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Debian GNU/Linux

Edited by Dulski Vladislav - 2010

Debian
GNU/Linux
Copyright 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Debian
;
/
GNU. : F, GNU General Public
License.

Debian GNU/Linux 5.0


(lenny) Intel x86 (i386). ,

Debian.

, i386
,

lenny.
debian-installer
(http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/).
.


Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 i386
1. Debian
1.1. Debian?
1.2. GNU/Linux?
1.3. Debian GNU/Linux?
1.4. Debian
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
2.
2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.2. ,
2.1.3.
2.1.4.
2.1.5.
2.1.6.
2.1.7.
2.1.8.
2.1.9.
2.2. ,
2.3. GNU/Linux
2.3.1.
2.3.2. , Windows
2.4.
2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM
2.4.2.
2.4.3. USB
2.4.4.
2.4.5. Un*x GNU
2.4.6.
2.5.
3. Debian GNU/Linux
3.1.
3.2. !
3.3. ,
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
3.3.4.
3.4.
3.5. -
3.5.1. DOS Windows
3.6.
3.6.1. BIOS
3.6.2.
3.6.3. BIOS
3.6.4. ,
4.
4.1. - Debian GNU/Linux
4.2. - Debian

4.2.1.
4.3. USB
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3. USB
4.4.
4.4.1. LILO
GRUB
4.5. TFTP
4.5.1. BOOTP
4.5.2. DHCP
4.5.3. TFTP
4.5.4. TFTP TFTP
4.6.
4.6.1. Debian
5.
5.1. Intel x86
5.1.1. CD-ROM
5.1.2. Windows
5.1.3. Linux LILO GRUB
5.1.4. USB
5.1.5. TFTP
5.1.6.
5.2.
5.2.1. USB-
5.2.2. ,
5.2.3.
5.2.4.
5.2.5. -
5.3.
5.3.1. Debian
5.4.
5.4.1. CD-ROM
5.4.2.
5.4.3. Intel x86
5.4.4.
5.4.5.
5.4.6.
6. Debian
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1. Debian
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.3.4.
6.3.5.
6.3.6.
6.3.7.
6.3.8.
6.4.
6.4.1.

6.4.2.
7. Debian
7.1.
7.2.
7.2.1. dm-crypt
7.2.2. loop-AES
7.2.3.
7.3.
8.
8.1.
8.2. Unix
8.3. Debian
8.3.1. Debian
8.3.2.
8.3.3. cron
8.4.
8.5.
8.5.1.
8.5.2.
8.5.3. Exim4
8.6.
8.6.1.
8.7.
A.
A.1.
A.2.
A.2.1. CDROM
A.2.2. USB
A.2.3.
A.2.4.
A.3.
A.4.
A.5.
B. c
B.1.
B.1.1.
B.1.2.
B.2.
B.2.1.
B.2.2.
B.2.3.
B.2.4.
B.2.5. DHCP

B.3.
B.4. ( lenny)
B.4.1.
B.4.2.
B.4.3.
B.4.4. -
B.4.5.
B.4.6.

B.4.7. RAID
B.4.8.
B.4.9.
B.4.10. Apt
B.4.11.
B.4.12.
B.4.13.
B.4.14.
B.5.
B.5.1.
B.5.2.

B.5.3.
C. Debian
C.1. Debian
C.2.
C.3.
C.4. Linux
C.5. Debian
C.5.1. Intel x86
D.
D.1. Linux
D.1.1.
D.2. ,
D.3. Debian GNU/Linux Unix/Linux
D.3.1.
D.3.2. debootstrap
D.3.3. debootstrap
D.3.4.
D.3.5.
D.3.6.
D.3.7.
D.4. Debian GNU/Linux Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
D.4.1.
D.4.2.
D.4.3.
D.5. Debian GNU/Linux PPP Ethernet (PPPoE)
D.6.
D.6.1.
D.6.2.
E.
E.1.
E.2.
E.3. ,
E.4.
F. GNU General Public License

3.1. ,
3.2.

Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 i386


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Debian Debian GNU/Linux,
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1.1. Debian?
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(http://www.debian.org/distrib/). - Debian
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1.5.
. Debian 5.0
5.0 Debian GNU/Linux.

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1.6.
Debian.
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1.7.
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[1]

,
Debian, Debian FAQ,
Debian.

2.

2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.2. ,
2.1.3.
2.1.4.
2.1.5.
2.1.6.
2.1.7.
2.1.8.
2.1.9.
2.2. ,
2.3. GNU/Linux
2.3.1.
2.3.2. , Windows
2.4.
2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM
2.4.2.
2.4.3. USB
2.4.4.
2.4.5. Un*x GNU
2.4.6.
2.5.
, Debian.
, , GNU Linux.

2.1.
Debian , Linux GNU.
, , Linux,
libc, gcc .. Debian, Debian.
http://www.debian.org/ports/i386/, Intel
x86 Debian.
, ,
Intel x86, ,
.

2.1.1.
Debian 5.0
, (flavors).


Debian

Intel x86

i386

AMD64 & Intel EM64T

amd64

DEC Alpha

alpha

arm

Netwinder CATS

netwinder

armel

Versatile

versatile

Intel IOP32x

iop32x

Intel IXP4xx

ixp4xx

Marvell Orion

orion5x

PA-RISC 1.1

32

PA-RISC 2.0

64

SGI IP22 (Indy/Indigo 2)

r4k-ip22

SGI IP32 (O2)

r5k-ip32

MIPS Malta (32-)

4kc-malta

MIPS Malta (64-)

5kc-malta

Broadcom BCM91250A
(SWARM)

sb1-bcm91250a

Broadcom BCM91480B
(BigSur)

sb1abcm91480b

Cobalt

cobalt

MIPS Malta (32-)

4kc-malta

MIPS Malta (64-)

5kc-malta

Broadcom BCM91250A
(SWARM)

sb1-bcm91250a

Broadcom BCM91480B

sb1a-

ARM
arm armel

HP PA-RISC

hppa

Intel IA-64

ia64

MIPS (
mips
)

MIPS (
)

mipsel


Debian

IBM/Motorola PowerPC

powerpc

Sun SPARC

sparc

IBM S/390

s390

(BigSur)

bcm91480b

PowerMac

pmac

PReP

prep

sun4u
sun4v
IPL VM-reader DASD

sparc64
generic

IPL
tape
Intel x86.
, Debian,
Debian.

2.1.2. ,
Linux
Hardware Compatibility HOWTO. .
2.1.2.1.
x86- (IA-32) ,
, Intel "Pentium". 32-
AMD VIA ( Cyrix), Athlon XP Intel P4 Xeon.
, Debian GNU/Linux lenny 386 .
, "i386", Debian Sarge (r3.1)
80386 ( )[2]. ( Linux 286
.) i486 [3].

64- AMD64
Intel EM64T, , ,
amd64 (32-)
i386.
2.1.2.2. - (I/O)
,
, , .
ISA, EISA, PCI, PCIe VESA Local Bus (VLB, VL
). , , ,
.

2.1.3.

,
. Linux ,
GNU/Linux .

2.1.4.

(symmetric multi-processing) SMP.
Debian 5.0 SMP-alternatives. ,
( ) SMP
.
486 Debian Intel x86 SMP.

2.1.5.
VGA- - .
VGA. ,
CGA, MDA HGA , X11.
, X11 , .
Debian
X.Org X11. AGP, PCI PCI
X.Org. , ,
http://xorg.freedesktop.org/. Debian 5.0 X.Org 7.3.

2.1.6.
(NIC), Linux,
; .
PCI PCMCIA. ISA.
ISDN , .
2.1.6.1.
, , ,
Linux,
. ,
Linux, , Debian GNU/Linux,
.

.
, ,
Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM DVD.
CD/DVD.
( )
, , .
, Debian.
.
. Linux ,
ndiswrapper, Windows.

2.1.7.
brltty.
, , USB
bluetooth. brltty. Debian

GNU/Linux 5.0 brltty 3.10.

2.1.8.
speakup. speakup
,
(USB serial-to-USB ).
speakup. Debian GNU/Linux 5.0
speakup 3.0.3.

2.1.9.
Linux , , , , PCMCIA
USB . ,
.
USB , USB, ( 3.6.4,
, ).
, Linux Linux
Hardware Compatibility HOWTO.

[2]

, -
, C++ ABI, GCC.
Debian GNU/Linux 80386,
,
.
[3]


, Debian
. i486, 1989 , (bswap, cmpxchg
xadd), i386, 1986 . ,
Debian; .

2.2. ,
, ,
.
( ),
USB .
, ,
Debian GNU/Linux,
.
Debian GNU/Linux , ,
, non-free.
, ,
. Debian GNU/Linux 5.0, debian-installer
,
USB-. ,
. 6.4, .

2.3.
GNU/Linux
Debian
GNU/Linux. , ,
, ,
GNU/Linux.
Windows, ,
Windows; ,
. windows refund
.
Linux , ,
, , Linux.
, ,
. ( ), Linux.
Linux .

2.3.1.


.
, Linux.

Linux. ,
. , ,
.

2.3.2. , Windows
Windows- .

Microsoft Windows WinModem
Windows. ,
Windows, .
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Windows . : ,
Linux . ,
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Windows
Linux, , Windows ,
.

, Windows 2000 XP,


, ,
.
,
,
, Linux
Hardware Compatibility HOWTO.

.4.
,
Debian. , ,
Debian. ,
( 4, ),
. ,
.

2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM

CD-ROM ,
CD-ROM, DVD-ROM,
,
( SCSI IDE/ATAPI) CD-ROM.
CD-ROM . ,
CD-ROM,
. CD-ROM,
CD-ROM
; 5, .
SCSI, SATA IDE/ATAPI CD-ROM-. Linux CD-ROM HOWTO
CD-ROM Linux.
CD-ROM, USB, FireWire,
ohci1394 sbp2.

2.4.2.
,
. -
.

2.4.3. USB
Debian / -
. ,
USB
( ) .
, .

2.4.4.
.

, .
( PPPoE, ISDN PPP),
HTTP FTP. ISDN PPP .
.

NFS.

2.4.5. Un*x GNU


Unix , Debian
GNU/Linux debian-installer,
. -
, .
, D.3, Debian
GNU/Linux Unix/Linux.

2.4.6.
Debian ,
, . ,
- , ,
, ( 8.6,
, ).
, ,
Debian .
Debian , IDE (
PATA), IDE , IDE, ,
SATA SCSI /, USB FireWire. FAT,
Win-32 FAT (VFAT) NTFS.
,
AT, MFM, RLL, IDE PATA.
SATA SCSI . . Linux Hardware
Compatibility HOWTO.

2.5.
44MB 500MB
. , , .
3.4,
.
[4]
, .
[4] , , ,

,
44MB .
, .

3. Debian GNU/Linux

3.1.
3.2. !
3.3. ,
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
3.3.4.
3.4.
3.5. -
3.5.1. DOS Windows
3.6.
3.6.1. BIOS
3.6.2.
3.6.3. BIOS
3.6.4. ,
,
Debian: ,
.

3.1.
-, . ,
Debian ;
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Debian GNU/Linux ,
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1. ,
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2.
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3. Debian .

4. /
( - Debian ).
5. //USB-
( - Debian
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6. .
7. .
8. , , ethernet.
9. , Debian.
10. // .
11. , Debian GNU/Linux /
.
12. .
Intel x86 . ,
D.6, .
, ,
.
"":
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, dhcp-client ,
debootstrap tasksel ,
.
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.
tasksel,
,
, .

, X
.
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,
, - ,
Debian GNU/Linux ,
.
X debianinstaller, , .
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3.2. !
, , .
,
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3.3. ,
3.3.1.
3.3.1.1.
, ,
Debian lenny .
3.3.1.2.

.
Linux HOWTO

3.3.2.

.
.
:
, .
BIOS. ,
.
. Delete.
.
"" Windows.
,
.
.
.
.

3.1. ,

,
.
.

IDE (. PATA), SATA SCSI.


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.
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.

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.
( ).
.
: , PS/2 USB.

.
.
.

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.
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(
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3.3.3.
Linux.
, Linux . , Linux

.
, Linux ,
Windows.
"--Windows"
Linux, .
, Linux Windows-
. , .

-
. , Windows.
:
.
.
.
Linux ,
.
.

3.3.4.
24 (, Ethernet
, PPP ),
:
( ).
.
IP- .
.
IP- , .
, DNS (Domain Name Service) .
, , DHCP
, ,
DHCP .
, :
ESSID .
WEP ( ).

3.4.

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .

Pentium 4, 1 .

3.2.

()

()

64

256

512

64

,
. , Debian
20 ( s390) 48 ( i386 amd64).
, , ,
;
D.2, , .

, ,
, GNOME KDE;
xfce4, icewm wmaker, .

, , .
, ,
: , . ,
.
, Debian GNU/Linux
. , /var
Debian , .
dpkg ( ) 40. aptget . ,
200 /var ,
.

3.5. -
.
. , , ;
, .
(Windows 9x, Windows
NT/2000/XP, OS/2, MacOS, Solaris, FreeBSD, ) Linux ,
. Debian
. Windows MacOS.
Linux,
. , Debian.

, , fdisk PartitionMagic.
.

.
. ,

.
,
Debian. ,
; ,
.

Debian GNU/Linux,
( 6.3.2, )
. ,
, CD-ROM . :

, , ,
.
, , CD.
,
,
Debian. ,
, ,
,
.
FAT NTFS, DOS
Windows,
Debian .
,
, Debian.
,
.
Debian GNU/Linux .
,
.
,
Linux. Windows
Linux
.
,
.
( )
Debian, :
1. .
2. CD-ROM .
3. ().
-, Debian GNU/Linux.
4. .
5. , ,
Debian.
6. Debian, Debian.

3.5.1. DOS Windows


FAT NTFS,
, Windows, DOS.
, DOS Windows; Linux
.
IDE LBA ,
( )
( 1998 ) BIOS,
, Debian.
1024
( 524 BIOS ).
FAT NTFS .
3.5.1.1. DOS, Win-32 OS/2
: , DOS
( Windows 3.1), Win32 ( Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, XP) OS/2,
Debian .
, FAT
NTFS, DOS Windows. ,
, .
, .
- , .
.
, Debian. Debian
Debian, ,
.
,
.
,
, , ,
.
-, fips tools/ -
Debian. RESTORRB.EXE, FIPS.EXE ERRORS.TXT
. sys a:
DOS. fips , .
,
. .
, . defrag DOS
6.0 . fips
, . , Windows 9x,
defrag , DOS VFAT,
Windows 95 .
( ),
fips. a:\fips .
, , fips -
.

3.5.1.2. DOS
DOS DOS
Linux, ,
FAT. ,
, scandisk DOS
Windows.
, DOS
. ,
DOS format, Linux:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdXX bs=512 count=4

3.6.

,
Debian. , ,
. (firmware)
;
( ).
, Debian
GNU/Linux.

3.6.1. BIOS
BIOS ,
. , BIOS .
, BIOS ;
Debian.
http://www.faqs.org/faqs/pc-hardware-faq/part1/ ,
CMOS?. BIOS
( CMOS), BIOS:
AMI BIOS
Delete POST (power on self test,
)
Award BIOS
Ctrl+Alt+Esc Delete POST
DTK BIOS
Esc POST
IBM PS/2 BIOS
Ctrl+Alt+Insert Ctrl+Alt+Delete
Phoenix BIOS

Ctrl+Alt+Esc Ctrl+Alt+S F1
BIOS
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hard-Disk-Upgrade/install.html.
Intel x86 CMOS BIOS.
CMOS. /
, shareware/freeware
. ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/msdos/.

3.6.2.
BIOS ,
. ,
A: ( ), , , CD-ROM
(, D: E:) C: ( ).
, CD-ROM,
, Debian.
SCSI- CD-ROM, ,
CD-ROM. , , CDROM BIOS SCSI-.
USB (
USB USB). BIOS
USB, . USB
BIOS Removable drive USB-ZIP.
.
Linux .
3.6.2.1. IDE
1. , BIOS.
Delete. , ,
.
2. . BIOS,
.
IDE: C, A, cdrom A, C, cdrom.
C , A .
3. , CD-ROM .
, Page Up Page Down,
.
4. . .
3.6.2.2. SCSI
1. ,
SCSI.
SCSI ,
, .
. , Ctrl+F2. ,

.
2. .
3. , SCSI ID .
4. . . ,
F10.

3.6.3. BIOS
3.6.3.1. CD-ROM
BIOS (, Award BIOS)
CD.
. seek failed, ,
.
3.6.3.2.
(extended) (expanded)
, , ,
. Linux .
3.6.3.3.
BIOS .
, ,
GNU/Linux. GNU/Linux; , Linux,
[5].
3.6.3.4. Shadow RAM
shadow RAM BIOS.
Video BIOS Shadow, C800-CBFF Shadow ... .
Shadow RAM
. Linux ,
32- 16-
. shadow RAM
. shadow RAM Linux
.
3.6.3.5. Memory Hole
BIOS - 1516 MB Memory Hole, . Linux
, .
Intel Endeavor,
LFB Linear Frame Buffer. Disabled 1 Megabyte.
1 Megabyte. ,
, . ,
,
, .

3.6.3.6. (Advanced Power Management)


(APM),
, APM. doze, standby,
suspend, nap sleep, . Linux
, BIOS.

3.6.4. ,
USB BIOS . AT, USB
, (legacy) AT
BIOS.
USB . , (
) , .
BIOS Legacy keyboard
emulation USB keyboard support.

[5]

, .
Linux, Windows,
. (MBR)
.

4.

4.1. - Debian GNU/Linux


4.2. - Debian
4.2.1.
4.3. USB
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3. USB
4.4.
4.4.1. LILO GRUB
4.5. TFTP
4.5.1. BOOTP
4.5.2. DHCP
4.5.3. TFTP
4.5.4. TFTP TFTP
4.6.
4.6.1. Debian

4.1. - Debian
GNU/Linux
Debian GNU/Linux
- Debian ( - Debian).
, - - Debian
,
- ( Debian
GNU/Linux -). - Debian
CDROM, 5,
; , ,
.
, ,
. DVD
, .
-, CD,
, ,
, usb, , CD. ; Debian CD . ,
,
, CD.
,
-.
CD,
, usb,
.

4.2. - Debian
( , , ) -
- Debian.
- Debian FTP ,
, .

4.2.1.
- Debian
debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-i386/current/images/ MANIFEST
.

4.3. USB
USB.
. CD USB
, -.
.

netboot ( , . 4.2.1,
) , ,
USB.
hd-media,
, .
CD-. CD-
debian-installer. , , ,
[6] .
USB GNU/Linux
USB. USB .
, , usb-storage. USB- ,
/dev/sdX, X
a-z. , USB
dmesg. .

, , !
USB.
, - ,
, .
, USB 256 (
4.3.2, ).

4.3.1.
"--" hd-media/boot.img.gz,
( ) , syslinux .
, , :
256 , USB .

USB ,
, .
, CD- USB,
CD- , businesscard netinst.
, USB:
# zcat boot.img.gz > /dev/sdX

, USB (mount /dev/sdX /mnt),


FAT ISO- Debian netinst businesscard.
(umount /mnt) .

4.3.2.
,
, .
, USB
, CD ISO.
4.3.2.1. USB
, .

USB
FAT16, , ,
. , cfdisk
FAT16,
:
# mkdosfs /dev/sdX1

USB.
mkdosfs Debian dosfstools.
USB,
. (, lilo),
syslinux, FAT16
.
, FAT.
syslinux FAT16 USB,
syslinux mtools
# syslinux /dev/sdX1

: .
syslinux.
ldlinux.sys, .
4.3.2.2.
(mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt),
:

vmlinuz ( )
initrd.gz ( ramdisk)

. gtk.
, , syslinux DOS (8.3).
, syslinux.cfg, ,
:
default vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.gz


video=vesa:ywrap,mtrr vga=788 .
hd-media, ISO- Debian
(businesscard, netinst CD; , )
. , USB (umount /mnt).

4.3.3. USB

USB,
(MBR).
, install-mbr mbr:
# install-mbr /dev/sdX

[6]

, , .
, udeb CD .

4.4.
,
,
BIOS.
.
, , CD
.
,
NTFS.

4.4.1. LILO
GRUB
linux
LILO GRUB.
,
. RAMdisk
.
Debian ,
, /boot/newinstall/.
vmlinuz ( )
initrd.gz ( ramdisk)
5.1.3, Linux
LILO GRUB.

4.5. TFTP
,
TFTP.
.
TFTP , , DHCP .
BOOTP IP , IP-
. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
BOOTP. DHCP.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
. , ,
.
SunOS 4.x, SunOS 5.x ( Solaris) GNU/Linux.

TFTP Pre-boot Execution Environment


(PXE) , TFTP tsize. Debian
GNU/Linux atftpd tftpd-hpa;
tftpd-hpa.

4.5.1. BOOTP
GNU/Linux BOOTP . CMU bootpd. ,
DHCP ISC dhcpd. Debian GNU/Linux
bootp dhcp3-server .
CMU bootpd, -, ( )
/etc/inetd.conf. Debian GNU/Linux
update-inetd --enable bootps, /etc/init.d/inetd reload.
BOOTP Debian, :
bootps

dgram

udp

wait

root

/usr/sbin/bootpd

bootpd -i -t 120

/etc/bootptab.
BSD printcap, termcap disktab.
bootptab. CMU bootpd
(MAC) . /etc/bootptab:
client:\
hd=/tftpboot:\
bf=tftpboot.img:\
ip=192.168.1.90:\
sm=255.255.255.0:\
sa=192.168.1.1:\
ha=0123456789AB:

ha,
. bf , TFTP;
4.5.4, TFTP TFTP .
, BOOTP ISC dhcpd , BOOTP
DHCP.
BOOTP. ,
4.5.2, DHCP . ,
allow bootp ,
dhcpd /etc/init.d/dhcpd3-server restart.

4.5.2. DHCP
DHCP ISC dhcpd. Debian GNU/Linux
dhcp3-server. (
/etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf):
option domain-name "example.com";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.com;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
server-name "servername";
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.253;
option routers 192.168.1.1;
}
host clientname {
filename "/tftpboot/tftpboot.img";
server-name "servername";
next-server servername;

hardware ethernet 01:23:45:67:89:AB;


fixed-address 192.168.1.90;

servername,
DHCP, TFTP . domainname, . filename
, TFTP.
dhcpd,
/etc/init.d/dhcpd3-server restart.
4.5.2.1. PXE DHCP
dhcp.conf, ,
(PXE) TFTP.
option domain-name "example.com";
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
allow booting;
allow bootp;
#
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.253;
option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;
# ,
# ( , )
option routers 192.168.1.1;
# dns
option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.3;
}
group {
next-server 192.168.1.3;
host tftpclient {
# tftp
hardware ethernet 00:10:DC:27:6C:15;
filename "pxelinux.0";
}
}

, PXE filename pxelinux.0


, ( 4.5.4, TFTP
TFTP ).

4.5.3. TFTP
TFTP , tftpd . ,
/etc/inetd.conf :
tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd /tftpboot

Debian .


, TFTP- /tftpboot
. , Debian GNU/Linux
, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. ,
tftpd-hpa /var/lib/tftpboot.
.
/etc/inetd.conf ,
in.tftpd[7] . /etc/inetd.conf,
inetd. Debian
/etc/init.d/inetd reload; ID inetd
kill -HUP inetd-pid.

4.5.4. TFTP TFTP


, TFTP 4.2.1,
tftpd.
, tftpd . ,
TFTP .
PXE, netboot/netboot.tar.gz.
tftpd. , dhcp
pxelinux.0 tftpd .

[7]

Debian in.tftpd TFTP


. -v,
.
, .

plicator, systemimager, autoinstall Debian.

4.6.1. Debian
Debian
.
, ,
.
,
, B, c
.

5.

5.1. Intel x86


5.1.1. CD-ROM
5.1.2. Windows
5.1.3. Linux LILO GRUB
5.1.4. USB
5.1.5. TFTP
5.1.6.
5.2.
5.2.1. USB-
5.2.2. ,
5.2.3.
5.2.4.
5.2.5. -
5.3.
5.3.1. Debian
5.4.
5.4.1. CD-ROM
5.4.2.
5.4.3. Intel x86
5.4.4.
5.4.5.
5.4.6.

5.1. Intel x86


( ),
, .

"" (
)
, .


,
D.6, .

5.1.1. CD-ROM
-
Debian. -
-, ! -
3.6.2, , -,
.
, - ,
.
CD ,
, .
CD-ROM, , CDROM Debian . ,
, . ,
, CD-ROM.
5.4,
.

5.1.2. Windows
Windows,
CD-ROM/DVD-ROM USB 4.1,
- Debian GNU/Linux 4.3,
USB.
CD-ROM DVD-ROM, ,
. Windows , USB,
, setup.exe.
, ,
Debian GNU/Linux.

5.1.3. Linux LILO GRUB



( 4.4,
).
,
, netboot/debianinstaller/i386/initrd.gz netboot/debianinstaller/i386/linux.
, .
,
, hd-media/initrd.gz ,
CD ( DVD) (,
.iso). CD
.

LILO /etc/lilo.conf:
initrd.gz;
vmlinuz RAM .
/etc/lilo.conf:
image=/boot/newinstall/vmlinuz
label=newinstall
initrd=/boot/newinstall/initrd.gz

initrd(4) lilo.conf(5). lilo


.
GRUB . menu.lst /boot/grub/
( /boot/boot/grub/) ,
(, /boot ):
title
root
kernel
initrd

New Install
(hd0,0)
/boot/newinstall/vmlinuz
/boot/newinstall/initrd.gz

GRUB LILO.

5.1.4. USB
, 3.6.2,
4.3, USB.
USB USB .
boot:.
, Enter.

5.1.5. TFTP

TFTP (DHCP, RARP BOOTP).
4.5,
TFTP.
TFTP i386.
5.1.5.1. PXE
, (NIC)
PXE. TFTP Intel.
BIOS .
5.1.5.2. BootROM
, (NIC) TFTP.
5.1.5.3. Etherboot
etherboot (bootrom)
TFTPboot.

5.1.6.
Debian :
Installer boot menu
Install
Graphical install
Advanced options
Help

>

Press ENTER to boot or TAB to edit a menu entry

, Graphical install
.
Install Graphical install
() , Enter
.
Advanced options ,
, .
- ,
Tab.
, .
( ) . Enter
;
, Esc.
Help, ,
. ,
, . , F3 F4
, , .
,
:
Press F1 for the help index, or ENTER to boot:

, Enter
, .
.
- , ,
( install), (, install
fb=false).

,
. ,
() ,
, . Wikipedia
,
.


, BIOS
,
;
. ,
,
VGA .
Compaq integrated Lights Out (iLO) HP Integrated
Remote Assistant (IRA).

Esc , ( )
H Enter Help, . ,
, .
,
fb=false, .

5.2.
-, ,
. USB- ,
. (
) ,
.
. ,
, QWERTY.

5.2.1. USB-
USB- .
,
. Enter .
brltty, .

5.2.2. ,
, ,
( ).
brltty=,,, brltty,
. -
(. ).
, ,
ttyS0. (.
); . ,
.

5.2.3.

.

Graphical install. .
speakup.synth=, speakup,
.
(. ).
,
.

5.2.4.
,
.
, -
fb=false. , .

5.2.5. -
, . ,
theme=dark.

5.3.
Linux, ,
.
. ,
.
, (
) , . ,
. , ,
.
Linux BootPrompt HOWTO,
.
.
5.4, .
:
Memory:availk/totalk available

total .
,
mem=ram, ram , k,
m, . , mem=65536k mem=64m
64 .
,
. () ,
,
console=device, device ,
ttyS0.

5.3.1. Debian
[8],
.
,
.
, ()
. .
debconf/priority (priority)
.
priority=high. ,
,
. ,
.
priority=medium ,
.
priority=low (
expert). priority=critical,

.
DEBIAN_FRONTEND
,
.
:
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=text
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=newt
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=gtk
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=newt.
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=text .
,
newt.
gtk.
BOOT_DEBUG
2
. 3

. (
.)

BOOT_DEBUG=0
.
BOOT_DEBUG=1
.
BOOT_DEBUG=2
.
BOOT_DEBUG=3

, .
.
INSTALL_MEDIA_DEV
,
Debian. , INSTALL_MEDIA_DEV=/dev/floppy/0
USB
.
.
lowmem
lowmem
,
. 1 2. 6.3.1.1,
/ .
debian-installer/framebuffer (fb)

.
, fb=false.
bterm bogl,
.
video=vga16:off
. Dell Inspiron
Mobile Radeon.
debian-installer/theme (theme)

(, ..). .
newt gtk dark,
.

theme=dark.
netcfg/disable_dhcp
, debian-installer
DHCP. ,
.
DHCP.
DHCP , ,
, , ,
netcfg/disable_dhcp=true, DHCP
.
hw-detect/start_pcmcia
false, PCMCIA ,
. .
disk-detect/dmraid/enable (dmraid)
true, Serial ATA RAID (
ATA RAID, BIOS RAID -RAID) . ,
.
Debian Installer.
preseed/url (url)
url
. 4.6, .
preseed/file (file)
.
4.6, .
preseed/interactive
true ,
.
. , ,
, .
B.5.2,
.
auto-install/enable (auto)
, ,
.
B.2.3, .
finish-install/keep-consoles


(VT1-VT6) /etc/inittab. true,
.
cdrom-detect/eject
, debian-installer
-, . ,
- .
, ,
- .
, slim-line caddy
.
false, ,
- .
debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated
,
gpg. true
. : , .
mouse/protocol
gtk- ( ),
, .
[9]: PS/2, IMPS/2, MS, MS3, MouseMan MouseSystems.
.
mouse/device
gtk- ( ),
, . ,
, (serial mouse). :
mouse/device=/dev/ttyS1.
mouse/left
gtk ( )
, true.
directfb/hw-accel
gtk ( ),
directfb.
true.
rescue/enable
true ,
. 8.7, .

5.3.1.1.
,
, .
B.2.2,
. .
debian-installer/locale (locale)
. ,
Debian. ,
locale=de_CH, .
anna/choose_modules (modules)
,
.
, openssh-client-udeb ( ,
scp) ppp-udeb (
PPPoE).
netcfg/disable_dhcp
true, DHCP .
mirror/protocol (protocol)
, http
- Debian, ftp
. ftp,
. , ftp , .
tasksel:tasksel/first (tasks)
,
, kde-desktop. 6.3.5.2,
.
5.3.1.2.
,
.
- ,
.
, ,
,
.
.
, .

. .

:
_._=

,
. , 3Com BNC
() IRQ 10, :
3c509.xcvr=3 3c509.irq=10

5.3.1.3.
,
udev. ,
. ,
.
, .
:
module_name.blacklist=yes.
/etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.local .
, .
,
, .

[8]

(2.6.9 ) 32
32 .
[9]

directfbrc(5).

5.4.
5.4.1. CD-ROM
, CD-ROM,
CD-ROM. ( CD-ROM)
CD-ROM .
.
. .
, .
CD-ROM , ,
.
CD-ROM,
CD-ROM . DMA
CD-ROM .
, . , ,
CD-ROM DVD,
CD-ROM.
CD-ROM, ,
, .
5.4.1.1.
CD-ROM ,
CD.
CD-ROM, , Linux
CD-ROM (, , ,
CD-ROM).
CD-ROM ,
(DMA).
5.4.1.2.
CD-ROM , .
, BIOS CD-ROM (,
), CD-ROM .
iso, , md5sum
MD5SUMS, , .
$ md5sum debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso
a20391b12f7ff22ef705cee4059c6b92 debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso

, md5sum CD-ROM .
. CD-ROM ,
.
$ dd if=/dev/cdrom | \
> head -c `stat --format=%s debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso` | \

> md5sum
a20391b12f7ff22ef705cee4059c6b92 262668+0 records in
262668+0 records out
134486016 bytes (134 MB) copied, 97.474 seconds, 1.4 MB/s

CD-ROM,
. CD-ROM,
CD-ROM. CD-ROM
, , ,
. Linux.
, (VT2)
.
VT4 /var/log/syslog (
nano), .
dmesg.

dmesg , CD-ROM . -
( ):
Probing IDE interface ide1...
hdc: TOSHIBA DVD-ROM SD-R6112, ATAPI CD/DVD-ROM drive
ide1 at 0x170-0x177,0x376 on irq 15
hdc: ATAPI 24X DVD-ROM DVD-R CD-R/RW drive, 2048kB Cache, UDMA(33)
Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
, , , CDROM, . ,
,
modprobe.

, CD-ROM
/dev/. , /dev/hdc.
/dev/cdroms/cdrom0.

mount , CD-ROM ; ,
:
$ mount /dev/hdc /cdrom
, .
, DMA:
$ cd /proc/ide/hdc
$ grep using_dma settings
using_dma
1
0

rw

1 . , :
$ echo -n "using_dma:0"
>settings
, , CDROM.
, CD-ROM
.
CD-ROM.

5.4.2.
,
, ,
5.3, .
, , ,
. ,
Plug-n-Play.
, 512
,
mem=512m.

5.4.3. Intel x86


,
.
DCL.
, , ,
floppy=thinkpad.
, IBM PS/1 ValuePoint ( ST506), IDE .
, IDE. ,
( , )
hd= , , .
Checking 'hlt'
instruction..., no-hlt,
.
( ),
4:3 ( , , 800x600 1024x768),
.
vga=788[10]. ,
fb=false.
, , ,
, , ,
, . ,
fb=false,
. -
. . 5.3, .
5.4.3.1. PCMCIA
Dell ,
PCMCIA .
.
PCMCIA , PCMCIA
hw-detect/start_pcmcia=false.
PCMCIA, , .
: .
, .

, Dell, ,
exclude port 0x800-0x8ff. ,
System resource settings section of the PCMCIA HOWTO. ,
, .
5.4.3.2. USB
, USB USB ,
USB. ,
USB , . ,
USB BIOS .
nousb .

5.4.4.
can't find -
- not present, can't initialize - this driver
release depends on - . .
,
. ,
,
, . , ,
. - ,
. ,
, ( 8.6,
).

5.4.5.
, ,
.

. ,
. ,
.
, , /var/log/
, /var/log/installer/ ,
.

5.4.6.
, . ,
,
.
, Debian
(BTS) . ,
, .

Debian ,
installation-report reportbug (aptitude install installation-

report reportbug), reportbug, 8.5.2,


, reportbug installation-reports.

- installation-reports
<submit@bugs.debian.org>.
Package: installation-reports
Boot method: < ? CD? ? ?>
Image version: < url, >
Date: < >
Machine: < (, IBM Thinkpad R32)>
Processor:
Memory:
Partitions: < df -Tl;
(raw) >
lspci -knn lspci -nn:
Base System Installation Checklist:
[O] = OK, [E] = ( ), [ ] =
Initial boot:
Detect network card:
Configure network:
Detect CD:
Load installer modules:
Detect hard drives:
Partition hard drives:
Install base system:
Clock/timezone setup:
User/password setup:
Install tasks:
Install boot loader:
Overall install:

[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

Comments/Problems:
< , , .>

, ,
. , ,
.

________________________________________________________________________________
[10]

vga=788 VESA 800x600. ,


, , .
vga=ask, ,
.

6. Debian

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1. Debian
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.3.4.
6.3.5.
6.3.6.
6.3.7.
6.3.8.
6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.

6.1.
Debian ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
() .
.
; , ,
, .
, .
, , ,
- .
, ,
.
, .
, ,
debian-installer. ,
, ( DHCP,
), netcfg/disable_dhcp=true.
5.3.1,
Debian.
, , ,
,
.
, priority=medium.
,
.
expert ,

priority=low. debian-installer.
debian-installer
: . ,
Graphical install .
. D.6,
.
. ,
. Tab
, Shift+Tab
.
, .
, ,
, , Pg-Up PgDown .
. Enter.
.
, Alt+F4 ( Alt
F4);
Alt+F1.
/var/log/syslog.
/var/log/installer/syslog .
/var/log/
/var/log/installer/ ,
.

6.2.

.
6.3, .
main-menu

, . main-menu
(medium) ,
( ), . ,
, ,
, ,
.
, Go Back,
.
localechooser

: , .
, .
, .

kbd-chooser
,
.
hw-detect
,
, PCMCIA.
cdrom-detect
- Debian.
netcfg
,
.
iso-scan
ISO- ( .iso files) .
choose-mirror
- Debian. ,
.
cdrom-checker
-.
, - .
lowmem

, debian-installer (
).
anna
Anna APT. ,
- -.
clock-setup
(UTC) .
tzsetup
, .

partman
,
.
, ,
LVM.
Debian.
partitioner
, .
.
partconf
,
.
lvmcfg
LVM ( ).
mdcfg
RAID (Redundant Array of
Inexpensive Disks). RAID , IDE () RAID- .
base-installer
,
Linux .
user-setup
.
apt-setup
apt, , ,
.
pkgsel
tasksel .
os-prober

bootloader-installer,
.

.
bootloader-installer
,
, Linux
-.
.
shell

.
save-logs
, ,
,
Debian .

6.3.
.

. ,
.

6.3.1. Debian
, Debian
. debian-installer .
, ,
. . debian-installer ,
,
. , debianinstaller ,
(, ,
-).
, debian-installer
. ,
(.. CD-ROM ).
,
.
debian-installer
. ,
, ,
. . 6.4,
.

6.3.1.1. /
, debian-installer,
. ,
, , , Debian GNU/Linux
.
,
,
. , .
,
,
. .
,
, ,
.

(64128).
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
-
( Out of memory VT4 syslog).
, ,
, .
,
ext2 ( ).
ext2 ext3.
lowmem
, ,
lowmem 5.3.1,
Debian.
6.3.1.2.
,
.
, .
,
. ,
.

-
Debian.
.
.
() ();
. .

, C .
C ;
, locales
.
, [11]
. , ( ).
;
, .
, .
debconf
.
.
,
,
.
6.3.1.3.
. ,
, ,
.
( kbdconfig
).
Enter.

, . ''
F1 F10 .
6.3.1.4. ISO Debian
hd-media, ,
ISO Debian,
. iso-scan.
iso-scan (.. ),

, .iso ( .ISO, ). ,
(
/.iso, /data/.iso, /data/tmp/.iso). iso ,
iso-scan , iso
Debian . , iso-scan
.
ISO , iso-scan ,
.
.
iso-scan ISO ,
( .iso),
debian-installer ,
( ). Unix
.

6.3.1.5.
,
, ,
, .
.
; interfaces(5).
, debian-installer
DHCP. DHCP ,
. , ,
DHCP.
DHCP .
. ,
, . DHCP
, , , .
, IP, , , DNS- . ,
, Wireless ESSID
WEP . 3.3, , .

, , :
, IP-
IP- .

IP- . .
- ,
, ,
/etc/network/interfaces.
6.3.1.6.
(
NTP), . ,
,
.
.
, ,
, .
, .
- ,
,
.
1. :
. :
# dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

2. :
time/zone=.
, Europe/London UTC.

6.3.2.
, debianinstaller ,
- . ,
,
, , , RAID, LVM
.
, ,
C, Debian.

. .
, .
6.3.2.1.
, :
( ),
(LVM) , LVM [12].

LVM LVM
.
LVM LVM c ,
; ,
.
LVM
, ()
.
LVM,
, .
(
),
.

LVM LVM c ,
LVM,
.
.

.
( LVM (
)) , ,
. , , ,
.

, .
.
,
.
, ;
LVM ( ) .
, .
"" "", C, Debian.
, . ,

. 1 (
), .

600

/, swap

/home

500

/, /home, swap

/, /home, /usr, /var, /tmp,


/home, /usr,
1
/var /tmp
swap
LVM ( ),
/boot. ,
, LVM.
, ,

.
:
IDE1 master (hda) - 6.4 GB WDC AC36400L
#1 primary
16.4 MB B f ext2
/boot
#2 primary 551.0 MB
swap
swap
#3 primary
5.8 GB
ntfs
pri/log
8.2 MB
FREE SPACE
IDE1 slave (hdb) - 80.0 GB ST380021A
#1 primary
15.9 MB
ext3
#2 primary 996.0 MB
fat16
#3 primary
3.9 GB
xfs
#5 logical
6.0 GB
f ext3
#6 logical
1.0 GB
f ext3
#7 logical 498.8 MB
ext3
#8 logical 551.5 MB
swap
#9 logical
65.8 GB
ext2

/home
/
/var
swap

IDE, ;
. , ,
, , ( ).
: ,
, .
.
,
( ).
,

,
.
6.3.2.2.
, ,
.
Debian.
, ,
( ).
, .
, .
, ( )
( ). ,
. :,
, ,
, RAID, LVM,
.
, ; ,
. ,
. , :,
, , RAID, LVM
.
. ,
partman.
, - ,
. ,
. , ,
, : , ,
. , , fat16,
fat32, ext2, ext3 . , .
, , , :
( /) .
, partman ,
.
partman ,
. , ,
, (, partman-ext3, partmanxfs partman-lvm).
,
. ,
,
.
6.3.2.3. Multidisk ( RAID)
[13] ,
mdcfg /
. Multidisk
( , , RAID).

MD ,
.
( partman ,
..).
MD .
:
RAID0
. RAID0
.
/, ,
( (),
).
, RAID0 .
RAID1
, . (
) ,
. , . : ,
, . :
( ,
RAID). :
, , ,
, .
, ,
.
RAID5
, . RAID5

( RAID0). RAID0, RAID5
, .
( RAID4), ,
. ,

. RAID5 , .
, ,
.
, RAID5 RAID1,
. , ,
RAID0 - .
RAID6
RAID5, , .

RAID6 .
RAID10
RAID10 ( RAID0) ( RAID1).
n ,
, .
n 2, .
n. RAID10 .
(near) .
. (far)
. ,
.
RAID10
.
:

RAID0



RAID

RAID1


RAID

RAID5


(
RAID )

RAID6


(
RAID )


,
RAID10 2

(
)
RAID, Software RAID HOWTO.
MD RAID.
( partman ,
: RAID.)

,
. ,
/boot, (/) RAID.
( lilo grub) (
!) RAID1, , ,RAID5 /
RAID1 /boot.


MD .
RAID
, MD
(/). , ,
,
.
, RAID partman.
(
RAID.) mdcfg MD
. MD ,
(, RAID1).
MD.
RAID0 RAID,
, MD.
RAID1 . -,
, MD.
, RAID ,
, .
, . .
, debian-installer
, .
RAID5 RAID1 ,
.
RAID6 RAID1 ,
.
RAID10 RAID1,
. debian-installer
. . .
n ( ), f ( ), o (
). .
, , ,
.
MD . ,
200 MD, 100 ,
RAID0 ( 300
) (2 1 )
RAID1 ( 100 /home).
MD ,
mdcfg partman, MD
.
6.3.2.4. (LVM)

, , , ,
( ) ,
,

..

(LVM). , LVM (
LVM) ( ),
( ). ,
(, , )
.
, , 160 /home ,
300 ,
,
/home , 460
. , , .
LVM HOWTO.
LVM debian-installer partman
-, (),
LVM. , :
LVM.
partman,
(LVM). ,
( ) ,
LVM. LVM.
. :
: LVM ,
..






: partman
,
.
partman,
, ( ).
6.3.2.5.
debian-installer . ,
, .
,
.
.
, ,
.

: /home,
, ,
. , , ,
. , /var, ,
, /tmp,
.
. /boot,
,
.

,
,
.
, .

. (,
, LVM RAID).
: .
.
debian-installer .
dm-crypt ( Linux,
LVM), loop-AES (,
Linux). ,
.
,
Device-mapper (dm-crypt). : ,
, .
: aes
(),
. debian-installer
: aes, blowfish, serpent twofish.
, ,
, 2000 AES

21- .
: 256
.
. ,
.
.
IV : cbc-essiv:sha256
IV ,

. ,

.
, cbc-essiv:sha256
.

, .
:
.

[14] ,
.


. :
, .
(, ,
,
.)
,

. , ,
suspend-to-disk Linux,
( )
.
:
,
. ,
, . ,

[15].
: Loopback (loop-AES),
:
: AES256
loop-AES, dm-crypt, ,
.
.
: Keyfile (GnuPG)

.
(GnuPG)

. , GnuPG,
,
( ).

.
:
.
,
. .
, ,
, , .
.
, .
8 ,
,
, - (, ,
, , ).

,
. ,
.
, ,
qwerty,
azerty.
.
,
.

, .
,
. : ,
,
( - ,
/dev/null ..).
.
,
, .
. dm-crypt,
loop-AES.

(sda2_crypt) - 115.1 Linux device-mapper


#1 115.1 GB F ext3
loopback (loop0) - 515.2 AES256 keyfile
#1 515.2 MB F ext3

,
- .
-
(sda2_crypt loop0 ) ,
. .

7.2, .
, .

6.3.3.
,
, , .
,
.

tty4. , Alt+F4;
Alt+F1.
/
/var/log/syslog. ,
.
Linux.

. ,
.

6.3.4.
,
root / .
.
6.3.4.1. (root)
root ,
. root
.
6
, .
root, .
, .
- , root, .
root -,
.

6.3.4.2.
,
.
. root
.
? ,
root , root .
:
, ,
.
Unix ,
.
.
; , - . , ,
.
,
adduser.

6.3.5.
, .
,
, .
,
.
6.3.5.1. apt
aptget apt[16]. ,
, aptitude synaptic. ,
(
) . , aptitude
.
apt .
/etc/apt/sources.list.
.
,
,
, , , .
,
, volatile.
(, ),
.
/ (volatile),
contrib non-free.
6.3.5.1.1. CD DVD

CD DVD ,

, CD DVD .
CD DVD, , ,
, .
, : .
- ( ) ,
, .

CD ( DVD) .
, CD ,
CD-.
, CD
,
.
3 8 CD,
-. DVD : DVD ,
, DVD .
,
( GNOME) CD.
(KDE Xfce)
CD-. DVD
.
CD DVD-,
CD/DVD . ,
CD DVD . ,
.
6.3.5.1.2. -

: -
.
, .
CD DVD
CD/DVD, ,
. ,
,
.
CD- CD,
, , CD
.
, ,
CD (
).
DVD ,
DVD. ,
CD-, . .
, ,

CD/DVD ,
, CD/DVD
.
: - ,
. CD/DVD,
. , ,
,
1. , ,
2. , ,
3. CD/DVD,
4. , CD DVD, -
( ,
).
, ,
, ,
, , .
6.3.5.2.

. 22600 ,

, .
, , .
, - ,
, , ,
- [17]. D.2,
,
.

. ,
. .

CD- KDE Xfce/LXDE,



GNOME.
.
, debian-installer
KDE GNOME (. B.4.11,
) desktop=kde
.
Xfce LXDE,
desktop=xfce desktop=lxde.
CD (businesscard, netinst DVD)
.
Advanced options

Alternative desktop environments.


, , ,
.
CD , -,
CD; KDE, Xfce LXDE
DVD .
, . DNS: bind9; : samba, nfs; : exim4, spamassassin,
uw-imap; : cups; SQL: postgresql; -: apache2.
.
, Linux Unix .
,
.
Continue. aptitude ,
. -
, .


/ .
, , .
CD-ROM , CD-ROM,
.
, .
.
CD-ROM,
, , CD-ROM.
,
( );
, , .

6.3.6.
, ,
, .
6.3.6.1.

, .
,
,
Debian.
,
.

.
.

6.3.6.2. Grub
i386 grub. Grub

.
, grub (MBR),
. ,
. grub.
grub, Go Back,
, , .
6.3.6.3. LILO
i386 LILO.
, DOS, Windows OS/2.
/usr/share/doc/lilo/,
; LILO mini-HOWTO.

LILO
, . ,
,
, GNU/Linux GNU/Hurd .
debian-installer ,
LILO:
(MBR)
LILO .
Debian
, . LILO
, Debian
.

, LILO - .
.
/dev/hda /dev/sda.
Windows 9x ( DOS) ,
Windows 9x (MS-DOS)
fdisk /mbr MS-DOS ,
, - , Debian!
6.3.6.4.

, / ,
(, ).

,
, /target/boot. ,
initrd; ,
, . ,
/ ,
/boot, /boot.

6.3.7.
Debian
. , debian-installer.
6.3.7.1.

(UTC). , ,
, ,
.
.
, () Dos Windows,
. ,
UTC.
debian-installer
. UTC , ,
.
6.3.7.2.
(CD, , ),
.
Debian.

6.3.8.
,
, - .
6.3.8.1.
, ,
, /var/log/installer/
Debian.

, , .
,
.
6.3.8.2.

. ,
,

Alt+F2[18] ( Mac: Option+F2).


Alt+F1.
D.6.1,
.
,
, .
Go Back .
, exit .
RAM Unix .
ls /bin /sbin /usr/bin
/usr/sbin help. Bourne ash
, .
nano.
/var/log.

,
, , ,
- .

. ,

.
6.3.8.3.
network-console.
SSH.
, ,
. ( 4.6,
.)
,
. CD,
-
-
network-console: Continue installation remotely using SSH.
SSH.
,
. . .
installer
. (fingerprint)
. ,
.
, Enter
.
.
UTF-8,
. , ,

-ascii
. :
$ ssh -l installer install_host

install_host IP- .
(fingerprint),
, .

ssh ,
keep-alive. , ,
, . ,

.

(NAT) -
. ,
,
.
,
-o ServerAliveInterval= ssh,
ssh. ,

(, keep-alive
, ssh ),
.


, IP- , ssh
. ,
, . ,
,
~/.ssh/known_hosts[19] .
:Start menu Start shell.
, ,
.
, , - .
SSH
.

SSH,
, ,
. , ,
.

[11]

.
[12]

LVM 256- AES


dm-crypt .
[13]

, MD ,
, .
[14]

LUKS.
[15] ,

,
.
[16] ,

, ,
dpkg. , . apt-get ,
dpkg . CD,
- . , ,
, .
[17]

,
tasksel. ,
( ) ,
aptitude. - ,
aptitude install ,
.
[18]

: Alt
F2 .
[19]

: sshkeygen -R <_|IP->.

6.4.
2.2, , ,
. ,
;
- ,
.
, , debianinstaller ,
. , debian-installer
.
, (/lib/firmware)
.

,
.

USB- FAT. i386 amd64
MMC SD.

, , ,
, .

,
, .
, debian-installer, ,
, ,
.
(. 5.4.6,
).

6.4.1.

, - , ,
USB.
/firmware .
FAT, , ,
.
Tar- :
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/firmware/
tar-
.
tar-,
( non-free).
,
:
http://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=firmware
, .
, ,
.

6.4.2.
, ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
- .
, debian-installer
non-free
APT- sources.list.
.
,
, , ()
.


,

,
( )

7.
Debian

7.1.
7.2.
7.2.1. dm-crypt
7.2.2. loop-AES
7.2.3.
7.3.

7.1.
- smoke test.
, ,
grub , , lilo.
Debian.
, ,
( ).
, . ,
- ,
Debian.
.
( 8.7,
).
Debian Linux,
. ,
IRC #debian #debian-boot OFTC.
debian-user.
5.4.6, .
, ,
.
,
, .

7.2.

,
. dm-crypt loop-AES .

7.2.1. dm-crypt
, dm-crypt,
:
Starting early crypto disks... part_crypt(starting)
Enter LUKS passphrase:

, part ,
sda2 md0. , , :
? /home? /var? ,
, ,
. , ,
6.3.2.5, .
part_crypt ,
/etc/crypttab /etc/fstab .

. initramfs,
initrd . initrd, initramfs-tools:
Begin: Mounting root file system... ...
Begin: Running /scripts/local-top ...
Enter LUKS passphrase:

( ).
, .

. 7.2.3, .
.

7.2.2. loop-AES
, loop-AES,
:
Checking loop-encrypted file systems.
Setting up /dev/loopX (/mountpoint)
Password:

( ).
, .

. 7.2.3, .
.

7.2.3.
-
, .
.
. ,
,
.

/home /srv.
. loop-AES
:
# mount /_
Password:

, /_ (, /home).

.
dm-crypt . -
device mapper:
# /etc/init.d/cryptdisks start

/etc/crypttab
/dev
. ( ,
.)
:
# mount /_


(/usr /var),
. , ()
, ,
.

# init 1

Control+D .

7.3.
.
,
. .
, , .
, .
, .
/usr/share/doc/
. (, Debian,
).
, . ,
apt apt-doc
apt-howto.
, /usr/share/doc/ . Linux HOWTO
.gz /usr/share/doc/HOWTO/en-txt/.
dhelp /usr/share/doc/HTML/index.html
.

:
$ cd /usr/share/doc/
$ w3m .

w3m .
,
-. -
/usr/share/doc/ .
info man ,
. help,
.
--help
. ,
| more , .
, ,
.

8.

8.1.
8.2. Unix
8.3. Debian
8.3.1. Debian
8.3.2.
8.3.3. cron
8.4.
8.5.
8.5.1.
8.5.2.
8.5.3. Exim4
8.6.
8.6.1.
8.7.

8.1.
Linux ,
. Linux
, / .
,
, ( ) .
Ctrl+Alt+Del .
,
root : poweroff, halt
shutdown -h now; reboot.

8.2. Unix
Unix, , , -
. Debian. Unix
FAQs UseNet.
Linux Unix. Linux Documentation Project (LDP)
HOWTO , Linux.
doc-linux-html (HTML ) doclinux-text (ASCII ), /usr/share/doc/HOWTO.
LDP HOWTO Debian.

8.3. Debian
Debian .
Linux, , Debian,
. ,
; Debian,
.

8.3.1. Debian
Debian. ,
. :
/usr ( /usr/local)
/var ( /var/local)
/bin
/sbin
/lib
, /usr/bin/perl, , ,
perl, , .
hold aptitude.
apt.
apt-get aptitude. , apt
main, contrib non-free,
.

8.3.2.
updatealternatives. ,
update-alternatives.

8.3.3. cron

/etc, . ,
cron ,
/etc/cron.{daily,weekly,monthly}. /etc/crontab
.
, : () (b)
,
/etc/crontab, , , /etc/cron.d/_.
, ,
, cron.
, , cron
. .
cron(8), crontab(5) /usr/share/doc/cron/README.Debian.

8.4.
, ,
man info .
, /usr/share/doc. ,
/usr/share/doc/HOWTO /usr/share/doc/FAQ
.
/usr/share/doc/debian/bug*.
Debian /usr/share/doc/( )/README.Debian.

Debian Debian. ,
Debian GNU/Linux FAQ Debian. Debian
Debian.
Debian Debian
. , Debian,
Debian.
GNU/Linux Linux.
HOWTO
GNU/Linux.

8.5.
(email) .
,
Debian,
.
. : [Mail
User Agent] (MUA) ,
. : [Mail Transfer Agent] (MTA)
. : [Mail Delivery
Agent] (MDA) .
,
. ,
.
, Linux Unix MUA mutt.
Linux .
exim sendmail, MTA procmail
MDA.
,
GNOME evolution,
KDE kmail Mozilla thunderbird ( Debian icedove[20]).
MUA, MTA MDA, ( )
Linux.

8.5.1.
,
, Linux
MTA/MDA. ,
[21],
() .
exim4 mutt (
). exim4 MTA/MDA,
, . ,
, ,
( root),
, [22].
/var/mail/_.
mutt.

8.5.2.
, Debian
, .
, exim4 ,
, .
.

(ISP) ,
exim4 .

( ).
, ,
. reportbug,
Debian. ,
exim4.
reportbug ,
reportbug --configure MTA.
SMTP,
.

8.5.3. Exim4
, ,
exim4[23]:
# dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config

( ), ,
. ,
.
. ,
.
-
,
SMTP. ,
,
.
- (smarthost)
,
smarthost, . Smarthost
, ,
. ,
smarthost fetchmail.
, smarthost ISP,
,
.

.
smarthost;
, , ,
. (,
) .

.

, , .
; ,

.
, ,

/etc/exim4. exim4
/usr/share/doc/exim4; README.Debian.gz
exim4 .
,
, ,
, .
ISP. ,
, .
MTA exim4,
/etc/email-addresses.

[20]

thunderbird icedove .
.
[21] :

cron, quota, logcheck, aide,

[22]

root
/etc/aliases. , ,
, root.
[23] ,

exim4 MTA/MDA.

8.6.
? , ,
Debian, . ,
Debian . , ,
. ,
:


, (,
high memory)
,
,

linux

8.6.1.
. .
Debian, : fakeroot,
kernel-package, linux-source-2.6 , , ,
( /usr/share/doc/kernel-package/README.gz ).
.deb , ,
, .deb .
; /boot , System.map
.
, Debian;
,
. , ,
linux-source-2.6, kernel-package.
, kernel-package
/usr/share/doc/kernel-package. .
,
[24]. ,
2.6.26. ,
, tar xjf /usr/src/linux-source2.6.26.tar.bz2 linux-source2.6.26.
. ,
X11, make xconfig, make menuconfig (
libncurses5-dev).
. - ,
( ,
, , Ethernet, SCSI- ).
: ,
, , ,

. Kernel module loader Loadable module support (


). , Debian.
kernel-package.
make-kpkg clean.
: fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --revision=custom.1.0
kernel_image. 1.0 ;
. , custom
(, ).
.
.
dpkg -i ../linux-image-2.6.26_custom.1.0_i386.deb.
, , 686,
. dpkg -i .
, System.map (
), /boot/config-2.6.26, . ,

. , .
: ,
, shutdown -r now.
Debian Debian Linux Kernel Handbook.
kernel-package /usr/share/doc/kernelpackage.

[24]

,
.

8.7.
- , ,
. , ,
,
/sbin/init. ,
, .
, rescue boot:,
rescue/enable=true .
, ,
, . , !

, ,
.
, , ,
. , , ,
. ,
RAID LVM.
,
,
. , GRUB
, grub-install '(hd0)' .

.
,
. ,
.
/target.
, .
,
, ,
.
.

A.

A.1.
A.2.
A.2.1. CDROM
A.2.2. USB
A.2.3.
A.2.4.
A.3.
A.4.
A.5.
Debian GNU/Linux lenny Intel x86 (i386)
debian-installer. ,

, . ,
,
.

A.1.
, 5.4.6,
, .
, ,
debian-boot (debian-boot@lists.debian.org) IRC- (#debian-boot OFTC).

A.2.
CD- debian-installer, debian-cd
Debian CD. 4.1,
- Debian GNU/Linux.
CD-.
4.2.1, , -
Debian.
,
.

A.2.1. CDROM
CD-netinst- lenny debianinstaller. CD
, 'netinst'. , netinst , business card .
CD-,
. .
CD.
CD, BIOS. 3.6.1,
BIOS , .

A.2.2. USB
USB . , USB-
Debian,
.
USB hdmedia/boot.img.gz, gunzip 256 .
, , , 256 .
, .
, FAT . ,
Debian netinst CD ; ,
.iso.
, debianinstaller, .
4.3, USB.
BIOS USB, .

BIOS removable drive USBZIP, USB .


5.1.4, USB.

A.2.3.
debian-installer .
(netboot) .
debian-installer netboot/.
, PXE.
netboot/pxeboot.tar.gz /var/lib/tftpboot
tftp . DHCP /pxelinux.0
. 4.5,
TFTP.

A.2.4.
,
, .
hd-media/initrd.gz, hd-media/vmlinuz Debian CD
. , CD .iso.
linux initrd. 5.1.3, Linux
LILO GRUB , .

A.3.
. Enter ,
( 5.3,
).
.
Enter, .
, . ,
.
.
, .
, debian-installer
, CD, , USB
..

DHCP. DHCP,
.
.
, .
,
, .
.
(. 6.3.2.1,
). .
, .

DOS Windows, ,
. ,
FAT
NTFS, Debian;
.
,
. .
,
, .

/. 6.3.2,
; C, Debian
.
debian-installer ,
. .
, , , .
,
. ,
apt.
. ,
.
6.3.5.2, .
.
, root () ,
.
.
,
.
GRUB, .
.
debian-installer , . -
Enter .

. 7, Debian.
, 6,
Debian.

A.4.
debian-installer, ,
.
reportbug (aptitude install reportbug), reportbug
8.5.2, reportbug installationreports.
, debianinstaller. , ,
, , . ,
; ,
5.4.5, .

A.5.
, Debian Debian .
, 8, .

B. c

B.1.
B.1.1.
B.1.2.
B.2.
B.2.1.
B.2.2.
B.2.3.
B.2.4.
B.2.5. DHCP

B.3.
B.4. ( lenny)
B.4.1.
B.4.2.
B.4.3.
B.4.4. -
B.4.5.
B.4.6.
B.4.7. RAID
B.4.8.
B.4.9.
B.4.10. Apt
B.4.11.
B.4.12.
B.4.13.
B.4.14.
B.5.
B.5.1.
B.5.2.
B.5.3.
, debianinstaller .
, ,
http://www.debian.org/releases/lenny/example-preseed.txt.

B.1.

. ,
,
.
. ,
, .
( !) .

B.1.1.
: initrd, . initrd

, .
.

.

initrd

CD/DVD

[a]

netboot

[a]

hd-media ( usb-)
[a]


preseed/url

. initrd ,
. CD
CD . .
, , ,
( ,
, . B.2.2,

.
,
, auto.
,
(, , ),
.
, .
B.2.3, .

B.1.2.
debian-installer
, . ()
;
.

B.2.
-, .
.

usb-. CD DVD,
ISO . initrd;
debian-installer.
,

http://www.debian.org/releases/lenny/example-preseed.txt.
, .

B.2.1.
initrd, , preseed.cfg
initrd.
.

. ,
(,
syslinux.cfg), append .
,
,
. syslinux timeout 1
syslinux.cfg.
, ,
.
md5sum, , ,
.
:
- :
preseed/url=http://host/path/to/preseed.cfg
preseed/url/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
- CD:
preseed/file=/cdrom/preseed.cfg
preseed/file/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
- USB (
USB ):
preseed/file=/hd-media/preseed.cfg
preseed/file/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d

, preseed/url url, preseed/file file,


.

B.2.2.
,
,
.
,
, .
.
, debian-installer,
//= ,
.
, [25], ,
://=. ,
debconf
.

, , .
,
?= =. B.5.2,
.
, , ,
. ,
. ,
preseed/url url. : tasks
tasksel:tasksel/first.
-- . ,
--,
( ).
(, ),
.

linux (2.6.9 )
32 32
, ,
. , .
( .)

, vga=normal, ,
.

,
.

B.2.3.
Debian,
,
.
:
auto url=autoserver

DHCP
autoserver DNS,
, DHCP.
example.com, DHCP,
http://autoserver.example.com/d-i/lenny/./preseed.cfg.
url (d-i/lenny/./preseed.cfg) autoinstall/defaultroot. lenny,
,
. /./ ,
( preseed/include
preseed/run). URL (, /)

, .
,
,
USB-, -.
, preseed/run
/scripts/late_command.sh,
http://autoserver.example.com/d-i/lenny/./scripts/late_command.sh.
DHCP DNS, ,
preseed.cfg, url, ,
/./, ( / URL). ,
:
auto url=http://192.168.1.2/path/to/mypreseed.file

:
URL , http,
, , DHCP,
/ , .
, url, ,
debian-installer, ,
preseed/run . ,
, auto-install/classes classes.
:
auto url=example.com classes=class_A;class_B

classes, ,
.
, , ,
auto-install. autoinstall/style, . ,
, <debian-boot@lists.debian.org>,
, ,
.
auto .
auto=true priority=critical
. auto auto-install/enable
true ,
, priority debconf/priority,
critical
.
DHCP
: interface=auto netcfg/dhcp_timeout=60,
, DHCP .

,
, .
,

, .

B.2.4.
( auto)
. , ,
. , auto=true interface=eth0.
auto
classes
fb
locale
priority

url
interface
hostname
domain
protocol
suite

auto-install/enable
auto-install/classes
debian-installer/framebuffer
debian-installer/locale
debconf/priority
preseed/file
preseed/url
netcfg/choose_interface
netcfg/get_hostname
netcfg/get_domain
mirror/protocol
mirror/suite

B.2.5. DHCP

DHCP ,
. DHCP . ,
, URL, ,
URL
. ,
dhcpd.conf ISC DHCP (Debian dhcp3-server).
if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 3) = "d-i" {
filename "http://host/preseed.cfg";
}

, DHCP
"d-i", DHCP ,
.
, .
DHCP
, , - Debian.
-,
. DHCP Debian
, .

[25]

debconf ( ) , , ,
debconf.
d-i. ,
debconf .

B.3.
debconf-set-selections.
:
<> < > < > <>

, .
(tab):
.
,
(\) . ;
.
/ .
debconf (),
, d-i; ,
, ,
debconf. debconf
,
, d-i.
,
. , (, partman),
.
,
.
B.4,
( lenny) .
, ,
debconf-get-selections debconf-utils,
debconf cdebconf :
$ debconf-get-selections --installer >
$ debconf-get-selections >>

, ,
, -
.

, ,
cdebconf
/var/log/installer/cdebconf. ,
,
.
/var/log/installer
installation-report.
nano
/var/lib/cdebconf .

templates.dat , questions.dat
, .
,
debconf-set-selections -c preseed.cfg.

B.4. ( lenny)
, ,
http://www.debian.org/releases/lenny/example-preseed.txt.
, Intel x86.
, (,
)
debconf .

B.4.1.
initrd.
, .
;
, debian-installer, .
, ,
. ,
locale=ru_RU.
# .
d-i debian-installer/locale string ru_RU

.
,
.
debian-installer .
# .
#d-i console-tools/archs select at
d-i console-keymaps-at/keymap select us
#
#d-i console-keymaps-usb/keymap select mac-usb-us

console-tools/archs
skip-config. .

2.6
. 2.6
PC (at).

B.4.2.
, ,
. , CD USB .
,
.


, interface=eth1.

( preseed/url), , ,
.
, preseed/run
:
killall.sh; netcfg

debconf .
# netcfg , .
# ,
# .
d-i netcfg/choose_interface select auto
# :
#d-i netcfg/choose_interface select eth1
# dhcp
# , .
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_timeout string 60
# ,
# .
#d-i netcfg/disable_dhcp boolean true
#
# dhcp, .
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_failed note
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_options select Configure network manually
# .
#d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string 192.168.1.1
#d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string 192.168.1.42
#d-i netcfg/get_netmask string 255.255.255.0
#d-i netcfg/get_gateway string 192.168.1.1
#d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true
# , dhcp
# , . ,
# , dhcp.
d-i netcfg/get_hostname string unassigned-hostname
d-i netcfg/get_domain string unassigned-domain
# WEP .
d-i netcfg/wireless_wep string
# dhcp ,
# .
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_hostname string radish
#
# ,
# . false, #
.
#d-i hw-detect/load_firmware boolean true

, netcfg ,
netcfg/get_netmask. , seen

. netcfg ,
netcfg/get_gateway. :
netcfg/get_gateway none, ,
.

B.4.3.
# ,
# network-console SSH. ,
# .
#d-i anna/choose_modules string network-console
#d-i network-console/password password r00tme
#d-i network-console/password-again password r00tme

B.4.4. -

,
/etc/apt/sources.list -.
mirror/suite .
mirror/udeb/suite
.
, initrd,
.
mirror/udeb/suite mirror/suite.
# ftp, mirror/country string .
#d-i mirror/protocol string ftp
d-i mirror/country string manual
d-i mirror/http/hostname string http.us.debian.org
d-i mirror/http/directory string /debian
d-i mirror/http/proxy string
# .
#d-i mirror/suite string testing
# ().
#d-i mirror/udeb/suite string testing

B.4.5.
# , .
d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true
# $TZ;
# /usr/share/zoneinfo/.
d-i time/zone string US/Eastern
# , NTP
d-i clock-setup/ntp boolean true
# NTP. .
#d-i clock-setup/ntp-server string ntp.example.com

B.4.6.

; partman-auto.
.
,
.
.

.
, ,
.
# ,
# .
#d-i partman-auto/init_automatically_partition select biggest_free
# , .
# -devfs .
# : ,
# .
# , SCSI/SATA:
#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda
# , .
# : "regular", "lvm" "crypto"
d-i partman-auto/method string lvm
# ,
# , LVM,
# . ...
d-i partman-lvm/device_remove_lvm boolean true
# RAID :
d-i partman-md/device_remove_md boolean true
# lvm .
d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true
# :
# - atomic:
# - home:
/home
# - multi: /home, /usr, /var /tmp
d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe select atomic
# ...
# devel/partman-auto-recipe.txt.
# - d-i,
# .
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe_file string /hd-media/recipe
# ,
# () . /boot
# , ,
# :
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string
\
#
boot-root ::
\
#
40 50 100 ext3
\
#
$primary{ } $bootable{ }
\
#
method{ format } format{ }
\
#
use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }
\
#
mountpoint{ /boot }
\
#
.
\
#
500 10000 1000000000 ext3
\
#
method{ format } format{ }
\

#
#
#
#
#
#

use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }


mountpoint{ / }

.
64 512 300% linux-swap
method{ swap } format{ }
.

\
\
\
\
\

# partman
# , , .
d-i partman/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true

B.4.7. RAID
RAID.
RAID 0, 1, 5, 6 10, (degraded arrays)
. RAID 1,
grub , . B.4.12,
.

.
debianinstaller. ( ,
) .
-- . /var/log/syslog.
# : -,
# "raid".
#d-i partman-auto/method string raid
# . ,
# , .
#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda /dev/sdb
# .
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string \
#
multiraid ::
\
#
1000 5000 4000 raid
\
#
$primary{ } method{ raid }
\
#
.
\
#
64 512 300% raid
\
#
method{ raid }
\
#
.
\
#
500 10000 1000000000 raid
\
#
method{ raid }
\
#
.
# ,
# RAID.
# .
# :
# <raidtype> <devcount> <sparecount> <fstype> <mountpoint> \
#
<devices> <sparedevices>
# RAID 0, 1, 5, 6 10;
# "#"
#d-i partman-auto-raid/recipe string \

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

1 2 0 ext3 /
/dev/sda1#/dev/sdb1
.
1 2 0 swap /dev/sda5#/dev/sdb5
.
0 2 0 ext3 /home
/dev/sda6#/dev/sdb6
.

\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\

# partman , .
d-i partman-md/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true

B.4.8.
, , .
.
# initramfs, initrd 2.6.
#d-i base-installer/kernel/linux/initramfs-generators string yaird
# () ; "none",
# .
#d-i base-installer/kernel/image string linux-image-2.6-486

B.4.9.

.
MD5.

,
,
. , MD5
, MD5
.
# (
# sudo).
#d-i passwd/root-login boolean false
# .
#d-i passwd/make-user boolean false
# ,
#d-i passwd/root-password password r00tme
#d-i passwd/root-password-again password r00tme
# MD5 .
#d-i passwd/root-password-crypted password [MD5 ]
# .
#d-i passwd/user-fullname string Debian User
#d-i passwd/username string debian
# ,

#d-i passwd/user-password password insecure


#d-i passwd/user-password-again password insecure
# MD5 .
#d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password [MD5 ]
# UID
# .
#d-i passwd/user-uid string 1010
# .
# -- .
#d-i passwd/user-default-groups string audio cdrom video

, passwd/root-password-crypted
passwd/user-password-crypted !. ,
.
, ,

(, SSH sudo).
MD5 :
$ printf "r00tme" | mkpasswd -s -m md5

B.4.10. Apt
/etc/apt/sources.list

. () .
# non-free contrib .
#d-i apt-setup/non-free boolean true
#d-i apt-setup/contrib boolean true
# , .
#d-i apt-setup/use_mirror boolean false
# ; .
# .
#d-i apt-setup/services-select multiselect security, volatile
#d-i apt-setup/security_host string security.debian.org
#d-i apt-setup/volatile_host string volatile.debian.org
# local[0-9]
#d-i apt-setup/local0/repository string \
#
http://local.server/debian stable main
#d-i apt-setup/local0/comment string local server
# deb-src
#d-i apt-setup/local0/source boolean true
# URL ;
# , apt
# ,
# sources.list
#d-i apt-setup/local0/key string http://local.server/key
# ,
# gpg.
# .
# : , .
#d-i debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated string true

B.4.11.
.
:
standard ( )
desktop ( )
gnome-desktop ( gnome)
kde-desktop ( kde)
web-server ( )
print-server ( )
dns-server (DNS-)
file-server ( )
mail-server ( )
sql-database ( SQL)
laptop ( )
-
. standard.
,
, pkgsel/include.
,
.
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect standard, web-server
# ,
# kde xfce gnome .
#tasksel tasksel/desktop multiselect kde, xfce
#
#d-i pkgsel/include string openssh-server build-essential
# debootstrap.
# : none, safe-upgrade, full-upgrade
#d-i pkgsel/upgrade select none
#
# .
# ,
# CD.
#popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean false

B.4.12.
# Grub ( x86).
# lilo, :
#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true
# lilo
# , :
#d-i lilo-installer/skip boolean true
# , , grub
# MBR,

# .
d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean true
# grub-installer MBR,
# , ,
# .
d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean true
# , mbr,
# :
#d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string (hd0,0)
# grub :
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string (hd0,0) (hd1,0) (hd2,0)
# grub,
#d-i grub-installer/password password r00tme
#d-i grub-installer/password-again password r00tme
# MD5, grub-md5-crypt(8).
#d-i grub-installer/password-crypted password [MD5 ]

MD5 grub grub-md5-crypt


B.4.9, .

B.4.13.
#
# (VT1-VT6) /etc/inittab.
# , .
#d-i finish-install/keep-consoles boolean true
# , .
d-i finish-install/reboot_in_progress note
# CD , .
#d-i cdrom-detect/eject boolean false
# ,
# .
#d-i debian-installer/exit/halt boolean true
# , .
#d-i debian-installer/exit/poweroff boolean true

B.4.14.
# , -
# ,

# . , .
# , ,

# , :
#
debconf-get-selections --installer
>
#
debconf-get-selections
>
>

B.5.
B.5.1.


.
#
#
#
#
#
#

d-i .

.
! ,
,
.

# ,
# .
#d-i preseed/early_command string anna-install --udeb
# ,
# /target. chroot /target
# ,
# apt-install in-target
# .
#d-i preseed/late_command string apt-install zsh; in-target chsh -s /bin/zsh

B.5.2.

,
.
seen false .
d-i foo/bar string value
d-i foo/bar seen false

,
preseed/interactive=true .
.
, d-i ,
. ,
, . . B.2.2,
.
,
?=,
foo/bar?=value ( owner:foo/bar?=value). ,
, ,
.

B.5.3.
.
, , ,
. , , ,

.
# , ;
# . , ,
# preseed/include. ,
# ,
# , .
#d-i preseed/include string x.cfg
#
# .
# md5sums; md5sums ,
# .
#d-i preseed/include/checksum string 5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
#
# , .
#d-i preseed/include_command \
#
string if [ "`hostname`" = bob ]; then echo bob.cfg; fi
# -- .
# , , debconf-set
# debconf.
# ,
# , ,
# , .
#d-i preseed/run string foo.sh

initrd ,
, preseed/url .
, .
,
, , , preseed/early :
, .

C. Debian

C.1. Debian
C.2.
C.3.
C.4. Linux
C.5. Debian
C.5.1. Intel x86

C.1. Debian
, GNU/Linux . ,
, .
, , .
(swap) ,
. Linux
, . Linux
, .
GNU/Linux .

,
. . -
, . , (
, ) . ,
.
. ,
GNU/Linux .
.
, ,
. , , ,
. /var/mail
, .
,
, .
,
- . ,
, , . ,
?

C.2.
Debian GNU/Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
.
.
/. , Debian
:

bin

boot

dev

etc

home

lib

media

mnt

proc

( 2.4 2.6)

root

sbin

sys

( 2.6)

tmp

usr

var

srv

opt

. ,
-,
.
.
/ /etc, /bin,
/sbin, /lib /dev, . ,
150250 .
/usr : (/usr/bin) ,
(/usr/lib), (/usr/share/doc) .
. 500
. ,
.
46 .
/var : ,
, , ,
..
,
. , Debian,
, 2 3 /var .
( , ,
, X, ...), 300500 .

, 30 40 .
/tmp : .
40100 .
, CD/DVD
/tmp .
, /tmp
.
/home : ,
.
.
100 ,
.
, (, MP3,
) .

C.3.
, Debian ,
/ ( ) , .
, 6 , ext3. Ext2
,
.

/usr, /var, /tmp /home , /.

/usr/local,
, Debian.
,
/var/mail. , /tmp 2050 .
, ,
/home . ,
, .
Multi Disk HOWTO.
, ,
.
.
, . ,
16 . ,
. 10000 256
, ( ) .
32- (i386, m68k, 32-bit SPARC PowerPC)
2 . .
, , ,
(
) , , SCSI IDE .
, .
: 32 1.7
IDE /dev/hda. 500
/dev/hda1, 32 /dev/hda3 1.2 Linux /dev/hda2.
, ,
; D.2,
, .

C.4. Linux
Linux .

Linux. :
/dev/fd0.
/dev/fd1.
SCSI ( SCSI ID) /dev/sda.
SCSI ( SCSI ID) /dev/sdb .
SCSI CD-ROM /dev/scd0,
/dev/sr0.
IDE /dev/hda.
IDE /dev/hdb.
/dev/hdc
/dev/hdd . IDE
, .
: sda1

sda2 SCSI .
. , 2- SCSI ,
SCSI 2, SCSI 4. ( 2) sda,
sdb. sda 3 , sda1, sda2 sda3.
sdb .
, SCSI ( , ),
.
; , / .
Linux 1 4. ,
IDE /dev/hda1.
5,
/dev/hda5. , ,
, .
SCSI IDE.

C.5. Debian
Debian
.
.
partman
Debian.
, ( format
Windows) .
fdisk
Linux, .
, FreeBSD.
, fdisk
. Linux+FreeBSD HOWTO
cfdisk
,
.
, cfdisk FreeBSD, ,
.
,
( ).
VT2, .
.

C.5.1. Intel x86


, , DOS Windows

, ,
Debian.
FAT NTFS;
.
PC BIOS .
,
. , BIOS 199498 , , BIOS
. Linux HOWTO Phoenix BIOS
FAQ, , .
PC.
, . ,
.
, .
60 ; ,
.
Linux 15 SCSI (3 , 12
), 63 IDE (3 , 60
). , Debian GNU/Linux 20
, 20,
.
IDE LBA ,
( ),
(, ) 1024
(, 524 BIOS ).
BIOS 199598 ( ),
Enhanced Disk Drive Support Specification. Lilo, Linux , Debian
mbr, BIOS
. BIOS int 0x13 ,
. , ,
, 1023- .
Linux, BIOS ,
, Linux BIOS .
, ,
BIOS; LBA ( )
CHS (Large).
HOWTO .
, BIOS
,
1024- .
(2550
) , ,
.
/boot, Linux.
, LBA
CHS, BIOS
.

D.

D.1. Linux
D.1.1.
D.2. ,
D.3. Debian GNU/Linux Unix/Linux
D.3.1.
D.3.2. debootstrap
D.3.3. debootstrap
D.3.4.
D.3.5.
D.3.6.
D.3.7.
D.4. Debian GNU/Linux Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
D.4.1.
D.4.2.
D.4.3.
D.5. Debian GNU/Linux PPP Ethernet (PPPoE)
D.6.
D.6.1.
D.6.2.

D.1. Linux
Linux /dev .
. Unix ,
. ,
( Linux),
. , .
.
fd0
fd1
hda

IDE / CD-ROM IDE ()

hdb

IDE / CD-ROM IDE ()

hdc

IDE / CD-ROM IDE ()

hdd

IDE / CD-ROM IDE ()

hda1

IDE

hdd15 IDE
sda

SCSI SCSI ID (.. 0)

sdb

SCSI SCSI ID (.. 1)

sdc

SCSI SCSI ID (.. 2)

sda1

SCSI

sdd10 SCSI

sr0 SCSI CD-ROM SCSI ID


sr1 SCSI CD-ROM SCSI ID
ttyS0

0, COM1 MS-DOS

ttyS1

1, COM2 MS-DOS

psaux

PS/2

gpmdata -, GPM ()
cdrom CD-ROM
mouse
null , ,
zero

D.1.1.
Linux ( gpm) X
window. , gpm X-.
/dev/input/mice . gpm
exps2, X ExplorerPS/2.
/etc/gpm.conf
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.
, .
,
, ,
[26], .
Linux, :

psmouse PS/2 ( )
usbhid

USB ( )

sermouse ,
logibm

, Logitech

inport
, ATI Microsoft InPort
, modconf (
) kernel/drivers/input/mouse.

[26] ,

, 9
; 8- ,
6- PS/2 4-
ADB.

D.2. ,
i386 2.6,
397 .

250 .

,
.
, , , .
,
.
,
tasksel. aptitude. ,
,
, , .
GNOME,
, CD
,
(. 6.3.5.2, ).
,
.
/usr /lib,
() /var.

()


()


()

GNOME (
)

1830

703

2533

KDE

1592

613

2205

Xfce

1056

403

1459

LXDE

963

370

1333

[a]

26

35

42

13

55

215

84

299

DNS-

74

29

103

14

19

SQL

50

18

68

[a]

.
,
.
, tasksel
, .
; 350 .

D.3. Debian GNU/Linux Unix/Linux


, Debian GNU/Linux
Unix Linux ,
ncurses, .
HOWTO , Debian GNU/Linux
Redhat, Mandrake SUSE.
*nix . $
, , # ,
Debian chroot.
Debian, ,
( ) .
Debian GNU/Linux (zero downtime).
,
.

, , , ,
,
Debian Linux ,
. ,
, .
,
. /
.

D.3.1.
*nix ,
, (swap).
350 1 ,
X ( ,
GNOME KDE).
. ,
ext3 /dev/hda6 ( ):
# mke2fs -j /dev/hda6

ext2, -j.
( ):
# mkswap /dev/hda5
# sync; sync; sync
# swapon /dev/hda5

/mnt/debinst ( , (/)
).
.
# mkdir /mnt/debinst
# mount /dev/hda6 /mnt/debinst


(, /usr)
, ,
.

D.3.2. debootstrap
, Debian
Debian debootstrap. wget
ar, /bin/sh Unix/Linux[27].
wget ar, , debootstrap.
.
work .deb:
# mkdir work
# cd work

debootstrap Debian (,
, ). debootstrap .deb ,
work .
(root).
# ar -x debootstrap_0.X.X_all.deb
# cd /
# zcat /full-path-to-work/work/data.tar.gz | tar xv

D.3.3. debootstrap
debootstrap .
http.us.debian.org/debian -
Debian, .
http://www.debian.org/misc/README.mirrors.
- lenny Debian GNU/Linux, /cdrom,
URL file http URL: file:/cdrom/debian/
ARCH debootstrap: alpha,
amd64, arm, armel, hppa, i386, ia64, m68k, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390
sparc.
# /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH lenny \
/mnt/debinst http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian

D.3.4.
Debian , .
chroot :
# LANG=C chroot /mnt/debinst /bin/bash

chrooting,
Debian, :
# export TERM=xterm-color

D.3.4.1.
/dev/ .
.
; : a) ,
; ) ; )
(, udev)
.
:

# cd /dev
# MAKEDEV generic

MAKEDEV
/dev /dev
; , postinst
,
D.3.4.2.
/etc/fstab.
# editor /etc/fstab

, :
# /etc/fstab:
#
# . .
/dev/XXX
/
ext3
/dev/XXX
/boot
ext3

defaults
ro,nosuid,nodev


0
1
0
2

/dev/XXX
proc

none
/proc

sw
defaults

0
0

0
0

/dev/fd0
/dev/cdrom

/media/floppy auto
noauto,rw,sync,user,exec 0
/media/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user,exec
0

0
0

/dev/XXX
/dev/XXX
/dev/XXX
/dev/XXX

/tmp
/var
/usr
/home

2
2
2
2

swap
proc

ext3
ext3
ext3
ext3

rw,nosuid,nodev
rw,nosuid,nodev
rw,nodev
rw,nosuid,nodev

0
0
0
0

mount -a ,
/etc/fstab, :
# mount /path

# : mount /usr

Debian /media,
/ . , .
:
#
#
#
#
#

cd /media
mkdir cdrom0
ln -s cdrom0 cdrom
cd /
ln -s media/cdrom

proc ,
/proc. mount -a, ,
, proc :
# mount -t proc proc /proc

ls /proc , . ,
proc chroot:
# mount -t proc proc /mnt/debinst/proc

D.3.4.3.
/etc/default/rcS , ,
UTC
. .
# editor /etc/default/rcS
# dkpg-reconfigure tzdata

D.3.4.4.
, /etc/network/interfaces, /etc/resolv.conf,
/etc/hostname /etc/hosts.
# editor /etc/network/interfaces


/usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples:
######################################################################
# /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)
# See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are
# available.
######################################################################
# We always want the loopback interface.
#
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# To use dhcp:
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet dhcp
# An example static IP setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet static
#
address 192.168.0.42
#
network 192.168.0.0
#
netmask 255.255.255.0
#
broadcast 192.168.0.255
#
gateway 192.168.0.1

DNS-() search /etc/resolv.conf:


# editor /etc/resolv.conf

/etc/resolv.conf:
search hqdom.local\000
nameserver 10.1.1.36
nameserver 192.168.9.100

( 2 63 ):
# echo DebianHostName > /etc/hostname

/etc/hosts IPv6:
127.0.0.1 localhost DebianHostName
# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1
ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

,
/etc/modules .
(eth0, eth1 ..) .
D.3.4.5. Apt
Debootstrap /etc/apt/sources.list,
. , ,
:
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian lenny main
deb http://security.debian.org/ lenny/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ lenny/updates main

aptitude update .
D.3.4.6.
, , .
locales . UTF-8
.
# aptitude install locales
# dpkg-reconfigure locales

( ):
# aptitude install console-data
# dpkg-reconfigure console-data

, , chroot,
.

D.3.5.
, Linux

. :
# apt-cache search linux-image

,
/etc/kernel-img.conf. :
# Kernel image management overrides
# See kernel-img.conf(5) for details
do_symlinks = yes
relative_links = yes
do_bootloader = yes
do_bootfloppy = no
do_initrd = yes
link_in_boot = no

,
kernel-package.
, .
, .
# aptitude install linux-image-2.6.26-arch-etc

/etc/kernel-img.conf ,
.

D.3.6.
Debian GNU/Linux ,
. , debootstrap
, aptitude
Debian chroot, .
info grub man lilo.conf .
, Debian,
Debian grub menu.lst lilo.conf.
lilo.conf
. , lilo (,
lilo.conf, , ).
grub :
# aptitude install grub
# grub-install /dev/hda
# update-grub

grub ( MBR hda).


/boot/grub/menu.lst.
, , /dev/hda .
grub, .
/etc/lilo.conf :
boot=/dev/hda6
root=/dev/hda6
install=menu
delay=20
lba32
image=/vmlinuz

initrd=/initrd.img
label=Debian

,
/etc/kernel-img.conf.
grub, do_bootloader no.
/boot/grub/menu.lst
Debian, :
postinst_hook = update-grub
postrm_hook
= update-grub

lilo do_bootloader yes.

D.3.7.
, .
,
:
# tasksel install standard

, aptitude .

/var/cache/apt/archives/. :
# aptitude clean

[27]

GNU sed, grep, tar gzip.

D.4. Debian GNU/Linux Parallel Line IP


(PLIP)
Debian GNU/Linux
Ethernet, - -
( - ). -
, Debian (, ).
, , PLIP
(ppp0).
IP- 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 PLIP
(
).
PLIP ,
( 7,
Debian).
, BIOS (IO base address IRQ)
. : io=0x378, irq=7.

D.4.1.
, , Debian.
; 2.4, .
, , ,
.
- DB-25. PLIPInstall-HOWTO.

D.4.2.
,
ppp0.
#!/bin/sh
# We remove running modules from kernel to avoid conflicts and to
# reconfigure them manually.
modprobe -r lp parport_pc
modprobe parport_pc io=0x378 irq=7
modprobe plip
# Configure the plip interface (plip0 for me, see dmesg | grep plip)
ifconfig plip0 192.168.0.2 pointopoint 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.255 up
# Configure gateway
modprobe iptable_nat
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ppp0 -j MASQUERADE
echo 1
> /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

D.4.3.
.

; expert.
, . ,
io irq
parport_pc, :
expert parport_pc.io=0x378 parport_pc.irq=7

, .
1. CD
plip-modules; PLIP
.
2.
,
. , debian-installer
plip,
. , ,
.
/ ,
.
plip.
3.
DHCP:
IP-: 192.168.0.1
PPP: 192.168.0.2
DNS-:
( /etc/resolv.conf)

D.5. Debian GNU/Linux PPP


Ethernet (PPPoE)
PPP Ethernet (PPPoE)
(ADSL )
.
PPPoE, .
.
PPPoE , ,
( 7,
Debian).
PPPoE
CD-ROM/DVD.
(, netboot).
PPPoE
. .
modules=ppp-udeb[28].
, PPPoE (ppp-udeb)

.
( ,
; [29]).

Ethernet.
PPPoE.
PPPoE ( PPPoE)
Ethernet.
, .
- .
;
, PPPoE-
.
,
( PPPoE).

PPPoE. , PPPoE

( ).
- , ,

PPPoE-.

[28]

, , . 5.1.6,

[29]

ppp-udeb
. (
), ppp-udeb, modules
.

D.6.

, Intel x86.
, ,
, .
,
.
, ,
newt. , , ,
.
CD
.
.
Advanced options. installgui,
expertgui rescuegui ,

Help .
, .
mini ISO [30], , , .

. ,
, (,
) . 5.3,
, 5.1.6, .


, : 96MB.
,
newt.
44MB,
,
.

.

D.6.1.
,
,
.
, ,
. (,
), + -.
(, ), -, Continue
; enter , Continue.
, y Ctrl, X
Window System. , VT2 (
), : Ctrl+ Alt+F2.
VT5, Alt+F5
.

D.6.2.
,
. .

.
(touchpad) .

[30]

mini ISO - Debian,


4.2, - Debian. netboot/gtk/mini.iso.

E.

E.1.
E.2.
E.3. ,
E.4.

E.1.
Sarge.
c boot-floppies Woody,
Debian,
Progeny, GPL 2003 .
DocBook XML.
docbook-xml
docbook-xsl.
,
XML, (entities) (profiling
attributes). ,
. XML-
, -
.

E.2.
,
installation-guide.
reportbug
Debian. ,
- . ,
<XXXX@bugs.debian.org>,
XXXX .
DocBook XML
. SVN-
. DocBook, :
, . DocBook HTML,
, .
debian-boot ( ) . , SVN,
README,
.

debian-installer,
<debian-boot@lists.debian.org>.
Debian , .
.

E.3. ,

(Bruce Perens), (Sven
Rudolph), (Igor Grobman), (James Treacy)
(Adam Di Carlo). (Sebastian Ley) " ".
Debian .
(Michael Schmitz) ( m68k),
(Frank Neumann) ( Amiga), (Arto
Astala), (Eric Delaunay), (Ben Collins) (
SPARC), (Tapio Lehtonen) (Stphane Bortzmeyer)
. (Pascal Le Bail)
USB- .
HOWTO
Jim Mintha (URL ), Debian FAQ, Linux/m68k FAQ,
FAQ Linux SPARC, Linux/Alpha FAQ .

.
chroot ( D.3, Debian GNU/Linux
Unix/Linux) , Karsten M. Self.
plip ( D.4, Debian
GNU/Linux Parallel Line IP (PLIP)) PLIP-Install-HOWTO
Gilles Lamiral.

(http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/i386/index.html.ru)
06.03.2010 (root-x@mail.ru)