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2011 , 23, 0, .

000-111



LES
RANS-LES

2011 .

.. , .. , ..

-
dmitry.adamian@gmail.com
( 09-08-00126-) (7- ; , 233710 VALIANT, 233680).
RANS LES
RANS-LES . , (
), , ,
.
: ; ; .
AN EFFICIENT METHOD OF SYNTHETIC TURBULENCE GENERATION
AT LES INFLOW IN ZONAL RANS-LES APPROACHES
TO COMPUTATION OF TURBULENT FLOWS
D.Y. Adamian, M.Kh. Strelets, A.K. Travin
Saint-Petersburg State Polytechincal University
A new simple and efficient algorithm is proposed for generating turbulent content at the RANSLES interface in the framework of hybrid RANS-LES approaches to computation of turbulent
flows. Advantages of this algorithm over existing analogs are demonstrated both for the canonical wall bounded and free shear turbulent flows and for a complex flow past a wall-mounted
hump which includes boundary layer separation induced by adverse pressure gradient, reverse
flow region, and relaxation of the boundary layer downstream of its reattachment.
Key words: inlet boundary conditions; synthetic turbulence; large eddy simulation.

1.

RANS-LES ,

.. , .. , ..

RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes,


-) LES (Large Eddy Simulation, ) [1].
( - Embedded) LES, LES , RANS. , LES
RANS ,
LES. , , RANS , LES
1. , ,
DNS LES
(., , [2]), () LES ([3, 4]),
( ) ([5]),
([6-9]). . , ,
, , LES
, ,
.
, (, - ), RANS .
LES , , RANS (,
k ). [10],
, LES, [6,8].
, , . , , [11],
.
1

,
LES DNS.

LES

. 2
, ( 2.1)
RANS-LES ( 2.2). 3
,
( 3.1-3.3), , , , ( 3.4).
.
2.
2.1. . RANS
LES ,
u(r , t ) :

u(r , t ) U (r ) u '(r , t ) .

(1)

U(r) , RANS , u' (r, t ) (


).
(., , [6,8]),
u' (r, t ) ,
< uiuj > R, ,
, RANS . R

R A TA ,

R11
0

2
A {aij } R21 / a11
R22 a21
R /a
31 11 ( R32 a21a31 ) / a22

0
.
2
2
R33 a31 a32
0

u(r,t) ui (r, t ) aij (r )vj (r, t ) , v(r,t) ,


vi 0 , vivj ij , u(r,t)
v(r,t).
v(r,t) :
N

v ' r, t 2 3 / 2 q n n cos k nd n r n s n

n 1

t
.

(2)

.. , .. , ..

:
N , ;
qn ,
;
kn n- kn, , dn, ;
n , n- ,
dn (ndn=0); n ,
, [0,2);
n n- , , [0,2);
sn n- ,
,
2;
.
(2)
E (k n )k n

E (k

) k

qn 1

,
n

(3)

n 1

n 1


(. .1)

E (k )

( k / ke ) 4
17/6

1 2.4(k / ke )2

f f cut .

(4)

.1. [12] ( ), (4) kcut<k ( ) (4)


fcut =1(- ).

(4) f fcut

k
kcut.

LES
2

f exp[(12k / k ) ] ,

fcut

4 max k 0.9k , 0 3
cut
exp
,

kcut

(5)

k 2 / l 2 / (3 / )1/4 (l , k,
, ,
RANS ), kcut=2/lcut, lcut ( )
lcut 2 min{[max(hy , hz , 0.3hmax ) 0.1d w ], hmax } ,

hy hz LES, hmax=max(hx,hy,hz),
dw (
lcut ).
, (4) ke,
(4),
, ,
le, ke=2/le.
, le

. :
le min 2d w , Cl lt ,

(6)

Cl=3 , lt ,
RANS (, k

lt kt1/2 / (C t ) ).
(6), le , RANS ( le(y) , k SST [13], .2).
, (2),
LES,

k n k min (1 )n 1 ,

n 1 N ,

0.01 0.05 .

(7)

kmin kemin ,
le,

k min kemin ,

1,

kemin 2 / lemax ,

lemax max{le (r )} ,
r

(8)

.. , .. , ..

(=0.5 ), N
, kN, (7), kmax=1.5 max {kcut(r)}.
r

.2. (6) lt (1), Cllt (2)


2dw (3) ( ) le, (6) ( ), (A),
(B) (C) 2.

(2) .
lemax U (,
):

Clemax / U ,

(9)

C=2 .
le (6) ( ) ( )
.
,
, .3 , , RANS
k SST .
, LES ( ),
, , ,
( LES) .
2

dw (6) .

LES

.3. ( ) ( )
Re=400.

2.2. LES.
.
RANS , LES , LES ,
RANS , .
LES . , LES

. , k SST [14], , LES RANS t, kt , , , (. ).
,
, ,
, .
, RANS LES (. .4)3,
LES RANS-. LES .

10-20 .

.. , .. , ..

.4. RANS LES :


LES , RANS .

3.

() , ,
(
).
, ,
.
LES [15]

sgs (Csmag )2 1 exp ( y / 25)3 S .

(10)

Csmag=0.2 , sgs , S=(2SijSij)1/2, Sij , y+ (y+=y w / /),


, [16] =min(max(Cwdw, Cwhmax, hwn), hmax),
hmax=max(hx,hy,hz) , hwn
, Cw=0.15 .
LES IDDES [16], LES c RANS ,
RANS k SST .
, ,
- NTS [17]. ,
. [18]. LES - 4- ,
RANS 3- .
2- . 2-
.

LES

3.1. . LES
, Re= w / H / =400,
, ,
( ), , , (SEM)
[6]. ,
, ,
RANS k SST [13].
4HH1.5H x,
y z (H ).
V=0, z . , , , .
x z
( ) y. 818461 x, y, z , Re LES : x+=40,
y+=0.923, z+=20. t=0.01H/Ub (Ub ), CFL tU b / x 0.2 .
Tavg=150H/Ub z (
, Ttrans=50H/Ub).

.5. : 1 LES, 2 LES


, 3 LES c SEM[6].

.6. x/H=2 : 1, 2, 3 , .5.

10

.. , .. , ..

.5, 6. ,
LES ( ) ,
SEM [6],
, , (34)H (. .5). SEM .6,
.
3.2. . LES , Re=10001500.

: [4] , .

, RANS k- SST Re=1000.
2004030 x, y z (0 ). V=0 p/y=0 .

( ) . ,
z .
x z (
) y. 2507061,
Re
: x+40, y+=0.923, z+20.
t=0.020/Ue (Ue ),
CFL=tUe/x<0.25. Tavg=10000/Ue
z ( , Ttrans=500/Ue).
.7 Re,
, [19]
RANS k SST [13].
, , .
, , , LES

LES

11

, RANS k SST
: ,
.

.7. Re : 1 [19], 2
RANS k- SST , 3 LES c , 4 LES
.

3.3. . , Re=Umax0/=1640,
, 5/3. RANS,
LES ( , .8 - ).
RANS k SST [13], LES (10), ( ) .

.8. RANS-LES
( ).

LES ( 1, 2 3 .8) 24010984, 25310982 19610967 . -

12

.. , .. , ..

:
x/=10, ymin/=20, z/=2060 ( z z, ). t 0.40 / U max 1 t 0.80 / U max 2 3, tU max / x , 0.25, 0.2 0.15
1, 2 3 .
Tavg=30000/Umax
z ( Ttrans=15000/Umax).
LES ,
RANS . . , . z .
.9, 10. , .9 , LES . , LES ,
, . , LES ( )
.

.9. LES
.

.10. . 13
LES , 4 RANS SST [13].

LES

13


.10, ,
LES , RANS . , LES
- LES RANS .
3.4. .
(. .11), [20]. NASA [21]
[22]. , ,
, [22].

.11. . ,
c, Re=936000, H/c=0.909, h/c=0.128.

x/c=2.14 ( ), x/c=4.0.
Lz/c=0.4 (
z ).
RANS
IDDES [16], DDES [23], RANS-LES

RANS-LES . , 2.2, LES IDDES
(. .4). (x/c=0.4 x/c=0.6). RANS
k SST [13].

.

p/n=0 , . -

14

.. , .. , ..

, RANS , , 7200. .
379111101 x y z . ,
, x z x/c=5103 z/c=4103.
y y/c=1.5105
(y+0.7), y/c35103. t/(c/Uinf)
103, CFL=tUinf/x0.2.
IDDES RANS-IDDES Tavg=Uinf/c=30 (
, Ttrans=Uinf/c=20) z.
.12, 13.

.12. IDDES
() RANS-IDDES (). (
z), ( y).

.13. : 1 k- SST RANS


, 2 IDDES , 3, 4 RANS-IDDES (3 IDDES x/c=0.4, 4 x/c=0.6), 5 [20].

.12 ,
IDDES -

LES

15

RANS-IDDES
RANS-IDDES . , ( IDDES)
,
, ,
IDDES . , DES , .
, , [3,4] ( RANS IDDES
).
RANS-IDDES , ,
. , ,
(. .13), , ,
RANS IDDES , , .
, .1.
RANS-LES (5-10%)
x/c=0.4 (. .13). ,
, x/c=0.6 ( ,
) .
1.


, .

[20]
SST RANS
SST IDDES
RANS-IDDES, x/c=0.4
RANS-IDDES, x/c=0.6

- - , xsep/c , xattach/c
, L/c
0.67
1.11
0.44
0.65
1.26
0.61
0.66
1.18
0.52
0.66
1.14
0.48
0.66
1.13
0.47

4.

LES
RANS-LES . , RANS
, , k k .

16

.. , .. , ..

( ,
), , , ,
. , , , SEM [6],
, . ,
,
LES, 10%, . ( [20])
RANS-IDDES
, RANS IDDES
.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.

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Spalart P. R., Strelets M., Travin A. Direct numerical simulation of large-eddy-break-up devices in
a boundary layer // International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2006, v.27, 5, p.902-910.
de Prisco G., Piomelli U., Keating A. Improved turbulence generation techniques for hybrid
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inflow conditions for large-eddy simulations // International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2006,
v.27, 4, p.585-593.
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5th Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow, Munich, 2007, v.2, p.689-694.
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simulation // AIAA Journal, 2004, v.42, 3, p.485-492.
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simulation // Physics of Fluids, 2006, v.18, 2.
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v.21, 4.
.. . .: , 1963.
Menter F.R. Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications //

LES

17

AIAA Journal, 1994, v.32, p.1598-1605.


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simulation of complex turbulent flows // In: Advances in LES of Complex Flows, Springer Netherlands, 2002, ed.: Friedrich R., Rodi W., p.239-254.
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15.10.10