn(n2) [(n 1) 1]Dn(n1)

(3.35)

Dn = (n 1)D2 (n 2)D1 .


2 1

D2 = 1 2 = 3,

D1 = 2.

(3.38)

Dn = 3(n 1) 2(n 2) = n + 1,
(3.34)
n = cn (n + 1).
, n
 n
xa + ybn , p 6= 2c,
n = n
c (n + 1), p = 2c.
3.29. n-


2 3 4 ... n 1
n
1
2
3 4 5 ...
n
1

3
4 5 6 ...
1
2
n = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,


n 1 n 1 2 . . . n 3 n 2
n
1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1
.

. ,


2 3 4 ... n 1
n
1
2
3 4 5 ...
n
1 S2 S1

S S2
3
4 5 6 ...
1
2 .3=
...

n = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sn1 Sn2
n 1 n 1 2 . . . n 3 n 2 Sn Sn1
n
1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1

(3.38)

50

1.



2
3
4 ... n 1
n
1
1
1
1
1 ...
1
1 n S1 Sn

1
1
1
1 ... 1 n
1 S2 Sn
= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .=
....

Sn1 Sn
1
1
1 n 1 ...
1
1
1 1 n
1
1 ...
1
1


0 n + 1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1
0
n
0 0 ...
0
n

0
n
0 0 . . . n
0
= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


n
n 0 . . .
0
0
0
1 1 n 1 1 . . .
1
1

:




0 n + 1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1
n + 1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1
0



n
0 0 ...
0
n

n
0 0 ...
0
n

0
n
0
0
.
.
.
n
0


n+1


0 0 . . . n
0 .
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (1)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .




n
n 0 . . .
0
0
0
n
n 0 . . .
0
0

1 1 n 1 1 . . .
1
1
(n 2)- n
,


n + 1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1


n
0 0 ...
0
n


0 0 . . . n
0 =
(1)n+1 n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


n
n 0 . . .
0
0


n + 1 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1


1
0 0 ...
0
1


0 0 ...
1
0 =
= (1)n+1 nn2 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1
1 0 . . .
0
0


Sn 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1
0
0 0 ...
0
1


0
0 0 ...
1
0
=
(1)n+1 nn2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
{R1 +Rn1 +...+R2 }


n n 0 . . .
0
0
0 1 0 . . .
0
0

Sn = (n + 1) + (n 1) + (n 2) + . . . + 3 + 2 =
n(n + 1)
= n + (n 1) + (n 2) + . . . + 3 + 2 + 1 =
.
2
:


Sn 2 3 . . . n 2 n 1


0
0 0 ...
0
1


0 0 ...
1
0 =
(1)n+1 nn2 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 1 0 . . .
0
0

3.



0 0 . . . 0 1


0 . . . 1 0
n+1 n(n + 1) n2 0
= (1)
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2
1 0 . . . 0
0

51

(n 2)-
3.24
n(n + 1) n2
n (1)n2 (1)(n2)(n3)/2 =
2
n(n + 1) n2
=
n (1)2n1+(n2)(n3)/2 =
2
n(n + 1) n2
n(n + 1) n2
2
= (1)(n n+4)/2
n
= (1)n(n1)/2
n .
2
2
n = (1)n+1

3.30.


1
1
1
...
1

a2
a3 . . . an
a1
2

2
a
a
a2 . . . a2

n = . . .1. . . . . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .n. . ,


an2 an2 an2 . . . an2
1
2
3
n
n1
a
an1 an1 . . . an1
1

, .
. , ,


1
1
1
...
1

a2
a3 . . . an S a S
a1
2
2 1 1
2
a
a
a2 . . . a2 S3 a1 S2

n = . . .1. . . . . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .n. . . . .
.....


an2 an2 an2 . . . an2 Sn a1 Sn1
n
1n1 2n1 3n1

a
a2
a3
. . . an1
1
n



1
1
1
.
.
.
1


a a
a3 a1
...
an a1
0
0 a (a2 a1 )
a3 (a3 a1 ) . . . an (an a1 ) .
=
2 2
1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 an2 (a2 a1 ) an2 (a3 a1 ) . . . an2 (an a1 )
2

, 1-


1

1
1
.
.
.
1


0
1
1
...
1
0 a
a3 . . . an =
n = (an a1 )(an1 a1 ) (a2 a1 )
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 an2 an2 . . . an2
2
3
n


1

1
.
.
.
1
n


Y
a
... a
a
=
(ai a1 ) . . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .n. . .


i=2
an2 an2 . . . an2
2
3
n

52

1.

,
n
Y
n =
(ai a1 )n1 .

(3.39)

i=2

(3.39) n1 ,
n1 =

n
Y
(aj a2 )n2 .

(3.40)

j=3

n
n
Y
Y
n =
(ai a1 ) (aj a2 )n2 .
i=2

j=3

,


n
n
n
Y
Y
Y
1

1
=
n =
(ai a1 ) (aj a2 )
(ak an2 ) a
n1 an
=

n
Y
i=2

i=2
n
Y

(ai a1 )

j=3

j=3

(aj a2 )

k=n1

n
Y

(ak an2 )(an an1 ) =

k=n1

,
n =

16s<i6n

16s<i6n

(ai as ).

3.31.


0 1 1 . . . 1


1 a1 0 . . . 0


n = 1 0 a2 . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1 0 0 . . . an

. ,


0 1 1 . . . 1


2 /a1
1 a1 0 . . . 0 SS1 S
3 /a2

1 S
n = 1 0 a2 . . . 0 . . . .=
.
....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S1 Sn+1
/an


1 0 0 . . . an
1

1


0 0 ... 0
. . .
a1

an


1
a
0
.
.
.
0
1
,
=
1
0 a2 . . . 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
0 0 ... a
n

1-


a1 0 0 . . . 0
1
1
1  0 a2 0 . . . 0
n =
+
+ ...+

=
a1 a2
an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 . . . an

(ai as ).

53

4.
n
n
1
Y
X
1
1
1
=
+
+ ...+
a1 a2 an =
ai
.
a1 a2
an
a
j
i=1
j=1

3.32.

0
a12
a13
. . . a12n+1
a12
0
a23
. . . a22n+1

1
2
A = a3
a3
0
. . . a32n+1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a12n+1 a22n+1 a32n+1 . . .
0
2n + 1, .
. , A = A. ,
, , , det A = det A,
det A = det[(1)A] = (1)2n+1 det A = det A.
det A = det A = det A det A = det A. , det A = 0.
3.33.
1)

2)



1
2
3


3 = 0,
1 3 x
1
2
5 + x


x2 + 7 2
> 1.

3x
1

. 3- ,
3.


1
2
0


0 = 0.
1 3 x
1
2
2 + x
,

(2 + x)(3 x 2) = (2 + x)(1 x) = 0,
x1 = 2, x2 = 1.
, ,
x2 + 7 6x > 1,

x2 6x + 8 > 0.

x2 6x + 8 = 0: x1 = 2, x2 = 4.
x ] , 2[ ]4, [.

54

4.

1.

, , .
 A nm. , k-
(k 6 min(m, n)) A M,
, k k
A.
 A m n . A
r(A) = rang A = rank A.
 A m n r ,
, r + 1
, .. r m n.
, r 6 min(m, n),
. ,
.
, (r + 1) .
(r+2)
(r + 1).
 A, , .
, rang A = 0.
. ,
, .
, .

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ( )
( ), .
4.1 ( ). .
14.
1.
A A . , .
2. ,
A
.
3. x
, x,
x 6= 0, .
4. r + 1- ,
. ,
r + 1 ( , , ,

55

4.

, ), r + 1
( ,
, , , ).
, . ,
,
. ,
.
 A B , .
A B.
 , ( ),
.
.
.
, ,
, , . , , .
4.1. A 4 3,
(rang A = 2).
. ,
A=

!
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 .
0 0 0 0

A (rang A = 2).
4.2.
A=

1 2 1 4
0 1 1 3
2 5 1 11

.
. A.
!
!
1 2 1 4
1 2 1 4
S3 2S1
S3 S2
0 1 1 3
A = 0 1 1 3

2 5 1 11
0 1 1 3
!
!
1 2 1 4
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
R2 2R1
R3 +R2
0 1 1 3
0 1 0
0 1 1 3

R1
R4 3R2
0 0 0 0 RR434R
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
1
, A (rang A = 2).
4.3.
A=

2 1 1
1 1 2
4 1 3

!
0
0 .
0

56

1.

.
!
1 1 2
A 2 1 1 .
4 1 3
3- 1-, 4, .. S3 4S1 , 2-
1-, 2, .. S2 2S1 .
!
1 1 2
A 0 3 5
0 3 5

!
1 1 2
0 3 5 .
0 0
0

2- 1- (R2 + R1 ), 3- 1-,
2 (R3 2R1 ).
!
1 0 0
A 0 3 5 .
0 0 0
3:
A

1 0 0
0 1 5
0 0 0

3- 2-, 5: R3 + 5R2 .

!
1 0 0
A 0 1 0 .
0 0 0
, rang A = 2.
4.4.
A=

!
1 1 3 2
3 0 2 3 .
4 1 5 5

.
. :
!
!
1 1 3 2 R +R 1 0 0
0 S 3S
2
2
1 3 3 7 3
1
A= 3 0 2 3
R3 3R1
S3 4S1
4 1 5 5 R4 2R1 4 3 7 3
!
!
1 0 0
0 S S 1 0 0 0
3
2

0 3 7 3
0 3 7 3 .
0 3 7 3
0 0 0 0

57

4.

2- 1/3:
A

1 0 0 0
0 1 7 3
0 0 0 0

R3 +7R1

R4 3R1

!
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 .
0 0 0 0

, rang A = 2.
 (-, -) Xk , k = 1, m,
,
X 6= 0,

X=

m
X

C k Xk ,

(4.1)

k=1

Ck , k = 1, m, .
Xk , k = 1, m, . X,
(4.1),
Xk , k = 1, m.
4.2 ( ). A
() ().
.
, , .
()
(). () , . ,

() (),
(). .
4.2.1. A n, det A = 0,
() .
, det A = 0, , n, . , ,
.. r, r 6 n1, () ,
, .
4.2.2. n- , () .
5 .
4.2.1 () ,
.
, ,
.
4.3 ( ). A () .

58

1.

. , rang A = r > 1. , A r r . Ar r,
. Ar A. ,
Ar , , ,
. r A.
, r , .. s
A , s > r.
A A s > r. , rang A 6
r, A A, ,
, A ,
r. rang A 6 r s
.
.

, , 4.3,
,
.
, . , 4.24.4
,
. , 4.2

!
1 2 1 4
A 0 1 1 3 ,
0 0 0 0
, , , ;
4.3
!
1 1 2
A 0 3 5
0 0
0
, , 4.4
A

!
1 0 0
0
0 3 7 3 .
0 3 7 3

, . .
4.4 ( ). m n- A
k, ,
k+1 ( ) ,
k: rang A = k.
. M k. , , (

59

4.

), k A. k
: , M
M .
Ml , l = 1, m k:









a1k+1
a1k+1
a1k+1
M
M
M
. . . , M2 =
. . . , . . . , Ml =
. . . ,
M1 =
k+1
k+2
k+l
k+1
k+2
a1 . . . ak+1
a1 . . . ak+l

a1 . . . ak+1
k+1

M.
, ,
k , (m l) (k + 1)-
. , , 4.2.1 (k+1)- k
.
(k + 1) (k + 2)
, (k + 2)- .
(k + 2)- (k + 3)- .

(k + 1) k .
4.3 A k. ,
.
, , , .
.
. M k, ,
(k + 1)- ( ), M ( ):
, k.
4.5.
A=

1 2 1 4
0 1 1 3
2 5 1 11

.
. ,
, . ,



1 2


0 1 = 1 6= 0.


1

1
2





1 2 4
2 1



1 1 = 0,
0 1 3 = 0.


5 1
2 5 11

, rang A = 2.

60

1.

4.6.
!
1 0 0 0
A= 5 1 2 0 .
11 2 4 0
. ,


1 0


5 1 = 5 6= 0,
3- :


1 0 0


5 1 2 = 1(1 4 2 2) = 0,
11 2 4
rang A = 2.

4.7.

2 4 3
1 0
1 2 1 4 2
A = 0 1 1 3 1 .
4 7 4 4 5

. 2- ,
, :


2 4
M1 = 1 2 = 0.
2-


4 3
M2 = 2 1 = 2 6= 0

. 3-


2 4 3


M3 = 1 2 1 = 7 6= 0
0 1 1

. 4- , M3 :




2 4 3
2 4 3 0
1



1 4
1 2
1 2
1 2

M4 = 0 1 1 3 , M4 = 0 1 1 1 = 0




4 7 4 4
4 7 4 5

, , , A 3 (rang A = 3).
, , .
1. A B ,
..
rang(AB) 6 min(rang A, rang B),
rang(AB) = rang(BA).

4.

61

2. A B n,

rang(AB) > rang A + rang B n.


3. rang A = n (det A 6= 0),
rang(AB) = rang(BA) = rang B.
4. A B
rang(A + B) 6 rang A + rang B.
5. , , ,
.. rang(A) = rang A.
, , 1.
C A AB, ..
.
C = (A .. AB).
, rang AB 6 rang C. , , AB
A bij ( B), rang C = rang A,
rang(AB) 6 rang A.
, rang(AB) 6 rang B,
C B AB:
!
B
C = . . . .
AB
4.8. ,
.
. 2-






1 0
5 0
0 0
A= 0 0 , B= 0 0 , C= 3 0
, : rang A = rang B = rang C = 1.



 

1 0
5 0
5 0
AB = 0 0
0 0 = 0 0
rang(AB) = 1,


 

1 0
0 0
0 0
AC = 0 0
3 0 = 0 0
rang(AC) = 0, .. rang(AB) 6= rang(AC).
4.9. A B, rang(AB) 6= rang(BA).

62

1.

.
A = (1 2) ,

B=

2
1


2
AB = (1 2) 1 = 0,
 


2
2
4
BA = 1 (1 2) = 1 2 .
rang(AB) = 0, rang(BA) = 1, rang(AB) 6= rang(BA).

5.

 n n- B = kbjk k
n n- A = kajk k,
AB = BA = E = I.

(5.1)

A1 .
 n n- , det A 6= 0,
, , det A = 0.
 n n- C = kcjk k ,
A = kajk k,
cjk = Akj ,

k, j = 1, n,

(5.2)

Akj akj .

A.
5.1. A , , A .
. . , A A1 , .. AA1 = I. ,
det A det A1 = det I = 1.

(5.3)

, det A 6= 0.
. , det A 6= 0.
A A:


n
X



AA =
ajl clk .


l=1

(3.30)

n

X

j k

al Al = kkj det Ak = (det A) I.


AA =


l=1

63

5.

= (det A) I.
AA
A1 =

1
A,
det A

(5.4)

.
(5.4) A1 ,
A.
.
1.
(AB)1 = B 1 A1 .
, (AB)
(AB)(AB)1 = (AB)B 1 A1 = ABB 1 A1 = AIA1 = AA1 = E,
. ,
(A)1 =

1 1
A .

2.
(A1 ) = (A)1 .
, AA1 = A1 A = I.
. (2.6),

(A1 )A = A(A1 ) = I,
I = (A)1 A = A1 (A)1 ,
.
3.
(A1 )1 = A.
, A1 , A1 (A1 )1 =
A1 A = I, .
4.
det(A1 ) = (det A)1 ,
(5.3).
5.1. ,
!
1 2 3
A= 0 1 2 .
0 0 2

64

1.

. A , , , det A = 2.
!
1 0 0
A = 2 1 0
3 2 2






1 0
2 0 2 1





2 2 3 2 3 2
!





2 4 7
0 0 1 0
1 0





A =
2 2 3 2 3 2 = 0 2 2 .






0 0
1
1 0
1 0
0 0






2 0
1 0
2 1
(5.4)
A1

1
= A =
2

!
1 2 3,5
0 1 1 .
0 0 0,5

5.2.

1 1 1 ... 1
0 1 1 . . . 1

A = 0 0 1 . . . 1 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 ... 1

. , det A = 1.

1 0 0 ... 0
1 1 0 . . . 0

A = 1 1 1 . . . 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 1 1 ... 1

A11 A21 A31 . . . An1


A1 A22 A32 . . . An2
A = 2
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A1n A2n A3n . . . Ann







1 1 0 . . . 0
1 0 0 . . . 0
1 0 0 . . . 0






1 1 0 . . . 0
1 1 0 . . . 0
1 1 0 . . . 0






A11 = 1 1 1 . . . 0 , A21 = 1 1 1 . . . 0 , A31 = 1 1 1 . . . 0 , . . . ;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .






1 1 1 . . . 1
1 1 1 . . . 1
1 1 1 . . . 1






1 0 0 . . . 0
0 0 0 . . . 0
1 1 0 . . . 0






1 1 0 . . . 0
1 1 0 . . . 0
1 1 1 . . . 0






An1 = (1)n+1 1 1 1 . . . 0 ; A12 = 1 1 1 . . . 0 , A22 = 1 1 1 . . . 0 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .






1 1 1 . . . 1
1 1 1 . . . 1
1 1 1 . . . 1

5.



1 0 0 . . . 0


1 1 0 . . . 0


A32 = 1 1 1 . . . 0 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1 1 1 . . . 1

...,



1 0 0 . . . 0


1 1 1 . . . 0


An2 = (1)n+2 1 1 1 . . . 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1 1 1 . . . 1

65

..

1 1 0 . . . 0
0 1 1 . . . 0

1 . . . 0
A = 0 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0
0 ... 1

: A = A1 , det A = 1.
, A (5.4) , .
, .

5.1 ( ). A mn
m.
. I m. S(i, j), i- j- .
S(i, j)A, , ,
A i j.
S(1; i, i; ),
i- 6= 0. S(1; i, i; )
A i- A .
, S(0; i, j; 1), , i- j- ,
. S(0; i, j; 1) A i- j-
.
,
det S(i, j) = 1,

det S(1; i, i; ) = ,

det S(0; i, j; 1) = 1.

, A
S.
n A .
5.3.
A=

1 2 0 3
2 2 1 0
1 1 2 1

S :
1) 2- 3- ;
2) 1- 2-;
3) 1- 3-, .

66

1.

.
I=

!
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

1)
S(2, 3) =

!
1 0 0
0 0 1 ,
0 1 0

S(2, 3)A
!
!
1 0 0
1 2 0 3
2 2 1 0 =
S(2, 3)A = 0 0 1
0 1 0
1 1 2 1

!
1 2 0 3
1 1 2 1 ,
2 2 1 0

A 2- 3- ;
2)
!
1 1 0
S(0; 1, 2; 1) = 0 1 0 ,
0 0 1
A A 2- 1-:
!
!
!
1 1 0
1 2 0 3
3 4 1 3
2 2 1 0 = 2 2 1 0 ;
S(0; 1, 2; 1) = 0 1 0
0 0 1
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
3)
S(0; 1, 3; ) =

!
1 0
0 1 0 ,
0 0 1

A A 3- , , 1- :
!
!
!
1 0
1 2 0 3
1 + 2 + 2 3 +
2 2 1 0 =
2
2
1
0
S(0; 1, 3; ) = 0 1 0
.
0 0 1
1 1 2 1
1
1
2
1
5.2. A ( ) . I, A1 .
. det A 6= 0, A1 , det(A1 ) 6=
0, , 5.1 4.1, S, , A
I, .. Sl S1 A = I, Sl S1 AA1 = IA1 Sl S1 I = A1 , .

.
A I
, .

67

5.

5.4. A ,


1 3
A= 4 5
. 1 . 5.2, Sl ,
A .


1
0
S1 = 1 1/4
, A 1- 2-,
1/4:


 

1
0
1 3
1 3
S1 A = 1 1/4
4 5 = 0 7/4 .

S2 =

1 0
0 4/7

, S1 A 2- 4/7:
 



1 3
1 0
1 3
= 0 1 .
S2 (S1 A) =
0 7/4
0 4/7
, ,
S3 =

1 3
0 1

, S2 (S1 A) 1- 2-, (3),


A :

 


1 3
1 0
1 3
S3 (S2 (S1 A)) = 0 1
0 1 = 0 1 = I.
A1





1 0
1
0
1 0
1 3
1
A = S3 S2 S1 I = 0 1
0 4/7
0 1/4
0 1 =


 



1 5 3
1
0
1 12/7
5/7 3/7
=
=
=
.
0 4/7
1 1/4
4/7 1/7
7 4 1
2 . 5.2,



1 3 1 0
B= 4 5 0 1 ,

1
4
C=
1
0

3
5

0
1

68

1.

.
B.






1
3 1 0 S2 /7 1 3 1
0 S1 3S2

B 0 7 4 1
0 1 4/7 1/7



1 0 5/7
3/7
0 1
.
4/7 1/7
,



1 5 3
A =
.
7 4 1
, .
2- .
1

5.5. A 5.1.
.

!
1 2 3 1 0 0

0 1
2 0 1 0 .
0 0
2 0 0 1

B=

,


!
!
0 S /2
1 2 3 1 0
1 2 3 1 0 0
S2 S3

3

0 1
0 0 1 1
2 0 1 0

B= 0 1


0 0
2 0 0
1
0 0
2 0 0 1


!
!
1 0 0 1 2 3,5
1 2 3 1 0 0
S1 2S2 +3S3


0 1 0 0
1 1 ,
0 0 1 1

0 1
0 0 1 0
0 0,5
0 0
1 0 0 0,5

!
1 2 3,5
A = 0 1 1 ,
0 0 0,5
5.1.
1

5.6. A 5.2.
. B

1 1 1 . . . 1 1 1 0 0 . . . 0 0

0 1 1 . . . 1 1 0 1 0 . . . 0 0 S1 S2
0 0 1 . . . 1 1 0 0 1 . . . 0 0 S2 S3

B=
....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. . .

n1 Sn
0 0 0 . . . 1 1 0 0 0 . . . 1 0
0 0 0 . . . 0 1 0 0 0 . . . 0 1

1 0 0 . . . 0 0 1 1
0 ... 0
0

1 1 . . . 0
0
0 1 0 . . . 0 0 0
0 0 1 . . . 0 0 0
0
1
.
.
.
0
0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,

0 0 0 . . . 1 0 0
0
0 . . . 1 1

0 0 0 ... 0 1 0
0
0 ... 0
1

69

5.

A1

1 1
0 ... 0
0
1 1 . . . 0
0
0
0
0
1
.
.
.
0
0

=
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,

0
0
0 . . . 1 1
0
0
0 ... 0
1

5.2.

5.7. , AB,
!
!
1 2 3
1 1 1
A= 0 1 2 ,
B= 0 1 1 .
0 0 2
0 0 1
. 1 ,
(AB)1 = B 1 A1 .
, 5.5 5.6,
!
!
!
1 1 0
1 2 3,5
1 3 4,5
0 1 1 = 0 2 1,5 .
(AB)1 = B 1 A1 = 0 1 1
0 0
1
0 0 0,5
0 0
0,5

70

2.


6.

, ,
,
. ,
.
1 1
a1 x + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ;

2 1
a1 x + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = b2 ;
................................

m 1
2
m n
m
a1 x + am
2 x + . . . + an x = b .

(6.1)

(6.1) :
(6.2)

AX = B,

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a2 a22 . . . a2n
A= 1
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
m
m
m
a1 a2 . . . an

x1
x2

X=
... ,
xn

b1
b2

b=
... .
bm

 A ,

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a2 a2 . . . a2
e=
A
. . 1. . . . .2. . . . . . . . .n.
am
am
. . . am
1
2
n

b1
b2
.
..
m
b

(6.3)

.
 (6.1) 1 , 2 , . . . ,
. . . , n , , (6.1)
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , .
 , ,
, .
 , , , .
 ,
, .. bk = 0, k = 1, m.
.
 ( ),
, .

(6.1).
6.1 (). (6.1) e A .
, A

71

7. n n

. 1. .
(6.1) . x1 = 1 ,
x2 = 2 , . . . , xn = n , (6.1) :
a11 1

+ ...+

a1n n

n
X

a1l l = b1 ,

l=1

....................................,
n
X
m
m
m
a1 + . . . + an n =
am
l l = b ,
l=1

(6.3)

e
A=

n
X 1

...
al l

l=1

............ ........
X
n
m
am
am
.
.
.
a
l l
1
n
a11

a1n

l=1

, e = rang A.
, , rang A
e = rang A. A
2. . rang A
e
A.

A, (6.1).
, (6.1) , .
(r = n),
, .. .
(r < n)
, .. .
(6.1) . ,
, , .
.

7.

n n

7.1.

n n :
1 1
a1 x + + a1n xn = b1 ,
......................,
n 1
a1 x + + ann xn = bn

n
X

aij xj = bi ,

i = 1, n.

j=1

(7.1)

(7.2)

72

2.

, :
1 1

a1 a2 . . . a1n
2 2

a a . . . a2n
D= 1 2
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
an an . . . an
1

:
D = a11 A11 + a21 A21 + + an1 An1 .

(7.3)

, - ()
() . ,
a11 A12 + a21 A22 + . . . + an1 An2 = 0.
7.1. (7.1) , .. D =
det A 6= 0, ,

Dj
xj =
(7.4)
,
j = 1, n,
D
Dj , D j-
.
. x1 , (7.1) A11 , A21 , . . . , n- An1
:
x1 (a11 A11 + . . . + an1 An1 ) + x2 (a12 A11 + . . . + an2 An1 ) + . . . +
+ . . . + xn (a1n A11 + . . . + ann An1 ) = b1 A11 + b2 A21 + . . . + bn An1 ).
, ,
1

n
X

ai1 Ai1 = x1 D,

i=1

n
X

i=1

aij Ai1 = 0, j 6= 1,

x1 D = D1 ,

D1 =

n
X
i=1


1 1
b a2 . . . a1n


bi Ai1 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bn an . . . an
2

, D 6= 0, x = D1 /D.
j
(7.1) A1j , A2j , . . . , n- Anj ,
xj

n
X
j=1

aij Aij =

n
X
i=1

bi Aij ,

73

7. n n
j

.. x D = Dj ,


1
1
1
a1 . . . a1
b
a
.
.
.
a
j1
j+1
n
1
Dj = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
an1 . . . anj1 bn anj+1 . . . ann

(7.4):

xj =

Dj
,
D

.
6.1 7.1, , det A 6= 0
e = rang A = n.
rang A
, (7.4).
7.1.
1
x + 2x2 x3 = 3,
2x1 + 3x2 + x3 = 1,
1
x x2 x3 = 3.

. :


1 2 1


1 = 9,
D 6= 0.
D = 2 3
1 1 1

.







3 2 1
1 3 1
1 2 3






1
1 3
2 1 1
2 3 1
3 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 3
x1 =
, x2 =
, x3 =
.
D
D
D

D1 = 9 + 6 1 + 9 3 2 = 18,
D2 = 1 3 6 1 6 3 = 18,
D3 = 9 2 + 6 + 9 12 1 = 9,

x1 =

18
= 2,
9

x2 =

18
= 2,
9

7.2.
1
4x + 4x2 + 5x3 + 5x4 = 0,

1
2x + 3x2 x4 = 10,
x1 + x2 5x3 = 10,

2
3x + 2x3 = 1.

x3 =

9
= 1.
9

74

2.

.

4 4

2 0
det A = D = 1 1

0 3


5
5
3 1
5 0
2
0

, , 4- :



2 0 3 4 4 5



D = 5 1 1 5 1 1 5 .
0 3 2 0 3 2

3- , , 1- ,


 



1 5
1 1
1 5 4 5







D = 5 2 3 2 + 3 0 3 4 3 2 3 2 = 215 75 = 290 6= 0.

D ,
. , D1 , D2 ,
D3 , D4 , 1-, 2-, 3- 4- ,
:




4 0
0 4 5
5
5
5


3 1
2 10
10 0 3 1
D2 = 1 10 5 0 ,
D1 = 10 1 5 0 ,




0 1
1 3 2
2
0
0





4 4 5

4 4 0
0
5




10
2 0 3
2 0 10 1
D4 = 1 1 5 10 .
D3 = 1 1 10 0 ,




0 3 2
0 3 1
1
0
, , D, D1 = 290,
D2 = 290, D3 = 580, D4 = 580.
D1
290
=
= 1,
D
290
D3
580
=
= 2,
x3 =
D
290
x1 =

7.2.

D2
290
=
= 1,
D
290
D4
580
x4 =
=
= 2.
D
290
x2 =

. ,
, .
,
1
1
1 1

x
b
a1 a2 . . . a1n
2
2
2
2
x
b2
a a . . . an

. .
A= 1 2
, X =
,
B
=

...
..
...............
n
n
n
a1 a2 . . . an
xn
bn
(7.1) (6.2):
AX = B.

7. n n

75

, A , .. det A 6= 0,
A1 (6.2) A1 .
X = A1 B.

(7.5)

5.1 A1 , Aij ;

1

x
D1
1
D
x2

X = = A1 B = . . 2. ,
...
D
Dn
xn

.
, , ,
.
(, ),
A1 (7.5),

, Dj .
.
7.3.
1
3x + 2x2 + x3 = 5,
2x1 x2 + x3 = 6,
1
x + 5x2 = 3.

.
!
3 2 1
2 1 1
1 5 0

det A =

3 2 1
2 1 1
1 5 0

= 2.

det A = 2 6= 0, .
, A1 . (. 5.15.3), :
!
3 2 1
A = 2 1 5
1 1 0

A =

!
5 5
3
1 1 1 ,
11 13 7

76

2.


1
A1 = A.
2
(7.5)

X=

x1
x2
x3

1
= A1 B =
2

5 5
3
1 1 1
11 13 7

..
X=

x1
x2
x3

2
1
1

5
6
3

1
=
2

4
2
2

!
2
1 ,
1

x1 = 2, x2 = 1, x3 = 1.
7.4.
1
3x + 2x2 + x3 = 1,
2x1 x2 + x3 = 0,
1
x + 5x2 = 1.

.
A=

!
3 2 1
2 1 1
1 5 0

7.3. ,
A1 :
A1

1
=
2

!
5 5
3
1 1 1 ,
11 13 7

(7.5) , B =

X=

x1
x2
x3

1
= A1 B =
2

5 5
3
1 1 1
11 13 7

..
X=

x1
x2
x3

x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 2.

!
1
0
2

!
1
1
0 =
2
1
!

!
1
0 :
1
2
0
4

!
1
0 ,
2

7. n n

7.3.

77

, , det A = 0,
det A 6= 0. ,

.
, , ,
.
. , , .

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ;
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 = b2 ;
a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 = b3 .

(7.6)
(7.7)
(7.8)

a11 , a22 , a33


,
. a11 = 0, , x1 . ,
:
.
m2 = a21 /a11 .
m2 (7.7). ( , .)

(a21 m2 a11 )x1 + (a22 m2 a12 )x2 + (a23 m2 a13 )x3 = b2 m2 b1 .


a21 m2 a11 = a21

a21 1
a = 0,
a11 1

x1 (
m2 ). :
a
22 = a22 m2 a12 ,
a
23 = a23 m2 a13 ,
b2 = b2 m2 b1 .
(7.7)
a
22 x2 + a
23 x3 = b2 .

(7.9)

(7.7) (7.9)
m3 = a31 /a11 . (7.6)
(7.8). x1
,
a
32 x2 + a
33 x3 = b3 ,

a
32 = a32 m3 a12 ,

(7.10)

78

2.

a
33
3

a33
3

m3 a13 ,

b = b m3 b1 .

(7.8) (7.10),
, , :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ;
a
2 x2 + a2 x3 = b2 ;

(7.11)

(7.13)

2
a
32 x2

3
a
33 x3

=b .

(7.12)

,
x1 , .
,
. ,
.. x2 x3 ,
x1 . ,
.
x2 (7.12) (7.13).
. , a
22 6= 0
3
a2 6= 0.

a32
m
3 = 2.
a
2
(7.12) m
3 (7.13).

(
a32 m
3 a22 )x2 + (
a33 m
3a
23 )x3 = b3 b2 m
3.
m
3
a
32 m
3a
22 = 0.

33 = a
a
33 m
3a
23 ,
3 3
b = b m
3b2 ,

33 x3 = b3 .
a
(7.14)
(7.13) (7.14), :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ;
a
2 x2 + a2 x3 = b2 ;
2

33 x3 = b3 .
a

(7.15)
(7.16)
(7.17)

- .
(7.15)(7.17).
33 6= 0 b3 .
1. a
.
1 1 1 1
a1 a2 a3 b
e = 0 a22 a
23 b2 .
A
33 b3
0 0 a

7. n n

79

e = rang A = 3, .. , rang A
.
, . x3 (7.17),
(7.16); x2 , x3 x2 (7.15)
x1 . , ( ),
x3 =

3
b
,
33
a
b2 a
2 x3

3
,
a
22
b1 a12 x2 a13 x3
x1 =
.
a11

x2 =

(7.18)
(7.19)
(7.20)

33 = 0. ,
2. a

3
b.
2a) b3 6= 0, (7.17)
0 = b3 ,

b3 6= 0,

0 = 1.

,
,

a11 a12 a13 b1


e= 0 a
A
22 a23 b2 .
0 0 0 1

e = 3, .. rang A 6= rang A.
e
, rang A = 2, rang A
, , 0 = 1.
,
0 x1 + 0 x2 + 0 x3 = 1.
, x1 , x2 , x3 , ,
, .
,

(0 0 0 | 1) ,
.

2. b3 = 0,
0 = 0,
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ,

80

2.

a22 x2

a
23 x3

= b2 ,

a11 a12 a13 b1


e= 0 a
A
22 a23 b2 .
0 0 0 0

e = rang A = 2 < 3. , rang A


, , .. . ,
. 2- , e = 2. ,
, rang A
( ),
, ,
( ), .
a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 a13 x3 ,
a
2 x2 = b2 a
2 x3 .
2

(7.21)
(7.22)

x2 ,
x1 x2 x3 :

a1b2  
a1 a
2 
x1 = b1 2 2 + a13 + 2 2 3 x3 ,
a
2
a2
b2
a
2
x2 = 2 32 x3 .
a
2 a
2
x3 ,
(7.15)(7.17).
(7.11)(7.13).
3. a
22 , a
32 , ,
, (7.15)(7.17),
.
4. a
22 a
32 , .. a
22 = a
32 = 0,
(7.11)(7.13)
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ;
a2 x3 = b2 ;
3
a
33 x3

= b3 .

,
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ;
0 = 0;
0 = 0.
,

!
a11 a12 a13 b1

e=
0 0 0 0
A
0 0 0 0

7. n n

81

e = rang A = 1 < 3. ,
, rang A
, , x1 ,
x2 x3 :
a1
a1
x1 = b1 21 x2 31 x3 .
a1
a1
(7.6)(7.8).
, .
7.5.
1
2x + x2 x3 = 1;
x1 x2 + 2x3 = 0;
1
4x x2 + 4x3 = 1.

.

!
2
1 1 1

e = 1 1
2 0 .
A
4 1
4 1

1- 2- ,
:



!
!
!
1 1
2 1
1 1
2 0
1 1
2 0
S
2S
S
S



3
e= 2
1 1 0 2 1 0
3 5 1
3 5 1 .
A
2 0
S4 4S1


4 1
4 1
0
3 4 1
0
0
1 0
e = rang A = 3, ..
, rang A = 3 6= 0 rang A
. , :
x1 x2 + 2x3 = 0,
3x2 5x3 = 1,
x3 = 0.
,
x3 = 0,
1
1
x2 = (1 + 5x3 ) = ,
3
3
1
1
2
3
x = x 2x = .
3
, :


!
!
1 1
2 0
1 1 0 0
S2 /3
S
+5S


2
3
e 0
3 5 1
0
3 0 1
A

0
0
0 0 S1 2S3 0
0 0 0


!
!
0
1 1 0
1 0 0 1/3
S1 +S2


1 0 1/3
0 1 0 1/3 .
0


0
0 0
0 0 1
0
0
, x1 = 1/3, x2 = 1/3, x3 = 0.

82

2.

7.6.
1
2x + x2 x3 = 1;
x1 x2 + 2x3 = 0;
1
4x x2 + 3x3 = 1.

. , , , x3 . , ,
.
,

!
2
1 1 1

e = 1 1
2 0 .
A
4 1
3 1
:

!
2
1 1 1
1 1
2
S1 S2

e = 1 1
2
1 1
2 0

A
4 1
3
4 1
3 1

!
1 1
2 0
1 1
2
S3 S2

3 5 1
0
3 5
0

0
3 5 1
0
0
0

1
1 1
2 0
1 0

5 1
S2
S1
5

0
1

3 3
0 1
3
0
0
0 0
0 0
0


!
0
S2 2S1

1
1 S3 4S1

!
0
S2 /3

1
0

1

3
1
.

3
0

e = r = 2, n = 3, .. 2 (r < n). rang A = rang A


, ,
. ( ,
e x3 :
A),

1 1

x1 = x3 ;
3 3

x2 = 1 + 5 x3 .
3 3

x1 x2 , x3 C. x2 ,
x1 .
5C 1
1 C
, x2 =
.
3
3
,

1+C

x1 =
,

3
5C 1
2
x
=
,

3
x = C,
x1 =

C .

8.

83

7.7.
1
2x + x2 x3 = 1;
x1 x2 + 2x3 = 0;
1
4x x2 + 3x3 = 2.

. , , , . , , .


!
2
1 1 1

e = 1 1
2 0 .
A
4 1
3 2

1- 2- ,
:


!
!
2
1 1 1
1 1
2 0
S
2S
S3 S2


2
1
e = 1 1
2 0
0
3 5 1
A

4 1
3 2 S3 4S1 0
3 5 2


!
!
1 1
2 0 S /3 1 1
2 0

3

3 5 1
0
3 5 1 .
0


0
0
0
3
0
0
0 1

e = 3,
, , rang A = 2, rang A
e
.. rang A 6= rang A. , ,
e
A A,
(0 0 0 | 1)

8.

, .
, , .. m 6= n:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,
................................
(8.1)
1
m 2
m n
m
am
x
+
a
x
+
.
.
.
+
a
x
=
b
.
1
2
n
A m
n, .
(8.1) .
, ,
, , x1 ; , , x2 .. , 7.57.7,
, .

84

2.

, . , ,
,

(0 0 0 . . . 0 | 1) ,
, .

(0 0 0 . . .

0 | 0) ,


.
,
A ,
. A ,
.
r , n r.

() . ,
, . , ,
.
8.1.
1
x + 2x2 + 5x3 = 9;

1
x x2 + 3x3 = 2;
3x1 6x2 x3 = 25;

1
x x2 + x3 = 4.

. x1 , x2 , x3 . :

1
2
5 9
1
2
5 9
1 1
3 2 S2 S1 0 3 2 11 S3 4S2
e=
A
3 6 1 22 0 12 16 52
S3 3S1
S4 S2


S4 S1
1 1
1 4
0 3 4 13


1
2
5 9
1
2
5 9
1
2
5 9
0 3 2 11 S3 /8 0 3 2 11
0 3 2 11
0
0
0 8 8 S4 /2 0
0
1 1 S4
0
1 1 .
S3
0
0 2 2
0
0
1 1
0
0
0 0

,
e . , A ( A)
, , ..
. () . ,
:
x1 + 2x2 + 5x3 = 9,

85

8.
2

3x 2x = 11,
x3 = 1.

, x3 = 1,
3x2 = 11 + 2x3 = 11 2 = 9,

x2 = 3,


x1 = 9 2x2 5x3 = 9 + 6 + 5 = 2,

x1 = 2.

, x1 = 2, x2 = 3, x3 = 1.
:
!
!
x1
2
X = x2 = 3 .
1
x3
, ,
e = 3, ..
, rang A = rang A
.
8.2.
1
x + x2 2x3 x4 + x5 = 1;
3x1 x2 + x3 + 4x4 + 3x5 = 4;
1
x + 5x2 9x3 8x4 + x5 = 0.

. :
!

!
1
1 2 1 1 1
1
1 2 1 1 1
S
3S


2
1
e = 3 1
1
4 3 4
0 4
7
7 0 1
A

1
5 9 8 1 0 S3 S1 0
4 7 7 0 1 S3 +S2
!
1
1 2 1 1 1

7
7 0 1 .
0 4
0
0
0
0 0 0

, . ,
x1 x2 ,
x3 , x4 , x5 . ,
. , :
!

!
1
1 2 1 1 1 S +S /4 1
0 1/4 3/4 1 5/4 S /4
1
2
2


e = 0 4
7
7 0 1
0 4
7
7 0 1/4
A

0
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0
0 0
0

!
1 0 1/4
3/4 1 5/4

0 1 7/4 7/4 0 1/4 .
0 0
0
0 0
0

, :
3
5
1
x1 x3 + x4 + x5 = ,
4
4
4

86

2.

7
1
7
x2 x3 x4 = .
4
4
4
x1 x2 :
5 1 3 3 4
+ x x x5 ,
4 4
4
1
7
7
x2 = + x3 + x4 .
4 4
4

x1 =

5 1 3 3 4
5
1
+ x x x
x
4 4

4
2

1 7 3 7 4
x
+ x + x

.
X = x3 =
4 43
4

x4
x

4
5
x
x
x5

,
:

x
1
3/4
5/4
1/4
7/4
0
x2 1/4
7/4

X = x3 = 0 + x3 1 + x4 0 + x5 0 .
1
0
x4 0
0
1
0
0
0
x5

x3 , x4 , x5 C1 , C2 , C3 ,


5/4
1/4
3/4
1
1/4
7/4
7/4
0


X = 0 + C1 1 + C2 0 + C3 0 .
(8.2)
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

, , C1 = C2 = C3 = 0,
1

x
5/4
x2 1/4

X = x3 = 0 ,
x4 0
0
x5

C1 = C2 = 1, C3 = 2
1

x
5/4
x2 13/4

X = x3 = 1
x4 1
2
x5
..

(8.3)

(8.4)

8.

87

8.3.
1
x + x2 x4 + x5 = 1;

1
2x + x3 + 3x4 x5 = 2;
2x2 + x3 + 5x4 3x5 = 0;

1
x 3x2 + 2x3 + 9x4 5x5 = 1.

. :

1
1 0 1
1 1
1
1 0 1
1 1
2
0 1
3 1 2 S2 2S1 0 2 1
5 3 0
e=
A
0 2 1
0 2 1
5 3 0 S4
5 3 0 S3
S2
S1

1 3 2
9 5 1
0 4 2 10 6 0 S4 2S2

1
1 0 1
1 1
5 3 0
0 2 1
0
0 0
0
0 0 .
0
0 0
0
0 0
, .
x1 x2 , .
,
x1 x3 .

x1 = 1 x2 + x4 x5 ,
x3 = 2x2 5x4 + 3x5 ,
x2 , x4 , x5 .
(8.2).
8.4.
1
x + x2 x4 + x5 = 1;

1
2x + x3 + 3x4 x5 = 2;
2x2 + x3 + 5x4 3x5 = 0;

1
x 3x2 + 2x3 + 9x4 5x5 =

. . ,
. :

1
1 0 1
1 1
1
1 0 1
1
1
2
0 1
3 1 2 S2 2S1 0 2 1
5 3
0
e=
A
0 2 1
0 2 1
5 3 0 S4
5 3
0 S3
S1
S2
1 3 2
9 5
0 4 2 10 6 1 S4 2S2

1
1 0 1
1
1
5 3
0
0 2 1
0
0 0
0
0
0 .
0
0 0
0
0 1

88

2.

, , 1 = 0, ..
e = 2
= 1. rang A = rang A
.
, .. 6= 1 ,
(0 0 0 0 0 | 1) ,
e = 3, rang A 6= rang A.
e
: rang A = 2, rang A
8.5.

24x1 + 14x2 + 30x3 + 40x4 + 41x5 = 28;

36x1 + 21x2 + 45x3 + 61x4 + 62x5 = 43;


48x1 + 28x2 + 60x3 + 82x4 + 83x5 = 58;

60x1 + 35x2 + 75x3 + 99x4 + 102x5 = 69.

. :

24 14 30 40 41 28
24 14 30 40 41 28
36 21 45 61 62 43 S2 S1 12 7 15 21 21 15 S1 2S2
e=
A
48 28 60 82 83 58 0 0 0
2
1 2
S3 2S1

60 35 75 99 102 69 S4 S1 S2
0 0 0 2 1 2

0 0 0 2 1 28
0 0 0 2 1 2
12 7 15 21 21 15
12 7 15 21 21 15
0 0 0
0 0 0
2
1 2 S3
0
0 0 .
+S1

S
S
4
1
0 0 0 2 1 2
0 0 0
0
0 0
, :
12x1 + 7x2 + 15x3 + 21x4 + 21x5 = 15,
2x4 + x5 = 2.

x1 x4 . x4
:
1
x4 = 1 x5
2
,

1 5
1
2
3
12x + 7x + 15x + 21 1 x + 21x5 = 15.
2

1
7
5
7
x1 = x2 x3 x5 .
2 12
4
8
,
1
7
5
7
x1 = x2 x3 x5 ,
2 12
4
8
1
x4 = 1 x5 ,
2

(8.2).

89

9.

9.



(9.1)

AX = 0,

A=

!
a11 . . . a1n
............ ,
am
. . . am
1
n

X=

!
x1
... .
xn

(9.2)

, ,
, .
, , . , (9.1)
1
0
x
.

.
X=
= ... ,
.
0
xn
.
, ,
. , . , (9.1) ,
.
9.1. (9.1) ,
, A , .. rang A < n.
. , rang A = r. 7.1, r = n, (9.1) , ,
, , , (7.4)
1
0
x
.

..
X=
= ... .
0
xn

r < n, (9.1) , , , , ,
.

9.1.1. n n , , .. det A = 0.
, , rang A < n
, , .
9.1.2. (9.1) , .

90

2.

, rang A ,
.
(9.1) ,
.
9.2. X1 , X2 , . . . , Xk (9.1),

X = C 1 X1 + C 2 X2 + . . . + C k Xk

(9.3)

.
. ,
AX1 = 0,

AX2 = 0,

...,

AXn = 0.

(9.4)


AX = A(C1 X1 + C2 X2 + . . . + Cn Xn ) = C1 AX1 + C2 AX2 + . . . + Cn AXn = 0,
.

(9.1),
.
9.3. A (9.1) r, ..
rang A = r, n r .
. rang A = r, (9.1) r . x1 , x2 , . . . , xr ,
xr+1 , xr+2 , . . . , xn :
a11 x1 + . . . + a1r xr = a1r+1 . . . a1n xn ,
...........................................
ar1 x1 + . . . + arr xr = arr+1 xr+1 . . . arn xn .

(9.5)

(n r) :
xr+1 = 1, xr+2 = 0, xr+3 = 0, . . . , xn = 0,
xr+1 = 0, xr+2 = 1, xr+3 = 0, . . . , xn = 0,
xr+1 = 0, xr+2 = 0, xr+3 = 1, . . . , xn = 0,
.............................................
xr+1 = 0, xr+2 = 0, xr+3 = 0, . . . , xn = 1.
, , (9.5).
1
1
1
x1
x2
xnr
. . .
. . .
...
xr
xr
xr
1
2
nr

X1 = 1 , X2 = 0 , . . . , Xnr =
(9.6)
0 .
0
1
0

...
...
...
0
0
1

91

9.

, . (9.6)

1 1

x1 x2 . . . x1nr
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xr xr . . . xr
1 2
nr
1 0 ...
0

.
0 1 ...
0

.................
0 0 ...
1

M (n r) , (n r)
, . , (n r), ,
, (n r) (9.6) ,
.
 (9.6)
(9.1).
(9.6), 9.2,
.
 (n r) (9.1)
.
9.4. X1 , X2 , . . . , Xnr (9.1), X , ..
X = C1 X1 + C2 X2 + . . . + Cnr Xnr .
.
1
x
...
r
x
X = r+1 ,
x
...
xn

x11
. . .
xr
1
X1 =
1 ,

...
0

...,

Xnr

(9.7)

1
xnr
...
xr
nr
=
0 .

...
1


X0 = X xr+1 X1 xr+2 X2 . . . xn Xnr

(9.8)


1 1
1
1 1
x0
x
x1
xnr
x0
... ...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .

r r
r
r xr
x0 x
r+1 x1
n xnr
0
X0 = r+1 = r+1 x . . . x
= 0 ,
1
0
x0 x


... ...
...
...
...
n
n
0
1
0
x
x0

xj0

=x

nr
X

xr+l xjl .

l=1

, (n r) X0 . X0 , (9.1),

92

2.

9.2, , ,
(9.5). ,
X0 , (9.5) ,
xj0 . , X0 = 0 ,
, (9.8) :
X xr+1 X1 xr+2 X2 . . . xn Xnr = 0.
, X , ..
X = xr+1 X1 + xr+2 X2 + . . . + xn Xnr .
xr+1 , xr+2 , . . . , xn C1 , C2 , . . . , Cnr , (9.7),
.
9.4.1. X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn (9.1), X

X = C1 X1 + C2 X2 + . . . + Cnr Xnr

(9.9)

C1 , C2 , . . . , Cnr .
, Xi .
(9.7) Ci ,
(9.9), .
9.1.
x1 + 2x2 + 5x3 = 0,
x1 x2 + 3x3 = 0,
3x1 6x2 x3 = 0,
x1 x2 + x3 = 0.

e
. A
, . A ,
e A.
:

1 2
5
1 2
5
1 2
5
1 1 3 S S 0 3 2
0 3 2
A = 3 6 1 2 1 0 12 16 0 0 8
S3 3S1
S3 4S2
S3 /8
S4 S1
1 1 1
0 3 4 S4 S2 0 0 2 S4 /2

1 2
5
1 2
5
0 3 2
0 3 2
0 0
0 0
1 S4
1 .
S3
0 0
1
0 0
0
, 3-


1 2
5


0 3 2 = 3 6= 0
0 0
1

93

9.

. , rang A = 3. A
,
!
!
x1
0
X = x2 = 0 .
0
x3
9.2. ,
,
x1 + x2 + 2x3 = 0,
4x1 x2 + 7x3 = 0,
2x1 + x2 + 3x3 = 0.
. , ..
!
1 2
A = 4 1 7
(9.10)
2 1 3
. 9.1.1,
, det A = 0. (9.10)
:


1 2


4 1 7 = 2 + 2 = 0,
2 1 3
= 1. ,
= 1. = 1 (9.10)
,
!
!
!
1 1 2 S S /3 1 1 1/3
1 1 2
S S
1
2
4 1 7 2 1 3 0 5
3 0
5 .

S3 +S1
S3 S1
2 1 3
3 0 5
0 0
0
, rang A = 2 < 3, , . x1 x2 ,
1
x2 = x3 ,
3
..
X=

5x3 /3
x3 /3
x3

5
x1 = x3 ,
3
!

= x3

!
5/3
1/3 .
1

x3 C,
!
!
x1
5/3
X = x2 = C 1/3 .
1
x3

(9.11)

,
!
5/3
X1 = 1/3 ,
1

94

2.

..
X = CX1 ,
C .
9.3.
x1 + x2 2x3 x4 + x5 = 0,
3x x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 + 3x5 = 0,
x1 + 5x2 9x3 8x4 + x5 = 0.
1

. , ,
.
:
!
!
1 1 2 1 1
1 1 2 1 1 S +S /4
1
2
3 1 1
4 3
0 4 7
7 0

1
1 5 9 8 1 SS233S
0 4 7 7 0 S3 +S1
S1
!
!
1 0 1/4 3/4 1
1 0 1/4 3/4 1
7
7 0
0 1 7/4 7/4 0 .
0 4

0 0
0
0 0 S2 /4 0 0
0
0 0
, rang A = 2 < 5.
x1 x2 ,
1
3
x1 = x3 x4 x5 ,
4
4
7
7
x2 = x3 + x4 ,
4
4

1 3

x
x /4 3x4 /4 x5
x2 7x3 /4 + 7x4 /4

x3
X = x3 =
.
x4

x4
5
5
x
x

, , x3 = 1, x4 = x5 = 0; x4 = 1, x3 = x5 = 0; x5 = 1,
x3 = x4 = 0.
:


1/4
3/4
1
7/4
7/4
0


(9.12)
X 1 = 1 , X2 = 0 , X3 = 0 .
0
1
0
1
0
0
(9.12)
X = C 1 X1 + C 2 X2 + C 3 X3 ,
C1 , C2, C3 .

95

10.

10.


(10.1)

AX = B,

A=

!
a11 . . . a1n
............ ,
am
. . . am
1
n

X=

!
x1
... ,
xn

B=

!
b1
... .
bm

(10.2)


AX = 0

(10.3)

A (10.1)
(10.1).
, (10.1) (10.3)
.
10.1. (10.1)
(10.3) (10.1).
. X (10.1), X0
(10.3). X
X = X + X0 .

(10.4)

(10.4) (10.1),
AX = A(X + X0 ) = AX + AX0 ,
(10.1) (10.3)
AX = B + 0 = B,
.
10.2. (10.1)
(10.3).
. X1 X2 (10.1), ..
AX1 = B,
AX2 = B.
(10.5) ,
A(X1 X2 ) = 0,
.

(10.5)

96

2.

10.3 ( ).
X1 , X2 , . . . , Xnr e (10.3),
(10.3), X

e + C1 X1 + C2 X2 + . . . + Cnr Xnr
X=X
(10.6)
Cj , j = 1, n r, (10.1).

10.1 10.2 ,
C1 X1 + C2 X2 + . . . + Cnr Xnr
(10.3).
10.1.
x1 + x2 2x3 x4 + x5 = 1,
3x1 x2 + x3 + 4x4 + 3x5 = 4,
x1 + 5x2 9x3 8x4 + x5 = 0,

(10.7)

.
. (10.7):
x1 + x2 2x3 x4 + x5 = 0,
3x1 x2 + x3 + 4x4 + 3x5 = 0,
x1 + 5x2 9x3 8x4 + x5 = 0.
9.3, (9.12):


1/4
3/4
1
7/4
7/4
0


X 1 = 1 , X2 = 0 , X3 = 0 .
0
1
0
1
0
0

e , , , x3 = x4 = x5 = 0.
(10.7) X
(10.7)
x1 + x2 = 1,
3x1 x2 = 4,
x1 + 5x2 = 0.


:
!
1
1 1 S 3S
1
1

2
1 0 4
3 1 4
S3 S1
1
5 0
0
4


!
1
S1 +S2 /4

1
S3 +S2
1

10.


!
1
0 5/4 S2 /4

0 4 1
0
0 0


!
1 0 5/4

0 1 1/4 .
0 0 0

97

e
, x1 = 5/4, x2 = 1/4, , , X

5/4
1/4

e
X = 0 .
(10.8)
0
0
, 10.3, (10.7)

e + C 1 X1 + C 2 X2 + C 3 X3
X =X


x
5/4
1/4
3/4
1
7/4
x2 1/4
7/4
0


X = x3 = 0 + C1 1 + C2 0 + C3 0 ,
x4 0
0
1
0
5
1
0
0
0
x
C1 , C2 , C3 . ,
8.2, .
, (10.1) . , . (10.1).
(10.3) ,
(10.1).
A (10.1) n m y j , j = 1, m,
m
a11 y 1 + a21 y 2 + . . . + am
1 y = 0,
m
a12 y 1 + a22 y 2 + . . . + am
2 y = 0,
............................. ,
m
a1n y 1 + a2n y 2 + . . . + am
n y = 0.

:
AY = 0,

y1
y2
Y = .
...
ym

(10.9)

 (10.9) (9.1).

98

2.

10.4 (). (10.1) , , (10.9)


B Y = b1 y 1 + b2 y 2 + . . . + bm y m = 0,

(10.10)

B (10.1).
. 1. . (10.10)
(10.9).
m
a11 y 1 + . . . + am
1 y = 0,
......................,
m
a1n y 1 + . . . + am
n y = 0,
1 1
m m
b y + ...+ b y = 1

(10.11)

, (10.11) , ..

1


a1 . . . am
a1 . . . am
1 0
1
............ ...
. . . . . . . . . . . .
rang 1
>
rang
(10.12)

a1 . . . am .
m
an . . . an 0
n
n
b1 . . . bm 1
b1 . . . bm
,
(10.12) :

e
A
e
rang > rang A,
0 ... 0 1

e=
A

a11 . . . a1n
............
am
. . . am
1
n

1 !
b

...
bm

(10.1).
, e (0 . . . 1)
A
, e
A.
, (10.1) .
2. . (10.10)
(10.9), ..
B Y = b1 y 1 + . . . + bm y m = 6= 0.

(10.13)

(10.1):
(AX) = B .
, (AX) = X A,
X A = B .

99

11.

Y ,
XAY = B Y.
(10.9) (10.13)
0 = ,
.
10.2.

x1 + x2 2x3 x4 + x5 = 1,
3x1 x2 + x3 + 4x4 + 3x5 = 4,
x1 + 5x2 9x3 8x4 + x5 = 0.

. 10.1,
: . , ,
.
y 1 + 3y 2 + y 3 = 0,
y 1 y 2 + 5y 3 = 0,
2y 1 + y 2 9y 3 = 0,
y 1 + 4y 2 8y 3 = 0,
y 1 + 3y 2 + y 3 = 0.

:

1
3
1
1
1 1 5 S2 S1 0

S3 +2S1
2 1 9 0
1 4 8 S4 +S1 0
S5 S1
1
3
1
0

3
1
1 0 4
1
2 /4

4 4 SS13 +3S
0
4
4
0
+7S2 /4
S2 /4
7 7 0 0 0 0
0
7 7 S4 +7S2 /4 0 0 0
0
0
0 0 0
0

0 4
1 1

0 0 .
0 0
0 0

y 1 y 2, y 1 = 4y 3 , y 2 = y 3 .

!
!
!
y1
4y 3
4
y3
Y = y2 =
= y3 1 .
3
3
1
y
y
(10.10)
!
1
B= 4
0

!
!
4
4
B Y = (1 4 0) y 3 1 = y 3 (1 4 0) 1 = y 3 (4 + 4 = 0).
1
1
, (10.10) , , .
, , . , ,
.

100

11.

2.

,

AX = B,

(11.1)

A n:
A=

!
a11 . . . a1n
........... ,
an1 . . . ann

X B -, n :
!
!
x1
b1
X = ... ,
B = ... .
xn
bn

(11.2)

(11.3)

(det A 6= 0)
X = A1 B.

(11.4)

,
(11.1) A:
AX1 = B1 ,

AX2 = B2 .

(11.5)

, (11.4). ,
, (11.5) (11.1),
(11.3)
1

x1 x12
b1 b12
x2 x22
b2 b22
X = (X1 X2 ) = 1
,
B = (B1 B2 ) = 1
.
(11.6)

... ...
. . . . . .
n
n
n
n
x1 x2
b1 b2
(11.5) (11.4), X B
(11.6).
(11.5) : l
A
AX1 = B1 , AX2 = B2 , . . . , AXl = Bl ,
(11.7)

(11.1),
A B l , ..
!
!
x11 . . . x1l
b11 . . . b1l
X = ... ... ... ,
B = ... ... ... ,
(11.8)
xn1 . . . xnl
bn1 . . . bnl ,
(11.4), (11.8).
, (11.1) X B
(11.8) , X
.

101

11.

(11.1), AX,
XA = B.
(11.9)
(11.9), ,
(11.1). , (11.9)
(XA) = B .

(XA) = AX

(11.1)
AX = B .

(11.10)

, (11.4), (11.10)
X = (A)1 B ,

X = (A1 )B = (BA1 )

X = BA1 .

(11.11)

, (11.9)
A1 :
XAA1 = XI = X = BA1 .
, (11.9) (11.1), (11.11).


AXC = B,

(11.12)

A, B, C n. ,
(11.4) (11.11),
X = A1 BC 1 .

(11.13)

11.1.
!
!
2 2 3
1 1
1 3
0 X= 2 0 .
0 4
1
1 1
. (11.4).
A1 ,


2 2 3


0 = 4 6= 0.
det A = 1 3
0 4
1

102

2.

det A 6= 0, .
!
2 1 0
A = 2 3 4 ,
3 0 1

A =

A1

1
=
4

, ,
1
X = A1 B =
4

!
3 10 9
1 2 3 ,
4 8 8

3 10 9
1 2 3
4 8 8

!
3 10 9
1 2 3 ,
4 8 8

!
1 1
1
2 0 =
4
1 1

!
!
8 12
2 3
0 4 = 0 1 .
4 12
1 3

(11.14)

!
!
2 2 3
1
1 3
0 X1 = 2 ,
0 4
1
1

!
2 2 3
1 3
0 X2 =
0 4
1

!
1
0 .
1

(11.4) ,
, ..
.
11.2.
!
2 2 3
0 = (1 2 1).
X 1 3
0 4
1
. 1- . (11.11).
!
2 2 3
1 3
0
0 4
1
:
!
3 10 9
1
1 2 3 ,
A1 =
4 4 8 8

X = (1 2 1)A1

 1  3 10 9
1 2 3
= (1 2 1)
4
4 8 8

11.

1
= (5 14 11) =
4

14
11

4
4

5
4

103

2- . :
(XA) = AX = B =

!
1
2 ,
1

X = (A)1 B = (A1 )B =
! !
3 1 4
1
1
1
10 2 8
2 =
=
4
4
9 3 8
1

5
14
11

!
5/4
14/4 .
11/4

, .
11.3.




1 4
3 2
2 8 X= 6 5 .
. A


1 4
2 8 .



1 4

det A = 2 8 = 0,

.
 1 2
x1 x1
X=
x12 x22
:

1
2

1
2

  1  
4
x1
3
= 6
8
x12
  2  
x1
2
4
= 5
8
x22



1 4
2 8


3

6 ,




1 4 3
0 0 0 ,

x11 + 4x12 = 3,
2x11 + 8x12 = 6,

x21 + 4x22 = 2,
2x21 + 8x22 = 5





1 4 2
2 8 5 ,

1 4 2
0 0 1 .

104

2.

,
 1 
  
 
x1
3 4x12
3
1 4
X1 =
=
= 0 + x2 1 ,
x12
x12
. X ,
, 2- X.
, (11.1)
, AX + B = C, (A + B)X = C ..
11.4.




 1 2
2 3
1 2
x1 x1
4 6 X = 2 4 , X = x12 x22 .
.



2 3

det A = 4 6 = 0,

A1 .

 1
 
2x1 + 3x12 2x21 + 3x22
1 2
= 2 4 .
4x11 + 6x12 4x21 + 6x22
, ,
2x11 + 3x12 = 1,
2x21 + 3x22 = 2,

4x11 + 6x12 = 2,
4x21 + 6x22 = 4,


x11 =

1 3C1
,
2

x21 =

2 3C2
,
2

x12 = C1 ,



(1 3C1 )/2 (2 3C2 )/2
X=
,
C1
C2

C1 C2 .

x22 = C2


12.
12.1.


.
, . , , , ,
, , .
 ,

.
, .
 ,
, .
 ( ), (A, B) , , A1 B1 , [A1 B1 )
[AB) |A1 B1 | |AB|.
AB ~a.
, [AB),

AB, |AB| .
 , ,

AA, BB ~0.
,
.

 AB CD , ,
:
1) AB CD ;


2) AB CD , .. AB CD;

3) , .. |AB| = |CD|.
 , , , ( ).
 ,
, , .
.
, .
 ,
. 2.
. (), ().
AB , A, ,
B , A B , ,

106

3.

AB ( AB . 2).
X .
 (x, y) X X,
X, :
X 2 = X X = {(x, y)| x X; y X}.

 ,
= {(x, y)|x, y X}

(12.1)

X ( X X), X.
 X , :
1. , .. x x x X;
2. , .. x y, y x;
3. , .. x y y z, x z.
12.1. , () R3 , () .

. ~a ~b, ~b ~c. ,
~a ~a, ~b ~a, ~a ~c.
, .
~a ~b ~b ~c , ~a ~c,
, .
 X, , .

.
,
, . .
. , , , , ,
, ( )
, .
, , ,
.
, , A
, AB ~a.
, (, , ) , .
 = (~a1 ,~a2 ) (
= (~a[
a2 )) ( > > 0)
1 ,~
,
. 3.
(. 3). = 0 =
- , .

107

12.

12.2.

, .
,
,
.
.
:
~a ~b O
~c, (. 4). ~a ~b . 4.
~c, ,
: ~a ~b, O,
~c, OC = ~c

OACB, ~a = OA, ~b = OB (. 4).


 ~a ~b, , ~c, ,
~a ~b,
~c = ~a + ~b.
, , . 5,
OACB, OAC. , ,
, .
 ~a ~b ~c,
~a ~b
,
(. 5).
. 5.
, .

~1 = ~a1 + ~a2 ; S
~2 = ~a1 + ~a2 + ~a3 ; S
~ = ~a1 + ~a2 + ~a3 + ~a4
. 6. S

 n ~a1 ,~a2 , . . . ,~an S , : A


~a1 , A1 AA1
. 7.

~a2 ..; S

AAn , A An
~an (. 6).
, , , . . 7 ~a + ~b + ~c = 0.

108

3.

12.2.
, , , , .
. OAC . 5, O C
OC OAC,
: OA AC. lOC , lOA
lAC ,
lOC 6 lOA + lAC .
, lOC = |~c| = |~a + ~b|, lOA = |~a|, lAC = |~b|,
|~a + ~b| 6 |~a| + |~b|.

(12.2)

,
.
(12.2)
|~a + ~b| = |~a| + |~b|.

,
|~a + ~b| = ||~a| |~b||.
 ~a ~b , :
|~a + ~b| = 0.
:
1) :
~a + ~b = ~b + ~a;

(12.3)

(~a + ~b) + ~c = ~a + (~b + ~c) = ~a + ~b + ~c.

(12.4)

1) :


. 8.

. 8.

(12.4)
, , .
.
.
, ~a
n ~a n .

109

12.

( n~a), , ~a, n :
n~a = ~|a + ~a +
{z. . . + ~a} .

(12.5)

(12.5) .
 ~a ~b,
1) ~b |~a| ||;
2) ~b ~a,
, ~a, .
~a ~b = ~a ~b = ~a.
, |~a| = |~a| = || |~a|.
, : ~0 = ~0, 0~a = ~0.
:
1) :
(~a) = ()~a;
(12.6)
2) :
( + )~a = ~a + ~a;

(12.7)

3) :
(~a + ~b) = ~a + ~b.

(12.8)

.
, (12.6) , (~a)
()~a :
|(~a)| = |||~a| = |||||~a|,
|()~a| = |||~a| = |||||~a|
: ~a, > 0,
~a .
(12.7) + > 0 ,
( + )~a ~a + ~a :
|( + )~a| = | + ||~a| = ( + )|~a| = |~a| + |~a|,
|~a + ~a| = |~a| + |~a|,
~a.
(12.7) + < 0.
, (12.8) OAB O A B (. 9).

. 9.

110

3.

, ~a = 1 : 1 ~a = ~a,
~a = 1 (1)~a = ~a,
, (. ) ~a, ..
(12.9)

~a + (~a) = 0.
(12.9) .
 ~a ~b d~
d~ = ~a ~b = ~a + (~b),

(12.10)

~b ~a, .. d~ = ~a ~b, d~ + ~b = ~a.


, :
= 1. , .
10 ~a ~b. ~a ~b
, ~a ~b, ~b ~a.
OBA (. 10)

. 10.

~b + (~a ~b) = ~a.

(12.11)

~a ~b = ~c,

(12.12)

~a = ~b + ~c.

(12.13)

(12.11)

(12.12) (12.13) ,
.
, , .
12.3.

1 ~ 
4 ~a + b 3~a +
20

. :


1 
4 ~a + ~b 3~a
20

1~
b = 4~a +
5

1~ 
b .
5

1~
b 3~a
5

1~
b = ~a.
5

12.4. , ~a |~a|
~a0 .
. ~a0 ,
|~a|, ~a, ..
:
~a = |~a|~a0 .
(12.14)

111

12.

,
~a0 = ~a,

1
.
|~a|

(12.15)

(12.15) ~a.
,
(12.3)(12.8), .
,
~a + ~b + ~c,

(12.16)

, .
, ,
:
1) : ~a + ~b = ~b + ~a;
2) : (~a + ~b) + ~c = ~a + (~b + ~c);
3) ~0 , ~a + ~0 = ~a ~a;
4) ~a ~a ,
~a + (~a) = 0;
5) ( + )~a = ~a + ~a ~a;
6) (~a) = ()~a ~a;
7) (~a + ~b) = ~a + ~b ~a, ~b;
8) 1 ~a = ~a ~a.
L, ( ),
, 18,
() .
,
() (., , [?]).

12.5. ABCDEF , AB = ~a,


~

BC = b. ~a ~b CD, DE, EF , F A, AC, AD AE.
. O
(. 11). , AB = ~a
~
BC = b. , ,

AC = AB + BC = ~a + ~b,
~
BO = AO AB = BC AB = b ~a.

~
CD = BO = b ~a.

DE = AB = ~a;

. 11.

112

3.

EF = BC = ~b;

F A = CD = (~b ~a) = ~a ~b;


AD = AO + OD = 2BC = 2~b;
~
AE = AO + OE = BC + BO = b + (~b ~a) = 2~b ~a.


12.6. ABC AD, BE CF .

AD + BE + CF = 0.
. AB, BC, CA

AD, BE, CF (. 12) AB,



BC, CA AD, BE, CF ,

AB = ~a,

~
BC = b,

CA = ~c.

(12.17)

, , ,
, ,

. AB, BC, CA, , , ..
. 12.


AB + BC + CA = ~a + ~b + ~c = 0.

(12.18)

ADC, BEA CF B

AD + DC + CA = 0,

BE + EA + AB = 0,

CF + F B + BC = 0.

(12.19)

,
1
DC = BC,
2

1
EA = CA,
2

1
F B = AB,
2

(12.17) (12.19)
1~
AD + b + ~c = 0,
2

1
BE + ~c + ~a = 0,
2

1
CF + ~a + ~b = 0.
2

- ~a, ~b, ~c:




1 
AD = ~c + ~b ,
2


1 
BE = ~a + ~c ,
(12.20)
2


1 
CF = ~b + ~a .
2
(12.20), (12.18)

3
AD + BE + CF = (~a + ~b + ~c) = 0.
2

(12.21)

113

12.

(12.20) :
1
1
1
AD = (~a ~c), BE = (~b ~a), CF = (~c ~a),
2
2
2

1
AD + BE + CF = (~a ~c + ~b ~a + ~c ~b) = 0.
2
12.7. ABC, M , O .
1
OM = (OA + OB + OC).
3
.
AB, BC, CA AD, BE, CF (. 13).
O M

OA, OB, OC OM.
AM, BM, CM,
2/3 ,
2
AM = AD,
3

2
BM = BE,
3

2
CM = CF .
3

(12.22)

. 13.

(12.23)

MOA, MOB, MOC OM



OM = OA + AM ;

OM = OB + BM ;

OM = OC + CM ,
(12.23)
2
OM = OA + AD;
3
2
OM = OB + BE;
3
2
OM = OC + CF .
3

(12.24)
(12.25)
(12.26)

(12.23),
2
3OM = OA + OB + OC + (AD + BE + CF ).
(12.27)
3
, , ..

AD + BE + CF = 0.
(12.27)

3OM = OA + OB + OC,
(12.22).

114

3.

12.8. ABC
A1 B1 C1 . M M1 .

MM 1 = (AA1 + BB 1 + CC 1 ).
3

(12.28)


. AA1 , BB 1 , CC 1 ,

MM 1 , (. 14).

. 14.

O
: AO, BO, CO, MO OA1 , OB 1 , OC 1 , OM 1 .
,
1
MO = (AO + BO + CO)
(12.29)
3
, ,

1
OM 1 = (OA1 + OB 1 + OC 1 ).
3

(12.30)

(12.29) (12.30),

1


MO + OM 1 = [(AO + OA1 ) + (BO + OB 1 ) + (CO + OC 1 )].
3

(12.31)

MO+OM 1 = MM 1 ,

AO+OA1 = AA1 ,

BO+OB 1 = BB 1 ,

CO+OC 1 = CC 1 ,

(12.31) (12.28):

1
MM 1 = (AA1 + BB 1 + CC 1 ).
3
12.9. E F AD BC ABCD. ,
1
EF = (AB + DC).
2
.

115

12.


. AB, DC EF

(. 15,a) ED, EA; CF , BF , ,
,

ED = EA,

CF = BF .

(12.32)

EF , ,


EF = ED + DC + CF ,

EF = EA + AB + BF ,
,




2EF = (ED + EA) + (AB + DC) + (CF + BF ).
(12.32)

2EF = AB + DC
, ,

1
EF = (AB + DC),
2

(12.33)

. 15.

. ABCD

, AB, DC EF (. 15,).
(12.33)

1
|EF | = (|AB| + |DC|),
2
.
12.3.

(12.16) . , , , ,
, .
 ~a1 ,~a2 , . . . ,~an ,
:
1~a1 + 2~a2 + . . . + n~an = 0,

(12.34)

116

3.

, , .. 12 +. . .+n2 6=
0 ( , ).
.
, i , ,
. i
(i = 0 i = 1, n 12 + 22 + . . . + n2 = 0), (12.34)
- , - , ,
.
, : ,
, . , ~0,~a1 , . . . ,~an
0 , :
0~0 + 1~a1 + 2~a2 + . . . + n~an = 0.

(12.35)

, .
,
(, ) . ,
. .
12.1. ~a1 ~a2
, .
. ~a1 ~a2 , , ~a1 , . ~a2
:
~a2 = ~a2 ,

(12.36)

|~a2 |

,
~a1 ~a2 ;

= |~a1 |
|~a2 |

, ~a1 ~a2 .

|~a1 |

, ~a1 ~a2 :
1 ~a2 ~a1 = 0.

(12.37)

(12.37) , (, ~a1 = 0).


, .
. ~a1 ~a2
:
1~a1 + 2~a2 = 0,
(12.38)
, 2 ,
.
1
~a2 = ~a1 .
(12.39)
2

117

12.

, ~a2 , ~a1 1 /2 ,
~a1 . ,
, .. .
12.1.1. , .
, 1~a1 + 2~a2
1 = 2 = 0, .
12.2. ~a1 ,~a2 ,~a3
, .
. ~a1 , ~a2 ~a3
, O, ~a1 ~a2 (. 16). A3 ~a3 , ~a2 ,
A1 ,
. 16.
~a1 .

~a3 = OA1 + A1 A3 .
(12.40)

, OA1 A1 A3 ~a1 ~a2


, ..

OA1 = 1~a1 , A1 A3 = 2~a2 ,


(12.40) :
~a3 = 1~a1 + 2~a2

(12.41)

1~a1 + 2~a2 + (1)~a3 = 0.

(12.41)

, ,
, ,
1~a1 + 0 ~a2 + (1)~a3 = 0.
, .
. ~a1 ,~a2 ,~a3
:
1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3 = 0,
(12.42)
, 3 , .

1
2
~a3 = ~a1 ~a2 ,
(12.43)
3
3
, ~a3 , (1 /3 )~a1 (2 /3 )~a2
, , .
, .
12.2.1. , .. ,
.

118

3.

, 1~a1 +2~a2 +
3~a3 1 = 2 = 3 = 0,
.
, , .
~a1 , ~a, ,

~a = 1~a1 .

(12.44)

~a1 ~a2 , ~a, ,



~a = 1~a1 + 2~a2 .

(12.45)

.
12.3. ~a
~a = 1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3 .

. 17.

(12.46)

. ~a1 ,~a2 ,~a3 ~a . O (. 17). A


~a , ~a3 , A0 ~a1

~a2 . OA0
~a1 ~a2

OA0 = 1~a1 + 2~a2 .

(12.47)

, A0 A , ~a3 ,

A0 A = 3~a3 .

(12.48)

, ,

~a = OA0 + A0 A,
(12.47) (12.48) , (12.46):
~a = 1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3 .
, 1 , 2 , 3 .
, ..
~a = 1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3 ,

(12.49)

i i . , (12.46) (12.49),
0 = (1 1 )~a1 + (2 2 )~a2 + (3 3 )~a3 .

(12.50)

119

12.

~a1 ,~a2 ,~a3 , , , (12.50) , .. 1 = 1 ,


2 = 2 , 3 = 3 , (12.49) (12.46) , ,
1 , 2 , 3 .
 (12.46):
~a = 1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3
~a
, ~a1 ,~a2 ,~a3 .
(12.46)
1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3 + (1)~a = 0,
, . .
,
: , .
, , ,
~a1 ,~a2 ,~a3 ,~a4 ,
:
~a = 1~a1 + 2~a2 + 3~a3 + 4~a4 .

, (., , [?]).
12.10. , ~a, ~b ~c
~a + ~b, ~b + ~c ~c ~a .
. 1- . , ~a + ~b, ~b + ~c ~c ~a :
(~a + ~b) + (~c ~a) = (~b + ~c).
, ABC , , .
2- . ~a, ~b ~c , ~a + ~b, ~b + ~c
~c ~a, , .
, ~a, ~b, ~c . ~a + ~b, ~b + ~c
~c ~a :
(~a + ~b) + (~b + ~c) + (~c ~a) = 0.

(12.51)

, , , ,
, , ???
, , .
, , , (12.51)
( )~a + ( + )~b + ( + )~c = 0
, ~a, ~b, ~c,
= 0,
+ = 0,
+ = 0.

(12.52)

120

3.

(12.52) :
!
1 0 1
det 1 1 0 = 0,
0 1 1

= ,

,
= 1,

= 1,

= 1.

(12.53)

, ~a + ~b, ~b +~c ~c ~a .
(12.53) (12.51),
(~a + ~b) (~b + ~c) + (~c ~a) = ~a + ~b ~b ~c + ~c ~a = 0.
12.11. ~a, ~b ~c. , ~a + ~b + ~c, ~a + ~b + ~c ~a + ~b + ~c .
.
:
(~a + ~b + ~c) + (~a + ~b + ~c) + (~a + ~b + ~c) = 0.

(12.54)

, , , ,
, (12.54) ,
, , .
, , , (12.54)
( + + )~a + ( + + )~b + ( + + )~c = 0.
~a, ~b, ~c
+ + = 0,
+ + = 0,
+ + = 0.

(12.55)

, , (12.55)
:
!
1 1
det 1 1 = 0.
(12.56)
1 1
(12.56), :
!
1 1
det 1 1 = (2 1) ( 1) + (1 ) = ( 1)[( + 1) 2] =
1 1
= ( 1)( 1)( + 2) = 0,
: = 1 = 2.

121

12.

= 1
~a + ~b + ~c,

~a + ~b + ~c,

~a + ~b + ~c,

.. .
= 2
2~a + ~b + ~c,

~a 2~b + ~c,

~a + ~b 2~c,

:
(2~a + ~b + ~c) + (~a 2~b + ~c) + (~a + ~b 2~c) = 0,
.
12.12. ~a, ~b ~c. , ~a + ~b + ~c ~a + ~b + ~c .
.
:
(~a + ~b + ~c) + (~a + ~b + ~c) = 0.

(12.57)

, ,
, (12.57) ,
, , .
, (12.57)
( + )~a + ( + )~b + ( + )~c = 0.
~a, ~b, ~c
+ = 0,
+ = 0,
+ = 0.

(12.58)

(12.58)
:
!
1
rang = 1.
1
= 1 = 1.
12.4.

 S ~s. ,
~s, S. ~s 0 ~s .
 ( , ) M
S M1 S, , M S.

122

3.

. 18.

.
 M S M1 S
, .. ,
M S (. 18,a).

 AB S A1 B 1 , A1 B1 ,
, A B S (. 18,). A1 B 1 ~s


A1 B 1 = AB S =

(12.59)
S AB = ~
s AB.

 ( ) AB S ,
. , ,
.
(

|A1 B 1 |,
A1 B 1 ~s;
S AB = |AB|S =
.
(12.60)

|A1 B 1 |, A1 B 1 ~s

~s 0 S, AB
:


A1 B 1 =

s 0 S AB = ~s 0 |AB|S .
(12.61)
S AB = ~
~a S .

1. ~a S
S~a = |~a| cos ,

(12.62)

~a S, .. = ~ab~s.

. . 18,. (12.62) .
1.1. .
1.2.
:
S (~a) = S~a,
cos( ) = cos .

(12.63)

123

12.

1.3. ~a S

~a = ~s 0 |~a| cos .

(12.64)
S
2 ().
:
S (1~a1 + . . . + n~an ) = 1 S~a1 + . . . + n S~an .

(12.65)

1
.
(12.65) :

( ~a + . . . + ~a ) =
~a + . . . +
~a =

1 1

n n

1
0

S 1

S n

= ~s (1 S~a1 + . . . + n S~an ).
12.5.

(12.66)

(. 12.3) ~a , .. ,
:
~a = x1~e1 + x2~e2 ,
(12.67)
x1 , x2 , x3 . (12.68) x1 , x2 , x3 ~a
~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 .
, ,
.
.
 ( ) ()
B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ).
 x1 , x2 , x3 ~a B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ),
x1~e1 , x2~e2 , x3~e3 ~a ,
(12.67) ~a B.
.
 ~e1 , ~e2
B = (~e1 , ~e2 ) ,
.
x1 x2 ,
~a = x1~e1 + x2~e2 .
(12.68)
 , , ~e B = (~e) , .
x, B:
~a = x~e.

(12.69)

 B .
 B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) (), ~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 .
, ,

124

3.

.
:
~e1 = ~,
|~| = |~| = |~k| = 1,

~e2 = ~, ~e3 = ~k;


c~ = , ~,c~k = ,
~,
2
2

c
~, ~k = .
2

(12.70)

~a
~a = x~ + y~ + z~k.
x, y, z ~a.
12.6.

, .
.
O B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ).
. M

OM, O, M. , , .
OM, ,
B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ), :

OM = x1~e1 + x2~e2 + x3~e3 .

(12.71)

- x1 , x2 , x3
M .
, , , . .
, ,
, {O, B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )}. O
.
( ) , : . .

O . x, y, z {O, B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )} =
Oxyz.
, xOy, xOz, yOz.
,
( ). , , ,
: ~e1 = ~, ~e2 = ~, ~e3 = ~k; |~| = |~| = |~k| = 1, : Ox , Oy
, Oz .
, . , ,

125

12.

.. . , , , , , .. .
, , ( ) .
~a
O
B = (~, ~, ~k) (. 19). (12.71),

~a = ax~ + ay~ + az~k,

(12.72)

ax , ay , az .
{O, (~, ~, ~k)}. . 19, ~a
:
~a =
~ ~~a +
~ ~~a +
~ ~k~a.

. 19.

(12.73)

, (12.66), ~a .

~ ~ ~a = ~ ~ ~a = OMx~;

~ ~ ~a = ~ ~ ~a = OMy~;

~ ~ ~a = ~k ~ ~a = OMz~k

(12.74)

~a = ~ ~ ~a + ~ ~ ~a + ~k ~k~a.

(12.75)

(12.74) (12.75) , ~a

~, ~, ~k:
ax = ~ ~a, ay = ~ ~a, az = ~k~a.
(12.76)
(12.76) :
q
|~a| = a2x + a2y + a2x ,

(12.77)

, ~a .
, (12.76) (12.64),
ax = |~a| cos(~ac
,~) = |~a| cos ,
ay = |~a| cos(~ac
, ~) = |~a| cos ,

(12.78)

d
az = |~a| cos(~a, ~k) = |~a| cos ,
ax
ax
=p 2
,
|~a|
ax + a2y + a2z
ay
ay
cos =
=p 2
,
|~a|
ax + a2y + a2z
az
az
cos =
=p 2
.
|~a|
ax + a2y + a2z
cos =

(12.79)

126

3.

, (12.79), ~a. ,
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 =

a2x + a2y + a2z


= 1.
a2x + a2y + a2z

(12.80)

, , (12.77) (12.79)
.
(12.72) ~a(ax , ay , az )
~a = (ax , ay , az ).
,
,
~a + ~b = (ax + bx )~ + (ay + by )~ + (az + bz )~k

(12.81)

~a + ~b = (ax + bx , ay + by , az + bz ).
(12.81)
.
. M. ,

- OM,
~r, .. OM = ~r. - ~r
Oxyz x, y, z,

~r = x~ + y~ + z~k,
(12.82)
, , x, y, z M. M(x, y, x) M(~r).

13.

13.1.

13.1. M1 M2 ,

M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) M2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ). |M1 M2 | M1 M2 .


. ~r1 ~r2 - M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) M2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ), .
~r1 = x1~ + y1~ + z1~k,
. 20.

~r2 = x2~ + y2~ + z2~k.

. 20 ,

M1 M2 = ~r2 ~r1 ,

(12.81)

M1 M2 = (x2 x1 )~ + (y2 y1 )~ + (z2 z1 )~k.

(13.1)
p

|M1 M2 | = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2 ,

M1 M2 .

(13.1)

(13.2)

127

13.


13.2. AB CD : A(1, 3, 4),

B(1, 0, 2), C(2, 4, 6), D(1, 1, 1). AB + CD AB CD.

. AB CD , ,
, (12.81):

AB = 2~ + 3~ + 6~k,

CD = ~ + 5~ + 7~k.

, , , ,

AB + CD = 3~ + 8~ + 13~k;

AB CD = ~ 2~ ~k.
13.2.

, . ~a
~a = ax~ + ay~ + az~k,
ax = x~a = a cos(~ad
, ~x), ..

ax
cos = cos(~ad
, ~x) = ;
a
a
y
d
cos = cos(~a
, ~y ) = ;
a
az
d
cos = cos(~a, ~z) = .
a
a=

(13.3)

q
a2x + a2y + a2x .


cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1.
13.3. ~a A B: A(2, 1, 4),
B(1, 3, 2). ~a .
. (13.1)

~a = AB = (x2 x1 )~ + (y2 y1 )~ + (z2 z1 )~k = ~ + 2~ + 6~k.


ax = 1, ay = 2, az = 6,
q

|~a| = a2x + a2y + a2z = 41.

(12.79):
cos =

ax
1
= ,
|~a|
41

cos =

ay
2
= ,
|~a|
41

cos =

az
6
= .
|~a|
41

128

13.3.

3.

M1 M2 , ,

.. M1 M2 . M

: M1 M MM2 (. 21).
,

M1 M = MM2 .

(13.4)

 ,
M M1 M2 . , M M1 M2 ,
, M .
, = 0 . 21.
M M1 , +0
M M1 M1 M2 , 0
(. 22).

. 22.

, || = M
M2 , + M M2
M1 M2 , (. 23).

. 23.


, , = 1 (M1 M MM2 )
M, 1 + 0
M M1 , 1 0
M2 (. 24).

. 24.

13.4. , M1 M2 , , M ( M1 M2 ).
. . 2224, (. . 24):

. 24

129

13.

(13.4) , , M1 M2 ,

, M M1 M2 , ,
. 21, M.

, M - ~r = OM =

(x, y, z), M1 - ~r1 = OM 1 = (x1 , y1, z1 )

M2 - ~r2 = OM 2 = (x2 , y2, z2 ).

M1 M = ~r ~r1 , MM2 = ~r2 ~r


, ,
~r ~r1 = (~r2 ~r),

(1 + )~r = ~r1 + ~r2


, ,

~r1 + ~r2
.
(13.5)
1+
(13.5) .
M(x, y, z):
~r =

x=

x1 + x2
,
1+

y=

y1 + y2
,
1+

z=

z1 + z2
.
1+

(13.6)

(13.6) ,
. 24.
13.5. M1 , M2 , M3 ,
: ) = 1; ) = 1/2; ) = 2.

. ) = 1. (13.5) (. . 26) M1 M = MM2 .

. 26.

, M M1 M2 .
(13.6)
x=

x1 + x2
,
2

y=

y1 + y2
,
2

z=

z1 + z2
.
2

(13.7)

) = 1/2. (13.5) (. . 27) M1 M = 12 MM2 .


, M1 M M2 .

. 27.

M (13.6):
x=

x1 x2 /2
= 2x1 x2 ,
1 1/2

y = 2y1 y2 ,

z = 2z1 z2 .

130

3.

. 28.

) = 2. (. . 28)

M1 M = 2MM2 . M2 M M1 .
M (13.6):
x1 2x2
= 2x2 x1 , y = 2y2 y1 , z = 2z2 z1 .
12
, ( (13.5),
(13.6)), M1 , M2 , M
, M,
M1 M2 .

13.6. ABCD, CA = ~a, CB = ~b.

M1 CD 1 = 1/2, M2


AB 2 = 3. AM 1 , BM 1 , CM 2 , DM 2 , M1 M2
~a ~b.

. CD AB (. 29),

,

~
CD = ~a + ~b,
AB = b ~a.
x=

. 29.

, ,

1
CM 1 = M1 D, CM 1 + M1 D = CD,
2

CM 1 2CM 1 = CD,

CM 1 = (~a + ~b)

AM 1 = CM 1 CA = (~a + ~b) ~a = 2~a ~b;

BM 1 = CM 1 CB = (~a + ~b) ~b = ~a 2~b.

, ,

AM 2 = 3M2 B,


AM 2 + M2 B = AB,


3M2 B + M2 B = AB,

1 ~
M2 B = (b ~a)
4

, ,


1
1
3
CM 2 = CB M2 B = ~b (~b ~a) = ~a + ~b;
4
4
4


1~
3
1
DM 2 = BD M2 B = ~a (b ~a) = ~a ~b.
4
4
4
,

1
3
5
7
M1 M2 = CM 1 + CM 2 = ~a + ~b + ~a + ~b = ~a + ~b.
4
4
4
4

131

14.

13.7. ABCD, A, B, C
: A(3, 4), C(2, 1), B(6, 2). M1 CD
1 = 1/2, M2 AB 2 = 3.

AM 1 , BM 1 , CM 2 , DM 2 , M1 M2 .
. .

~
CA = ~a = ~ + 3~,
CB = b = 4~ + ~,
, , .
, , . D, -

OD:

OD = OC + CA + CB = (2~ + ~) + (~ + 3~) + (4~ + ~) = 7~ + 5~.
, D(7, 5). (13.6)
, C(2, 1) D(7, 5)
M1 (x1 , y1 ):
2 21 7
= 3,
x1 =
1/2

1 12 5
y1 =
= 3,
1/2

.. M1 (3, 3).
A(3, 4), B(6, 2) (13.6)
M2 (x2 , y2 ):
x2 =

3+36
21
=
= 5,25,
4
4

y2 =

4+32
10
=
= 2,5,
4
4

.. M2 (21/4; 5/2).
:

AM 1 = (6, 7), BM 1 = (9, 2), CM 2 = (13/4; 3/2),

DM 2 = (7/4; 5/2), M1 M2 = (33/4; 11/2).

14.
14.1.

, : (O, B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )). O


, ,
, .
.

B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ),


B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 )
(14.1)
.
B
B,
~e 1 = c11~e1 + c21~e2 + c31~e3 ;

132

3.

~e 2
~e 3

(14.2)

= c12~e1 + c22~e2 + c32~e3 ;


= c13~e1 + c23~e2 + c33~e3 .

: ~a =
~a,
, . (14.2) :
!
!
!
!
!
~e 1
c11 c21 c31
~e1
c11 c12 c13 ~e1
~e 2 = c12 c22 c32
~e2 = c21 c22 c23
~e2 .
(14.3)
c31 c32 c33
~e3
~e 3
c13 c23 c33
~e3
(14.3)
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) = (~e1 ~e2

c11 c12 c13


~e3 ) c21 c22 c23
c31 c32 c33

B = BC.


C=

c11 c12 c13


c21 c22 c23
c31 c32 c33

(14.4)

(14.5)
!

B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ).


(14.5) .
1 ( ). C B B , D B
B , CD B B .
, (14.5)
B = B D = (BC)D,

B = (BC)D = B(CD),

(14.6)

.
2. C B B ,
B B C 1 : B = B C 1 .
, (14.6) B = B, CD = I, D = C 1 ,
.. B = B C 1 .
3. (14.5) , C .
, C
2, C 1 . B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )
C . ~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ,
(14.5), ,
C,
det C 6= 0.

133

14.

4.
!
1 0 0
C = 0 2 0
0 0 3

(14.7)

B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ), B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) 1 , 2 , 3 , .


, (14.3) (14.7),
!
1 0 0
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) = 0 2 0 (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) = (1~e1 2~e2 3~e3 ) .
0 0 3

(14.8)

 1 = 2 = 3 = 1 (14.7)
.
 1 = 1/|~e1 |, 2 = 1/|~e2 |, 3 = 1/|~e3|
!
1/|~e1 |
0
0
0
1/|~e2|
0
C=
0
0
1/|~e3 |
, :
!
1/|~e1 |
0
0
0
1/|~e2 |
0
(~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) = (~e1 /|~e1 | ~e2 /|~e2 | ~e3 /|~e3 |) .
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) =
0
0
1/|~e3 |
(14.9)
14.2.

B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ) ,


C:
B = BC,
(14.10)

~r B (x1 , x2 , x3 ), B (x1 , x2 , x3 ). ,
!
!
x1
x1
(14.11)
~r = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) x2 = (~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) x2 .
x3
x3
(14.11) (14.10)
!
!
x1
x1
(~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) x2 = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) C x2 .
x3
x3
,
!
!
x1
x1
x2 = C x2
x3
x3

(14.12)

134

3.

x1
x2
x3

= C 1

x1
x2
x3

(14.13)

, (14.7),
!
1/1
0
0
1
0
1/2
0
C =
,
0
0
1/3
, (14.13),
x1
x2
x3

= C 1

x1
x2
x3

x1 /1
x2 /2
x3 /3

(14.14)

14.1. ~r B :
~e 1 = ~e1 + ~e2 + 2~e3 ;
~e 2 = 2~e1 ~e2 ;
~e 3 = ~e1 + ~e2 + ~e3 ,

(14.15)

B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) ~r = (6, 1, 3).


B B.
. (14.15) :
!
!
!
~e 1
1
1 2
~e1
x2 = 2 1 0
~e2 ,
~e 3
1 1 1
~e3
,
C=

!
1 2 1
1 1 1 .
2 0
1

(14.16)

~r = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) B , (14.13),

!
!
6
x1
x2 = C 1 1 .
(14.17)
x3
3






1 2 1 1 2 1
2 1




det C = 1 1 1 = 2 1 0 = 3 2 = 1,
2 0
1 3 2 0

e=
C

C 1 =

!
1 1
2
2 3
4 ,
1 2 3

1 e
C =
det C

!
1
2 1
1 3 2 .
2 4 3

(14.18)

135

14.

(14.18) (14.17),
!
!
!
x1
1
2 1
6

x2 = 1 3 2
1 =
x3
2 4 3
3

B C 1 ,
!
~e1
~e2 = (C 1 )
~e3

!
1
3 .
1

B B, 2: B =
~e 1
~e 2
~e 3

1 1 2
2 3 4
1 2
3

~e 1
~e 2
~e 3

~e1 = ~e 1 ~e 2 2~e 3 ;
~e2 = 2~e 1 3~e 2 4~e 3 ;
~e3 = ~e 1 + 2~e 2 + 3~e 3 .
14.3.

Oxyz
O x y z , (O, B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )) (O , B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ))
C: B = BC. (x0 , y0 , z0 )
O , (x, y, z) (x , y , z ) M

, . - OM O M


OM = OO + O M ,

!
!
!
x
x0
x
(~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) y = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) y0 + (~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) y ,
z
z0
z

!
!
x
x0
(~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) y = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) y0 + (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )C
z
z0

x
y
z

,
!
!
!
x0
x
x
y = C y + y0 .
z0
z
z

(14.19)

 C, C
(x0 y0 z0 ):
!
c11 c12 c13 x0
C = c21 c22 c23 y0 ,
(14.20)
c31 c32 c33 z0
Oxyz
O x y z .

136

3.


D=

d11 d12 d13 x1


d21 d22 d23 y1
d31 d32 d33 z1

O x y z O x y z .
Oxyz O x y z
~r
!
!
!
!
"
!
!#
x
x0
x1
x
x0
x
y1 + D y
y = C y + y0 = C
+ y0 .

z
z
z0
z1
z
z0
,
!
x
y =
z

x0
y0
z0

+C

x1
y1
z1

x
+ CD y
z

(14.21)

, (14.19) (14.21),
:
!
!
x
x x0
y = C 1 y y0
(14.22)
z
z z0

!
!
!
x
x x0
x1
y = D 1 C 1 y y0 D 1 y1 .
(14.23)
z
z z0
z1
C .
 ,
!
1 0 0 0
C= 0 1 0 0 ,
(14.24)
0 0 1 0
.
(14.24) , (14.19),
:
!
!
x
x
y = y ,
z
z
.
 ,
!
1 0 0 x0
C = 0 1 0 y0 ,
0 0 1 z0

(14.25)

OO =
(x0 , y0 , z0 ).
(14.25) :
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )C = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )I = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ),

(14.26)

137

14.

,
!
x
y =
z

(14.19),
!
!
x0
x
y0 + I y =
z0
z

!
x + x0
y + y0 .
z + z0

(14.27)

 , (14.27), .
(14.27)

OO = (x0 , y0 , z0 ),
.
(14.27), , .
, M1 M2 Oxyz M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) M2 (x2 , y2, z2 ), O x y z ,
, M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) M2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ). M1 M2
, ,

M1 M2 = (x2 x1 )~e1 + (y2 y1 )~e2 + (z2 z1 )~e3 ,

M1 M2 = (x2 x1 )~e1 + (y2 y1 )~e2 + (z2 z1 )~e3 ,

(14.27) M1 M2 Oxyz

M1 M2 = [(x2 x0 ) (x1 x0 )]~e1 + [(y2 y0 ) (y1 y0 )]~e2 +


+ [(z2 z0 ) (z1 z0 )]~e3 = (x2 x1 )~e1 + (y2 y1 )~e2 + (z2 z1 )~e3 ,

M1 M2 .
,
. .
(. [?]).
14.4.

 C ,
, .. C = C 1 , , CC = C C =
I.
C = kclk k n- ,
n
X
k=1

clk cmk = lm =


1
0,

l = m;
l 6= m;

l, m = 1, n.

(14.28)

,
. , C1 C2 ,
,
C1 C1 = C2 C2 = I,
(14.29)

(C1 C2 )(C1 C2 ) = C1 C2 C2C1,

138

3.

(14.29)
(C1 C2 )(C1 C2 ) = C1 IC1 = C1 C1 = I,

(14.30)

C1 C2 .
2- . ,
2-


cos sin
,
det C+ = 1 > 0,
(14.31)
C+ = C+ () =
sin cos

C = C () =


cos sin
,
sin cos

,
C=

c11 c12
c21 c22

det C = 1 < 0.


(14.32)

(14.33)

2- .

c211 + c221 = 1,
c212 + c222 = 1,
c11 c12 + c21 c22 = 0.

(14.34)

(14.34) , ,
c11 = cos ,

c21 = sin .

(14.35)

(14.35) (14.34),
c12 cos + c22 sin = 0,
,
c12 = A sin ,

c22 = A cos .

(14.36)

(14.36) (14.34):
A2 sin2 + A2 cos = A2 = 1,
, , A = 1.
, 2-


cos A sin
CA =
,
A = 1.
sin A cos

(14.37)

A = +1 (14.37) C+ , det C+ = 1 > 0; A = 1 (14.37)


C , det C = 1 < 0.

14.5.

(O, B = (~ ~)) ,
Oxy (. 30). (O, B = (~ ~ )),
2-
CA
B = (~ ~ ) = BCA = (~ ~)CA .
(14.38)

139

14.

I. (14.38) CA = C+ ()


cos sin

= (~ cos + ~ sin ~ sin + ~ cos ).
(~ ~ ) = (~ ~)C+ () = (~ ~)
sin cos
:
~ = ~ cos + ~ sin ,
~ = ~ sin + ~ cos .

(14.39)

~ , ~ (14.39):
q

|~ | = cos2 + sin2 = 1;
q

|~ | = sin2 + cos2 = 1

, ~ , ~ .
. 30,a, (14.39),
, ~ ~
~ ~ .
~ ~ , ~ ~, . ,
B = (~ ~ ) , (O, B = (~ ~ ))
(O, B = (~ ~)), , .
, xOy C+ x Oy ,
O, O .

 
 
x
x
= C+ ()
y
y

x = x cos y sin ,
y = x sin + y cos .

(14.40)

II. (14.38) CA = C ()


cos sin

(~ ~ ) = (~ ~)C () = (~ ~)
= (~ cos + ~ sin ~ sin ~ cos ).
sin cos
:
~ = ~ cos + ~ sin ,
~ = ~ sin ~ cos .
, :
q

|~ | = cos2 + sin2 = 1;

. 30.

(14.41)

140
|~ | =

3.
sin2 + cos2 = 1

, ~ , ~ .
. 30,, (14.41),
, B = (~ ~ ), , . ,
(O, B = (~ ~ )) (O, B = (~ ~)) ~
~ .
, xOy C () x Oy ,
O, O?
Oy Ox. , (14.12),
 
 
x
x
= C ()
y
y

x = x cos + y sin ,
y = x sin y cos .

(14.42)


Ox Oy .
, .
(O, B = (~ ~ )) (O, B = (~ ~)) x Oy xOy, C,
. C+ C ,
() .
,
.

 
   
x
x
x0
=C
+
(14.43)
y
y0
y
xOy
x O y , C . , xOy
C , x O y .
:
!
x
y =C
z

x
y
z

x0
y0
z0

(14.44)

, .
14.2. CA ,
= 0, C+ () C ().
. (14.31) (14.32),
C+ (0) =


1 0
= I,
0 1

C (0) =


1 0
,
0 1

(14.45)

14.
(14.45) (14.3),
 
 
~
~
~

= C+ (0)
=
,
~ +
~
~
  
 
~
~
~

= C (0)
=
.
~
~
~

141

(14.46)

, (14.45) , C+ (0),
C (0) , :
~ = ~. Ox. C+ () C (),
C () = C+ ()C (0),

(14.47)

, B+ B :
B+ = BC+ () = B,

14.6.

B = BC () = BC+ ()C (0) = BC (0).

(14.48)

. , , ,
, .. .
, . , , ,
,
(. 31)
. 31.
. ,
. .
.
Oxyz Ox y z
, B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 )
C: B = BC.
 B B ,
, .. det C > 0.
C , (det C > 0), (det C < 0). = BC . det C > 0, B+
= BC
B. det C < 0, B

.
D B B , ..
B = B D = B(CD),
det(CD) = det C det D B
, , B, B . ,
B+

( ) .
 (, ). .

142

3.


,
.
 B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ),
~e1 ~e2
, ~e1~e2
~e3 . .
14.1. B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ),
, , ~e3 ~e 3 > 0.
. ~e 3 B

1 0
C= 0 1
0 0

= (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) x , y , z .


x
y
z

B B det C = z .
z = ~e3 ~e 3 , det C = z = ~e3 ~e 3 > 0 ,
~e3 ~e 3 > 0.
14.1.1. , , , .
,
(1) .
14.3. B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ).
B1 = (~e3 ~e1 ~e2 ), B2 = (~e3 ~e1 ~e2 ), B3 = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ), B4 = (~e1 ~e3 ~e2 ).
. B1 B :
(~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) (~e1 ~e3 ~e2 ) (~e3 ~e1 ~e2 ).
, B1 B, .. . B2
B1 ,
B1 , .. . B3 B
, ,
.. . B4 B
: (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) (~e1 ~e3 ~e2 ). , B4
B, .. .
B4 B3 . B4 B3 ,
, , .. .
,
.
.
 , B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 )
, t,
[a, b],
B(t) = (~e1 (t) ~e2 (t) ~e3 (t)) = BC(t)

(14.49)

, C(t) = kclm k t [a, b], B = B(t)|t=a B = B(t)|t=b .


, B B B(t)
[a, b].
C(t), (14.49),
C(t)|t=a = I,
B = BC(t)|t=a = B,
(14.50)
C(t)|t=b = C(b), B = BC(b).
.

14.

143

1. B B a 6 t 6 b, B B .
, , t =
(a + b) t ~ei (t) = ~ei (t), i = 1, 2, 3.
2. B B a 6 t 6 b, B B
b 6 t 6 c, B B
a 6 t 6 c.
14.2. B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 )
, .
. I. . C(t) B B(t) =
BC(t). , det C(a) det C(b) . det C(t),
c11 (t), c12 (t), . . . ,
t, t [a, b].
, t0 , a < t0 < b, det C(t0 ) = 0. ,
det C(t0 ) B B(t0 )
.
II. .
. B = (~e1 ~e2 ) B = (~e 1 ~e 2 ) O (O, B) (O, B ). . , (O, B)
(O,~, ~),
~ ~e1 .
, , (O,~, ~)
(O,~ , ~ ), ~ ~e 1 .
(O,~ , ~ )
(O, ~e 1 ~e 2 ).

. 32.
. O
~e1 ~, ~
, (O,~, ~) (O, B = (~e1 ~e2 ))
(. 32,a). 1 (t) 2 (t) ,

1 E 1 , 2 E 2 = t/(1 t). 1 (t) 2 (t) t = 0
( = 0) 1 2 , t = 1 ( = ) E1 E2 ,
. ~e1 (t) =

e2 (t) =

e1 (0) =
1 1 (t) ~
2 2 (t) , ~
~e1 , ~e2 (0) = ~e2 ~e1 (1) = ~, ~e2 (1) = ~. , ~e1 (t) ~e2 (t)
t , .. B(t) = (~e1 (t), ~e2 (t)),
t 0 1
B = B(0) = (~e1 (t), ~e2 (t)) B(1) = (~, ~). .
, ,
. , (O,~, ~) C+ ,

144

3.

, (O,~ , ~ ), ~ ~e1 (O, B = (~e 1 , e 2 )).


: (O,~ , ~ ) (O, B = (~e 1 , e 2 )) , ~ ~e 1
. ,
, .
.
,
. .
(O, ~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) (O, ~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ) . O~e1~e2
, .
(O, ~, ~, ~e2 ). ~e3 ,
(O,~, ~, ~k). .
, , , . ???
.
.

B = (~e1 , ~e2 ) ~a1 ~a2 .

. 33. = (~a1 7 ~a2 ) > 0 (a); = (~a1 7 ~a2 ) < 0 ()


 ~a1 ~a2 ~a1
~a2 , , ~a1 , ~a2 ,
(. 33). (~a1 7 ~a2 ).
~a1 ~a2 , . ~a1 ~a2
~a1 = (x1 , y1 ) ~a2 = (x2 , y2 ) (. 34)
~a1 ~a2


x1 y1
S=
,
(14.51)
x2 y2
.
,
x1 = |~a1 | cos 1 ,

y1 = |~a1 | sin 1 ;

x2 = |~a2 | cos 2 ,

y2 = |~a2 | sin 2 .



x1 y1

= |~a1 ||~a2 |(cos 1 sin 2 sin 1 cos 2 ) =
det S =
x2 y2

. 34.

(14.52)

14.

S > 0,
= 2 1 > 0;
= |~a1 ||~a2 | sin(2 1 ) =
S < 0, = 2 1 < 0,

145
(14.53)

S , ~a1 ~a2 (. 34).


, det S
~a1 , ~a2 . , det S
~a1 , ~a2 .
 ???


x1 y1


det S =
x2 y2

~a1 , ~a2 .
, ~a1 ~a2 , (14.53), ,
~a1 ~a2 :
sin[(~a1 7 ~a2 )] =

det S
x1 y2 x2 y1
.
=p 2
|~a1 ||~a2 |
(x1 + y12 )(x22 + y22 )

(14.54)

14.4. ~a1 = ( 3, 1), ~a2 = (2, 2 3),


, ,
~a1 ~a2 .
. S


3
1
S=
.
2 2 3



3
1

det S =
= 4 > 0.
2 2 3

, S = 4, ,
sin[(~a1 7 ~a2 )] =

det S
4
1
=
= ,
|~a1 ||~a2 |
24
2

.. (~a1 7 ~a2 ) = 30 .
14.5. , (
)
.
.
 
   
x
x
x0
= C+ () +
y0
y
y

(14.55)

xOy

x O y , OO = (x0 , y0 )
B = (~, ~) C+ ().
, M (x, y) ,
.. x = x, y = y. (14.55)
 
   
x
x
x0
= C+ ()
+
,
y
y
y0

146

3.

, ,

   
x
x0
[I C+ ()]
=
y
y0
 
 
x
x0
= [I C+ ()]1
.
y
y0

(14.56)

(14.56) M , (14.55). , , :

OO = (x0 , y0 )
, C+ (),
: M .
, .. x0 = y0 = 0, M
O(0, 0) xOy.
??? , . z = x + iy () xOy,

w = az + b
(14.57)
( O) , b = x0 + iy0 , |a|,
a = |a|ei . |a| = 1
(14.55) (., ,
[?]???).
(14.57) . , (14.57) w = z,
z=

b
,
1a

|a| = 1,

(14.58)

(14.56).
14.6. (1, 2).
,
3/4. , .
. ,
(14.56), x0 = 1, y0 = 2.
, ,
= arctg 3/4. ,
= arctg 4/3 (. 35).

. 35.

4
4
4
=
= ,
2
2
3
5
3 +4
4
3
cos = cos arctg = .
3
5
sin = sin arctg


C+ () =


cos sin
,
sin cos

147

14.


3/5 4/5
,
4/5 3/5

C+ =

I C+ =

 
 

1 0
3/5 4/5
2/5 4/5

=
.
0 1
4/5 3/5
4/5 2/5

:
1

(I C+ )

1/2 1
1 1/2

(14.56):
  
  

x
1/2 1
1
3/2
=
=
,
y
1 1/2
2
12
M (x, y): x = 3/2, y = 2 (. 35).
(14.58). , b = 1 2i a = ei = 35 45 i,
z = x + iy =

1 2i
5 1 2i
1 2i
1
3
= 2 4 =
= (1 2i)2 = 2i,
2
1
+
2i
2
2
1 35 45 i
+
i
5
5

.. x = 3/2, y = 2.

14.7. (O, ~e1 , ~e2 ) (O,~, ~),


~e1 = ~/2, ~e2 = ~ + 3~.
. , ,
 
 
 
~
1/2 0
~
~e1
=C
=
,
~e2
~
1 3
~


 
~
~e
= C 1 1 .
~
~e2

(14.59)

det C = 3/2
C
(14.59)

2
=
3

3 0
1 1/2


2
0
,
2/3 1/3

 
 
~
2
0
~e1
=
~
2/3 1/3
~e2
~ = 2~e1 ,
2
1
~ = ~e1 + ~e2 .
3
3

(14.60)

14.8. .

148

3.
. , 14.1. ~e1 ~
(. 36) ~e1 (t) = t/(1 t), ..
~e1 (t) ~e1 = [~ ~e1 (t)],

1/2 +
1/2 + t/(1 t)
1
~e1 + ~
=
~ =
~ = (1 + t)~.
1+
1+
1 + t/(1 t)
2
(14.61)
~e2
~ ~e2 (t) =
t/(1 t), ..
~e1 (t) =

. 36.

~e2 (t) ~e2 = [~ ~e2 (t)],

~e2 (t) =

~e2 + ~
~ + 3~ + [t/(1 t)]~
=
= (1 t)~ + (3 2t)~.
1+
1 + t/(1 t)

(14.61), (14.62),

 
 

~
(1 + t)/2
0
~
~e1 (t)
= C(t)
=
.
~e2 (t)
~
(1 t) 3 2t
~

1
(1 + t)(3 2t) > 0 t ]0, 1[,
2


(1 + t)/2
0
C(t) =
(1 t) 3 2t

(14.62)

(14.63)

det C(t) =

(14.64)

,


1/2 0
C(0) =
,
1 3


1 0
C(1) =
.
0 1
,



 

~e1 (0)
~
~/2
= C(0)
=
~e2 (0)
~
~ + 3~
B = (~e1 , ~e2 ),


 
~e1 (1)
~
~
= C(1)
=
~e2 (1)
~
~
B = (~, ~).
, (14.64)
.

.
t = 1/2

 
  

~e1 (1/2)
3/4 0
~
3~/2
=
=
.
~e2 (1/2)
1/2 2
~
~/2 + 2~

149

15.
14.9.
C(t) =

1 t2 t
t
t2

?
. det C(t) = (1 t2 )t2 t2 = t4 < 0 t,
, ,
.

15.

, .. , , , , . , . ().
.
15.1.

 ~a ~b ,
(), .

(~a, ~b) = ~a~b = ~a ~b = ab cos .
(15.1)
~a ~b.
~b ~a,
~a~b = b cos .

(15.2)

, ~a ~b,
~b~a = a cos .

(15.3)

(15.1)

~a ~b = a ~a~b

(15.4)

~a ~b = b ~b~a.

(15.5)

,
.
(15.4)
~a ~b
,
(15.6)
~a~b =
a
(15.5)
~a ~b
~b~a =
.
(15.7)
b
(15.1) (15.4), (15.5)
:

150

3.

1)
~a ~b = ~b ~a;

2)

~a ~b = ~a ~b;

3)

(~a + ~b) ~c = ~a ~c + ~b ~c;

4)

(~a ~b)2 6 ~a 2 ~b 2 = a2 b2 ;
5)
~a ~b = 0

~a ~b
;
~a 2 = |~a|2 = 0

~a = 0.
~, ~, ~k ,
~ ~ = ~ ~ = ~k ~k = 1,

~ ~ = ~ ~k = ~ ~k = 0.

(15.8)

15.1 ( ).
~a ~b ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 )
~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ),
(~a, ~b) = ~a ~b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 .
(15.9)
.
~a = a1~ + a2~ + a3~k,
~b = b1~ + b2~ + b3~k.
, (15.8)
~a ~b = (a1~ + a2~ + a3~k)(b1~ + b2~ + b3~k) =
= a1 b1 (~ ~) + a1 b1 (~ ~) + a1 b3 (~ ~k) +
+a2 b1 (~ ~) + a2 b2 (~ ~) + a2 b3 (~ ~k) +
+a3 b1 (~k ~) + a3 b2 (~k ~) + a3 b3 (~k ~k) =
= a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 ,

.
15.1.1. ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 )
a1 = ~a ~,

a2 = ~a ~,

a3 = ~a ~k.

(15.10)

15.1. ~a = (2, 1, 1) ~b =
(3, 2, 1).

151

15.

. x1 = 2, y1 = 1, z1 = 1; x2 = 3, y2 = 2, z2 = 1.
(15.9),
~a ~b = 2 3 + (1)(2) + 1(1) = 7.
15.2. : ~a = 2~ ~ + ~k ~b = ~ 2~ + 3~k (
~a = (2, 1, 1), ~b = (1, 2, 3)). ~a
~b.
. (15.7),
p

b = 12 + (2)2 + 32 = 14,

~a ~b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 = 2 1 + (1)(2) + 1 3 = 7;
r
~a ~b
7
7
~b~a =
= =
.
2
14
|~b|
15.1.2. ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ) ~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 )
a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 = 0.

(15.11)

. , ~a ~b, ~a ~b = 0.
,
~a ~b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 = 0.
, ~a ~b, (15.11).
15.1.3. ~a = (a1 , a1 , a3 ) ~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 )
a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3
p
cos = p
.
2
a1 + a22 + a23 b21 + b22 + b23

(15.12)

. , ~a ~b
~a ~b = ab cos ,
,
cos =

~a ~b
.
ab

(15.9), ,
a = |~a| =
b = |~b| =

(15.12).

x21 + y12 + z12 ,

x22 + y22 + z22 ,

(15.13)

152

3.

15.3. : A(1, 1, 1), B(2, 2, 1), C(2, 1, 2).



|AB|, |AC| = BAC.

. A, B, C AB AC.

AB, ()

AB = (2 1)~ + (2 1)~ + (1 1)~k AB = (1; 1; 0), AC,

() AC = (2 1)~ + (1 1)~ + (2 1)~k AC = (1; 0; 1).

|AB| = AB = 12 + 12 + 02 = 2,

|AC| = AC = 12 + 02 + 12 = 2.
(15.12)

AB AC
11+10+01
1

cos =
=
=
AB AC
2
2 2
= 60 .
. .
A
B F~ , ~
AB = S.
, F~
~
S
~ cos .
A = |F~ | |S|
, F~
~
S
~
A = F~ S.
, , .. .
~b (~a, ~b)
~a. ~a ~b O
~b P , ~a. P
. 37.
O, ~a, A (. 37),
OA.
, ,
~a ~b = a ~a~b = a |OA|.
, ~b1 O
P
~a ~b1 = a ~a~b1 = a |OA| = ~a ~b.

153

15.

,
, , . , , ( ) ,
.
(15.11), (15.12), (15.13),
.
15.2.


.
(O, B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )) ,
B:
~a = a1~e1 + a2~e2 + a3~e3 ,
~b = b1~e1 + b2~e2 + b3~e3 .


~a ~b = (a1~e1 + a2~e2 + a3~e3 )(b1~e1 + b2~e2 + b3~e3 ) =
= a1 [b1~e1 ~e1 + b2~e1 ~e2 + b3~e1 ~e3 ]+
+ a2 [b1~e2 ~e1 + b2~e2 ~e2 + b3~e2 ~e3 ]+
+ a3 [b1~e3 ~e1 + b2~e3 ~e2 + b3~e3 ~e3 ],
:
!
b1
~a ~b = (a1 a2 a3 )G b2 ,
b3

(15.14)

G = G(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) =

~e1 ~e1 ~e1 ~e2 ~e1 ~e3


~e2 ~e1 ~e2 ~e2 ~e2 ~e3
~e3 ~e1 ~e3 ~e2 ~e3 ~e3

= BB = kgmn k.

(15.15)

 (15.15) , gmn = ~em ~en


B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ),
det G = = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) .
, (gmn =
gnm ) , ..
G = G.
 , .

~a ~b
, = (~a, ~b),
(15.16)
|~a| = ~a ~a, cos =
~
|~a| |b|

154

3.

,

v
u 3 3
uX X
|~a| = t
an gnm am ,
n=1 m=1

cos[(~a, ~b)] =

3 X
3
X

n=1 m=1

an gnm bm

X
3 X
3

an gnm am

n=1 m=1

1/2 X
3 X
3

bn gnm bm

n=1 m=1

1/2

(15.17)
B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) B??? =
(~, ~, ~k), (15.9) :

0, m 6= n;
G = kgmn k = mn =
(15.18)
1, m = n,
(15.17) (15.11), (15.12), (15.13).
Ox1 x2 x3 , B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) :
!
~e1 ~e1 ~e1 ~e2 ~e1 ~e3
G = kgmn k = ~e2 ~e1 ~e2 ~e2 ~e2 ~e3 ,
(15.19)
~e3 ~e1 ~e3 ~e2 ~e3 ~e3
~a , :
(15.20)

~a = a1~e1 + a2~e2 + a3~e3 .

a1 , a2 , a3 , , . ,
(15.20) ~e1 , ~e2 , ~e2 ,
a1~e1 ~e1 + a2~e1 ~e2 + a3~e1 ~e3 = ~e1 ~a,
a1~e2 ~e1 + a2~e2 ~e2 + a3~e2 ~e3 = ~e2 ~a,
a1~e3 ~e1 + a2~e3 ~e2 + a3~e3 ~e3 = ~e3 ~a.

(15.21)

(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) =


det G , ,
a1 , a2 , a3 :




~e1 ~a g12 g13
g11 ~e1 ~a g13
1
1




a2 =
a1 =
~e2 ~a g22 g23 ,
g21 ~e2 ~a g23 ,
(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) ~e3 ~a g32 g33
(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) g31 ~e3 ~a g33


g11 g12 ~e1 ~a
1


a3 =
g21 g22 ~e2 ~a .
(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) g
g
~e ~a
31

32

(15.22)
~a

!
1
~a ~e1 = (a1 a2 a3 )G 0 = a1 g11 + a2 g21 + a3 g31 ,
0

15.

155

0
~a ~e2 = (a1 a2 a3 )G 1 = a1 g12 + a2 g22 + a3 g32 ,
0
!
0
~a ~e3 = (a1 a2 a3 )G 0 = a1 g13 + a2 g23 + a3 g33 ,
1

p
p
1/2
1/2
|~e1 | = ~e1 ~e1 = g11 , |~e2 | = ~e2 ~e2 = g22 ,

|~e3 | =

p
1/2
~e3 ~e3 = g33 ,

(15.23)

(15.24)

~a

~a ~e1
1/2
= (a1 g11 + a2 g21 + a3 g31 )g11 ,
|~e1 |
~a ~e2
1/2
~e2~a =
= (a1 g12 + a2 g22 + a3 g32 )g22 ,
|~e2 |
~a ~e3
1/2
~e3~a =
= (a1 g13 + a2 g23 + a3 g33 )g33 .
|~e3 |
~e1~a =

(15.25)

15.4. Ox1 x2 x3
(O, B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ), ,


4
3
4
2

G(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) = 3 3


6 .
4 2 6
10
.

.
:

|~e1 | = ~e1 ~e1 = g11 = 2, |~e2 | = ~e2 ~e2 = g22 = 3,

|~e3 | = ~e3 ~e3 = g33 = 4.

~e1 ~e2
g12
3
1
cos[(~e1 , ~e2 )] =
= ,
=
=
|~e1 ||~e2 |
g11 g22
2
43

2
~e1 ~e3
g13
4 2
cos[(~e1 , ~e3 ) =
=
=
=
,
|~e1 ||~e3 |
g11 g33
2
2

~e2 ~e3
g23
6
3
cos (~e2 , ~e3 ) =
=
=
=
,
|~e2 ||~e3 |
g11 g33
2
3 16

(~e1 , ~e2 ) =

;
3

(~e1 , ~e3 ) =

;
4

(~e2 , ~e3 ) =

.
6

15.5. :
~a = 2~e1 + ~e2 + ~e3 ,
~b = ~e1 + 2~e2 + ~e3 .
~e1 , ~e2 , ~e2 |~e1 | = 2, |~e2 | = 1, |~e3 | = 2
, /3. ~a ~b
~a ~b.

156

3.

.
:
~e1 ~e1 ~e1 ~e2
G = ~e2 ~e1 ~e2 ~e2
~e3 ~e1 ~e3 ~e2

!
!
~e1 ~e3
4 1 2
~e2 ~e3 = 1 1 1 .
~e3 ~e3
2 1 4

, (15.14),
! !
!
1
4 1 2
1
2 = 28;
~a ~b = (2 1 1)G 2 = (2 1 1) 1 1 1
2 1 4
1
1
!
2
~a ~a = (2 1 1)G 1 = 35;
1
!
1
~b ~b = (1 2 1)G 2 = 24,
1

~a ~b
28
28
cos[(~a, ~b)] =
=
=
0,96,
~
28,9
24 35
|~a||b|

.. (~a, ~b) 15 , ,
~b~a =
15.3.

28
~a ~b
= 5,7.
24
|~b|

. .
. f~1 , f~2 , f~3
~e1 = f~1 ,
~e2 = f~2 + 21~e1 ,

(15.26)

~e3 = f~3 + 32~e2 + 31~e1 .


mn , ~em :
~em ~en = 0, m 6= n. , 2- ~e1 ,

~e2 ~e1 = f~2 ~e1 + 21~e1 ~e1 = 0,

f~2 ~e1
.
~e1 ~e1
, 3- ~e1 ~e2 ,
21 =

31 =

f~3 ~e1
,
~e1 ~e1

32 =

f~3 ~e2
.
~e2 ~e2

(15.27)

(15.28)

,
, (15.26) . , , c ,

157

15.

() f~m f~n .
, f~1 , f~2 , f~3 (15.26)

~e1 = f~1 ,
~e2 = f~2 + 21 f~1 ,

(15.29)

~e3 = f~3 + 32 f~2 + 31 f~1


, ..
~e1 ~e2 = ~e1 ~e3 = ~e2 ~e3 = 0.
,
f~1 (f~2 + 21 f~1 ) = 0;
f~1 (f~3 + 32 f~2 + 31 f~1 ) = 0;

(f~2 + 21 f~1 ) (f~3 + 32 f~2 + 31 f~1 ) =


= f~2 (f~3 + 32 f~2 + 31 f~1 ) + 21 f~1 (f~3 + 32 f~2 + 31 f~1 ) =
= f~2 (f~3 + 32 f~2 + 31 f~1 ) + 0 = 0.

f~m f~n = gmn ,


21 g11 + g12 = 0

(15.30)

31 g11 + 32 g12 = g31 ,


31 g12 + 32 g22 = g32 ,

(15.31)



21 =

g12
,
g11



g11 g12
,

=
g12 g22

31 =

1
,



g31 g12
,

1 =
g32 g22

32 =

2
,



g11 g31
.

2 =
g12 g32

(15.32)

(15.33)

(15.32) (15.29), :
~e1 = f~1 ,

g12 ~
~e2 = f~2
f1 ,
g11
2 ~
1 ~
~e3 = f~3
f2
f1 ,

:

!
f~1
~e1
~
~e2 = C
f2 ,
~e3
f~3

C B = (f~1 f~2 f~3 ) B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ):

g12
1
!
1 g11
1 21 31

2 .
C = 0 1 32 =
0
1

0 0
1

0
0
1

(15.34)

(15.35)

(15.36)

158

3.
15.6. ~a ~b 15.5
, ~a ~b . , .
. 15.5, B =
(f~1 , f~2 , f~3 )
!
4 1 2
(15.37)
G(f~1 , f~2 , f~3 ) = kgmn k = 1 1 1 .
2 1 4
, B = (f~1 , f~2 , f~3 ) B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ), (15.36). , (15.33),






4 1
2 1
4 2





= 2,
=
= 3, 1 =
= 1, 2 =
1 1
1 1
1 1

31 =

g21
1
= ,
g11
4

31 =

1
1
= ,

32 =

(15.36)
!
1 1/4 1/3
1
2/3 .
C= 0
0
0
1

2
2
= .

(15.38)

, , (15.35),

!
! f~
f~1
~e1
1
0
0
1
~e2 = C f~2 = 1/4
1
0 f~2 .
(15.39)
~e3
1/3 2/3 1
f~3
f~3

~a ~b B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ),


, (15.38):
!
1 1/4 1/2
C 1 = 0 1 2/3 ,
(15.40)
0 0
1

!
!
! !
!
a1
1 1/4 1/2
2
11/4
a1
1

a2 = 0 1 2/3
1 = 5/3
(15.41)
~a = a2 = C
a3
0 0
1
1
1
a3
, ,

!
!
! !
2
b1
b1
1 1/4 1/2
1
8

~b = b
b2 = 0 1 2/3
2 = .
=C
(15.42)
2

3
b3
0 0
1
1
b3
1

~a ~b B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )


:
G(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) = kgmn k = k~em ~en k.


: ~em ~en = 0, m 6= n, , (15.39),
!
! !
1
4 1 2
1
0 = 4;
g11 = ~e1 ~e1 = (1 0 0)G(f~1 , f~2 , f~3 ) 0 = (1 0 0) 1 1 1
0
2 1 4
0

15.
!
1/4
 1

3
1
g22 = ~e2 ~e2 = 1 0 G(f~1 , f~2 , f~3 )
= ;
4
4
6
!
1/4
 1
8
2 
g33 = ~e2 ~e2 = 1 G(f~1 , f~2 , f~3 ) 2/3 = .
3
3
3
1
,
G(f~1 , f~2 , f~3 ) =

!
4 0
0
0 3/4 0 .
0 0 8/3

159

(15.43)

, ~a (15.41) ~b (15.42)
(15.43),
!
!
0
2
 11 5  4 0
0 3/4 0
8/3 = 28;
1
~a ~b =
4 3
0 0 8/3
1
!
!
0
11/4
 11 5  4 0
0 3/4 0
5/3 = 35;
~a ~a =
1
4 3
0 0 8/3
1
!
!
0
2

 4 0
~b ~b = 2 8 1
0 3/4 0
8/3 = 24,
3
0 0 8/3
1

cos =

28
~a ~b
28
=

0,96,
28,98
24 35
|~a| |~b|

.. = (~a, ~b) 15 , ,
~b~a =

~a ~b
28
= 5,7.
~
24
|b|

, , .
, ,

1/2
0
0
D = 0 2/ 3 p0
0
0
3/5

B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ):


!
!
~e1
~e1

~e2 = D ~e2 .
~e3
~e3
15.7. , (
) .
. , ,
, . , .

160

3.

, B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 )


~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ), ~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ), B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ) = BC, , ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ), ~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ).
(14.13), ..
a1
a2
a3

=C

!
a1
a2 ,
a3

b1
b2
b3

=C

!
b1
b2 .
b3

~a ~b B
!
!
b1
b1
~a ~b = (a1 a2 a3 )G b2 = (a1 a2 a3 )B B b2 .
b3
b3

(15.44)

(15.45)

C, C 1 , CC 1 = I
(C 1 )C = I, (15.45)
~a ~b = (a1 a2 a3 )(C 1 )C B BCC 1

b1
b2
b3

(15.44) , B = BC,
~a ~b = (a1 a2 a3 )(B )B

b1
b2
b3

= (a1 a2 a3 )G

!
b1
b2 .
b3

, ~a ~b
.
, ( , ) .

. , ,

.

15.4.

. .
15.2.
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )C

(15.46)

B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ), , C


.
. B B ,
:

1, m = n;

k~em ~en k = k~e m ~e n k = gmn =


(15.47)
0, m 6= n.

161

15.

(15.47):

~e 1

(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) ~e 2
~e 3

~e1
= (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) ~e2
~e3

(15.46)
(~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )CC

~e1
~e2
~e3

~e1
= (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) ~e2
~e3

CC = I,
C.
, C B = (~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 ) , B = (~e 1 , ~e 2 , ~e 3 ),
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )C,

!
!
!
~e 1
~e1
~e1
(~e 1 ~e 2 ~e 3 ) ~e 2 = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 )CC ~e2 = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) ~e2
~e 3
~e3
~e3
C: CC = I.
15.2.1.
!
x
y =C
z

x
y
z

x0
y0
z0

(15.48)

Oxyz O x y z , C . ,
Oxyz C , O x y z .
15.5.

,
.
.
. ,
(, ) (. .
, ).
,
!
.
. . 38 , .
, (
).
() . ,

162

3.

. 38.

. .
Ox
, .
Oy. ,

.
xOy , O.
Oz. ,
.
, , . , ???
,
.
. . , , .
 , O, , , ( ~a),
( ~b) ( ~c) (. 39).

. 39.

 , O, , -

163

15.

, ( ~a),
( ~b) ( ~c) (. 40).

. 40.

 , , , .
. ~a, ~b, ~c
B = (~e1 ~e2 ~e3 ) : ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ), ~b =
(b1 , b2 , b3 ), ~c = (c1 , c2 , c3 ). , 14.1 14.2, , .. ,


a1 a2 a3


(15.49)
b1 b2 b3 > 0
c c c
1

.
(15.49)
.
(15.49)


a1 a2


(15.50)
b b > 0,
1

(15.51)

a1 > 0.

(15.51) ,
~e1 ~a = a1~e1 , , () ~e1 . , ~a = a1~e1 a1 < 0
~e1 ().
, |a1 | ~a, a1 l.



a1 a2
S = b b
(15.52)
1

, ~a = (a1 , a2 ), ~b = (b1 , b2 ). ,



a1 a2 a3


(15.53)
V = b1 b2 b3
c c c
1

164

3.

, ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ), ~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ), ~c = (c1 , c2 , c3 ).


, ,
.
 ~a ~b
~c,
~c = [~a, ~b] = ~a ~b
:
b
1) |~a ~b| = |~a| |~b| sin(~a~b);
2) ~a ~b = ~c ~a, ~b;
3) ~c , ~a, ~b, ~c , ..
. ,
~a, ~b ~c = ~a ~b , ~c
, , ( ~a),
( ~b) (. 39).
:
~c = ~a ~b ,
~a ~b
.

. ~c = ~a ~b,
(. 41):
1) ~a ,
~b;
2) ~a1 , |~a1 | =
|~
a
|
sin
,
. 41.
, , ~b;
3) ~b, ~a1
|~a 1 | = |~a1 | = |~a| sin , |~b|.

~a ~b = ~a 1 |~b|, ~a 1
~a ~b |~a ~b| = |~a 1 | |~b| = |~a||~b| sin , ~a, ~b ~a 1 |~b|
() .
??? (??) 14.1.1. , -, ~a ~b |~a ~b|. -,
() ~a, ~b ~a ~b ~a ~b ,
, (??).???

(~a) ~b = (~a ~b)

(15.54)

165

15.


(~a1 + ~a2 ) ~b = ~a1 ~b + ~a2 ~b.

. 42.

OA1 = ~a1 ,

(15.55)

(15.54)
(. 41). ??? (15.55),
(. . 42). ??? ,
:
) O ~b (. 42)
OA1 A2

A1 A2 = ~a2 ,

OA2 = OA1 + A1 A2 = ~a1 + ~a2 ;

) OP1P2 O , ,
~b, ??? ??? ;
1. (-) , ~a ~b . , [~a,~a] = 0
~a, [~a, ~0] , .
, ~a ~b, 0 , 180, ~a
~b. sin 0 = 0 sin 180 = 0, , |[~a, ~b]| = ab sin 0 = 0. ,
~c = [~a, ~b] = 0. , [~a,~a] = 0, |~a,~a]| = aa sin 0 = 0.
2. [~a, ~b] = 0, ~ak~b.
, [~a, ~b] = 0, |[~a, ~b]| =
c
c
ab sin(~a, ~b) = 0. , a 6= 0 b 6= 0, sin(~a, ~b) = 0,
, , ~ak~b.
3. ~a ~b , ,
~a ~b (. 43).

. 43.

, , .
4. :
[~a, ~b] = [~b,~a].

(15.56)

166

3.

, (15.56) , ~a ~b , |[~a, ~b]| = ab sin 0 = 0, , [~a, ~b] = 0


|[~b,~a]| = ba sin 0 = 0, .. [~b,~a] = 0.
~a ~b , (15.56). , ,
, [~a, ~b] [~b,~a] .
, ~a ~b, ~b ~a,
, ,
.
5. - :
[~a, ~b] = [~a, ~b] = [~a, ~b].
, ) = 0 ~ak~b, , ;
) > 0, ,
;
) < 0,
,
( ) .
6.
[~a, (~b + ~c)] = [~a, ~b] + [~a, ~c],

[(~b + ~c),~a] = [~b,~a] + [~c,~a],

.. .
46 ,
.
, ,
,
~ = [~a, ~c] 3[~a, d]
~ + [~b, ~c] 3[~b, d].
~
[(~a + ~b), (~c 3d)]
7. , , ~k .
[~,~] = 0,

[~, ~] = 0,

[~k, ~k] = 0

(15.57)

[~, ~k] = ~,

[~k, ~] = ~,

[~k,~] = ~,

[~, ~k] = ~. (15.58)

. (15.57) , |[~,~]| = 11 sin 0 =


0. (15.57).

167

15.

[~, ~]. |[~, ~]| = 1 1 sin 90 = 1


, ~
~. OADB, 1 1 (. 44). , [~, ~]
( 1), ~, ~
.
, ~k, ..
[~, ~] = ~k,
15.6.

. 44.

[~,~] = ~k.

15.3. : ~a =
(x1 , y1 , z1 ), ~b = (x2 , y2, z2 ),


~ ~ ~k


[~a, ~b] = x1 y1 z1 .
(15.59)
x2 y2 z2
. :
[~a, ~b] = (x1~ + y1~ + z1~k) (x2~ + y2~ + z2~k) =
= x1 x2 [~,~] + x1 y2 [~, ~] + x1 z2 [~, ~k] +
+y1 x2 [~,~] + y1 y2 [~, ~] + y1 z2 [~, ~k] +
+z1 x2 [~k,~] + z1 y2 [~k, ~] + z1 z2 [~k, ~k].

(15.60)

(15.61) (??),
[~a, ~b] = 0 + x1 y2~k x1 x2~ + (y1 x2 )~k + 0 + y1 z2~ + z1 x2~ z1 y2~ + 0

[~a, ~b] = (y1 z2 z1 y2 )~ (x1 z2 z1 x2 )~ + (x1 y2 y1 x2 )~k,

(15.61)

3- , ~,
~, ~k.
, , (15.59) .
(15.61)
p
|[~a~b]| = (y1 z2 z1 y2 )2 + (x1 z2 z1 x2 )2 + (x1 y2 y1 x2 )2

s





y1 z1 2 z1 x1 2 x1 y1 2
|[~a~b]| = y z + z x + x y .
2
2
2
2
2
2

15.3.1. ~ak~b,

[~a~b] = (y1 z2 z1 y2 )~ (x1 z2 z1 x2 )~ + (x1 y2 y1 x2 )~k = 0,


, :
y1 z2 z1 y2

z1
y1
= ;
y2
z2

(15.62)

168

3.

x1 z2 z1 x2

x1 y2 y1 x2

x1
z1
= ;
x2
z2
x1
y1
= ,
x2
y2

x1
y1
z1
=
= .
x2
y2
z2

(15.63)

~a = (x1 , y1, z1 ) ~b = (x2 , y2, z2 ), . , ~a = (4, 6, 8) ~b = (2, 3, 4)


, (15.63) :
6
8
4
=
= .
2
3
4
15.8. A(1, 1, 1, ),
B(2, 2, 1) C(0, 3, 2).
.

AB = (2 1)~ + (2 1)~ + (1 1)~k = ~ + ~

AC = (0 1)~ + (3 1)~ + (2 1)~k = ~ 4~ 3~k.




~
~k
~



[AB, AC] = 1
1
0 = 3~ + 3~ 3~k
1 4 3
p


|[AB, AC]| = (3)2 + 32 + (3)2 = 3 3.


, , AB AC
S = 3 3,

1
3 3
. .
SABC = S =
2
2
.
.
A (. 45), B
F .
A, AB F sin , ..
, AB F~ .
. 45.

~ = [
~ =
m
~ A (F~ ) = M
AB, F~ ] M
AB F~ .
, m(F~ ) = [~r, F~ ], ~r
- .
15.9. A(2, 1, 1) , B(0, 2, 4) F~ = (2, 0, 1). mA (F~ ) = M
A.

15.

. AB

AB = (2, 3, 3).

~

~
~
~
mA (F ) = M = [AB, F ] = 2
2

169

AB = (0 2, 2 (1), 4 1)
~
3
0

|mA (F~ )| = |M| =


15.7.


~k
3 = 3~ + 8~ 6~k.
1

32 + 82 + (6)2 =

109.

,
|~a ~b| = |~a| |~b| sin .

|~a ~b|2 = |~a|2 |~b|2 sin2 = |~a|2 |~b|2 (1 cos2 ) = |~a|2 |~b|2 |~a|2 |~b|2 cos2 .
,
|~a|2 |~b|2 cos2 = (~a ~b)2 ,

|~a|2 = (~a)2 ,

|~b|2 = (~b)2 ,

|~a ~b|2 = ~a2~b2 (~a ~b)2


(~a ~b)2 + (~a ~b)2 = ~a2~b2 .

(15.64)

 (15.64) , .
, (15.64)



~a ~a ~a ~b
2
~
.

(15.65)
(~a b) = ~
b ~a ~b ~b
 (15.65) ~a ~b
(~a, ~b), ..


~a ~a ~a ~b
.
(~a, ~b) = ~
(15.66)
b ~a ~b ~b
, (15.64) :
(~a ~b)2 = (~a, ~b) > 0.
,

(15.67)

2
(~a ~b)2 = S
,

S , ~a ~b,
q
S = (~a, ~b).
(15.68)

170

3.

(15.68) .
, , , ~a,
q
s
(~a, ~b)
S
(~a, ~b)
h=
=
=
.
(15.69)
|~a|
|~a|
(~a,~a)
(~a,~a) = (~a),
s
(~a, ~b)
h=
.
(15.70)
(~a)

.
: ~a ~b (~a, ~b) 6= 0.
(.. ).
, .
15.10. , 15.8, , AB.

. AB AC 15.8: AB =

(1, 1, 0), AC = (1, 4, 3), SABC


S , AB AC,
(15.68):
SABC


q
1/2

1 AB 2
(AB, AC)
(AB, AC) =
2 =

2 (AC, AB)
AC

1/2
1 2 5
3
1
= 5 26 =
27 =
3
2
2
2

1
1
= S =
2
2

SABC , 15.8.
h, AB, (15.69):
r

SABC
3 3/2
3 3
h = =
=
.
2 2
2
|AB|
15.11. 15.9 .
. F~ = (2, 0, 1), B,
15.9: AB = (2, 3, 3),

mA (F~ ) = |[AB, F~ ]| =


1/2

q



22 1 1/2
~
(AB, F~ )
AB 2
(AB, F ) =
= 1 5 = 109

(F~ , AB)
F~ 2

171

16.

~ = [
M
AB, F~ ].
, ,
, , ..
. ~a ~b
O, B, ~b,
~a (. 46).
O ~b1 , B1 ,
. . 46 ,
[~a, ~b] [~a, ~b1 ] :
[~a, ~b] = [~a, ~b1 ] = ~c.

. 46.

, [~a, ~b] , ~a, ,


~a ~c.
, , (
),
.

16.

~a, ~b ~c. , ~a ~b, ~c


(~a, ~b). . , ~a, ~b, : ~a ~b,
~c , . -,
, , .
.
16.1.

 ~a, ~b ~c. ~a ~b,


[~a, ~b]. ~c, [~a, ~b] ~c, -, ,
~a, ~b ~c
([~a, ~b], ~c).
.
.
16.1. ([~a, ~b], ~c) , ~a, ~b ~c, ,
, , , ..
([~a, ~b], ~c) = V.
~a, ~b, ~c , ([~a, ~b], ~c) = 0.

(16.1)

172

3.

. ~a, ~b, ~c . (. 47).


[~a, ~b] = d~ , ~a ~b,
~ = |~a| |~b| sin
|[~a, ~b]| = |d|
, ~a ~b.
~ ~c) = |d|
~ ~~c,
([~a, ~b], ~c) = (d,
d
. 47.

(16.2)

d~~c = H . (16.2)

([~a, ~b], ~c) = dH = SH = V

. ~a, ~b, ~c , ([~a, ~b], ~c) = V . ([~a, ~b], ~c) = V ,


.
16.1.1. V1 ,
~a, ~b, ~c,

1
1
V1 = V = [~a, ~b] ~c .
(16.3)
6
6
.

1 (). , () () ,
..
(~a ~b) ~c = ~a (~b ~c).
(16.4)
, ,
, ~a,
~b, ~c. (16.4)
,
([~a, ~b], ~c) = (~a, [~b, ~c]) = ([~b, ~c],~a).
, ~a, ~b, ~c , ~b, ~c,~a,
, (. 14.3).
, (16.4) ,
, .. (16.4) .

([~a, ~b], ~c) = (~a, ~b, ~c)


.
2. , () :
(~a, ~b, ~c) = (~b, ~c,~a) = (~c,~a, ~b).

173

16.

, ,
, .
3. :
(~a, ~b, ~c) = (~b,~a, ~c) = (~b, ~c,~a) = (~c, ~b,~a) = (~c,~a, ~b) = (~a, ~c, ~b),
,
.
4. :
(~a, ~b, ~c) = 0

(16.5)

, .
, , , , , , .
:
(~a, ~b, ~c) = 0.
, , :
(~a, ~a, ~b) = ([~a,~a], ~b) = 0.
(~a, ~b, ~c) > 0, ~a, ~b, ~c ,
~a, ~b, ~c .
16.2.

16.2. ~a, ~b, ~c ()


~a = (x1 , y1 , z1 ), ~b = (x2 , y2, z2 ), ~c = (x3 , y3 , z3 ),



x1 y1 z1


(16.6)
(~a, ~b, ~c) = x2 y2 z2 .
x y z
3
3
3
. ,


~ ~ ~k






y1 z1
x1 z1
x1 y1
[~a, ~b] = x1 y1 z1 = y z ~ x z ~ + x y ~k
2
2
2
2
2
2
x2 y2 z2

~c = x3~ + y3~ + z3~k.


(15.9),






y1 z1
x1 z1
x1 y1
[~a, ~b] ~c = y z x3 x z y3 + x y z3
2

174

3.

, ,



x1 y1 z1


[~a, ~b] ~c = x2 y2 z2 ,
x y z
3
3
3

.
, ~a, ~b, ~c , (~a, ~b, ~c) = 0.
16.2, ,
. ~a = (x1 , y1, z1 ), ~b = (x2 , y2 , z2 ), ~c = (x3 , y3 , z3 )
:


x1 y1 z1


(16.7)
x2 y2 z2 = 0.
x y z
3

16.1. O(0; 0; 0), A(2; 3; 0), B(3; 0; 4)


C(0; 4; 5). 1) ; 2) AOB; 3)

OAC; 4) AB.
. 1. (. 48).
OAB OC,

, OA,

OB OC. , (16.3)
1
1
V = V = |[OA, OB] OC|.
6
6

. 48.

: OA = (2, 3, 0), OB =

(3, 0, 4) OC = (0, 4, 5). ,




1 2 3 0 1
5
V = 3 0 4 = | 77| = 12 . .
6 0 4 5 6
6


, OA, OB OC .

2. AOB OA OB:

(OA OB)
23+30+04
6

cos =
=
= .
2
2
2
2
2
2
OA OB
2 +3 +0 3 +0 +4
5 13
16.3.

(16.6)
:





x1 y1 z1 2 x1 y1 z1 x1 x2 x3





(~a, ~b, ~c)2 = x2 y2 z2 = x2 y2 z2 y1 y2 y3 =
x y z
x y z z z z
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
3

"
!
!#
~a ~a ~a ~b ~a ~c
x1 y1 z1
x1 x2 x3

x2 y2 z2
y1 y2 y3
= det
= det ~b ~a ~b ~b ~b ~c = (~a, ~b, ~c) > 0.
x3 y3 z3
z1 z2 z3
~c ~a ~c ~b ~c ~c
(16.8)

175

16.

, ~a, ~b, ~c,


q
~
V = |(~a, b, ~c)| = (~a, ~b, ~c).
(16.9)
, , ~a
~b,
q
s
~
(~
a
,
b,
~
c
)
V
(~a, ~b, ~c)
h=
= q
=
.
(16.10)
S
(~a, ~b)
(~a, ~b)

: ~a, ~b, ~c
(~a, ~b, ~c) 6= 0;
(.. ).
:


~a ~a ~a ~b ~a ~c a2 0 0



(~a, ~b, ~c) = ~b ~a ~b ~b ~b ~c = 0 b2 0 = a2 b2 c2 6= 0.

2
~c ~a ~c ~b ~c ~c
0 0 c

16.2. , ~a, ~b, ~c,


~c, |~a| = 2, |~b| = 1, |~c| = 2,
, /3.
. (16.10), :


4 1
(~a, ~b) = 1 1 = 3,




4 1 2 3 1 1

3
1




(~a, ~b, ~c) = 1 1 1 = 0 1 0 = 1 3 = 8,
2 1 4 1 1 3

h=
16.4.

(~a, ~b, ~c)


=
(~a, ~b)

8
=2
3

2
.
3

 f~,
f~ = [~a, [~b, ~c]].
(16.11)
16.3. ~a, ~b, ~c
[~a, [~b, ~c]] = ~b(~a, ~c) ~c(~a, ~b).
.
~a = (x1 , y1, z1 ),

~b = (x2 , y2, z2 ),

~c = (x3 , y3 , z3 ).

(16.12)

176

3.

,


~

~
~

k


x1

y
z
1
1






=
[~a, [~b, ~c]] =






y2 z2 x2 z2 x2 y2
x3 z3 x3 y3
y3 z3

= ~{y1 (x2 y3 y2 x3 ) + z1 (x2 z3 z2 x3 ) + (x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 )}


~{x1 (x2 z3 z2 x3 ) y1 (y2 z3 z2 y3 ) + (y1 y2 y3 y1 y2 y3 )} +
+~k{x1 (x2 z3 z2 x3 ) y1 (y2 z3 z2 y3 ) + (z1 z2 z3 z1 z2 z3 )} =
= (x2~ + y2~ + z2~k)(x1 x3 + y1 y3 + z1 z3 )
(x3~ + y3~ + z3~k)(x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 ) = ~b(~a~c) ~c(~a~b),

.
(16.12)
:
) ~b ~c , .. [~b, ~c] 6= 0;
) ~b ~b ~a , .. (~b,~a)2 + (~c,~a)2 6= 0.
,
(16.12)
.
16.3.1. [~a, [~b, ~c]]
~b ~c. ~a ~b, [~a, [~b, ~c]]
~b, ~a ~c, [~a, [~b, ~c]] ~c.
16.3.2. ~a, ~b, ~c
[~a, [~b, ~c]] + [~b, [~c,~a]] + [~c, [~a, ~b]] = 0.

(16.13)

(16.13) .
. , (16.12)
[~a, [~b, ~c]] + [~b, [~c,~a]] + [~c, [~a, ~b]] = ~b(~a, ~c) ~c(~a, ~b) +~c(~b,~a) ~a(~b, ~c) +~a(~c, ~b) ~b(~c,~a) = 0.
(
), ,
. , :
[[~a, ~b], ~c]. , ,
(16.12):
[[~a, ~b], ~c] = [~c, [~a, ~b]]

(16.14)

(16.14), .. (16.12) ~a ~c, ~b ~a,


~c ~b,
[[~a, ~b], ~c] = [~c, [~a, ~b]] = {~a(~c, ~b) ~b(~c,~a)} = ~b(~a, ~c) ~a(~c, ~b)

17.

[[~a, ~b], ~c] = ~b(~a, ~c) ~a(~c, ~b).

177

(16.15)

(16.12) (16.15), ,
[[~a, ~b], ~c] 6= [[~a, ~b], ~c].
: (16.12) (16.14), .
- ( ) ~a, ~b,
~c , ,
, ,
.
,
([~a,~a] = 0
).

17.


.
, .
. ~a ~b,
C, . 49.
ABC (. 49).
,
.
1. AB

AB

~
AB = b ~a,

|AB|2 = (~b ~a, ~b ~a) = ~b2 2~a ~b + ~a2 ,

|AB| =

q
~a2 + ~b2 2~a ~b.

(17.1)

: ~a2 = |~a|2 = a2 , ~b2 = |~b|2 = b2 ,


~a ~b = |~a| |~b| cos = ab cos , (17.1)
p
|AB| = a2 + b2 2ab cos .
.
2. , CA ( = CAB)
. 49
(~a) (~b ~a) = |~a| |~b ~a| cos ,

178

3.

cos =

~a (~b ~a)
a2 ~a ~b
a2 ab cos
= p
.
= p
a a2 + b2 2ab cos
|~a| |~b ~a|
|~a| a2 + b2 2~a ~b

3. - ~h, B,
. 49

~b + ~h =
CH,

~h =
CH ~b,

~a
~a ~a ~b ~a(~a ~b) ~a
CH =
~a~b =
=
= b cos
|~a|
|~a| |~a|
|~a|2
a

~
~h = ~a(~a b) ~b.
|~a|2

(17.2)

(17.3)

(17.3)

s
2
2
~
~
~ 2
(~a, b)
~b|2 2 (~a, b) = |~b|2 (~a, b) =

|
|~a|2
|~a|2
|~a|2
s
q
1 ~2 2
(~a, ~b)
|b| |~a| (~a, ~b)2 =
= b sin .
=
a
(~a)

q
~
|h| = (~h, ~h) =

(17.4)

(17.4) h,
B.
4. - m
~ , C
. 49

1
1
m
~ = ~a + AM = ~a + AB = ~a + (~b ~a)
2
2

1
m
~ = (~b + ~a).
(17.5)
2

, ,
~a ~b, .
(17.5)
q
1~
1
|m|
~ = |b + ~a| =
|~a|2 + |~b|2 + 2(~a, ~b).
(17.6)
2
2
5. - ~n, C
,
, . ~a ~b :
~a0 =

~a
,
|~a|

~
~b0 = b ,
|~b|

17.

179


 ~a
~n = (~a0 + ~b0 ) =
+
|~a|

~b 
.
|~b|

(17.7)

. 49 ,

~n = ~a + AN = ~a + (~b ~a),

(17.8)

.
, (17.7) (17.8):

 ~a
~b 
= ~a + (~b ~a).
+
|~a| |~b|





1 + ~a +
~b = 0.
|~a|
|~b|

~a ~b
1 =

,
|~a|

= .
|~b|

(17.9)

|~a||~b|
,
|~a| + |~b|

|~a|

|~a| + |~b|

(17.10)

(17.10) (17.7), -
~n =

~b  b~a + a~b
|~a||~b|  ~a
+
=
a+b
|~a| + |~b| |~a| |~b|

p
|~n| = (~n, ~n) =

(17.11)

p
2ab[ab ab cos )]
.
a+b

(17.12)

, ~b ~a

AN =

|~a|

|~a| + |~b|

(~b ~a),

NB = (~b ~a)

|~a|

|~a| + |~b|

|AN |
|~a|
= ~ .
|b|
|NB|

(~b ~a) =

|~b|

|~a| + |~b|

(~b ~a). (17.13)

(17.14)

, ,
, .
6. SABC

180

3.

[~a, ~b]
q
q
q
1 ~
1
1
1
2
2
2
~
~
~
SABC = |[~a, b]| =
([~a, b], [~a, b]) =
a b (~a, b) =
(~a, ~b).
(17.15)
2
2
2
2

17.1. ABC, CA = p~ ~q,

CB = 2~p + ~q, |~p| = 1, |~q| = 2, (~a, ~b) = /4,


:
) CA AB ;
) ABC;
) - ~h, B, ;
) - m,
~ C, ;
) - ~n C .

. CA = ~a = p~ ~q, CB =

~b = 2~p + ~q.
AB = ~b ~a = p~ + 2~q.
|~a|2 = (~a,~a) = (~p ~q, ~p ~q) = |~p|2 2(~p, ~q) + |~q|2 =

2
=1212
+ 4 = 5 2 2;
2
2
~
~
~
|b| = (b, b) = (2~p + ~q, 2~p + ~q) = 4|~p|2 + 4(~p, ~q) + |~q|2 =

2
=4+412
+ 4 = 8 + 4 2;
2
~
(~a, b) = (~p ~q, 2~p + ~q) = 2|~p|2 2(~q, ~p) + (~p, ~q) |~q|2 =

= 2|~p|2 (~p, ~q) |~q|2 = 2 2 4 = 2 2,





(~a,~a) (~a, ~b) 5 2 2 2 2
=

=
(~a, ~b) = ~
(b,~a) (~b, ~b) 2 2 8 + 4 2

= (5 2 2)4(2 + 2 2) (2 + 2 2)2 = 4(6 + 2) (6 + 4 2) = 18.

(17.16)

(17.17)

(17.16) (17.17) . 49 (17.1)(17.15):


p
p

) |CA| = |CA| = |~a| = (~a,~a) = 5 2 2,


q

~
|AB| = |AB| = |b ~a| = (~b, ~b) 2(~a, ~b) + (~a,~a) =
q
q

= 8 + 4 2 2(2 2) + 5 2 2 = 17 + 4 2,

(~a,~a) (~a, ~b)


52 2+2+ 2
cos =
=q
0,798, 37 ;

~
|~a| |b ~a|
(5 2 2)(17 + 4 2)
) (17.15),

SABC =

1
2

(~a, ~b) =

1
3
18 =
2;
2
2

181

18.

) (17.3),

~
~h = ~a(~a, b) ~b = ~a(2 2) ~b = 14 + 9 2 ~a ~b = 48 9 2 p~ + 3 + 9 2 ~q,
(~a,~a)
17
17
17
52 2
, (17.4),
|~h| =

(~a,~a)
=
(~a)

18
=
52 2

18(5 + 2 2)
;
17

) - m,
~ (17.5),
1
1
3
m
~ = (~a + ~b) = (~p ~q + 2~p + ~q) = p~,
2
2
2
,

3
3
|m|
~ = |~p| = ,
2
2
, (17.6):
q
q

1
3
1
2
2
~
~
|~a| + |b| + 2(~a, b) =
5 2 2 + 8 + 4 2 + 2(2 2) = ;
|m|
~ =
2
2
2

) - ~n |~n| (17.11)
(17.12),
q
q

~
|~a| = 5 2 2 1,5; |b| = 2 2 + 2 3,7; (~a, ~b) = (2 + 2) 3,4,

3,7(~p ~q) + 1,5(2~p + ~q)


3,7~a + 1,5~b
=
1,3~p 0,1~q,
5,2
5,2
p

|~n| 1,32 |~p|2 0,26(~p, ~q) + 0,01|~q|2 1,4 1,2,

~n =

(17.12).

18.
18.1.


~x ~a = ,

(18.1)

~a ~x = ~b.

(18.2)

~x , , ~a
.
(18.1) ~x ~a. ,
. .
~x (18.1).
~a, ~b:

182

3.

(18.2) ~a,
(~a ~x) ~a = ~b ~a.

(18.3)

(16.12)
(18.1),
(~a ~x) ~a = ~x(~a ~a) ~a(~x ~a) = |~a|2~x ~a.

, ,

(18.4)

|~a|2~x ~a = ~b ~a
~x =

1
(~a + ~b ~a).
|~a|2

(18.5)

~a + ~ ~a.
|~a|2

(18.6)

~ (18.1)
~b/|~a|2 = ,
~x =

, ~ ~x
(18.1). , (18.6) (18.1):



~
~a + ~a ~a = 2 (~a,~a) + (~ ~a) ~a = + 0 = ,
2
|~a|
|~a|

.
, (18.6) (18.1) . ,
x1 , x2 , x3 ~x:
a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 = .
18.2.

~a ~x = ~b,

(18.7)

~x , ~a ~b .
(18.7) ~x ~a. ,
. .
(18.7) ~a:
(~a ~x) ~a = ~b ~a.
(18.3) ,
~x|~a|2 ~a(~x ~a) = ~b ~a

~x =

(~x ~a)
~x ~a
~a +
.
2
|~a|
|~a|2

183

18.
2

(~x ~a)~a/|~a| = , (18.7)


~x = ~a +

~b ~a
.
|~a|2

(18.8)

, ~x (18.7). , (18.8) (18.7),


~a ~a = 0, ~b ~a = 0
2

~a
~a(~a + ~b ~a) = ~a ~a + ~a (~b ~a) = 0 + ~b 2 ~a(~b ~a) = ~b.
|~a|
, (18.8) (18.7) , (18.1), .
, (18.7) x1 , x2 , x3 ~x
a1 , a2 , a3 b1 , b2 , b3 ~a ~b:
a3 x2 + a2 x3 = b1 ,
a3 x1 a1 x3 = b2 ,
a2 x1 + a1 x2 = b3 .
18.3.

~x

~a ~x = ~b,
(18.9)
~c ~x = ,
~a, ~b, ~c , ,
~a ~b ~c: ~a ~b = 0,
~a ~c 6= 0.
(18.6) (18.8).
. (18.9) ~c:
(~a ~x) ~c = ~b ~c

~x(~a ~c) ~a(~x ~c) = ~b ~c.


, ,
~x =

|~a| ~b ~c
+
.
~a ~c
~a ~c

(18.10)

(18.10) , ,
, .
18.1.

~a ~x = ~b,
~c ~x = 3,

(18.11)

~a = (1, 1, 1), ~b = (2, 1, 1), ~c = (0, 3, 2).

184

3.

. (18.11) ~a
~b = 0, ~a ~c 6= 0.
~a ~b = 2 1 1 = 0,

~a ~c = 0 3 + 2 = 1,

, . ,


~ ~ ~k


~b ~c = 2 1 1 = 5~ 4~ + 6~k,


0 3 2
(18.10),
~x = 3
18.4.

~b ~c
~a
+
= 3(~ ~ + ~k) (5~ 4~ + 6~k) = 2~ + ~ 3~k.
~a ~c
~a ~c

~x, ~a, ~b, ~c.



~a ~x = ,

~b ~x = ,

~c ~x = .

(18.12)

(18.12) ~b, (~a)


:
~b(~a ~x) ~a(~b ~x) = ~b ~a.

(~a ~b) ~x = ~b ~a.


(~a ~b) ~x = ~b ~a,
~c ~x =

(18.13)

(18.9). (18.13), (18.10),


~x =
18.5.

~a ~b
(~b ~a) ~c
(~b ~c) + (~c ~a) + (~a ~b)
+
=
.
(~a ~b) ~c
(~a ~b) ~c
(~a, ~b, ~c)

(18.14)

~x
~x + ~a ~x = ~b

(18.15)

~a, ~b .
(18.15) ~x
(~x ~a) + (~a ~x) ~a = ~b ~a,

~x ~a =

~b ~a
.

(18.16)

185

18.

(18.15)
~x ~a + (~a ~x) ~a = ~b ~a

(~a ~a) + ~x|~a|2 ~a (~x ~a) = ~b ~a.

(18.17)

~x ~a (18.17) (18.15): ~a ~x = ~b ~x, (~x ~a) (18.17)


(18.16). (18.17)
~x|~a|2 ~a

(~b ~a)
(~b ~x) = ~b ~a,


~a
(|~a|2 + 2 )~x = ~b ~a + ~b + (~b ~a)

, ,
~x =

(~b ~a) + 2~b + |~a|2 (~b ~a)


.
(2 + |~a|2 )

(18.18)

18.2.
2~x + ~a ~x = ~b,

(18.19)

~a = (1, 1, 1), ~b = (2, 1, 1).


(18.19) (18.18), ..
~x =

2(~b ~a) + 4~b + |~a|2 (~b ~a)


.
2(4 + |~a|2 )


~ ~

~b ~a = 2 1

1 1
~b ~a = 0,

~x =
18.6.


~k
1 = 3~ 3~k,
1
|~a|2 = 3,

1
1
[2(3~ 3~k) + 4(2~ + ~ ~k)] = (4~ ~ 5~k).
2(4 + 3)
7

~a, ~b, ~c ~r. ~r ~a, ~b, ~c.


x1 , x2 , x3
~r = x1~a + x2~b + x3~c.

(18.20)

186

3.

(18.20) (~b
~c), (~c ~a), (~a ~b),
(~r, ~b, ~c) = x1 (~a, ~b, ~c),
(~r, ~c,~a) = x2 (~b, ~c,~a),
(~r,~a, ~b) = x3 (~c,~a, ~b).

x1 =

(~r, ~b, ~c)


;
(~a, ~b, ~c)

x2 =

(~a, ~r, ~c)


;
(~a, ~b, ~c)

x3 =

(~a, ~b, ~r)


.
(~a, ~b, ~c)

(18.21)

(18.21) .
,
!
!
!
!
d1
a1
b1
c1
~r = d2 , ~a = a2 , ~b = b2 , ~c = c2 ,
(18.22)
d3
a3
b3
c3

x1 , x2 , x3 :
!
!
!
!
d1
a1
b1
c1
d2 = x1 a2 + x2 b2 + x3 c2 ,
d3
a3
b3
c3
..
a1 x1 + b1 x2 + c1 x3 = d1 ,
a2 x1 + b2 x2 + c2 x3 = d2 ,
(18.23)
a3 x1 + b3 x2 + c3 x3 = d3 .
, , x1 (18.21):




d1 d2 d3
d1 b1 c1




b1 b2 b3
d2 b2 c2
c c c
d b c
1
2
3
3
3
3
=
.
x1 =
a1 b1 c1
a1 a2 a3




a2 b2 c2
b1 b2 b3
a b c
c c c
3
3
3
1
2
3

(18.21)
, .
18.7.

, , , ABCD (. 50). ( , ,
,
, .. , .. (.
. ).)

18.

187

A, B, C, D
ABCD. ,

, ~a = DA,

~b =
DB, ~c = DC (. . 50).
, .
1. , , AB :
q

~
|AB| = |AB| = |b ~a| = |~a|2 + |~b|2 2~a ~b.
. 50.
(18.24)
.
1.
, = ABC
cos =

(~b ~a) (~b ~c)


~a ~c ~a ~b ~b ~c + ~b 2
q
=q
.
|~b ~a| |~b ~c|
2
2
2
2
~
~
~
~
|~a| + |b| 2~a b |b| + |~c| 2b ~c

(18.25)

.
2.
, DA ~a, ~b ~a, ~c.

cos =

(~a ~b) (~a ~c)


=q
|~a ~b| |~a ~c|

(~b ~c)|~a|2 (~a ~c)(~a ~b)


.
p
2
2
2
2
2
2
~
~
|~a| |b|b (~a b) |~a| |~c| (~a ~c)

(18.26)

.
3.

, DA DBC = /2 ,
~a ,
~b ~c.
s
|~a (~b ~c)|
1 (~a, ~b, ~c)
sin =
=
.
(18.27)
|~a|
|~a||~b ~c|
(~b, ~c)
.
4.
, AE, A DBC, DBC.
s
(~a, ~b, ~c)
h = |AE| = |~a| sin =
.
(18.28)
(~b, ~c)
5.

188

3.

, DA BC (. 50)


AC DA CD. ,
~
N
,
= |N~ ~b| = ~b
~
|N|

~ = ~a (~b ~c),
N
|(~b,~a, (~b ~c))|
=
=
|~a (~b ~c)|

(~a, ~b, ~c)


.
(~a, ~b ~c)

(18.29)

.
, , . (),
, , ,
.
18.3. DABC. ,
D, : DA = 2, DB = 4, DC = 4, , , ADB = 2/3, BDC = /3, CDA = /2.
:
) AB ABC;
) DA DA DBC;
) , A DBC BA BC;
) .

. DA = ~a, DB = ~b, DC = ~c.


. 50 . :


~a ~a ~a ~b ~a ~c 4 4 0



(18.30)
(~a, ~b, ~c) = ~b ~a ~b ~b ~b ~c = 4 16 6 = 288,
~c ~a ~c ~b ~c ~c 0
6 9






4 4
4 0
16 6
~
~





(~a, b) = 4 16 = 48, (~a, ~c) = 0 9 = 36, (b, ~c) = 6 9 = 108.
(18.30) (18.24)(18.29):
q

~
a) |AB| = |AB| = |b ~a| = |~a|2 + |~b|2 2(~a ~b) = 4 + 16 + 8 = 28;
~a ~c ~a ~b ~b ~c + |~b|2
q
cos = cos(ABC) = q
=
2
2
2
2
~
~
~
~
|~a| + |b| 2(~a b) |b| + |~c| 2(b ~c)
=

0 (4) 6 + 16
14

=
0,73,
4 + 16 + 8 16 + 9 12
364

ABC 42 ;

189

18.

) DA, (18.26),
cos =

(~b ~c)|~a|2 (~a ~c)(~a ~b)


640
1
= = 0,57,
48 36
3
(~a, ~b)(~a, ~c)

57 ,

DA DBC, (18.27),
s
r
1 (~a, ~b, ~c)
1 288
=
sin =
0,81, 55 ;
~
|~a|
2
108
(b, ~c)
) h , A DBC (18.28)
s
r
(~a, ~b, ~c)
288
=
h=
1,62,
108
(~b, ~c)
DA BC (18.29):
s
(~a, ~b, ~c)
=
,
(~a, ~b ~c)



~a ~a
~b ~c)
~
a

(
=
(~a, ~b ~c) = ~
(b ~c) ~a (~b ~c) (~b ~c)
= |~a|2 [|~b|2 + |~c|2 2(~b ~c)] (~a ~b)2 (~a ~c) + 2(~a ~b)(~a ~c) =
= 4(16 + 9 12) 16 = 26,

288
3,3;
26

)
1
V =
6

(~a, ~b, ~c) =

1
288 2,8.
6

190


1. .. .
.: , 1987.
2. .. . .: ,
1983.
3. .., .., .. . .: , 1987.
4. .., .. . .: , 1988.
5. .. . .: ,
1979.
6. .., .., .. . .: , 1980.
7. .., .., .., .. . IV. : . : - . . -, 2006. 343 .
8. .., .., .., .. . V. : . : - . .
-, 2007. 396 .
9. .., .. . .: , 1984.
10. .. .
: - . . -, 1985.
11. .. ( 3- .).
: - . . -, . 1., 1965.
12. .. . .: , 1964.
13. .. . .: , 1987.
14. .. . .: , 1984.
15. .. . .:
, 1972.
16. .., .. . 1. , , : .
, - . . -, 2002. 224 .
17. .., .. . .: , 1977.


. I

..


TEX LATEX
Computer Modern

. .2009.
6084/8. .
RISO. . . . . .-. .
.
150 .
. .
. 634050, . , , 30