Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 194

1

..

2008

621.396.96:551
:
..
- .
: , 2008. 294 .

ISBN
010164 29.01.97 .



,
.
,



.
.
, ,
.

........9
1. ,
12
1.1.
. 12
1.1.1.

.12
1.1.2.
( 1, )
....14
1.1.3.
(II, )
18
1.1.4.
( III)
.22
1.2.
.........................................................................................25
1.2.1. ( ,
I)..
.27
1.2.2. .
( I)..31
1.2.3.
.
( I)
.33
1.2.4.

.
( II).
...39
1.2.5.
....41
1.3.

(
IV)
..47
2.
,
.....59
2.1. ,
, 1.61
2.1.1.
( 1)76
2.2.
, 2.81
2.2.1.


().81
2.2.2.

87
2.2.3.
..
.92
2.2.4. ()
...96

2.3.
,
, 3...100
2.3.1.
, ,

3105
2.4.

.....108
2.4.1.
, ,

I108
2.4.2.
( I)112
2.4.3.
,
,
2.116
2.4.4.
( 2)..118
2.4.5.
,
( 2)................................................................120
2.4.6.
,
( 2)..
130
2.4.7.
,
,
3...132

2.5.
,
.....133
2.5.1
,

I.....133
2.5.2
, ,
3.
141
2.6.

,
148
2.7.
, ,
4.....160
3.
-
.......................................................167
3.1.
....167
3.1.1.
.168
3.1.2.
..
176.
3.2. . 180

3.2.1

180
3.2.2

.
.184

4.

............200
4.1

......................................................................................
.............200
4.2
..207
4.3
.209
4.3.1
.209
4.3.2
..
..214
4.4
..
.224
4.4.1 ....224
4.4.2

.227

4.5
.
...............230
4.5.1

230
4.5.2

.238
4.6

.243
5.



251
5.1

252
5.1.1

252.
5.1.2

..256
5.1.3

..262
5.1.4
.269
5.2.

.
...282

5.2.1
..
.....................................................................................282
5.2.2
287
5.2.3
..290
.299

10

,


,
, .

-
- .


,
,
, ,
.

, 20
, :

,
, .


,

.
,
(
, ),

.

.


,

11


-
,


..

. , ,
,

.
,
,

. ,
,

,
.





.



,
.


.
,

.
,

12

(,
,

), .

.
,
,
() ,


,
.
,
.

, ,

, , ,
, .
:
,

(), ;




,
,

: , ,
, , ,
,
. , ,

.

13

.
1.


(,
, , )
.




.

.

( ).
,

.
1.1.

1.1.1.


()
h(x,y,t).


h(x,y,t).

14


,
,

.
:
) ( I).

Z=h(x,y) ,
h ( x, y ) h2 . (r>> )
( h>> ).
r - ; h -
; - .
h ,
,
.

,

, ();
) ( II).

h(x,y) h( x, y ) = 0
( h << ).
h
h
<< 1,
<< 1 )
(
x
y
h . ,
h(x,y), ,
.

( h << ),
;
) ( III).
T

Z=h1(x,y)+h2(x,y).

15

h
.

1.1.2.

(
I, )

,
.

[1-4].

. 1.1. ( I)

(0,0,Z0) (.1.1) h(x,y),

I,

16

. Z=0
h(x,y), Z>>h, 1 =1.
M(x,y,h) , .

(),

h(x,y)

S0.

. -,
. -,

,
.

,


E


H
[3]

E = e 0 60 Pa G0 G (, ) R 1 exp[ i (t K R )] ,

H = m 0

60 Pa G0 G (, ) R 1W c exp[ i (t K R )]

(1.1)

e 0 m 0 -

H
; K 0 -
E
2
(. 1.1); K =
- ; a

- , ; G0 -
; G (, ) - ,
; Wc ; -
; R -
.
,
,
.

17

V,
, ,

S0 V
,
-.
, V
,
, S0.

V
[5]

E = i a n0 , H S + n0 , E S g r a+ (nd0 , E S )g
4 S
0
1

H = i a n0, E S + n0, H S g r a+ (nd0, H S )g


4 S

r ad ,dS

r ad ,dS

- ;

(1.2)
= R 1 exp( iKR )

+ K 2
= 0 ; n0
- 2
- S0
(x,y,h),

, H

; E
S
S

S0.
, ,
V,
S0. -,

18

.
V, ,
S0,
(1.2). ,
,

,
.

, ,

,
.
.

.


,
[3].
, S0 ,

[3]

0
1

E S = Q0 G (, ) R exp( iKR ) (1 FB )e p p + (1 + F )et t 0 + (1 + F B )e

H = Q0 G ( , )W c 1 R 1 exp( iKR ) (1 F )m p p 0 + (1 + F B )mt t 0 + (1 +

(1.3)
Q0 = 60 Pa G0 ; FB u F -
() ()
.

n 0 , t 0 , p 0
, (. .
1.1).
(1.3) (1.2),
E 0 n
(. . 1.1),

19

, (
) [3]:
iQ 0
E 0 n ( A) =


0 0 2
0 0
(n 0 , K 0 )
2
G (, ) R exp( 2iKR )
0 0 F ( n , m ) F B ( n , e ) ds
1 (n , K )
S

(1.4)

[4]

(n 0 , K 0 ) + 1

FB =
, (1.5)

(n 0 , K 0 ) 1
0 0
(
n
, K ) +
F = 0 0
. (1.6)
( n , K )

(
h
h
0,2;
0,2 ) ( < 30 0 )
x
y

(1.5) (1.6) ( n 0 , K 0 ) cos cos .
>> sin 2
(1.5) (1.6) [4]
cos sin 2
F B =
, (1.7)
cos + sin 2
cos sin 2
F =
.
cos + sin 2

(1.8)

, ( < 30 0 ),

(1.5) (1.6) ( n 0 , K 0 ) cos 1 .
(1.5) (1.6)
1
F = F B =
= F0 exp( i0 ) . (1.9)
1 +
(1.4) (1.9),
, , ,

20

() ()
[3]
iF Q
E BB = E = 0 0
G ( , ) R 2 exp [ 2iK ( R1 h cos )] cos dxdy ,
S

(1.10)
S - S0 X0.
(1.10)
, -
.

E B = EB = 0 .
1.1.3.

(
II, )

h(x,y)
(
h << ). ( h( x, y ) = 0 ),

h
h
< 1,< < 1 <
x
y

) ( h ).

,
,
,
[6].

,
E
0

21

Z=0, E
1
(
),

h(x,y):

E = E 0 + E 1 .

h(x,y)
E

, n = 0
E

E x E z
= 0

x
.

h
E y E z
= 0
y

(1.11)

(1.11)
Z=h(x,y)
,

E x ( x, y, z )
E x ( x, y,0) + h( x, y )
z

( x, y ,0) + h( x, y ) E y ( x, y , z )
E
y
z

z =0

z =0

h
E z ( x, y ,0)
=0 ,
x
( x, y ,0) h = 0
E
z
y

.
(1.12)

, (1.12),
,
, :

22

E (x, y, )0 = 0 , E (x, y, )0 = 0 , E (x, y, z) = 0 ,


o x
oy
o z

E ( x, y,0) = h( x, y ) Eox ( x, y, z )
1x
z

z=0

E oy ( x, y, z )
. (1.13)
E 1 y ( x, y,0) = h( x, y )
z =0
z

E
E
oy
ox
[5]
E ox ( x, y , z ) Q0 G ( , ) R 1 [ exp( iKR ) exp( iKR 1 )] sin
,
E oy ( x, y, z ) Q0 G (, ) R 1 [exp( iKR ) exp( iKR 1 )] cos
, (1.14)
R1 -
M(x,y,h).
(1.14) (1.13),

:

sin
E 1x ( x, y ,0) i 2Q0G ( , )h( x, y ) cos R 1 exp( iKR ) cos

1y

(1.15)

23

(0,0,Z0)

1
e iKR E ( x, y , z )
e iKR
( x, y ,0)

E (0,0, Z 0 ) =
E

z
=
0
4 S
h R
n
R
0
.
(1.16)
(1.13) (1.14) (1.16) ,
E = E x sin + E y cos ,

4Q
E 1 (0,0, Z 0 ) = 2 02
Z0

G( , )h( x, y) cos

dS

exp( 2iKR )dS

S0

.
(1.17)

E 0 z ( x, y , z ) 0 ,

(1.13)

4Q
E 1BB (0,0, Z 0 ) = 2 02
Z0

G ( , )h( x, y ) cos

S0

i h( x, y )

sin exp( 2iKR )dS .


K
x

(1.18)


.


[3].
KQ 0
E 1BB (1 ) =
F BB ( ) G (, ) R 2 h( x, y ) cos 2 exp( 2iKR )dxdy

(1.19)

24

( 1) ( 1) sin 2 +
F BB =
cos + sin 2 , (1.20)

1
F =
. (1.21)
cos + sin 2


E B = E B = 0 .
,

.
1.1.4.

III)


-
.
: (
) ( )
(
).
, ,
.
,

()
() . ,

h
, ,

( 30 0 ). ,

25

,

.
,


.
.
.
,

().

[7-13].
:
. ()

h
<< 1 ) ,

( h >> 1 ) - .


.
=0...70 (
).
,

Z = h1 ( x, y ) + h2 ( x, y ) ,
(1.22)
h1(x,y) - ,
; h2(x,y) -
, .
h1(x,y)
h2(x,y) (.1.2).

26

Z>0

E = E + E .
.
, S
, ,

0 0
(nz , E E2)S = 0 ; nz , E E2 = 0 ; (H H2) = 0
S

(1.23)

n z

H
- .
S (x,y,z); E
2
2

27

. 1.2.

( III)
, ,
.
Z(x,y)


E ( M ) = E 0 ( M ) + E 1 ( M ) , (3.24)

E ( A) = E 0 ( A) + E 1 ( A) , (3.25)

- ,
E
0

h(x,y) ; E
-
1
,

h(x,y).

28

1.1.2 ( (1.10)).
E
0

(1.24)
E
1
h ,
,
(1.23).
,
()
() ,
[13]:
iF Q
E BB ( ) = 0 0
G (, ) R 2 exp [ 2iK ( R1 h1 cos )] cos dxdy +
S

KQ 0

, ) R 2 exp [ 2iK ( R1 h1 cos )] cos 2 h2 ( x, y ) dx

BB ( ) G (

(1.26)
(1.26)
h1(x,y), h2(x,y).
(1.26),
h2(x,y),
h1(x,y).
[13].

.
1.2.

,

h(x,y,t).

, .

.

29

.
,

()

:
2

Rh ( r ) = h h (r ) =

S h ( ) exp( ir ) d .

(1.27)
,
,
.

,
, [14]
r
2
cos
h (r ) = exp
r , (1.28)
l

x
r= x + y , = a r c tg
y
2

;
- .
(1.28)

,

30


[3].
.


[3]

x 2 y 2
2
2
h (x, y ) = exp 2 + 2 cos
x cos
y , (1.29)

l x
l
x
y
y

lx , l y

- ;

x , y

0 0Y.

lx = ly = l1 , x = y =

(1.29)
x 2 + y 2
2
2
cos
h (x, y ) = exp
x cos
y . (1.30)
2

(1.29), (1.30)

.
,
,
[3]

x 2 y 2
h (x, y ) = exp 2 + 2 .
l x
l y

(1.31)

,
( ), (1.31)

31

x 2 + y 2
. (1.32)
h (x, y ) = exp

l2

1.2.1.

, I)



[3]
h G (, ) , (1.33)
U = E
np
h - ; Gnp (, ) ,
.
,
:
(Gn (, ) = Gnp (, )) .

,
[3]

2 + 2

G ( , ) = exp 1,38
2 , (1.34)

a - 0,5
.

2
Pnp = A Gnp (, )
(1.35)

,
- ;
- ,
2
= G0
,
4
G0 - .

32

2
U

=
, Pn p = , (1.33) (1.35)
2 4 0
2Rn p

h =

A Rnp

,
(1.36)
120
Rnp - .
()
[3]
PK

( h)
U
( h)U
* ( h)
U
=
=
2 Rnp
2 Rnp

(1.37)

U*(h) - , - U(h).
(1.37) .
,
,

.

.
,
.

( I) (1.37) (1.34),
(1.35) (1.10).
[3, 13]
2

4 h cos 0 2
sin 2 0
2
,
PK = P0 cos 0 exp
exp 1,38



a
(1.38)

33

P0 =

2
Pa G0 2 F 0

64 R0
2

- ,

.
(1.38),
,

h .
(1.38) ,

h
,

a

.

h 1

.

. ,
,
.

a , .
( = 0 ),

4 2
h
PK = P0 exp
. (1.39)

(1.39), = 0
,
,
4 2
h
exp
,

34

PK
h

, (1.39),
P0

.1.3.

1.3.

PK
P0

1.2.2. .
(
I)

h
1

12

()

()
(1.40)
I = c2 = U ( h )U * ( h ) U ( h ) U * ( h ) .

35

PH =

I
.
R

(1.41)


,
.
( I) (1.41)
(1.10), (1.29)-(1.32), (1.34), (1,35), (1.40).
[13, 15]

,

() a
() p . (

h
1

12

) 0,5
[13]

1
p
=
.
(1.42)
2l
Kl
[33, 43]
,

h , lx , l y , x , y ,

a
. ,
p

36

, ..

2l y a
a
2l x a

=
>> 1 a =
>> 1 ,
px

[13]
2
2
4 h
4 h
PH . BB PH . = P0 cos 2 0
1 + 0,3
.


(1.43)

, ,
h .


. (3.43)
( I)
( < 30 0 ).

1.4.

PH
P0

37


(
II). (1.43) ,

h
.

PH
h

,
P0

(1.43) = 0 .

.1.4

1.2.3.

(
I)

h 1
,

()
()

0 = 4R 2 2 = K OTP cos ,
(1.44)
1S
R - ;
1 -
; 2 ; S ; K OTP -
.
()

[3]

0 =

PH 64 3 R 4
2

Pa G0 2 S

, (1.45)

38

S -
,

R 2 a 2
= G ( , ) =
.
5,5 cos
S
4

h 1
)

4
h 1

4
(



.
(1.34),
(1.40), (1.41), (1.45) (1.10).

( ) [3, 10,
13]
0

BB =

F0

tg 2 0
exp
2 x y
2 2

(1.46)

x y -
Y
( ).
( x = y = )
0

BB =

F 0

tg 2
. (1.47)
exp
2 2

(1.46) (1.47),
, ( 30 0
).
, [16],
2
2
min max
. .1.5

0 BB ( )
F 2

39

0 , (1.47)
2 .

1.5.

(1.46) (1.47) ,

h
h
h(x,y),

.
y
x
,
h(x,y),
. .
1.5, ( 2 ),


. ,

, .

40


:
B 0 = B0 = 0 .
(1.46) (1.47)
.
0 ,
,

,
.
0
, ,
[3, 17-22].

.


,
.

().


.

[3, 12]. ,
,
, ,

0 (1.45).
0

0 3-5
2-3 , [42].
[17-

41

22]. 0

(1.47). VB=0,5...1 /
, 0
, ,
0 0 10 0 .
0 > 10 0 0 ( 0 )
,

. 0 0 10 0

4-5 ,
0 .
V=4 - 5 /


0 0 20 0 .
0 5 .
0 ( 0 )
V=13 /
0 0 30 0 .

0 , ,


0 0 30 0 .
0 ,
,
( ).
0
.
[23] (1.46)

42

1
=
2

max

S h ( ) d ,

(1.48)

max (0,1... 0,3)


.
2
.
[23] ,

.
0 (
). (1.46) (1.47)
F0,
(
2
F = 1
). . =3, 6

20 =48-i35, 51-i36 73-i85 .


,

0
. , ,
0

.
,

0
9,6...48,7 [18]
0,428...8,9 [22]. ,
, , 0
< 20 ... 30 0
<10 .
(1.46) (1.47) , 0

43

< 30 0 .

.
1.2.4.

II)

h
1

12

0
(1.34), (1.40), (1.41), (1.45) (1.19).
0
[11, 24]
2
0 BB ( ) = 16K 4 F
cos 4 S ( ) ,
(1.49)
BB ( )

S h ( p ) -
p ;
2
4
p =
= 2 K sin 0 =
sin 0 . (1.50)
p

(1.50)

p =
.
(1.51)
2 sin 0
(1.49) (1.51) :

() .

"", (1.51).


. (1.49),
( 0 BB )

44

F
BB F
( (1.19),
(1.20).


B 0 = B0 = 0 .
0 (1.49)

F BB ( )
S h ( p ) .
()

h
1

12

[25, 26].
(1.32)

2
2l
2

0 BB ( ) = 4 FBB ( ) K 4 h 2l 2 cos 4 exp
sin


.
(1.52)


1
S h ( ) =
Rh ( r ) dr . (1.53)
(2 ) 2
(1.32)
(1.52)

2 l 2
h 2l 2
.
Sh ( ) =
exp
4
4

(1.52) (1.54) ,

(1.54)

45

S ( p ) =

1.2.5.

2
2l
h 2l 2

exp
sin .
4

(1.47) ,
,

, (

< 15 - 30 ). > 15 - 30
0


().
(1.49), ,



(150 700).

() ()
( 1.2). ,
,
() .

, .
,
(
F BB ( ) p = 2K sin ),
,
.

.
(1.49).

46


(1.49) [27, 28].

= .

0 < , >
.
2
2
,

tg > tg = ctg .
2


[27]

0 2.cp . BB ( ) =

2. BB ( ) (

) (x , y )dxy ,

ctg

,
( (3.49); (x , y ) -

; x = x cos + y sin , yx = y cos + x sin .
0Y 0Y
, 0
.
x y [27].
(1.49),

2
0 2.BB ( ) = V F
2 K sin ctg 4 . (1.56)
2. BB ( )

(1.55)

BB ( )

, ,
(),
. (1.56)
(1.55) ,

,

,
[29]:

47

0 2.cp.BB () 0 2. BB () K Mo = 0 2. BB () [1 + 2 (7,6ctg 4 + 16,7 + 9,7tg


+ 4 (62,7ctg 4 + 187,8ctg 2 + 199,4 + 86,9tg 2 + 13,4tg 4 )] ,
(1.57)
1
2

2
2
sin 2 -
= max cos +
n
+
1

; n=

2 m ax
1 ; 0 2.BB ( )
2
m in

(1.49).
(1.46), (1.49)
(1.57) [29]

BB ( )

0
1

2.cp . BB ( )

F0

2 max min

tg 2
+
exp
2 2

2 2
2
+ 16 F BB ( )
cos 0 S ( p ) K Mo .

(1.58)
(1.58)
,
. (1.58), ,

.
( 0 < 20 0 ) ( 0 > 70 0 )
.

2

( ).

,
,


( 0 < 20 0 ) ( 0 > 70 0 )

48

0 2.cp. max
. n=3 - 4
0 2.cp. min

6 - 8 . . 1.6

0 2.cp. ( )
,
0 2.cp. min

(1.57)

n=4 0 = 30 0 .

. 1.6.


,
2 - 5 , 0
, - .
,

49


,
[27].
. 1.7

=3,2

[12].

. 1.7.

, . 1.7,

.
, ( 0 < 10 0 ),
0 ,
0 > 10 15 0 .

.

50


( (1.58))
, [19, 22].

,
,
. ,
0 ,

( 0 0 70 0
).
,
( (1.58)).

( 0 < 10 30 0 )
, ,
,
, ..
.

0 > 10 30 0


,
(1.58). ,

.
,
( 0 < 25 30 0 )

, 0 > 25 30 0

. 7 - 10 .
(. .
1.2.4.).
0 BB , 0 ,
, .

51

0 30 0 0 70 0

0 0,7 1 [19, 22],
.
S ( ) 3 3,5 ,
(3.56) , 0 0,5 1 .
0
0 0 70 0
0 1 ,
.

,
.
[12] :
0 B 0 B =

2
2
2
= 4 K 4 2 h l 2 cos 4 0 exp ( Kl sin 0 ) F BB + F 2 F BB F cos

2
2
4
4
2

= 16 K cos 0 S ( p ) F BB + F 2 F BB F cos 1 .

= arg F BB arc F .

(1.59)

(1.59),

.


0 0 70 0
.
1.3.
( IV)

52

(.1.8).
Z
A(0,0,z)

B(dx,dy,z+dz)

M(a,y,h)
X
dh(x,y)

3
.1.8

,
h1 ( x, y ) h2 ( x, y ) .
I, ..
,
12 , 22 h1 = 0, h2 = h0 .
1 = 1,
3 , 2 . ,

1 = 2 = 3 = 1, 3 > 2 > 1 .

A( 0,0, z0 )


.
B ( x, y, z0 + z ) . ,


, A

53

iQ1
E =
z0 z1

G(, )F

exp [ ik ( R11 + R22 2h1 cos ) ] cos dxdy

(
(

F + F2 exp i 2k 2 h cos
Fc = 1
1 + F1F2 exp i 2k 2 h cos

)
)

(1.60)

2; F
1

-
; F
2

2
cos 2 (1 itg 2 ) sin 2 ; tg 2 ; k2 = k cos 2 =

; h( x, y ) -
.
sin 2 < < 2

tg 2 < 0.5

2
2
k 2
2 i
2 0,5tg .

< 1 ,
3 > 2 > 1 , F1 F2 <

Fc F1 + F2 exp i 2k 2 h cos = F1 + F2 exp


2 h( tg 2 2 )

.

F
c

h1 ( x, y ) sin 2 << 2 ,
(1.60)
iQ1
E =
Fc G ( , ) exp [ ik ( R11 + R22 2h1 cos ) ] cos dxdy = Fc I
z0 z1
D

.
,
,
(1.57) z 0

54

x.

iQ cos 0
U =
Fc G 2 ( x, y ) exp[ ik ( R11 + R22 2h1 cos ) ] dxdy
2
z0
D

( )

M (U )M (U )
Pk =
= M ( F c )M ( F c ) Pki ,
2 Rnp
PK 1
,
, .

h1 ( x, y ) , h2 ( x, y ) ,
.
h1 h2
,

h( x, y ) = h1 ( x, y ) h2 ( x, y )
2 = 12 + 22

h( x, y ) = h0 . PK 1 ,
1.3 (1.62)
Pki =

2.76

8 x 2 + y 2
Pa G02 2 cos 2 0
2
exp

sin

0
2
Z0
64Z 02
a

exp 4k 2 2
1

(1.61)

( )

M Fc = F1 + F 2

exp
2
1

1
= F1 + F 2 exp 2k 2 2 2 +
k 2 2 tg 2 h0
2

h
( h h0 ) 2 k htg i 2k hd

2
2
2
2 2


F
c

)}

+ i 2k 2 k 2 2 tg 2 h0 .

h02 +

(1.62)

55

(1.61) (1.62)
,

PaG02 2 c o s2 0 2 2,7 6 2
PK =
F1 e x p 2 sin 0
6 4 2 Z 02
a

8 x2 + y 2
exp ( 2k ) 2
1
1

Z0

1 + A2 + 2 A cos 2k 2 k 2 2 tg 2 h0 + ( 2 1 ) ,

]}

(1.63)
F 2
2
2
A =
exp 2k 22
+ 0.5k 22
tg 22 k 2 h0 tg 2
F

,F
,
; 1 , 2 - F
1
2
.
,
,

,

1 + A2 + 2 A cos 2k 2 k 2 2 tg 2 h0 + ( 2 1 ) .

, h0

2

.

. 1.9

h0

Pk

P0

, 2 , 3 , tg 2 , tg 3 . P0 -

56

.
Pk

P0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25 h0

.1. 9

,
,

h0

h0

2 .

Pk
2 .
F
1

Pk

[3] .

, x << z 0 , y << z 0
.
, x = y = 0
.

57

[ ]

MU = + FFM e 2 hx(t 2)g p


12 2 2

2
F 1 + F 2 e x p
2 h ( tg 2

Q c o s 0 2
2)
G ( , ) G 2 ( , )
2
z0

[
]
[

e x[ 2ipk( R1 1 R1 )1 ( h1 h1 ) 2i kc o 0s] d x xd dyy = d M Fc Fc M I


D D

Q cos 0

2
z0

[]

2
G ( , ) G 2 ( , ) exp [ 2ik ( R11
R11 ) ] dxdyd xdy

M I = M{ e [ ( h x h ) 2ip c k ]o} s
1 1 0
]

M F c F c = M F1

(1.64)

2
+ F1 F 2 exp

2 htg 2 + 2i

2
2
2

+ ex p
2 htg 2 + 2i
2 h + 1 2 + F2

2 h + 1

58

2
exp

2 (h h)

(1.65)

h
(
x
,
y
)
(
)
h
x
,
y
1




Wh ( h, h, h, h) = W ( h, h)W ( h, h) .


, h0 , ,
(1.65)

2 ( h + h)tg 2 + 2i

(
1
h h0 )

M FcFc = F1 + F1 F2 e (x 1 p 2 ) e x p 2
2 2

[ ]

k 2 tg 2 h

+ i 2k 2 h d ( h ) + F1 F2 exp( 2 1 )

( h h0 ) 2
exp
k 2 tg 2 h i 2k 2 h d ( h ) +
2
2

+ F 2

{[

exp 2 2 1 2

)] [( h h
1

2 ( h h0 )( h h0 ) ] k 2 tg 2 ( h + h ) +
+ 2ik 2 ( h h )} d ( h) d ( h ) =

)2

+ ( h h0 )
2

59

2
= F1 + F1 F2 exp k 2 h0 tg 2 + 0,5k 2 2 2 tg2 2 2k 2 2 2

2 cos 2k 2 ( h0 + k 2 2 tg 2 + 1 2 +
+ F 2

2
exp 2k 2 h0 tg 2 2k 22 1
+

+ k 2 2 2 tg 2 2 (1 + ) 2k 2 2 2 (1 ) .
2

(1.66)
F 2

= F 2

2
exp 2k 2 h0tg 2 2 k 22 1
+

[+ k
2

(1.66)

2
2

tg 2 2 (1 + ) 2k 2 2 2 (1 ) =
2

) ]

exp 4k 222 1 0,25 tg 2 2 + 4k 222 1 + 0,25 tg 2 2

(1.67)
(1.67) (1.66) (1.64),

Qc 0 4 o 2 s
I= MU = 2 G (x,y)d F1 ++ xNN 0e (A0 ) d x y p

z0

[]

ik

exp
x 2 + y 2 + 2 xx + 2 yy + B0 ( h 1) d ( x ) d ( y ) ,
z0

2
2 2
2
2
1 2
2 0
2
2
2
2

N = 2 F F e x p k h tg + 0,5k tg 2k

cos 2k 2 k 2 2 tg 2 h0 + 1 2 ; x = x x ;
y = y y ; B0 = 4k 212 ;

A0 = 4k 2 2 2 1 + 0,25tg 2 2 ;
N 0 = F 2

)]

exp 2k 2 h0 tg 2 4k 2 1 0,25 tg 22 .
2

A0 , B0

,

60

Q
2
z
0

F
1

G ( x, y ) dxdy

ik

exp x 2 + y 2 + 2 x x + 2 y y exp( B
z0

+ N + N0
+ N 0 A0 + B0
F

+ N + N0
h d ( x )d ( y )

(1.68)

l h l , ,

, (1.68),
2

Q
I = 2 ex p( B0 )
z0
iz
0 F1
k

5,5 2

ex p 2 2 x 2 + y 2
a R0

ik 2

+ N + N 0 exp
x + y2 +

z0

B
k l2
2
N 0 A0
+
e x p i a r c tg b0 x 2 + y 2 ic0 x 2 + y 2 + 0 F1 + N + N
a0

a1
z0

) (

kl 2
expi arctg h b1 x 2 + y 2 ic1 x 2 + y 2 dxdy ,


z0

a0 =

1 k2
+
;
l4 z02

a1 =

1 k2
+
;
l h4 z 02

k 2 1 k 2
b0 = 2 2 4 + 2 ;
z0
l z 0 l
1

k 2 1 k 2
b1 = 2 2 4 + 2 ;
z0
lh z0 lh

k
c0 =
z0

1 k2
4 + 2 ;
l

z0

61

k
c1 =
z0

1 k2
4 + 2
l
z0
h

0, 5
2
2
2
5,5 2 k
2
i

x 4kp2 12 0 F1 + N + N0 2 2 +
a z0 z 0
k

I = Q e
z2
0

( )

k a2 z0 2 N 0 A0
+
exp i arctg

5
,
52
a0

2
5,52

2 2 + b0 + c02

a z0

0 ,5

kl 2
c 0 2a z 20
2 B0
exp i arctg
i arctg

F 12 N N 0

2
2
z0
a1
5,52b 0 a z 0

klh2


c1 a2 z02
i arctg

exp i arctg

5,52 + b 2 z 2

1 a 0
z0

(1.69)

5,52

2 2 << b0 , b1 (1.69)
z

a 0

2
5,52

2 2 + b1 + c12
a z0

Q
I =
2 z0

0 , 5

exp 4k 212

) A N
0

2
+ ( B0 + 1) N 0 + N + F1 =

Q
exp 4k 2 12
=
2 z0

62

) (

1 + ( 2k ) 2 + 2k 2 + k t g F 2

1
2
2 2 2

exp 2k 2 h0 tg 2 4k 2 2 2 + k 2 2 2 tg 2 2 +

) (

2
+ F1 1 + 4k 2 12 + 2 1 + 4k 2 12

F1 F2 e x p 2k 2 2 2 + 0,5k 2 2 2 tg2 2 k 2 h0 tg 2

)}

2
Q
co s2k 2 h0 2k 2 2 2 tg 2 + 1 2 = e x p 4k 2 12 F1
2 z0

{[

) ] A + [1 + ( 2k ) ] + 2 A[1 + ( 2k ) ]
2 2 tg 2 h0 ) + ( 2 1 ) ]} .

1 + ( 2k 1 ) + 2k 2

cos 2k 2 k

) + (k
2

2 tg 2

(1.62) (1.70),

( ) () ()

(1.70)

( )

( )

2
2

Q
2
2
2

M UU M U M U = e x 4pk 1 F1 ( 2k 1 ) + 2k 2 +
2 z0

+ k 2 tg 2

Q
=
2 z0

A 2 + ( 2k ) 2 + 2 A( 2k ) 2 cos 2k k 2 tg h +
1
1
2
2

2
0

exp 4k 212 F1 ( 2k1 ) 2 {1 + 2 A cos 2k 2 k 2 2 tg 2 h0 + (

63

+ A2 (1 + D )

},
2


D = 2 1 + 0,25 tg 2 2 .
1

( ) () () ( )

MU MU UM PG2 2 2 2 2
a0
PH = = 2 1 (2kF 1) e 4k 1 x p
2Rn p 6 z0 4
[

1 + 2 A cos2k 2 k 2 2 tg 2 h0 + ( 2 1 ) + A2 (1 + D )

(1.71)
.1.10 , 1.11

h
0

PH

P0

64

0,4

0,3

2 = 8; tg 2 = 0,5;
3 = 80; tg 3 = 1;

= 0,3 ; 1 = 1;

0,2

1 = 0,3

0,1
1 = 0,2

1 = 0,1
0

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,5 h

0,4

. 1.10

0,4

2 = 8; tg 2 = 0.5;

3 = 80; tg 3 = 1;
= 0,3 ; 1 = 1;
0,3
1 = 0,3

0,2

1 = 0,2

0,1

1 = 0,1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

h0

65

. 1.11

tg 3 .

, 2 , 3 , tg 2 ,

2.
,
-


[3,10,11,13,30,31,34,35,36,37,]. [3,37]
, [13,30]
(). ,

, [32].



[34,36,33].
-

( ).

66

.

,

,
.


,
.


,

.


.

-


.

- .

,


-.
2.1. ,
, 1

67

( 0,0, z 0 ) (.2.1)

( x, y , z 0 z ).
,
( 0 = 0 ). h( x, y )
1,
.
,
( < 30 0 ),


()

kQ
U =
2 z o2

G ( x, y ) c o s ex p[ ik( R
2

11

dh
dh

A + D
+ P
dxdy ,
dx
dx

,D
,P

A

+ R22 ) ] ex p( 2ikhc o s )

68

A =

i sin 2
2 cos
2 cos 2
c2
b1
a2

2 cos +
cos +
cos +

s i2 n s i2 n s i2 n
b
a
b1

21
2 2
c o cs o + s c o + s c o + s
D = i
+

2 s i2 n 2 s 2i n 2 c 2o s

a+
c
c2
22
c o + s 2

+
c
o

s
c o + s

( ) ( )

( )

+i

sin
2

2(1 ) sin

( a1 + b2 ) 2 cos c1 ;


1 + cos

69

s i2 n s i2 n 2 s i n
b
a
b1

2 1
2 2
s i nc o + s c o + s c o + s
P = i

2 s i2 n 2 s 2i n 2 c 2o s

a2 +
c
c2
2 2
c o + s c o + s
c
o

+
s

( ) ( )

( )

AB =

(
(

i b1 2 cos
a 2 cos2
c sin 2
2 sin 2 cos

2
+ 1

( 1) cos +
2 cos +
cos + 1 + cos

DB = i

2(1 ) sin

( a1 + b2 ) 2 cos


1 + cos

cos
2

cos b1 sin 2
a sin 2
b 2 sin
a sin 2

2
1
2
+
2
2
2 cos +

cos

cos
+
cos +

c1 2 sin 2
2 sin 2 cos 2 4 sin 3
(
)
b
+
a
+

1
2
2
( 1)( cos + ) 2
1 + cos

c1 2 cos 2
sin
+i
2
1 + cos

2 cos

2(1 )
( a1 + b2 ) ;
c2


cos +

)
)

70

PB = i

sin b1 sin 2
a sin 2
b 2 sin
a sin 2

2
1
2
+
2
2
2 cos +
cos +
cos +
cos +

c1 2 sin 2
2 sin 2 cos 2 4 sin 3
(
)
b
+
a
+

1
2
2
2
( 1)
cos +
1 + cos

c1 2 cos 2

1 + cos

2 c o s 2 c o2 s 2 s i2 n
b2 +
a1

+ c o s + c o s ( 1) ;
2A =

c
o

s
i
2

( a1 + b2 ) +
c2
c o + s
1 + c o s

( )
( )

2 cos
2 A = i
b2 +
+ cos

i
sin 2
D


= ( cos

2 sin ) cos +

2 cos 2
a1
+ cos

a1 +

sin 2
cos +

4 sin 3
2 sin
b2
cos +
( 1) cos +

sin 2
c1 ;
+ cos

a1

( a1

sin 2

(cos + )

+ b2 ) +

b2 +

71

(
(

2 sin 2 cos

( 1)
cos +

) (a
)

+ b2 ) +

2 sin 2

(1 +

cos

c2

( sin ) 2 cos

2 cos 2
2(1 ) sin

(
c2 +
c1 +
a 2 b1 )

cos

1 + cos

cos +

i
2

sin 2
cos
( sin )
cos +

i
D
=

2

sin 2
cos
( sin )
cos +

; =

sin 2

(cos + )

b2 +

sin

a1 +

sin 2
cos +

sin 2
cos +

a1

( a2

b1 )

2 cos

c2
1 + cos
.

()
A A .

a1

c1 +
cos +

2 cos

a1 +

2 sin
2 sin 2
b2
c +
2 1
cos +
cos +

2(1 ) sin

( cos )

]}{

]}

R ( A1 A) = U ( A) M U ( A) U ( A) M U ( A) .


dh

dh

h, dx , dy .

72

W ( h, h)

,

dh dh
,
,h.
dx dy

5,5 sin2 0 cos2 0

exp 2
+ 11 2 cos4
x
0
a

,
2
2
2
h , x , y h ,
x,
y.

73

. 2.1

74

, ,
lhx , l hy l
x , l
y
, ,
, cos cos ;G ( x, y ) G ( x, y ),
+ .
kQ
R ( A, A) =
2z z
o 1

G 4 ( x, y ) cos

dxdy

exp [ik ( R

]{ [ ( ) ]

11

+ R11 ) +

( )

22 2 22 2
i R2k + R2 42k h c oe 4k xs h c p oh u,v s
A

+D

2
2 2 A
2x x + P
}dx dy ,
y
y

(2.1)

u = x x ; v = y y .
(2.1) ,
2
2 = ( 2k h cos ) .
) .
2 << 1
.

exp 2 + 2 h ( u , v ) exp 2 h ( u , v ) 2 exp 2 .

(2.1)
2

kQ

R( A, A ) = 1 + 2 =
G 4 ( x, y ) cos4 exp[ ik( R1 1 + R11 ) + i
2
2 z o

(u , v ) exp ( ) +
+

A
D

dxdyd x dy .

2
x

(2.2)

(2.2)
1
R ( A, A) h( x, y ),
2 h( x, y ) .

75

1, ,
2 << 1, .

(2.2) R( A, A) = 1 . (.
2.1)

kQ
2
2 cos6 h u , v
R A , A =
2k h ex 4k 2 2h2ik z A
2
2z o

2
2
5,5 x + y
ik
ik
ikxu ikyv
2
exp
+ ( x u) +
(
y v) 2

2 2
z0
z0
z0
z0
z0

'

2ik ( x u ) x 2ik y v

z0
z0

z = z1 z0 ;

x = x1 ; y = y1.

,
< 30 0

) y dudvdxdy

= 1 0 cos 3 ,

x2 + y2
,
cos2 ex 0,7
z02

kQ
R ( A, A) =
2z
0

2
2 2

( 2k h ) d ex 4k h 2ik z
1

) ( u, v )ex ikz [(

2
2
2
k 2 ( x u ) + k 2 y v
kQ
( 2k
+ y v x u y v]
d u d v 0
d1
2

exp 4k 2 h2 2ik z

) ( u, v )exp ikz [(

2
k ( x u ) + k 2 y v

dudv = I1 I 2 .
d2

u)2 + y v

xu

76

u
v
, h (u , v ) = exp 2 2 cos ( p x u + p y v ),
l
l
hy
hx

,
2
x2 y2
Q
2
2 2
R( A, A ) ( 2k h ) e x 4k h 2ik z ( 1 0 ) e x 2 2
l x cp l y cp
2 z0

1+
0
cos p xcp x + p ycp y 1 +
1 0

x2
y2

+
b
2
2 ,
l xcp
l
ycp

(2.3)

ky
kx
p y +

p x +

z0
z0

;
p xcp
; p ycp

d
+
d
d1 + d 2
2
1 + 1
1 +

2 2
2 2

2
l
k
2
l
k
hy
hx

d +d
d +d
2
1 1 2 22 ; l y2cp = lh2y 1 1 2 22 ;
l x2cp = lhx

2lh y k
2lhx k

5,5 2,82 k 2 h2
d1 = 2,1 +
; d 2 = d1 + 1,05 ;
2
d d
1
= 22 21
;
.
2 2
2k l xcp
2k l xcp
2 << 1
.

5,5
d cp 2,6 + 2 ,
l xcp l h x ;
l ycp l h y
q

0 ( 2 ) 0, 5 .

x y
l h x l h y , (2.3)

77

x2
y2
a
1.
+
b
2
l x2cp
l
ycp

x2 y
R( A, A)

( A, A) =
exp 2ik z 2 2 cos p xcp x + p ycp y .

R ( 0, 0 )
lh x
l h y

(2.4)
( z = 0 ) ,

2 << 1 ,
1+

1 + 0
1 0

x2 y2
( A, A) = exp 2 2
lh x l h y

cos p + p .
xcp x
ycp y

(2.5)

l h x , l h y > ,
( x = y = 0)

p xcp p x ; p ycp p y

(2.5)


. ,
[13]. ,

xcp

d +d
d +d
2 1 + 1 2 22
1 + 1 2 22
2lhx k
2lhx k

= x
;
x x
2 k x
1+

+
z0

z
0
x

1+
ycp = y
1+

d1 + d 2
2lh2y k 2
,
y y

z0

..
(1 xcp ; 1 ycp )

78

(1 x ; 1 y ).

. ,
x
y y .
. 2.2

x = xcp x ;

x
1 0 0%
x

z0 = 500; = 10 ; x = 10; y = 0; = ; lhx = x .


2

. 2.2
,
,

-


.

79


.
,
.
cp ,

cp .

(2.4) x = y = 0,

11( A, A ) = Re exp( 2ik z ) = cos( 2k z ).


z T = 2 .
)

2
2
= ( 2k h cos 0 ) > > 1 .
1- , 10 ,
. ,
,
0 ,
= 0 . , 1

kQ co s2 0

R( A, A ) =
2

2 z0
[

exp 4k cos
2

2
h

G ( x, y ) d xd y ex p[ ik( R
4

11

R1 1 + R2 2

2 +D
2 2 + P
2 2
0 (1 h )
A
x x
y y dx dy = I1

(2.6)
2

>> 1

h ( x x, y y )
,

exp{ ( 2k h cos 0 ) 2 [1 h ( x x; y y ) ]}

. , h ( u , v )
u, v ,

80

1
1
2 2
2 2
2 [1 h ( u , v ) ] 2 2 + 2 u 2 2 2 + 2 v 2 = 1u 2 2 v 2 .
lhy
x
y
lhx

(2.7)
xOz . 2.3

x0 ( x x0 ) + y 2
+
; R012 = z 02 + x02 ;
R01
2 R01
2

R11 R01 + ( x x0 )
R22 R02
R01 +
R11

2
(
x x0 ) +
+

y2

2 R02

( x x0 )( x0 x ) y y ;
R02

( x x x0 ) 2 + ( y y ) 2
z z0 x0
z2

( x x x0 ) +
+
+
;
2 R01 R01 R01
2 R01
2
2
(
z 0 z ) ( x x x0 ) + ( y y )
z2
+ z
+
+
2 R02
R02
2 R02
( x0 x )( x x x0 ) y y y
+
;
R02

R02 +
R22

2
R02
= ( z 0 z ) + ( x0 x ) + y 2 ;
2

R11 + R22
R22 2 z cos 0 +
R11

x2 + y2 + z2 + x x + y y + u 2 + v 2

R0

u ( 2 x 2 x x ) + v 2 y 2 y y 2 x x 2 y y
R0

(2.8)
(2.7) (2.8) I1 (2.6)

2

k Qc o s2 0 2 ik 2 2 2

I1 =
A
e
x
p

+
2
ik

c
o
s

x
y
z
x
y
z
0
2

R
2

z
0

81

2k
G 4 ( x, y ) exp i
x x + y y
R0

)dxdy exp { u

2 v 2 +

ik 2
x

u + v 2 2u
+ x x 2v
+ y y dudv .
R0
2

(2.9)
,
I1 =

4 z 02

( Q cos 0 a ) 2 A

)(

+ 11 x2 cos 4 0 2 + 11 y2 cos 2 0

x 2 1,38 cos 4 0
exp 2 2
2
4
z 0 + 11 x cos 0

2 2 2
2
5,5 sin 0 cos2 0 ( x0 x 2 x )
y 2 1,38 cos2 0
2 2k x cos

x
R0 2 + 11 x2 cos4 0
z 02 2 + 11 x2 cos2 0
2 + 11 x2 cos

82

z
A( x, y, z0 + z )
A( 0,0, z0 )

B(x + x,y + y, z0 + z z)

B( x1 , y1 , z1 )

01
01

02

R1

02
R01

R01

R02

R22
B0

B0( x,y,0)

R02

R11

R2

R11

A0
M

x0

y
x0 + x

R22 M

M1( x + u, y + v,0)
h( x, y)

M1( x, y,0)

. 2.3

83

5,5 y y
5,5 c o s2 0 x x
2

+ 1 1 y2 c o s2 0 R02 2 + 1 1 x2 c o s4 0 R02 2 + 1 1 y2 c o s2 0
2
y

2k 2 y2 2 c o s2 0

22k x x2 cos4 0 sin 0


. (2.10)
exp i 2k z cos 0 i
2
2
4

+
11

cos

x
0

I 2 + I 3
l x = l y = l

x = y = ; = exp u 2 + v 2 l2 ,
2

kQ cos2 0 2 2 2 ik 2
D + P exp x + y2 + z2 + x x + y y +
I 2 + I 3 =
2

R0
2 z0
+ i 2k z cos 0 ]

i 2k
G 4 ( x, y ) exp
x x + y y
R0

)dxdy exp

1
ik
2 + 2 v 2 +

R0
l

2
x

y

2
u + v 2u 2 + x x 2v 2 + y y dudv

.
(2.11)
2
2
1 l << 1 ; 1 l << 2 ,
(2.11)
(2.9),

2 2k x x2 c o 4s 0 s in 0 2 2k 2
R A, A
A, A =
= e x p i 2k z c o s 0 i 2
x 2
2
4
R 0,0

+
1
1

c
o
s

x
0

( )

2k 2 y2 2 cos2 0
x5,5 cos4 0
y5,5 cos2 0
exp y2 2

x 2 2
y 2 2
+ 11 y2 cos2 0
z 0 + 11 x2 cos4 0
z0 + 11 y2 cos

, (2.12)

84
2

2 h2 2 h
2 2 2 h
; y2 = 2 h +

.
= 2 +
y
lhy
lhx
x

2
2
2
( 2 << 11 x2 cos 4 0 ; << 11 y cos 0
),
2
x

2 2
x x

k 2 2
2 k
( A, A ) = exp i 2k z cos 0 i 2k x sin 0 x2

y
2
5,5
5,5 cos 0
2z

. (2.13)
,
2 >> 1,
(2.12), z = 0.

Re ( A, A) = cos ( 2k x sin 0 ) exp x2

2 2
k 22
x
2 k

x2 2
y
5,5
5,5 cos 2 0
2 z0 x

(2.14)
x

2 sin 0 .

{x; y} .
x y

x , y .
,

.

x = y = 0 ,

(2.12),

( A, A) = cos ( 2kz cos 0 ) .


Re

, ,
,
z

85

T=

2 cos 0

.
(2.12-2.14)
[32]


.
2.1.1.
( 1).

h( x, y , t ),


kQ
U ( t ) =
2 z02

G ( x, y ) co s ex p[ ik( R
2

11

+ R22 ) i 2kh( x, y, t ) cos ]

dh
dx dxdy .

A + D dx + P dy


h( x, y , t ),
U ( t ) ,
(1.55)

R ( t , t + ) = U ( t ) U ( t ) U ( t + ) U ( t + ) .

][

h; h;

dh dh dh dh
;
;
;
.
dx dx dy dy

,
,

86

, .
h2 , 2jx , 2jy . ,

h (, u , v ), x (, u , v ), y (, u , v ) ,
.
, ,
,

y
x

h ( , u , v ) = h ( ) h ( u , v ); jx ( , u , v ) = jx ( ) jx ( u , v );
jy ( , u , v ) = jy ( ) jy ( u , v ).
,

.


. ,
,
,

kQ
R ( ) = 2
2 z0

+D

G ( x, y ) G ( x, y ) cos cos exp[ ik( R


2

11

R11) +

2 () (u , v )exp {
jx ()jx (u , v ) + P
2 k 2h2 [cos
jy
jy
jy

2
jx

)]

2 h ( ) h ( u, v) c o s c o s ] } A e x p 2k 2 h2 c o2 s + c o2 s d x d xy dyd .
(2.15)

2 = ( 2k h ) 2 cos cos .

(2.15)

a). .

87

2 << 1 ,

e x( 2kp h ) h ( ) h ( u, v) c o c s o s 1 h ( ) h ( u, v) ( 2k h ) c o c s o . s

( R11 R11 ) + ( R22 R22 )


kQ
R ( ) = 2
2 z0

l h << z 0

(2.15) ,
( x, y ) ( x, y ) .

G ( x, y ) cos exp[ ik( R


4

11

( ) ( u , v )( 2k cos ) 2 exp 4k 2 2 cos


A
h
h
h
h
2

2 2 () (u , v ) dxdydudv
+P
jy
jy
jy

R22 ) ]
R11 ) + ik( R22
2

2 ( ) ( u ,
) + 2jx D
jx
jx

u = x x; v = y y
(2.16)
1.4,
, (2.16)
< 40 0 , .

kQ
R ( ) = h ( ) 2
2 z0

G ( x, y ) cos exp[ ik( R


4

11

R2
R11) + ik( R22

(u , v )( 2 k cos )2 exp 4k 22 cos


A
h
h
h

)
dxdydudv

= h () M 21 ,

M 21 - ,
(1.68).
,
,

R( )

R( 0)

= c ( ) = h ( ) .

2). .
2 >> 1 , (2.15)

88

h ( u , v ) h ( ) ,
u , v, ,
u , v, , .
( x, y ) ( x, y )
(. . 1.2),
2

kQ
2 2
2 2 1

R ( ) =
exp

2
2
r2
2

ik
z0

G ( x, y ) cos
4

ik

exp 1 +
2
z0

xz
ik
y z
2 2
2 x x +
u + 2 y y +
v 2 h ( ) 2 + 2 u 2
l
z0
z0
z0
x

hx

1 2 2 2 2
2
2
( ) 2 + 2 v A + D 2jx jx ( ) jx ( u, v ) + p 2jy jy ( ) jy ( u
lhy y


2
h

dxdydudv = R1 ( ) + R2 ( ) + R3 ( ).

(2.17)

1, (2.17),

R1 ( ) =

2 z0

2 h
+ 2 h ( )
x

2
2

Re

2 2 1 2 2

exp 2 + 2
5,5 + 2,6 2

r
2

2 h
2

+ 2 h ( )
2
y
5,5 + 2,6

k 2 2
2 2 h ( )
a =
+
;
5,5 + 2,6 2
2x


2

+

2
5,5 + 2,6

0, 5

b2 =

k 2 b 2 x 2 + a 2
exp
4 z02 a 2b 2

k 22
2 2 h ( )
+
5,5 + 2,62
2y

1.4. , x

89

y ,
2
2
2 1 Re
2

Q
2 h
2
2

R1 ( ) =
+ 2 h ( )

2
2

5,5 + 2,62
5,5 + 2,6
x 5,5 + 2,6
2 z0
2 h
+ 2 h ( )
y

0, 5

1
2 2
exp 2 2 2 + 2

(1.75),
R1 ( ) 0,4 2 ( )2
R2 ( ) + R3 ( ) =

1
1,62 + 5,5 1 Re

2
2
0,4 ( )

R ( ) = R1 ( ) 1 +
.(2.18)

1,62 + 5,5 1 Re

(2.18)

h ( )
= 0,
h ( ) = 1,

1 2
R ( )
= ( ) = exp 2 2 2 + 2
R( 0)

r

1,62 << 5,5

2
+ 5,5 1 Re

1,6 2 + 5,5 1 Re

(1,6

1 2 2
( ) = exp 2 2 2 + 2 .

r
,

+ 0,4 2 (

+ 0,4 2

90

,
I,
r ,
,

, 2 , ( ).
, r ,
. R ( )

a . a ,
R ( )
. ,
2 >> 1 , R ( )
h ( ) .

2.2.
, 2.
(1.89)

pl2 2,7 6

U 1 ( 0,0, z ) = ik Q

a
e
x
p

+
0
,
7
5
e
x
p
2
ik
z
c
o
s

on
0
l
0
l 1
2 2

z0 l


4k a
cos[ 0,5 pl ( x cos l + y sin l ) l t l ] .
(2.19)

A(0,0, z0 ),
B( x; y; z0 + z ). A B
A x ; y ; z0 + z

B x + x ; y + y ; z0 + z + z (. .2.3),


x cos l + y sin l ,

91

ikQ
U o1 x ; y ; z =
z0

pl2 2,7 6

al ex p 2 2 + 0,7 5 + 2ik( z0 + z )
4k a

z
cos l
1 2 z
cos {[ ( 0,5x + x ) cos l + 0,5y + y sin l ] pl l t l
0

(2.20)
2.2.1.

().

z = 0 ,

R x; ; y = U o1 ( 0;0; z0 ) U o1* x ; y ; z0

,
,
( ) ,
.
, ,
,
- .

R x ; y =

k 2Q 2
z02

1 pl1 / 2k

l2

l1

pl2 2,76

al11 exp 12 2 + 0,75 + i 2k ( z0 + z )


4k a

z
1
cos 0,5 pl1 x cos l1 + y sin l1 l1 t l11

z0

pl2 2,76

al 22 exp 22 2 + 0,75 i 2k ( z0 + z ) 1 pl2 / 2k

4k a

1 z cos ( 0,5x + x ) cos l 2 + 0,5y + y sin l2 pl 2 l 2 t l 22


0

92

l1 l2
,

cos l11 sin l 22 = 0, cos l11 cos l 22 = 0,

l1 = l2 = l

(2.21)
1 2 ,

1 = 2 = ,

cos l sin l = 0, cos l = 0,5 ,

(2.21)

al2 = 2 S h ( u l vl ) uv ,
2

R x; y

k 2Q 2
=
z02

u 2 + v2
S h ( u , v ) exp
2k 2

2,76

2 + 0,75 cos xu + y v

. (2.22)

( a > 2 ) u + v < k
,

k 2Q 2
R x ; y =
S h ( u , v ) cos xu + y v dudv .
z02


,
.

( x ; ; y ) =

R x; ; y
R( 0,0)

= h x ; ; y ,

,

()
.
u 2 + v 2 2,76

2 + 0,75
exp
2

2k
a


, .

93

( x, y ) .

x = y = 0 .

R( z )

k 2Q 2
= 2
z0

al2

ul2 + vl2
exp
2k 2

2,76

z
2 + 0,75 i 2k z cos l 1

2
z
0

.
(2.23)
,
l
cp ,
c .

z
.
Re[ R ( z ) / R ( 0) ] cos 2k z cos c 1
2 z0

, 1- 2-
,



z
.

2
z

cos c 1

2 z0

z ( z / z0 >> 1 ).

,

R( ) = U 1 ( 0,0, z0 , t ) U 1* ( 0,0, z0 , t + ) =
k 2Q 2
z02

l1

pl2 2,76

al11 exp 12 2 + 0,75


4k a

94

pl
exp i 2kz0 1 1

2k

x
z
y
1
cos
cos 1 +
sin 1 pl1 l1 t l 1

2 z0
2
2

z
1

2 z0
l2 2

cos
cos 2 +
sin 2 pl 2 l 2 ( t + ) l 2 2 .
2


,

l1 = l2 = l ; 1 = 2 = , ..

p 2

pl
l 2,76
al 2 2 exp 12 2 + 0,75 i 2kz0 1 1
4k a
2k

k 2Q 2
R( ) =
2 z02

al

ul2 + ul2
exp
2k 2

2,76

2 + 0,75 cos( l )

.
(2.24)
(2.24) ,

al

= S ( l , )

ul2 + vl2 = pl2 = l2 g 2 ,

R ( ) =

k 2Q 2
z02

4
S ( ) exp 2 2
2k g

2,76

2 + 0,75 cos( )d .

(2.25)

4 2,76
K ( ) = exp 2 2 2 + 0,75

2k g a
1,
, (2.25)
,

95

R( ) =

k 2Q 2
Rh ( ),
z02

Rh () - .

() K ( ) , K ( p )
( p )
.

96
( ),
( p)

a =

0 ,8

a =

0 ,7

a =

0 ,6

2
2
3

0 ,5

=10

0 ,4
0 ,3
0 ,2
0 ,1
10

20

30

40

0 ,6 2 8

0 ,3 1 9

0 ,2 1

0 ,1 6

0 ,1 2 6

2 ,5

1 ,7 7

1 ,4 3

1 ,2 4

1 ,1 1

40

50

( )
0 ,9

50

a =

0 ,8

a =

0 ,7

a =

0 ,6

2
2
3

=5

0 ,5
0 ,4
0 ,3
0 ,2
0 ,1
0

10

20

30

2.4

97

.2.4. K ( ) , K ( p ) , K ()

a .
,
K ( ) ,

()

.


4 2,76

K ( ) = exp 2 2 2 + 0,75 .

4k g a

a .

-

( x, y ) .
2.2.2.
.

(1.13)
(1.14) . ()

Q c o s p2 2,7 6
l
E1 = s (2ik 0n) z 2k l ea x 2 p 2 + 0,7 5
2z0 l 4k a

98

x
sin
y
z

cos
pl cos +
pl sin l t l cos
2kz0 cos l 1
2
2 z0

.
(2.26)

E1 =

Q
cos( 2kz 0 )
2 z0

Q
sin( 2kz 0 ) ,
2 z0

E2 =

Q2
R1 ( ) = E1 (t ) E1 E1 (t + ) E1 =
2
2
2 2
2
4 z0
2

2ka
l1

l1 1

pl2 2,76
exp 12 2
4k a

pl
x
sin
y
z

cos
pl1 cos 1 +
pl1 sin 1 l1 t l11 cos
2kz0 1 1 1
2
2k
2 z0

2ka
l2

l 2 2

pl2 2,76
x
y

exp 22 2 + 0,75 cos


pl 2 cos 2 +
pl 2 sin 2
2

4k a
2
sin 2kz 1 pl 2 1 z ;
cos
0
2k
2 z0

.
l1 l2
1 2
,

cos l11 sin l 22 = 0;


cos l11 cos l 22 = 0 , l1 = l2 = l

1 = 2 = ,

cos l11 sin l 22 = 0;

cos l11 cos l 22 = 0,5 ,

, R1 ( ) R2 ( )

R1 ( ) =
2

Q 2k 2
z0

4 2,7 6

S h ( ) Sh ( ) e x p 2 2 2 + 0,7 5 co s

2k g a
0

99

2
2
sin 2 2kz 0 1
cos
2kg

2 2

Qk
z0

z
1
dd =
2 z0

4
2 2
2k g

Sh ( ) cos exp

2
sin 2 2kz 1
2
0
2kg
cos

2,76

2 + 0,75

z
1
d .
2 z0

(2.27)
, (2.27),

4
S 1( ) = S h ( ) exp
2 2
2
2k g

cos 2
2
2,76

2kz 1
2 + 0,75
0

2kg
a
sin 2

= S h ( ) L( k , z0 , a , , z ) .

z
z 0 . ,

z0 =1000 ; =10 , a = , 0,8 < < 2,5,


2
10

< < 100 , L

( 9
). z 0
.
[38] ,
(2.27)

z
1

2 z0

100

R( ) = R1 ( ) + R2 ( ) =

Q2k 2
2 z0

pl2 2,7 6

al e x p 2 2 + 0,7 5
2k a

2

2
2

z
pl
z
2
pl

2
+ cos 2kz0 1 1
cos l
sin 2kz0 1 1

2 z0
2 z0
2k
2k

.
(2.28)

al
2

= Sh ( l , ) , (2.28) (2.25).

,
-
x , y , z Ox , Oy , Oz ,
[39]

E1 ( x , y , z ) =
2

Q
z

c o s 2k z0 + z
2 z0
2

2k a
l

e x p[ Nl ] csin
o s(

x
sin

cos pl
+ x cos + pl
+ y sin l t l cos
2kz0 cos l 1

p
Fl = 2k ( z0 + z ) 1 l
2k
2

p
Nl = l 2
4k

z
1
;

2 z0

2,76

2 + 0,75 .

, x y,

E1 ( x , y , z ) =
2

Q cos
z

2k z0
+ z .
sin
2 z0
2

(2.29)

101

, (
z =0)

R1 ( ) =
2

k 2Q 2
2 z0

exp[ 2 N l ] sin 2 ( Fl ) cos pl x cos + pl y sin


cos

,
2
z

p
1 1 l .
Fl = 2k z0 +
2

2k

(2.28)

R( x , y ) = R1 x , y + R2 ( x , y ) =

Q 2k 2
2 z0

exp ( 2 N l ) cos l x cos + l y sin .

,
[39]

R( x , y ) =

Q 2k 2
2
z0

u 2 + v2
S h ( u , v ) exp
2k 2

2,76

2 + 0,75 cos xu + y v

, (2.28) x = y = 0
, z
.

R ( z ) =

Q2
0,5cos[ 2k ( 2 z0 z + z ) ] + 0,5cos( 2k z )
2
4 z0
2ka exp ( N ) sin ( F ) cos (T t )


z
2 cos 2k z0

2ka exp ( N ) sin ( F ) cos (T t ) +

2 cos 2k z0
+ z
2

102

+ 2k

2k 2

al2

z
l

cos 2 (Tl l t )
exp( 2 N l ) cos 2k z 1 1

2 z0
2k

z 2

cos ( Tl l t )
al2 exp( 2 N l ) cos 2k ( 2 z0 + z + z ) 1 l 1
2 z0

2k

(2.30)

(2.30), z ,

R1 ( z )

Q2
= 2
2 z0

2
cos( 2k z ) + 4k

a
l

2
l

exp( 2 Nl )

z

cos2 (Tl l t ) ,
cos 2k z 1 l 1

2 z0
2k

x
y
pl cos +
pl sin l .
(2.31)
2
2
,
(2.31).

Tl =

2
z = 0 ( l 2k ) < < 1 ,

1, 2 ( z ) =

R1, 2 ( z )
R1, 2 ( 0 )

= cos( 2k z ).

, 1, 2 ( z )

Oz
.
2.2.3.
.
(

103

) [39]

A( t ) =

E12 + E22

z
Q
= 1 + 4k al s i2kn z0 + 2k 0 cz ol s
2z0 l 2z

p 2 2,76
x

z
y

exp l 2 2 + 0,75 cos


1
p
cos

+
pl sin l t
l

2 z0
2
4k a
pl2 2,76
x
y
2
+ 4k
al1 1 exp 12 2 + 0,75 cos
pl1 cos 1 +
pl sin 1
2 1
4k a
l1 1
2
pl2 2,76

z
2

sin 2kz0 cos l1 1


a
exp

+
0
,
75

l
2
2

2 z0 l 2 2 2 2

4k a

y
z

+
cos
cos 2 +
sin 2 pl 2 l 2 t l 2 2 sin 2kz 0 cos l 1
2
2 z0

pl2 2,76

z

+ 4k
al11 exp 12 2 + 0,75 cos 2kz0 cos l1 1
2 z0

4k a
l1 1


pl2 2,7
x

cos
pl1 cos 1 +
pl1 sin 1 l1 t l1 1
al 2 2 exp 22 2
2
2

l2 2
4k a
2

y
z

cos
cos 2 +
sin 2 pl 2 l 2 t l 22 cos 2kz 0 cos l 2
1

2
2 z0

.
(2.32)
,
(2.32)

104

z p2
Q
A(t) 1 + 2k al s 2i knz0 1 1 l2
2 z0 l 2 z 4k

p 2 2,76
x

y

exp l 2 2 + 0,75 cos


pl cos +
pl sin l t l
2


2
4k a
.

(2.33)

(2.32),

Q
A=
2 z0

2
1 + k

pl2 2,76

al exp 2 2 + 0,75 . (2.34)

2k a
2


,
2
al
Q
2
mA = A =
1 + 2k
.
2 z0
2
l

Q
Q
2
mA =
S 2 ( p, ) dpd =
1 + 2k 2 h2 .
1 + 2k
2 z0
2
z
0

(2.35)

(2.35), (2.37)

][

RA ( ) = A(t ) A A(t + ) A

105

Q2

4 z02

2
4k

al

exp( 2 N l ) sin ( Fl ) cos + 2k


2

cos l
4

(2.36)

al

z
4 2,76

exp
2 + 0,75 .
L = sin 2k z0
1 1
2
2

z
2kg


2k g a

(2.36) ,
,
1 = 2 = l1 = l2 = l .
,
2

h
0,05 ),

(2.36) .
,

Q 2k 2
RA ( ) =
S h ( ) L cos d ,
(2.37)
z02 0

(2.37), 2

(2.25).
,
S h ( ) , L
,

DA = RA ( 0 )

Q 2 k 2 h2
,
z02 2

(2.38)


(2.29), (2.32)
t = 0; z = 0

106

1 + 4 k

Q
2 z0

A x, y =

( 1 co s l )
al sin 2k z0 1
2 z0

exp( N l ) cos pl
+ x cos + pl
+ y sin l +

+ 4k 2

l1

l1

exp N l1 cos pl1


+ x cos 1 + pl1
+ y sin 1

z
sin 2k z0
cos l1
2

l2

l2

z
exp N l 2 sin 2k z0
cos l 2
2

cos pl 2
+ x cos 2 + pl 2
+ y sin 2 l 2 2 +

+ 4k 2

l1

exp N l1 cos pl1


+ x cos 1 + pl1
+ y sin 1

z
cos 2k z0
cos l1
z

l2

l2

exp N l 2

cos pl 2
+ x cos 2 + pl 2
+ y sin 2 l 2 2

0 ,5

z
cos 2k z0
cos l 2 . (2.39)
2

x
y

m A = A x , y =

Q
2
1 + k
2 z0

exp ( N l ) .

Q
2
mA = A x , y =
S h ( u , v ) exp ( N ) dudv .
1 + 2k
2 z0

0
S (u , v )

107
exp ( N ) = 1 ,

mA =

(2.35).

) [

Q
1 + 2k 2 h2 ,
2 z0

][ (

)]

RA x , y = A( x, y ) A( x, y ) A x + x , y + y A x + x , y + y =
= 4k 4 h4 8k 4 h2

+ 4k 2

al
2

exp ( 2 N l ) + 4k 4

al4
4

exp ( 4 Nl ) +

S ( u , v ) exp ( 2 N ) sin 2 ( F ) cos xu + y v dudv + 2k 4

0 0

. (2.40)
(2.40) ,
l1 = l2 = l ; 1 = 2 = .

x y.
(2.40) exp( 2 Nl ) 1 exp( 4 N l ) 1 ,
, h / x << 1 , [189]

RA x , y =

Q 2k 2
z02

S ( u, v ) sin [ F ( u, v ) ] cos ( u + v )dudv


h

0 0

F ( u , v ) = 2k z0

z
u 2 + v2
1 1
2
4k 2

(2.41)

2.2.4. ()

E1
E 2 [39]

(t ) = arctg

E2 ( t )
.
E1 ( t )

I 2, (2.26)

al4
4

cos

108


( t ) = a r c t g s i (n2k 0z k z ) 2k

l

a e x( p N )

cos (Tl l t ) cos ( 2kz 0 kz Fl )


2k

] [ cos ( 2kz

a exp ( N ) cos (T t ) sin [(2kz

kz )

kz ) Fl ].


E
0 = arctg 1 = arctg [ tg ( 2kz 0 kz ) ] = 2kz 0 + kz.
E2

2 , ,
[39]

tg[ ( t ) ] + tg( 0 )

( t ) tg ( t ) = tg[ ( t ) 0 ] =
=
1 tg[ ( t ) ] tg( 0 )

E2 cos( 2kz0 k z ) + E1 sin( 2kz0 k z )
=
E1 cos( 2kz0 k z ) E2 sin( 2kz0 k z )

= 2k cos

2k sin

(2kz 0

a exp (N ) cos (T t ) cos (2kz

k
z)

k
z

(2kz 0

a exp (N ) cos (T t ) sin (2kz

k
z)

k
z Fl )

2k cos ( 2kz 0 kz )

a exp ( N ) cos (T t ) sin ( 2kz

kz Fl )

+2 k sin

(2kz 0

a exp (N ) cos (T t ) cos (2 kz

k
z)

k
z Fl )

(2.42)
2
(2.42) ,

( t ) 2k al exp ( N l ) cos (Tl l t ) cos ( Fl ) 4k 2 al11

l1

109

) (

( )a

exp N l1 l cos Tl11 l1 t cos Fl1

l2

l2

exp N l 2 cos Tl 22 l 2 t

, l1 = l2 = l
1 = 2 = ,

R ( ) = ( t ) ( t + ) = 4k 2

+ 8k 3

) [

) [

exp ( 3 N l ) cos 2 Tl l t cos Tl l ( t + ) cos 2 ( Fl ) sin ( Fl

3
l

exp ( 3 N l ) cos Tl l t cos 2 Tl l ( t + ) cos 2 ( Fl ) sin ( Fl

16 k 4

exp ( 2 N l ) cos Tl l t cos Tl l ( t

+ 8k 3

exp ( 4 N l ) cos 2 Tl l t cos 2 Tl l ( t + ) cos 2 ( Fl ) sin

(2.43)
,
. (2.43)
, [39]
R ( ) = 4k 2

S ( ) S ( ) exp ( 2 N ) cos ( F ) cos dd


h

2k 4

S ( ) S ( ) S ( ) S ( ) exp ( 4 N )dddd
h

0 0
4

k
2

S ( ) S ( ) S ( ) S ( ) exp ( 3N ) cos ( 2) dddd .


h

0 0

, h / ,

4 2,7 6

R ( ) 4k Sh ( ) ex p 2 2 2 + 0,7 5

2k g a
0
2

2
cos ( 2kz 0 kz ) 1 1

2kg

(2.44)

2

cos d 2k 4 h4 .

110

(2.44),
.

4 2,76
S ( ) = S h ( ) exp 2 2 2 + 0,75
2k g a

2
cos ( 2kz 0 kz ) 1 1

2kg

2

.

4 2,76

1,
+
0
,
75
, exp
2 2
2

2k g a


S ( ) ,
D = R ( ) = 2k 2 h2 - 2k 4 h4 .
(2.45)
,
(2.42), t = 0 z = 0 ,
2k
al exp ( N l ) cos Tl cos ( Fl )

( x , y

( )

)=
,
1 2k a exp ( N ) cos (T ) sin ( F )

(2.46)

Tl = pl
+ x cos + pl
+ y sin .
2
2

R x , y = ( x, y ) x + x , y + y ,

(2.47)

y.

(2.46)
l1 = l2 = l 1 = 2 = ,

111

R x , y 2k 2

exp ( 2 N l ) cos 2 ( Fl ) cos xul + y vl

16 k 4

( ) ( )

a 2 l exp ( 2 N l ) cos ( Fl ) sin ( Fl ) cos Tl sin Tl

.
,

R x , y 4k 2

S ( u, v ) exp [ 2 N ( u , v )] cos [ F ( u, v )] cos ( u + v )


2

2k 4

S (u, v ) S (u, v) exp [ 2 N (u, v )] exp [ 2 N (u, v)]dudvd


h

ud

k
2

S ( u, v ) S ( u, v) exp [ 2 N ( u, v )] exp [ 2 N ( u, v)]


h

cos 2xu + 2 y v dudvd udv .

(2.48)

2
, exp ( 4 N ) = 1 ,

R x , y 4k 2

S ( u, v ) cos [ F ( u, v )] cos ( u + v )dudv


h

.
(2.49)
(2.49) -
.
2.3
,
, 3.
.2.3.
h(x,y)
: h >0,25,

< 1,

2k 4h4

112

< 1,

lh >> .

( x, y )

. ,


, a
.

= 0 .
,
,
(1.51). 0 80 0 , (1.51)
.
( >> 1)
(1.51)

M ( E ) = 0 .

( A, A B, B - ) (1.58),
[40]
2

R( A, A ) = U ( A) M U ( A) U ( A ) M U ( A ) = k Q c o s 0
2 z 2
0

]} {

]}

ik( R R + R R ) 4k 2 2 cos2
G
(
x
,
y
)
dxdy
exp
h

11 11 22 22
4

2
A
2 2 + P
2 2 +B
2 2
+D

x
x
y
y

dxdy = I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4

(2.50)

113

, , 0 = 0 .
(2.50) I1 + I 2 + I 3
(2.10) (2.11)
2
2
2
2 = cos 2 ;
A
D + P = sin 2 0 (1 cos 0 ) ,
0
3
2
4

2
2
k

x x c o s 0 s in 0

I1 + I 2 + I 3 = I1 3 (0,0) e x p i 2k z c o s 0 i

a 2 + 1 1 x c o s4 0

2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2

2 2 k x a cos 0
2 2k y a cos 0
exp x 2
y 2

2
2
4
2

+
11

cos

+
11

cos

a
x
0
a
y
0

5,5x cos4 0
2

z0 ( a + 11 x cos4 0 )

x2

,
cos2 0

5,5y cos2 0
2

z 0 a + 11 y

(2.51)
2

1
2
y 2 = 2 h 2 2 +
,
2
lhy

2
2
2
2
cos 0 + sin 0 (1 + cos 0 )
3

2
2
2
2
4
( a + 11 x cos 0 )( a + 11 y cos 2 0 )

2 2
2 1
= 2 h 2 + 2 ,
l
x
hx

Q cos 0 a
I 1 3 (0,0) =
2z0

5,5 sin2 0 cos2 0

exp 2
+ 11 2 cos4 .
x
0
a

a 2 << 11 y 2 cos 2 0 ,

a < < 11 x 2 cos4 0 ,

114

2
2
1 + tg 2 0 2 (1 cos 0 )
tg 2 0
Q a
3

cos 0
I1 3 (0,0) =
exp

2 2
2
z
11

0
x
y

I 4

= k 2 cos

u2 + v2
2

cos( p u + p v ) ,

exp
ji
xji
yji

l
i =1 j =1

pxji = pj cos i ,
pyji = pj sin i ;
pj = 2 j

j -
; j - j -
.
x1 = x x0 , x x = u ,
y y = v , , .2.3,
[40]

k Qc o 2s 0 2 4
ik 2
2
2

I 4 =
k
c
o
s

e
x
p
0
x + y + z + x x + y y + 2 z0
2
R0
2 z0

N
2k

exp i ( x x0 + x x1 + y y ) d x1dy
R0

i=1


j =1

ji

u 2 + v2

ex p
2

ik 2
x

2
2
exp x u 2 y v 2 +
u + v 2 2u
+ x x1 x0

R0
2

2v
+ y y dudv , (2.52)
2

x2 = 2k 2 cos2 0 x 2 ;

ji 2 = S ( pj , i ) p ;
.

y 2 = 2k 2 cos2 0 y 2 ;
S ( pj , i )

115

, x

, ji = S ( pj , j )p , (2.52)

2

k 2Q c o s4 0 a 2 e x p2(ik z c o s 0 2ik x s in 0 )

I4 =

2 z 2
5
,
5

c
o
s

0
x y
0

k 2 x 2 a 2 k 2 y 2 a 2 x x y y N N
ex p

2 2 2 2
S ( p j , j )
5,5 c o s2

5
,
5
2
z

2
z

0
0 x
0 y j=1 i=1

k2

exp 2
x

p
sin 0 j
2k

+ sin 0 j (1 cos i ) p .
k

S ( p , ) = S ( p ) S ( ) = 0

Q
I 4 = a
2 z0

2k 2 c o s5 0 0
5,5 s in 0

i + ,

2
2
2

e x p2(ik z c o s 0 2ik x s in 0 )

k 2 a 2 x 2
x x y y
2

ex p
+

2 2.
y
2
2 2

5
,
5
cos

2
z

2 z0 y
0
0 x

(2.50)

116

k 2 2 2
Q 2

x
y
2
R ( x , y , z ) = e x p a 2x + y x2 2 2 2 a
2z 2z 2z
5,5 c o s 0
0
0 x
0 y

2
2
2

tg 2 0 1 + tg 0 (1 3 cos 0 )

cos 0 exp
+
2 2
11

y x
x

2
2 k 3 cos 5 0 0
exp ( 2ik z cos 0 2ik x sin 0 ) ;
5,5 sin 0

R ( x , y , z )
R e ( x , y , z ) = R e
= cos(2k z cos 0 2k x sin 0 )
(0,0,0)
R

k 2 2 2
x x y y
2
a
x

ex p
+

2 2 . (2.53)
y
2
2 2
2
z

2 z0 y
5,5 cos 0
0 x


,

( x , y ) = cos ( p x )

k 2 a 2 x 2
xx y y
2

exp
+

2 2 .
y
2
2 2
2
z

2 z0 y
5,5 cos 0
0
x

, 1-
, ,
, a 0 ,
x , y ,

.
x, y ,
,
z 0 x , x
, y . x , y

117

.
p = 2k sin 0 ,
.

R (0,0,0) .
, x = y = 0 ,

Re[ (0,0, z )] = cos(2k z cos 0 ) .

,

0
.
2.3.1.
, ,
3.

h,

h h
,
,
x y

, , ,
, .
3 - ,
< 80 0 ,

U (t ) =

kQ
2 z 0

( x, y ) cos 2 exp [ ik ( R11 + R22 )

h
h
dxdy .
i 2kh ( x, y , t ) cos ]
A + D x + P y + B

, >> 1 , M U = 0 .
, ,
2.1

118

kQ
R ( ) =
2 z 2
0

( x, y )G 2 ( x, y ) cos 2 cos 2

expik ( R11 R11 ) + ik ( R22 R22 )

{ [

2 2 2 2
x 2k p h c o + cs o s2 h( ) h(u, v) c

]}

oc s o s

2 +D
2 2 () (u , v ) + P
2 2 () (u , v ) +
A
x
x
x
y
y
y

+B

2 () (u , v )
dxdyd xdy .

(2.54)
(2.54) ,
( x, y ) ( x, y ) ,
t t .
h (u , v, ) u , v, .
, u , v,
,
,
.2.3, = = 0 ,
2

2 2 1 4 2 4
k Q c o s2 0
e x p +

R( ) =
G ( x, y )
2 z 2
r 2 T 2

ik
ik
ik
exp
(u 2 + v 2 ) +
(2 x1 + 2 x0 x)u +
(2 y y )v
R0
R0
R0

1 2 2 2
1 2 2 2
2

h ( ) 2 + 2 u h ( ) 2 + 2 v
l

lhy y
hx x

2 +D
2 2 () (u , v ) + P
2 2 () (u , v ) +
A
x
x
x
y
y
y

119
2 2 () (u , v ) dx dydudv
+B

= R1 () + R2 () + R3 () + R4 ()

, (2.55)
x1 = x x0 : r
u = x x ; v = y y ;

; T

.
(2.55) R1 ( ) + R2 ( ) + R3 ( )
(2.18). (2.55)

.

k 2Q c o s2 0 2 1 4 2 4
ex p +

R4 ( ) =
G ( x, y )
2 R 2 r 2 T 2
0

ik
ik
ik
exp
(u 2 + v 2 ) +
(2 x1 + 2 x0 x )u +
(2 y y )v
R
R
R
0
0
0

1 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 2
2
h ( ) 2 + 2 u h ( ) 2 + 2 v ( )
l

lhy y
hx x

u 2 + v2
S (ui , v j ) exp
l 2
j =1

i =1

cos( pi cos j u + pi sin j v) p dx 1dydudv .

,
,

Q
R4 ( ) = a
2 z0

2k 3 cos5 0 0 0 ( )
5,5 sin 0
,

2 2
2 1
exp 2 2 + 2
r
T

120

0 ( ) = cos g 2k sin 0


p 0 = 2k sin 0 ; g .

0 > 40 ,
,
, ,

2 2
2 2 1

( ) = cos( p 0 ) exp 2 + 2 .
T

(2.56)

, ,
, 3, ,

40 < 0 < 80 ,

, ,
0 . 0
.
4 2
p =
r

2
gT

.
2.4.

.
2.4.1.
, ,
I.

V Ox ,
,
2.1,

x = V cos , y = V sin ,

121

.

.
)

< <1 .


,

0 = 0.

V 2 cos2 V 2 sin 2

cos p x V cos + x sin =


( ) = exp 2 2
+
2

y
l hx
l hy

2 2

= exp 2 2 ( cos 2 + 2 sin 2 ) cos x ( cos + sin )


2k

4k l hx

x lhx

=
y lhy

(2.57)

g = 2kV .

,
V
x .
.
.

lhx .


.
Ox ( = 0, )

122

( ) =0 ,

2 g 2 px
2

= exp 2 2 cos g = exp 2 cos( x )


4k l 2k

hx
rx

2klhx l hx
= ;
rx =
g V

p 2V
x = g x =
.
2k
x

= ; ( ) = = exp 2 cos( y ) ,
r
2
2
y
ry =

lhy
V

, y =

(2.58)

(2.59)

2V
.
y



, V . ,

,
.
( = 1) ,

2 g
V
cos 2
( ) = exp
2 2

4k l h
.

) >> 1 .
2

, 0
, xOz ,
(2.12)

2 k 2 a 2 V 2
( ) = cos( 2k V cos sin 0 ) exp

5,5

123

cos 2
V

+ sin 2 0 2
2
cos 0
2 z0

x cos y cos

+
2
2
y
x


( x, y ) ,
V x, y .
x
,

a 2 g 2 2

(1 + 0,5 cos 2 sin 2 0 )


( ) = cos( g cos sin 0 ) exp
22

I
30 0 ,

a 2 g 2 2
.
( ) = cos( g cos sin 0 ) exp

22

(2.60)

<< 1) ,

>> 1 ,

.
,
.

T =
=
.
2Vr
2V cos sin 0
a V .
)

0 = 0 .

>> 1 , ,

)]

( ) exp 2 x2 cos2 + 2 sin 2 .

(2.61)

124

, ,
x ,

V .


.
2.4.2.
( I).

[41].

S c ( ) =

2
R( ) cos d .
0

(2.62)

) << 1 , , 0 = 0 .
2

(2.57), (2.62) lh > ,


S CH ( ) =

S C ( )
l hx
=

R (0) 2V ( cos 2 + 2 sin 2 )

2


2V
( cos + sin )

x


exp
.
2
4V
2
2
2

( cos + sin )
2

lhx

(2.63)

2V
( cos + sin ) .
x

125

V
lhx

( cos
2

+ 2 sin 2 ) .


, ,V , l hx , x .2.5. V

.
.
,
, .
lhx . lhx

.
x
. = 1
.


. ,
,
,

.
) ( >> 1) , ,
xOz
2

0 .

(2.62) (2.60),

a 2 2 2
2
S C ( ) = exp
0
22

cos 2

+ sin 2 cos
2
cos 0

cos 0
5,5
cos( cos sin 0 )d =

2
a cos + sin 2 cos 2 0

126

5,5( + cos sin 0 ) 2


5,5( cos sin 0 ) 2
exp
+
exp

2
2
2
2

a
a

0.3

(2.64)

0.3

0.2
S1 (
)
S2 (
)
0.1

0.3

0
0

6.28

12.57

18.85
25.13
31.42
37.7

12 .

0.3

0.2
S1 (
)
S2 (
)
0.1

0
0

6.28

12.57

18.85
25.13
31.42
37.7

12 .

127

0.3

0.3

0.2
S1 (
)
S2 (
)
0.1

0
0

6.28

12.57

18.85
25.13
31.42
37.7

12 .

. 2.5

0 ,
3 cos sin 0 > a , (2.64)
.


2
(2.64). ,

2V
2V
cos sin 0 = r .

0 V .
)

0 = 0 .

S CH ( ) = x ( cos + sin
2

( >> 1) , ,
2

)]

2
exp

2
2
2
2
2
4 x ( cos + sin )

128

.

V x .
= 0
.
.
. = 1

. 0 = 0 ,
.

S CH ( ) =

5,5 2
22
exp 2 2 .
a
a

2.4.3
,
, 2.
,
,

V 50 ,
Ox ,

[42]

pl 2 2,76

ikQ N N
z
1


U =
al exp 2 2 + 0,75 + i 2kz0 cos l 1

z 0 l =1 =1
2 z0

4k a
p

cosV t pl cos( ) + l [ x cos( ) + y sin ( ) ] l


2

[42]

]}

1 *
1 *
R( ) = {U 1 (t ) M [U 1 (t )]} U
(t + ) M U
(t + ) =

kQ
2
z0

0,5a
l =1 =1

exp( 2 N l ) cos V pl cos( ) , (2.65)

129
2

pl 2,76
N l = 2 2 + 0,75 .
4k a

(2.65) ,
, ,

l1 = l2 = l 1 = 2 = .
,
S h ( p, ) ,

k 2Q 2
R ( ) =
2
z0

S
0

( p, ) exp(2 N ) cos[V p cos( ) ] dpd .

(2.66)
exp ( 2 N ) = 1 , (2.66)


.

( x, y ) .

(
).
,
.
[43]

E1 =

Q
1 2kal exp( N l ) cos V tpl cos( ) + l t + l +
2 z0
l

+ 0,5 pl [ x cos( ) + y sin( )]}sin 2kz 0 (1 cos l ) 1


2 z 0

E2 =

Q
1 2kal exp( N l ) cos V tpl cos( ) + l t + l +
2 z0
l

130

+ 0,5 pl [ x cos( ) + y sin( )]} cos 2kz0 (1 cos l ) l 1


2 z 0

.(2.67)

,
(V 50 ) , (2.67)

l t << V tpl cos( )


[39]
2

z
p
2

0
,
5
S
(
p
,

)
sin
2
kz
1

1
0
0 h
2k 2 z 0

exp(2 N ) cos[V p cos( ) ] dpd ,

Qk

R1 ( ) =
z0

z
p
2

0
,
5
S
(
p
,

)
cos
2
kz

2
kz
1

1
0
0
0 h
2k 2 z 0

exp(2 N ) cos[V p cos( ) ] dpd .


(2.68)

Qk

R2 ( ) =
z0

(2.68) ,
,
2 z 0 k . ,

2
Qk
S h ( p, ) exp(2 N ) cos[V p cos( ) ]dpd
R1 ( ) + R2 ( ) =
z 0 0
. (2.69)

,
(2.66),
[74].
2.4.4. ,
( 2).

131



(2.32)

A(t )

Q
z

1 + 2k al sin 2k z 0 (1 cos l ) exp(2 N l )


2 z0
l

cos 0,5 pl [ x cos( ) + y sin( )] l t l + V t pl cos( )

.
, [39],
2

Qk
S h ( p, ) exp(2 N ) sin 2 F
R A ( ) =
z 0 0
cos[Vp cos( ) ] dpd ,
(2.70)

z
p 2

F
=
2
k
z

.
2
4k 2

(2.70) , (),

2 z 0 k .
,
, [189]

( t ) = ( t ) M [( t ) ] 2k al exp ( N l ) cos Fl cos {V t pl cos (

+ 0,5 pl x cos ( ) + y sin ( ) } 4k 2

l1

l1

exp N l11 cos F

cos{0,5 pl [ x cos( ) + y sin( )] l l + V tpl cos( )

al exp( N l ) sin( Fl ) cos{0,5 pl [ x cos( ) + y sin( )]


1

l2

2 2

l t l + V t pl cos ( ) .
2

2 2

1 1

1 1

(2.71)

, (2.44)

132

R ( ) = 4k 2 S h ( p, ) exp( 2 N ) cos 2 F cos [V p cos( ) ] dpd 2k 4 h


0

(2.72)
2 z0 k .
2.4.5.
,
( 2).
(2.66),

() [44]
2

kQ
2
S KA ( ) = R( ) cos( )d = S h ( p, )
0
z 0 0
exp( 2 N ) [ V p cos( ) ] dpd . (2.73)

2.2.1, exp(2 N )

,
. (2.73)

kQ

d
S h
S KA ( ) =
,
, (2.74)
z 0 V cos( ) V cos( )
= pV cos( ) .


Ox ,

p = p cos( ) ,

p,

p .

133

(
) ,
.
S h ( p )
S h ( p, )
.

p
d
S h ( p ) = S h
,
.

cos( ) cos( )

p ,

(2.75)

(2.75) p = V (2.74)
. ,
,
,

p = V .
, (2.69)
exp(2 N ) = 1

d
,

2
V cos ( )
V cos ( )

2 (2 z 0 z )

k 2Q 2

S
,

cos

2 h
2
2
2 z0 V cos( )
4kV cos( ) V cos( )
.
(2.76)
S1

( )

k 2Q 2
2 z 02

(2.76) ,


. (2.76),

- [45]
S h ( ) = 0,0162 g 2 5 exp( 0,74 g 4V4 4 ) ,

134

Sh ( ) =

1
cos 2 .

S h ( p) S h ( ) = S h [ ( p) ]

{ p, }

0,74 g 2
g
0,0081
4 2
S h ( ) =
exp
4p
p3
V p

cos 2

,
V -
(/).
(2.76)

B
0,004Q 2 k 2
B 1 + cos 2 B

S 1 ( p V ) =
exp

I 0 2 I1 2
2
3
2

1
z 0V p
2
2
2 p
2 p
2 p

2 p2 cos 2

1 +

B (1 + cos 2 )

(2.77)

- B = o,74 g V .
(2.76),
,

,
2

B co
A
[
(
S1 ( p V ) = S1 ( ) =
1 + c o s2 ) ( 1 + c o s( 2 2 ) ) ] e x p
2
2
2


z
z

2
ip2 z 0
ip z o 2

+ exp

d .
exp
r + r cos( 2 2 )
k + k cos( 2 2 )



(2.78)

135

A =

0.0081Q 2 k 2
B
exp
2
3
2
8z 0 V p
2 p


, .
B 2 + 2 cos 2
p2 ( z 0 0,5z )

exp

cos
+

p2

+ z 02 p4
2k
4
z0

2

. (2.79)


S1

(p

V ) =

S1

S1

0,004Q 2 k 2

B
4
p 2 ( z 0,5z )
cos 0
+ exp 2
+ p z 0
2k
2

2 p

B
I 0 2
2 p

B
I 1 2

2 p

2 cos 2 p2
1 +
.
1 + cos 2 B

= 2 . .2.6 2.17


(2.77) ,
z 0

[44].

z 0 > 1000 h / < 0,06


30%

[43,46,47,48]

136

(
10%).

:
,
, ,

.

. 2.6

137

. 2.7

. 2.8

138

. 2.9

. 2.10

139

. 2.11

. 2.12

140

. 2.13

. 2.14

141

. 2.15

. 2.16

142

. 2.17
,
- ,


p .

[254].
2.4.6.
,
( 2).
(2.73), (2.70)

exp(2 N ) = 1 ,
S A ( ) =

k 2Q 2

d
S
,

2 h
2 z 0 V cos( ) V cos( )

143

2 (2 z0 z )
k 2Q 2

S
, cos
2 h
2
2
2 z 0 V cos( ) 4kV cos( ) V cos( )
.
(2.80)
z
p
k
>
>
1

<
0
,
06 ,
, (2.76), 0
h
. ,

.
,

p .
.

(2.70) (2.72)

d
S ( ) = 2 k 2 S h
,
2k 4 h4 +

V cos( ) V cos( )

2 (2 z 0 z )

d
+ 2k 2 S h
, cos
2

4kV cos( ) V cos( )


V cos( )

(2.81)
, (2.76), (2.80) ,

d
4
S ( ) = 2 k 2 S h
,
2k 4 h .

V cos( ) V cos( )

(2.80), ,

, ,

.
,
z 0 p 2 k >> 1, (2.76), (2.80), (2.81)
p .

, ,

144

4 z02 S A ( )

d
2
(
)
+
S

=
4
k
Sh
,
2k 4

2
Q
V cos ( ) V cos ( )

.
,
h << 1 ,
,
4 z02 S A ( )
+ S ( ) = 4k 2 S h ( p) ,
Q2

S h ( p )


; p = V .
, ,
S A ( ) ,
m A = 2 z 0 Q .


ma S A ( ) + S ( )
2

4k 2

= S h ( p )

(2.82)

2.4.7.
,
, 3.
3
.

V
Ox , ,

145

(2.53)

y = V sin , z = 0 .

x = V cos ,

k 2 a 2
( ) = cos(2kV cos sin 0 ) exp
5,5

2V 2 cos 2

+ 2V sin 2
cos 2
= = cos( g cos sin 0 )
0

a 2 2 2
(1 + 0,5 cos 2 sin 2 0 ) .
exp
22



I. ,
(2.64).

S CH ( ) =

cos 2 0
5,5

a 2 cos 2 + sin 2 cos 2 0

5,5( + cos sin 0 )


5,5( cos sin 0 )
exp
+ exp

2
2
2
2
a
a


.
(2.83)
,
3 cos sin 0 >a , (2.83)

2V cos sin 0
.

= ,
2

(2.83) .

0 , V .
2.5
,
.

146

2.5.1
,
, I.
2.3.
h(x,y) I

1 2.
. 0<400.
1 2
=
<< 1 .

x, y << z0 0 0,

(1.44)
U 1 =

ik1Q
exp ( i1t )
2R10 R20

G ( x, y ) exp[ ik ( R
2

+ R22 ) +

11

dh
dh dxdy ,
+ ik1h( x, y )( cos + cos )]
A + D dx + P dy

U 2 =

ik 2Q
exp ( i2t )
2R10 R20

G ( x, y) exp [ ik ( R
2

11

)+
+ R22

cos {

ik 2 h ' x ' , y ' ' cos { ' ]

'

'

D d h ' P d h ' d x ' d y ' .


A
dx
dy

(2.84)

k1 = 1 c
k 2 = 2 c ,
(2.84)
R ( k ) = U 1U 2* U 1U 2* , k = k1 k 2 .

147
dh

dh

h, dx , dy

dh dh
dh dh
. ,
W6 = h,
,
, h,
,
dx dy
dx dy
,


2
2
2
, h , x , y
h , x , y . , (2.84),

Q
R ( k ) = k1k 2 exp( it )
2R R
10
20

[(

( x, y ) dxdy

)]

+ i 2k( R1 +1 R2 ) ]2 { e h2xk12 cp 2o s+ k22 c 2o s 2 k1 k2 c 2o sc 2o s


[

2 +D
2 exp 2 ( k 2 k 2 cos
2 2 + P
2 2

A
x x
y y A
h
1
2

dxdyd

2
cos = 1 +

( x, y )

cos

xdy ,

) ]

2 x0 x x 2
2 .
z02
z0

2 = ( 2k h cos 0 ) 2 > >1; h .


4

R ( k )
. ,
R10 = R20 = R0 ,
2

Q
G 2 ( x, y ) dxdy G 2 ( x, y ) exp[ ik1 ( R
R( k ) = k1k 2 exp( i t )
2
2 R0 S
S
+ R22
) 2 h2 k12 cos2 + k 22 cos2 2 h k1k 2 cos cos
+ ik2 ( R11

)]

148
2
A

+D

2
2x x + P
y y dxdyd xdy
2

(2.85)

sin 0 sin 0 , (2.85)
2

2 x0 x x 2 2
2
2

R ( k ) = k1k 2
exp

cos

1
+
2 k1 + k 22

h
0
2
2
z0
z0

2R0

x 2
y 2
ik R 10 R 20 x sin 0 z cos 0
i tik 2
]
2R 0
2R 0

x2 + y 2
x

G 4 ( x1 , y ) exp ik 2 x1 sin 0 + 1
x1
R0
R0

ik 2 y

y
dx1dy
R0

exp
[4

2
h k1k 2

h ( u , v ) cos2 0

u 2 + v 2 u

v
e x p ik2
+ ( 2 x1 + 2 R0 s in 0 x ) + ( 2 y y )
R0
R0
R0

2 +D
2 2 + P
2 2

A
x x
y y dudv

R102

z02

x02

= I1 + I 2 + I 3 .

(2.86)

u = x x; v = y - y; x1 = x x0 ;

2
R20
= ( z 0 z ) 2 + ( x0 x) 2 .
(2.86),

(1.57)

u 2 + v2
u 2 + v2

h ( u, v ) = exp

lh2
lh2

149

2 Q

I1 A
2
R
0

x
a2 exp 2 h2 k 2 cos2 0 1 + 2 sin 0
z0

2
2
2
4
2 2 4
2
2 2 4
4
2 h cos 0 5,5 cos 0 + k R0 a 5,5 + k R0 a

)(

2
x

2
( k tg 0 R0 ) 1 2 x
k2 tg 2 0
0

exp
exp
exp{ 2ik ( R10 x
2
2
2

2
k

1 h

kR0 a


5,51 +

5,5 cos 0

z cos 0 )

ka2 R0 1 + cos 2 0
it i
+i
11 cos 2 0

(
)

kR0 ka2 R0 tg 0

kR0a2
2
5,5 cos 2 0 1 +
5,5 cos 2

. (2.87)
I 2 I 3 I1

I 2 = tg 0
3

2
I1 x
y

(2.88)
, (2.87) (2.88),
1 2
.

R k .
= k =5,5 cos 0 exp [2ik R 10 x sin 0 z cos 0 i
R 0

150

x
x2
2
2
2
exp 2 h k cos 0 (1 + 2 sin 0 2 )
z0
z0
k 2tg 2 0

2k1 h2 4 (5,5 cos2 0 ) 2 + k 2 R02 a4 (5,52 + k 2 R02 a4 )

x 2

2
5,5(k sin 0 cos 0 R0a ) (1 2 x )
0
.
exp
5,5 2 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02a4

(2.89)
(2.89) ,

.
z

R( k )
1 ( k ) = Re
= cos 2 k 0 x sin 0 z cos 0 + t
R (0)
cos 0

5,5 co s 0

x
x2
2 2
2
ex p 2 h k co s 0 1 + 2 sin 0 2
z0
z0

( 5,5 co s
2

k 2 R02 04

)( 5,5

k 2 R02 a4

x
2

5,5( k sin 0 cos 0 R0a )


2
1 2 x
k 2 tg 0
0

exp

2
2
4
2 2 4
2
k

5
,
5
cos

k
R

1 h
0
0 a

(2.90)
( 0=0), (2.89)

2
c5,5 cos 0
2

1 ( ) = cos t +
( z0 z )
exp 2 h2 2
c
c

5,52 c 2 + 2 R02 a4

, (2.91)
c -

151

(2.91) ,


h , , 0

x. h, 0 a
. x
( x / z0 > 0.1) .
, (2.91)
2
( z0 z ) ,

c
( z0 z ) .
,
, (2.88)
.

z
R( k )
2 ( k ) = Im
= 5,5 cos 0 sin t + 2 k 0 x sin 0 z co
R ( 0)

cos 0

2 x
x 2
2
2
2

exp 2 h k cos 0 1 +
sin 0 2
z
z 0
0

(5,5

)(

cos4 0 + k 2 R02 a4 5,5 2 + k 2 R02 a4

x
2
5,5( k sin 0 cos 0 R0a )
1 2 x
0

5,5 2 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02a4

k 2 tg 2 0
exp

2k1 h2

2 x
ex p[ 2 h2 k 2 cos2 0 1 +
sin
z0

2
2
( k ) = 1 ( k ) + 2 ( k ) = 5,5 co s 0
4 (5,5 2 cos4 + k 2 R 2 2 ) 5,5 2 +
0
0 a

152

x
2

5,5( k sin 0 cos 0 R0a )


1

2
2 x0
k 2 tg 0

exp

.
2k1 h2
5,5 2 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02a4

(2.92)

x 2
exp[ 2 h2 k 2 1 2

z0 .

( k ) = 5,5
5,52 + k 2 R02a4

(2.93)

u2
v2
h = exp 2 2 cos ( pxu + p y v ) .
(2.94)
lhx
lhy

(2.94) (2.85) ,

. 2

I1 = A
2
R
0

x
a2 exp[ h2 k 2 cos2 0 1 + 2 sin 0 ]
z0

2 cos2 0 hx hy 4 (5,52 cos4 0 + k 2 R02 a4 ) 5,52 + k 2 R02 a4

k2
sin 0

2 R0

exp it 2ik ( R10 x sin 0 z cos 0 )

2
2
2
k

cos
0
1 hx

2
x
2

5,5( ka R0 sin 0 cos 0 )


1

2
2 x0
k 2 y

,
8k1h2y cos 2 0
5,5 2 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02a4

hx = h

2
2
lhx

I2

4 2
2hx

(2.95)
I3

hy = h

2
2
l hx

4 2
2hy

I1 , ,

153

(2.88).

o s 2 k z0 x s in z c o s + t
1 ( k ) = cs in

0
0
2
c o s 0

x
2


5,5( ka R0 sin 0 ) 1
2 x0
k2 tg 2 0

exp

2
2k1 hx
5,52 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02a4

x sin 0

5,5 cos 0 exp 2 h2 k 2 cos2 0 1 + 2
2
x

. (2.96)

4
5,52 cos4 0 + k 2 R02 a4 5,52 + k 2 R02 a2

)(

,
(2.94) (2.92)
h hx .
(2.93).
, (2.92) hx

, .
(2.93)
kR0a >> 5,5 x << z 0

h2 = ln[ ( k ) ] / 2k 2 .
(2.97)
(2.97) ,

2


1

. (2.97)

.

154

2.5.2
,
, 3.
,

h(x,y)

h(x,y) (x,y). ,
(1.121),

U 1 =

ik1Q
ex p( i 1t ) G 2 ( x, y ) ex p[ ik1 ( R11 + R22 ) + ik1h( x, y )( co
2 R1 0R20
S

dh + P dh + B + C d + F d + ik A sin dh cos dh sin


A + D
1
dx

dx
dy
dx
dy
dy

U = i k2Q e x ( p i t ) G 2 ( x , y ) e x [ p i k ( R + R ) + i k h( x , y
2
2
2 11 22
2
2 R1 0R2 0
S

dh dh d d dh dh
A + D + P + B + C + F + i 2 Ak s i n c o s s i ndx dy
dx dy dx dy dx dy

(2.98)
,
(2.94),

155

Q
R( k ) = k1k 2 exp ( it )
2R R
10 20

2
2
2

exp 2 h x cos 0 (1 +

x2
x2
y2
+ ik2
+ 2 x sin 0 + 2 ) 2i k R1 0 x sin 0 z c o s 0 +
]

zo
R
R
o
o

5,5 cos2 0 2
k 2 k 2
5,5
exp
x1 2 2 y 2 i
x1 +
y + x12 (2k sin 0
2
2

R
R

0
0
a 0
a 0

kx
k y

) + y 2
R0
R0

exp { 2k k

ik 2
R0

1 2

2
2
cos 2 0 u 2 hx
+ v 2 hy

2
x
y 2

2
u + v + 2u x1 + R0 sin 0 2 + 2v y 2 A +

2 2 + F
2 2 + P
2 2 + B
2 2 + C
2 2 +
+D
x x
y y

x x
y y

)]

+ A k1k 22 sin 2 02 x cos 2 + y cos 2 dudv . (2.99)

xOz, =0.
(2.99) >400.

2 cos 2 ;
2 k 2 cos 4 ;
2 sin 2 ;
A
B
D
0
0
0

2
C
=
BB

=0

=0;

=0 ;

sin 2 0 cos2 0
.
1 + cos2 0 + 2 cos2 0


,
C = F = 0 . 1.10
, <800

. <800

h(x,y) (x,y),

156

[49,50-]

h
,
= 0 1 + M
(2.100)
h

-
.
,
h . ,

.
(2.100), <800 (2.99)

Q
R( k ) = k1k 2 exp ( it )
2R R
10 20

2
2
2

exp 2 h x cos 0 (1 +

x2
x2
y2
+ ik2
+ 2 x sin 0 + 2 ) 2i k R1 0 x sin 0 z c o s 0 +
]

zo
R
R
o
o

5,5 cos2 0 2
k 2 k 2
5,5
exp
x1 2 2 y 2 i
x1 +
y + x12 (2k sin 0
2
2

R
R
a R0
a R0

0
0

kx
k y

) + y 2
R0
R0

exp { 2k k

ik 2
R0

1 2

2
2
cos 2 0 u 2 hx
+ v 2 hy

2
x
y

2
2
2
2
u + v + 2u x1 + R0 sin 0 2 + 2v y 2 cos 0 + x h sin

+ k 22 cos 4 0 + k 2 M2 h cos 4 0 + k 222 h cos 2 0 sin 2 0 dudv

= I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 + I 5 .

(2.101)

(2.101) I1 I2
.

u 2 + v2
1 n
cos ( up cos i + vp sin i ) .
= 2 2i exp
2

i =1
l

157

(2.102)
(2.102) ,
0< i <2 .

02

p .
2


2
i

I3 =

( I
n

i =1

3i1

+ I 3i 2 ,

a <300, 300< <800

a2
2

3i 12

2 x

exp h2 cos2 0 k 2 1 +
sin 0
z0
z

Q
k12 k 22 2

=
i cos4 0
2
2 R0 x y 4 5,52 cos4 0 + k 2 R02 a4 5,52 + k 2

x 2
exp it 2ik R10 x sin 0 z cos 0 +
2 R0

)(

y 2
+ ik 2

2 R0

5,5 cos 2 0 a2 R02 k 2 sin 2 0

5,5 2 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02 a4

p cos i

x
k 22
sin 0

2k 2
2 R0

exp
2

2
2
p sin i

y
2

2R

2k 2
0


,
y2

(2.103)

1
2
x2 = 4 h2 k1k 2 cos 2 0 2 + 2
lhx hx

1
+ 2 ;
l
i

1
2 2 1
y2 = 4 h2 k1k 2 cos 2 0 2 + 2 + 2 .
lhy
hy li

(2.103)

158

p cos i

x
k 22
sin 0

2k 2
2 R0

exp
2

2
2
p sin i

y
2

2R

2k 2
0

y2

p
p
k 22
x 2 + y 2 x

sin 0
sin 0 (1 cos i ) +
= exp

sin

2k 2
k2
R0
4 R02

( x cos i + y sin i ) .

(2.104)
2k 2 R0

(2.104) ,
I3i2.
cos i=1 sin 0=p /k2,

(). (2.104)
p
(2.103), 2i = 02
,
2
p
,
2

3 2 2
5
2 x
Q k a 0 c o s 0
x2
2 2
2
I 3 =
e x p k h c o s 0 1 +
s in 0 2
5,5 s in 0
z0
z0
2 z0

x2
y2
+ ik2
e x p i t 2i k R1 0 x sin 0 z c o s 0 +

2
R
2
R

0
2

x 2 + y 2 k 2 5,5 a2 R02 k 2 cos 2 0 sin 2 0


exp

.
4 R02 x y
5,52 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02 a2

(2.105)

159

(2.105) , I3( k)

I1 ( k )
I 2 ( k )

I1 ( 0 )
I 2 ( 0)

I3(0), ..

2 x

I 3 ( k ) I1 ( k ) I 2 ( k )
=
=
e x p k 2 h2 c o s2 0 1 +
s in 0
I 3 ( 0)
I1 ( 0 )
I 2 ( 0)
z0

5,5 a2 R02 k 2 cos2 0


exp[ i t 2i k ( R10 x sin 0 z cos 0 ) ] exp
5,5 2 cos4 0 + k 2

.
(2.106)
(2.101)
2

Q
2 x
x2
2 2
2
I 4 + I 5 = k1k 2 2 e x p 2 h k c o s 0 1 +
s in 0 + 2
z
z0

0
2 R0

x2
y2

e x p i t 2i k R1 0 x sin 0 z c o s 0 +
+ ik2 2 R
2
R
0
0

k 2 k 2
5,5 cos2 0 2 5,5 y 2

k
exp
x1 2 2 i
x1 +
y + x1 2k sin 0
2 2
R0
R0
a R0
a R0
R0

k 2 y
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 1

+ y
dx
dy
exp

k
k
cos

u
+
+
v
+

1
h 1 2
0
2
2
lhy
R0
2hx
2hy
lhx

k
i 2
R0

2 2
x
y M

u + v + 2u x1 + R0 sin 0 2 + 2v y 2 2 + tg 0

k1k 22 h2 cos

0 dudv .

(2.107)

160

h =

u 2 + v2
u2
v 2
2 2

exp

i i

l2
p2x l2y
i =1 j =1

cos (up x + vp y ) cos (up x + vpy ).


M

1
2 2 2

(2.108)
(2.107) i
j- I 4 , I 5

( I 4 + I 5 ) ij

k2

= 2 A exp 1
x y
2
i

2
j

p
p
sin 0 i + sin 0 (1 cos i ) i .
2k i
ki

(2.109)
2
j = Sh ( p j , j )p ,
(2.107),
ikQ
N =
2R02

2 2 2 2 x
5,5 a2 R02 k 2 c o s2 0 s in2 0
e x p h k c o s 0 1 +
s in 0

2
4
2 2 4
z
5
,
5
c
o
s

k
R

0
0 a

x2
y2
+ ik2
e x p i t 2i k R1 0 x sin 0 z c o s 0 +

2 R0
2 R0

)(

x 2 + y 2 k12 + k 2
exp
4 R02 x y

) ,

2
0 - .
I3

R=

z0
+ s in 0 [ c o s 0 ( x x0 ) + ( y y0 V t )
c o s 0

(2.110)

161

I1
U 2 = N exp ( i2t )

I 2

h
G 2 ( x, y) exp ( i 2k 2 R)B 0 1 + M
h

dxdy,

2 x
k ( x)
x2
2 2
2
( k ) =
= e x p k h c o s 0 1 +
s in 0 2
k ( 0)
z0
z0

x2
y2
+ ik2
e x p i t 2i k R1 0 x sin 0 z c o s 0 +

2
R
2
R

0
0

5,5 a2 R02 k 2 cos 2 0 sin 2 0


x 2 + y 2 k 2
exp

.
5,52 cos 4 0 + k 2 R02 a4
4 R02 x y

(2.111)
,

, k (k )
,
,
. .
2.6

,
.

,
3,
, z 0
xOy Oy V,
1 2.
.

162

.2.18.

163

z
A(0,0,z0 )

B(0,Vt,z 0)

0
R
R0
y0

Vt

R0

y0+Vt

x0

(x,y)

(x0,y0)

. 2.18

(x0,y0+Vt )

164


(2.98) [51]

ik Q
dh + P dh + B 1 + M
U 1 = 1 2 exp ( it ) G 2 ( x, y ) exp ( i 2k1 R ) A + D
0
dx
dy
2R0

dh

d
d
h
dh
sin
+ C
+F
+ ik1 A 0 1 + M
cos
sin dxdy
dx
dy
h
dy
dx

ik Q
dh dh

U 2 = 2 2 exp ( i2 t ) G 2 ( x, y ) exp ( i 2k 2 R) A + D
+P
+ B 0
dx
dy
2R0

d d
h dh

+ C + F + i k2 A 0 1 + M s i n c o s
dx dy
h dx
.

dh
s i n dx d
dy

(2.112)

350< <850 (2.112)

(x,y).
(2.112)
U 1 = N exp ( i1t )

U 2 = N exp ( i2 t )

ikQ
N =
;
2R02

h
G 2 ( x, y ) exp ( i 2k1 R )B 0
1 + M
dxdy
h

h
G 2 ( x, y ) exp ( i 2k 2 R)B 0
1 + M
h

(2.113)

dxdy ,

165

z0
+ s in 0 [ c o s 0 ( x x0 ) + ( y y0 V t )
c o s 0
2
c o s 0
( x x0 ) 2 1 s in2 0 c o s2 0 + ( y y0 V t )
s in 0 ] +
2 z0
1sin 2 0 sin 2 0 x x 0 y y 0V t sin 2 0 sin2 0 ] R=


xOy;

[ ( y y0 V t ) cos 0 ( x x0 ) sin 0 ] 2
G ( z , y ) = exp 1,38
+
a2 R02

2
[
(
x x0 ) cos 0 ( y y0 vt ) sin 0 ]
+
cos2

a2 R02

(2.114)

U 1 U 2

S (t ) = U 1U 2 exp( it ) = N

G ( x, y )dxdy G
2

1 M

( x, y ) exp( i

0
i2k 2 R ' B

h
h'
1 M
d x' d y '
h
h

(2.115)
S (t )
[51].
S (t )
R( ) = U 1 (1 , t )U 2 (2 , t )U 1 (1 , t + )U 2 (2 , t + ) = S ( t ) S ( t + )
,
, , .
(2.115)

166

h( x, y )

M ( x, y ) = B ( x, y ) 1 + M
h

(2.114)
( x, y ) M
( x, y ) exp I ( x, y , k , t ) + I ( x, y , k , t
S ( t ) = N ( t )
M
1
2

, (2.116)

[ (

)]

2
N ( t ) = N e x p2i k R0 V t sin 0 s in 0 R0 sin2 0

i k
5,5 ( R0 sin 0 + V t sin
2
2
exp
ax02 + b( y0 + V t ) + cx0 ( y0 + V t )

R0
b2
R0

2
V t 2 cos2 0
+
;
a2

I ( x, y , k , t ) = a ( k ) x 2 + 2b( k ) xy + 2c( k ) x + 2d ( k ) y e( k ) y 2 ;

2,76 sin2 0 cos2 0 ika

+
a( k ) =
+
;
R0 a2
b2 R0
a = 1 sin 2 0 cos 2 0 ;

b( k ) =

1,38 sin 2 0
R02

1
1 ikc
2 + 2+
;

a b 2 R0

2,76 sin2 0 cos2 0 ikb


+
e( k ) = 2
+
;
R0 d2
a2 R0
2,76

c( k ) =
ik sin 2 0 sin 0 cos 0 b( k )V t ;
2
R0b

2
c = sin 0 sin 2 0 ;
2,76

d ( k ) =
ik sin 2 0 sin 0 sin 0 e( k )V t ;
2
R0b

167

b = 1 sin 2 0 sin 2 0 .
[41], S (t )
:
G(f)

S( f

G( f

= lim

)2

= 4 R ( ) exp ( i 2f )df ,

(2.117)

G(f);

( f
G

T
2

S (t ) exp ( i 2 f )dt ; T -

T
2

S (t ) ;

(f
G

( f )G
( f
=G

G ( f

T
2

) .

S ( t ) S ( t )

(f
G

exp [ i( t t1 ) ]dtdt 1 ,

T
2

(2.118)
(2.116)

S ( t ) S ( t1 ) = N ( t ) N ( t1 )

[(

M ( x1 , y1 ) M ( x2 , y2 ) M ( x3 , y3 ) M

S S S S

e x pI x1 , y1 , k1 , t + I ( x2 , y2 , k 2 , t ) + I ( x3 , y3 , k1 , t1 ) + I ( x4 , y4 , k 2 , t1
dx 1dx 2 dx 3 dx 4 dy 1dy 2 dy 3 dy 4 ,
1 2 x y
1 2
- {0,0,z0}; 3 4
x y 1 2
-
{0,Vt,z0}.

168

S (t )
,
.
[52], (2.118)

M ( x1 , y1 ) M ( x2 , y2 ) M ( x3 , y3 ) M ( x4 , y4 ) = M ( x1 , y1 ) ( x2 x1 )
2

( y2 y1 ) M ( x3 , y3 ) ( x4 x3 ) ( y4 y3 ) + M ( x1, y1 ) ( x3 x1 )
2

( y3 y1 ) M ( x2 , y2 ) ( x4 x2 ) ( y4 y2 ) = ( x1, y1 ) ( x3 , y3 )
2

( x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 ) ( x4 x3 ) ( y4 y3 ) + ( x1, y1 ) ( x2 , y2 ) ( x3 x1 )
( y3 y1 ) ( x4 x2 ) ( y4 y2 ) ,
(2.119)
2
( x, y ) = M ( x, y )
-

.
(2.119) -

( x, y ) ( x, y ) 02 = B ( x x , y y )
(2.120)
0 = ( x, y ) -
. B ( x x , y y ) -

.


, 0
,
B ( x x , y y ) -
.

W(px,py) ,

169

B ( x x , y y ) =

2
m

W ( p

x,

p y exp ip x ( x x) + ip y ( y y ) dp x dp y

,
(2.121)
-
2
2
; py =
; p x =
-
2
m


x y Ox Oy
.
(2.118) (2.119), (2.120), (2.121)
,

S (t )S (t1 )

+I

= N (t ) N (t1 )02

exp [I ( x , y

1,

k1 , t ) +I ( x1 , y1 , k 2 , t ) +

( x3 , y3 , k1 , t 2 ) + I ( x3 , y3 , k 2 , t1 )]dx 1dx 3 dy 1dy 3

exp [ I ( x , y , k
1

+ I ( x1 , y1 , k1 , t1 ) + I ( x2 , y 2 , k 2 , t ) + I ( x2 , y 2 , k 2 , t1 ) dx1dx 2 dy1dy 2 } +

+ N( t) N ( t1 ) m2 W px, py e I( x1, y1,k1p,t) + I[ ( x1, y1,k2 ,t) +


S S

( )

( x3 , y3 , k1, t1 ) + I ( x3 , y3 , k2 , t1 ) + ip x ( x3 x1 ) + ip y ( y3 y1 )]dx1dx 3dy1


+ exp[ I ( x1 , y1 , k1 , t ) + I ( x1 , y1 , k1 , t1 ) + I ( x2 , y2 , k2 , t ) +

+I

+ I ( x2 , y2 , k2 , t1 ) + ip x ( x2 x1 ) + ip y ( y2 y1 ) dx1dx2 dy1dy 2 dp x dp y
(2.122)

, (2.122)

[53].

exp ( x

+ 2 xy + 2x + 2y y 2 dxdy

2 + 2 + 2

exp

.
2

170

, (2.122)
x3, y3
x1, y1 t t1.

N ( t ) N ( t1 )

exp[ I ( x , y , k , t ) + I ( x , y , k , t ) +
1

I ( x3 , y3 , k1 , t1 ) + I ( x3 , y3 , k 2 , t1 ) ]dx1dx 3 dy1dy 3 =

11 R02b2 sin 2 0 k 2

2
2 4
4
2
5,5 + R0 b cos 0 k
2
2
2 4
4
2
5,5 + R k 5,5 + R0 b cos 0 k

= N

N ( t ) N ( t1 )

2 Ro4a2b2 exp

2
0

)(

4
a

.(2.123)

exp[ I ( x , y , k , t ) + I ( x , y , k , t ) + I ( x , y , k , t ) +
1

+ I ( x3 , y3 , k2 , t1 ) + ip x ( x3 x1 ) + ip y ( y3 y1 )]dx1dx 3dy 1dy 3 =

= N

2,7 6R02 a2 p y co s 0 p x sin 0


ex p
5,52 + R02 a4 k 2

5,52 + R02 a4 k 2 5,52 + R02 b4 k 2 co s4 0

2 4 2 2
R0 a b

)(

2,76 R02 b2 px cos 0 + p y sin 0 2k sin 0


exp
5,52 + R02 b4 k 2 cos4 0

ip yV ( t t1 )

(2.124)

,
(2.122) x3 , y3
x1 , y1
k1 k 2 .
N ( t ) N ( t1 )

exp [I ( x , y , k , t ) + I ( x , y , k , t ) +
1

+ I ( x2 , y 2 , k 2 , t ) + I ( x2 , y 2 , k 2 , t1 ) dx1dx 2 dy1dy 2 =

171

2
2 4 2 2
2

(
)
V
t

t
0
a
b

1
N
e x p i 2 k s in 0 s in 0V ( t t1 )

5,52
5,5R02 a2 b2

[ (

)(

1 5 a2 sin2 0 + b2 c o s2 0 + R02 a2 b2 k12 + k 22 a2 c o s 0 + b2 c o s4 0 s in2 0

exp [I ( x , y , k , t ) + I ( x , y , k , t ) + I ( x , y
, k , t ) + ip ( x x ) + ip ( y y ) ]dx dx dy dy =

N ( t ) N ( t1 )

+ I ( x2 , y 2

.(2.125)

2,

k2 , t ) +

2 4 2 2

R0 a b
V R0 ( k1 + k 2 )( t
(
)
[
]
N
e
x
p

i
2

k
sin

sin

V
t

t
e
x
p

0
0
1
5,5
5,52

) ]}

) (

px s i n 0 c o s0 b2 c o 2s 0 a2 + p y a2 c o 2s 0 + b2 s i n2 0 c o 2s 0
R 2 2
exp 0 b p x cos 0 + p y sin 0
11

+ a2 R02 p x sin 0 p y cos 0 2

.
(2.126)

(2.123 2.126)
(2.122) (2.117) (2.118),

1 2

S f = N 2

5,52 02
11 R 20 2b sin 2 0 k 2
exp
f
ax a y
a 2y


2 2 2 f

5
,
5
R

k
sin

sin

0 a b
0
0
5,5 R0ab02

V
+
exp

2
V a xy
a
xy

172
2


2 2 f
11R0 b
sin 0 k sin 0
V
2 5,52 m2

W p , 2f
+
exp
2

x V
V a x a y
ay

2f

2,76 R02a2

co
s

p
sin

0
x
0
V

2 2


2,76 R0 b
exp
2
2
a
a
x
y

+ px

2
x

cos

0 +

4f
cos 0 sin 0 4 p x k cos 0 sin 0
dp x +
V

5,5R 2 2 2
5,5 R0 a b m2
0 a b
+
exp
V a xy
a xy2

W ( p , p ) exp[ k R ( p a

k sin 0 sin 0
V

(p

4
0

x 1

+ p y a2 2 k12 + k 22 a2 b2 R04 p x a3 +

3 2 2 f

R0a b
V k sin 0 sin 0
( k1 + k 2 ) p x a1 + p y a 2

exp i

a xy

,
.

N = N

R02 a b
5,5

dp dp
x y

(2.127)

a x2 = 5,5 2 + R02a4 k 2 ; a y2 = 5,5 2 + R02b4 k 2 cos 4 0 ;

)(

2
a xy
= 11( a2 sin 2 0 + b2 cos 2 0 ) + R02 a2 b2 k12 + k 22 b2 sin 2 0 cos 4 0 + a2 cos

a1 = sin 0 cos 0 b2 cos2 0 a2 ; a 2 = a2 cos2 0 + b2 sin 2 0 cos2 0 ;


a3 = cos 0 + sin 0 cos 0 ; a 4 = sin 0 cos 0 sin 2 0 .
2

, S(f)

173

S ( f ) = S + S0 ( f ) + S ( f ) + S m ( f ).

(2.128)


[54,55]
S0(f),
, ,
S (f),

.
S (f)/S0(f), ,

.

S S m ( f ) ,

. (2.128) , S (f)/S

[51]. ,
0=90,
S /S
. S (f)/S0(f)

.

,
,
.
,

S (f)/S0(f) S (f)/S [51].

S, , ,

. Sm(f)

174

S(f)
.
2.7.
, ,
4.
, [36]
[35],

,
().
2.19.
z
A
V

.2.19
.

Vc x. ,

, ..

175


.
, .
, 1,

( >20o)
(),

. ,

,
..
.
.

, x.


,
,
, .

,


[56].

.

xb, yb, zb.

,
,
[35].



x, Oy, Oz,

176
xrb (t ) i , j =
(t ) i , j =
y rb
z rb (t ) i , j

x
cos sin ,
t b(i , j )

y
sin sin ,
t b (i , j )

=
z
cos ,
t b (i , j )

xb (i , j ) = a( i , j ) sin[ i t + ij ptV c cos ( j )] cos j


,
yb ( i , j ) = a ( i , j ) sin[ i t + ij ptV c cos ( j )] sin j ,
zb (i , j ) = a ( i , j ) cos[ i t + ij ptV c cos ( j )].

[35]

r2 ( xb ) = 0,5

S ( , ) 2 [1

2
2
Vc cos( ) + 2 Vc2 cos2 ( ) ]
g
g

cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 dd ;

r2 ( yb ) = 0,5

S ( , ) 2 [1

2
2
Vc cos( ) + 2 Vc2 cos2 ( ) ]
g
g

sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 dd ;

r2 ( zb ) = 0,5

S ( , ) 2 [1

2
2
Vc cos ( ) + 2 Vc2 cos 2 ( ) ] cos 2
g
g

(2.130)
-
; -
; g - .

177



S ( , ) = S ( ) S ( ) ,

S ( ) = b d exp ( q ); S ( ) = N cos m ; b, ; p,q, - ;


( m ) - -;
1
m + 2

2
N = cosm d =
-
m + 1

2
,
S( )
, (2.130)

m + 4
8 2
m
U 3 m + 1
b
2

2
2
2
2
r xb = 3 sin
cos U Vc
cos 3
m
+
1
4
2
m
+
2

2
( m + 3 )

m cos 2 sin
m cos 3 sin
U 2Vc
+ UVc2
+
m 1
2 m + 1
m 2 .5
2 m + 1
( m + 4)
2 ( m + 3)
2

2
2

( )

+ UV c2

( m + 3)( m + 1) cos 4 + UV 2
c
( m + 4 )( m + 2 )

( m + 1) cos 2 sin 2
2

( m + 4)( m + 2)

m + 2 2
m
sin cos
3
2

b
U
sin
2
r2 ( yb ) = 3 sin 2
U 2Ve

g
4 2 m+2
m +1 m + 5 2 m + 1
2

2 2

m sin 3
( m + 1) sin 2 cos 2
U 2Vc
+ UVc2
+
m + 5 m + 1
2 ( m + 2 )( m + 4 )
2m

2 2

178

m + 2 3
4 2
sin cos

3 sin
2
;
+ UVc2
2 ( m + 2 )( m + 4 )
m + 1
( m + 2)( m + 4)

2
4

+ UVc2

( )

r2 zb

U 2Vc

U 3
b
= 3 cos 2
g
4

m + 2
2 2
cos

2
U 2Vc

2
2 m + 1
( m + 1)

( m + 1) sin
+ UVc2
m
+
1

2 m 1 ( m + 1) 2

+ UV c2

( m + 1)

2 ( m + 2)

cos 2 + UV c2

m + 2
8
cos sin
2
+
m + 1
( m + 2)

2
sin

.
2 m + 2

(2.131)


(2.132)
rv2 = r2 ( xb ) + r2 ( yb ) + r2 ( zb ) .

( = 0 ) , (2.132)

m + 2
2 2

b U
2 + UV 2 m + 1
rv2
= 3
U 2Vc
c
=0
2 m + 2
g 4 2
2 m + 1
(
)
m
+
1

m + 2
2 2

b
U 1

m
2

2
2
3 sin
U Vc
+ UVc2
2 (m + 2
g
4 2 m+2
( m + 1)( m + 3) 2 m + 1

.
(2.133)

179

rv2

m + 2
2 2

b U
2 + UV 2 m + 1
= 3
+ U 2Vc
c
2 m + 2
g 4 2
2 m + 1
(
)
m
+
1

m + 2
2 2

b
U 1

m+1
2

3 sin2
+ U 2Vc
+ U Vc2
2 ( m + 2)( m + 4)
g
4 2 m+ 2
2 m + 1
( m + 1)( m + 3)

.
(2.134)

2
rv

= 2

b
= 3
g

U 3

U 3
b
3 sin 2
g
4

U Vc

m +1
2 m +2

m +1
2 m 1 ( m + 1) 2

U 2Vc

+ UV c2

m
m +1
2 m 1 ( m + 3) 2

2 m + 2

+ UV c2

. (2.135)
, ,

,
,
.
,

[56]

c ( ) = exp 2k 2 rv2 2 cos[ ( + ) ] ,

m+
2 ( m + 2 )(

180

= Vc sin cos

.
(2.131) (2.135) (2.136),
, :
- U ,
- Vc , ,

m;
-
( = 0 ) ,
(Vc = Vc max ) ,
( = ) , ( m = mmin )
U;
- ,
[36].

Sc ( ) =

1
2 2 k rv

( ) 2
exp
.
8k rv2

0,5


0,5 4,7 k rv .
0,5 U
Vc ,
.
0,5
,
.

.

181

3.

3.1.

()
.

()
.

,
, .

,

.

(3.39),


U , a , p
Zo.

(1.43),

[3]

c U
3,
2 R0

(3.1)

a p

5,5 2 p + 2 a

; - .

182

, (3.1)
.

,
.
,

,
.

.
3.1.1.
(1.39) . 1.3 ,

h
.

(1.39) ,
0,01

h
0,08 ,

h .
,
, G, Ro.
(1.43) ,
. 1.4 ,
0,01

h
,

h
0,08


h . ,
, .

183

[3]

,
,
- .
(1.39) (1.43),
PH

=0:
PK

PH
=
PK

4 h
1 + 0,3

. (3.2)
4 2
h
exp

4 h

. 3.1

(3.2) .

. 3.1.

PH
H
3%
PK

PH
H
= 3% ,
PK

184

(4.2)
PH

,
PK
.
, . 3.1
.

,

PH

. ,
PK

, ..

.

[41].
( ) m1(U)

(U) [41]:

m1 (U ) =

PH J 0 K
2 2 PH

PK PK
+
J 0
P
2 PH
H

P
+ J1 K

2 PH

PK
exp

2
P

,
(U ) =
=

PH

(3.3)

2 PH + 2 PK m1 (U ) =

2P

P
2 + K J 0 K
PH
2
2 PH

PK PK
+
J 0
PH 2 PH

P
+ J1 K

2 PH

exp K

PH

(3.4)

185

J0(x) J1(x) -
.
(4.3) (4.4),
[57]:

KB =

(U )
=
m1 (U )

P
P
2P
P P P
2 + K J 0 K + K J 0 K + J1 K exp K
PH
2 2 PH PH 2 PH
2 PH
PH
PK PK
PK PK PK

exp

J
+
J
+
J
0
0
1
2 2 PH PH 2 PH
2 PH PH
(3.5)
(3.5), (3.2)

H 3%
. . 3.2

H
= 3%

.
(3.2) . 3.2

H 3%
1

0,45 h .

12

186

. 3.2.

H 3%

(3.5)

H 3%
0,2 :

PH
9 PH
1
.
KB
2 PK
16 PK

(3.6)

. 3.2 ,
(
) [57]:

H 3%
0,3 .

(3.7)

(3.7)

H 3% .
. 3.2 ,
(
)
.

187

. 3.1
,
.
3.1
,

3%, ,
0-3
1,5 - 9
3 - 20

10
30
60

30
10
5


[58]:

m1 (U 2 ) = 2( PH + PK ) ,

(3.8)

(U 2 ) = 2 P 2 H + 2 PH PK .

(3.9)

(3.8) (3.9),
(
):

2 PK
PH
.
=
PK
1+
PH
1+

K BK

. 3.3

(3.10)

(3.10) (3.2).

H 3%
,

BK=

188

. 3.3

H 3%
, B (. . 3.2)

(3.7). BK
B.

. 3.3. BK

H 3%


-
.


[58]

f ( ) =

P
1
exp K +
2
PH

2 PK

PK
cos
cos exp K sin 2

PH
PH

PH

,
(3.11)
() - .
<<

189

f ( ) =

1
2

1 +

PK
cos .

PH


4PK
3
2 =

.
3
PH

(3.12)

(3.13)

>
1

f () =
2

PH
2 PK

2
exp
PH

PK

(3.14)

2 =

PH
.
2 PK

(3.15)

H 3%
,

(3.13), (3.15), (3.2), , [58],


. 3.4 [13].

190

. 3.4.

H
= 3%

H 3%

H 3%
0,45 .

(3.16)


(. 1).

( )
3.1.

,

.


.

191

3.1.2.

,


[36]


1
S h ( B ) d B

M 0 ( ) 2
0
( ) = 2
= 2
M 2 ( )
S ( ) 2 d
B
h B B
0

2
2

S h ( B , )d B d

0
2

,
= 2

2 2

B S h ( B , ) cos 2 ( )d B d

(3.17)
S h ( B ) -
.
S h ( B )

S h ( B , ) . ,

,
,
B = B cos( ) .
S h ( B )
.

192

S h ( B , )
.
(3.17) , [13]
( ) =

min
1

2 .
2
sin 2
cos +
n +1

(3.18)


( (3.16)) -

h
1

12

a >> py )
( a >> px ,

0 ( x, y )

h ( x, y ) :
0 ( x, y ) h (x, y ) .


S CH ( cx , cy ) S hH ( Bx , By ) . (3.19)
,


. -


.


- .


.

c c
("") [36]

193

c = cVn = 2

Vn
c

(3.20)

V - ;
c -
.
(3.20) ,
V

(V >> ).

, , -
,
.
"" .
-

PK H 3%
> 2 < 0,2
PH




0 ( 0 0 ) [41].
(4.19) (4.20)

,
S . H (c ) = S . H ( cVn ) S hH ( BVn ) . (3.21)

(3.21)
[75, 76]

194
1

TC = f

1
CK

= N 10

2
S .H (c ) dc

0
2
=
2
S
( )(c ) dc
. H c

1
2

(3.22)

S hH ( BVn ) d ( BVn )

( )

0
= 2
= V
n
S ( V )( V ) 2 d ( V )
hH
B n
B n
B n

f - ,
N0 -
( ).
(3.22)

( ) =

min
1
2

2
sin 2
cos +
n
+
1

Vn
V
= n
f CK
N0 .

, -
,
V
(
).
(4.23),
5...10 ,
,

.