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Brief History

of Anatomy

IPHY 3415
TA: Mike Pascoe
The Egyptians
1600 B.C. Egypt
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• World’s earliest known medical document,


The Edwin Smith papyrus, describes early
anatomical observations.
• Cranial sutures, meninges, external
surface of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid,
and intracranial pulsations.
• Could be based on 3000 B.C. !
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The Greeks
500 B.C. Greece
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Found medical schools in Crotona, Italy


and Cyrene, Africa.
• Studied anatomy of animals.
• Influence on anatomical terminology,
i.e.
Achilles.

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Herophilos &
Erasistratos
400 B.C. Greece & Egypt
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Philosophers declared that body and


soul were different.
• Allowed for first dissections of human
bodies.
• Performed in Alexandria, Egypt.

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Aristotle
384 - 327 B.C. Greece
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• First known anatomist.


• Drew a distinction between nerves and
tendons.
• Described how major arteries
branched
out into smaller blood vessels.

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King Ptolemy
320 B.C. Egypt
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Established the medical school at


Alexandria, Egypt.
• Dissections were performed on bodies
of executed prisoners - probably in
public.

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The Romans
30 B.C. Italy & Egypt
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0 AD
the day day

• The Roman empire conquers Egypt.


• Medical school at Alexandria declines in
importance.
• Latin becomes the international
language of anatomy to this day.
• Example: Biceps Brachii Two Head Arm

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Galen
131-200 A.D. Egypt &
Italy
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0 AD
the day day

• Conclusions were based on study of


animals.
• Studied in Alexandria then settled in
Rome.
• Produced some 150-200 medicals writings.
• Very influential, professors would read his
books while his assistants dissected a
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cadaver. Page 2 of 30
Pope Boniface VIII
1300 A.D. Vatican
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0 AD
the day day

• Papal Bull: De sepulturis


• Put a ban on the practice of dismembering
war casualties.
• Was a drain on soldiers energy.
• Overzealous clergy took this as a ban on
any kind of human dissection.

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Pope Alexander V
1410 A.D. Vatican
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• His body was allowed to be dissected.


• Example of how well-disposed the Church
was towards anatomy.
• Or… is considered an anti-pope by the
Vatican, chop him up who cares !?!

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Da Vinci
1452-1519 A.D. Italy
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Very influential artist of the Renaissance.


• Artists wanted to better understand the
underlying structures of the body to
enhance their artwork.
• Da Vinci performed many dissections.
• Sketches provided correct proportions.

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Henry VIII
1491-1547 A.D. Englan
Back in
d0 AD Present
the day day

• King of England, would hand over corpses


of hanged criminals to local anatomists.
• Public dissections in theater settings
became very popular.

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Vesalius
1543 A.D. Italy
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0 AD
the day day

• Known as the founder of modern anatomy.


• Described in writing his observations from
public dissections.
• His illustrator Kalkar made the most
detailed sketches up to their time.
• Drawings were “photographically”
detailed!
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Vesalius
1543 A.D. Italy
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Would stack bones of cadavers for


permanent display.
• Named these displayed after the Greek
terms ho skeletos (dried up):
• SKELETON!
• Institute of Anatomy University of Basel,
Switzerland
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Harvey
1616-1628 A.D. Englan
Back in
d0 AD Present
the day day

• Medical Doctor who was first to describe in


exact detail the circulatory system,

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Albinus
1697-1747 A.D. German
y
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Along with his illustrator Wandelaer,


compiled variations in anatomy into a
standard from (a.k.a. statistically average
anatomy).
• Began to draw organs along with other
related structures (systems).
• Conveys that they had an understanding
of
IPHY 3415 Human Anatomy Lab function (physiology). Page 2 of 30
Pirogov
1810-1881 A.D. Russia
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0 AD
the day day

• Father of cross-sectional anatomy.


• In his Anaomia topographica, sectionibus
per corpus humanum, he published 213
cross-sectional illustrations, including one
of a pregnant woman.
• Cadavers were frozen in cold winters in St.
Petersburg, Russia.

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Gray
1858 A.D. England
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0 AD
the day day

• Famous for his anatomy medical textbook


for students Gray’s Anatomy.
• Still revised and published to this day.

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Visible Human
Project
1985 - Present day
Washington D.C.
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0 AD
the day day

• In August of 1991 the National Library of


Medicine (NLM) awarded a contract to the
University of Colorado Health Sciences
Center to create digital cross sections of a 39
year old man who had donated his body to
science after being convicted of murder and
sentenced to death.
• He was executed by lethal injection in Texas
in
1993. The Visible Man data was made
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available in 1994.
Von Hagens
1993 - Present day
Germany
Back in Present
0 AD
the day day

• Founder of BodyWorlds exhibit and patent


holder for body preservation technique
known as “plastination”.
• In London, on November 20, 2002 he
performed the first public autopsy since
1830.
• Sparked many debates in both London and
Germany.
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Valverde 1560

von Hagens 2003