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UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

SOIL SCIENCE AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING


COURSE CODE: CEC208

YEAR II- SE MESTER II THEORY


Version 1: December 2008

WEEK 1.

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

INTRODUCTION FORMATION OF SOIL CAUSES OF WEATHERING FUNCTIONS OF SOIL IMPORTANCE IN SOIL STUDIES BRANCHES OF SOIL SCIENCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOIL AND ROCK COMPONENTS OF SOIL TYPES OF PORE SPACES

WEEK 2.

2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SOIL STRUCTURE SOIL CONSISTENCE SOIL CONSISTENCE TERMS SOIL COLOUR FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL COLOUR VOLUME AND MASS RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL

WEEK 3.

3.0

CONTITUENTS 3.1 SOIL WETNESS


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WEEK 4.

4.0

PERMEABILITY

4.1

INFILTRATION 4.2 FACTOR AFFECTING INFILTRATION SOURCES OF IRRIGATION WATER STANDARDS FOR IRRIGATION WATER PROBLEMS OF USING POOR QUALITY

WEEK 5.

5.0 5.1 5.2

IRRIGATION WATER 5.3 QUALITY OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION

WEEK 6. PLANT

6.0 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

INTERRELATION OF SOIL MOISTURE AND MOVEMENT OF WATER IN SOILS MEASUREMENT OF SOIL MOISTURE CLASSES AND AVAILABLE OF SOIL WATER GRAVITATION WATER CAPILLARY WATER HYGROSCOPIC WATER CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS FUNCTION OF IRRIGATION WATER WATER REQUIREMENTS (WR) OF CROPS
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WEEK 7.

7.0 7.1 7.2

7.3

FIELD WATER BALANCE

7.4 7.5 WEEK 8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

EFFECTIVE RAINFALL FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IRRIGATION NECESSITY OF IRRIGATION BENEFITS OR ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION METHOD OF IRRIGATION BORDER IRRIGATION ADVANTAGES OF BORDER METHOD CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION THE COMPONENTS AND CONTROLS OF

CHECCK BASIN 8.8 8.9 ADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN DISADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN

8.10 FURROW IRRIGATION 8.11 COMPONENTS AND ONTROLS OF FURROWS

8.12 ADVANTAGES OF FURROW IRRIGATION WEEK 9. 9.0 SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION ADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION DISADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLES IRRIGATION DRIP IRRIGATION ADVANTAGE OF DRIP IRRIGATION DISADVANTAGES OF DRIP IRRIGATION

WEEK 10. 10.0 FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE CHOICE OF IRRIGATION METHOD WEEK 11. 11.0 IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES 11.1 WORK EXAMPLES ON IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY WEEK 12. 12.0 WATER LOGGING 12.1 CAUSES OF WATERLOGGING WEEK 13. 13.0 REMEDIAL MEASURES 13.1 DESIGN OF DRAINAGE

WEEK 14.

14.0 14.1 14.2

DRAINAGE BENEFITS OF DRAINAGE ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DRAIN

14.3

CLASSIFICATION OF DRAINS

14.4 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO ONSTRUCTION 14.5 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FUNCTION SERVED 14.6 WEEK 15. 15.0 15.1 TO FIND SOLUTION 15.2 15.3 15.4 TYPES OF FLOOD CONTROL STRUCTURE FLOOD MITIGATION RESERVOIRS LEVEES AND FLOOD WALLS DISPOSAL METHODS OF DRAINAGE WATER FLOOD THE PROBLEMS OF FLOOD AND THE NEED

WEEK ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION


Soils is that thin layer of the earth made up of a mixture of mineral and organic materials, water and air formed from the underlying rocks plant and animal material by various physical, chemical and Biological processes.

1.1

FORMATION OF SOIL
Most soil begins to form when big rocks break up. The breaking up of rocks is called weathering. Weathering makes pieces of rocks smaller and smaller. There are two types of weathering, physical and chemical weathering. After weathering breaks up rocks, a process called Erosion spreads the bite about.

1.2

CAUSES OF WEATHERING
Most physical weathering is caused by ice. Ice is frost water, and water expands when it freezes. Freezing water makes a powerful force. When water seeps into cracks in rocks and freezes, it can split the rock apart; strong winds and growing tree roots can also break up rocks. Water causes most chemical Weathering .Chemical weathering changes the materials that make up rocks. Rain pours down on rocks, rivers flow over rocks, and waves

pound rocks along beaches. The water takes certain minerals out of rocks. For example, grains of sand form after water takes mineral called feldspar out of granite rock. Erosion also makes soil. Erosion can help break up rocks. Water, wind and glaciers cause erosion.

1.3

FUNCTIONS OF SOIL
Soil provides anchorage to roots enabling plants to stand erect. It acts as an abode of flora and fauna which suitably transform nutrients for up take by plant roots. It acts as a store house of water and nutrients for plant growth. It provides space for air and aeration which create a healthy environment for the biological activity of soil organisms.

1.4

IMPORTANCE IN SOIL STUDIES


Soil physical properties Soil chemistry and nutrient availability Soil management Management of irrigation drainage and conservation Soil pesticide interaction Weathering and soil formation Soil classification.

1.5

BRANCHES OF SOIL SCIENCE


a. Soil physics is that branch of soil science which deals with the mechanical behaviours of soil mass, i.e. the physical properties of soils as well as the measurement and control of physical processes. b. Soil chemistry deals with chemical opposition and properties of soil and describe the chemical processes taking place in the soil. c. Soil biology deals with ecology the organism and their role in biological transformation in the soil. d. Soil mineralogy deals with the minerals, (primary rock mineral and secondary minerals) present in soil and their contribution to the chemistry, physics and biology and also fertility of soil in relation to the genesis of soil. e. Soil fertility deals with the nutrient status or ability of soil to supply nutrients for plant growth under favourable condition. f. Soil genesis and classification (pedology) deals with weathering of rocks and minerals factors and processes of formation of soils, and classification of soils in a recognized system. g. Soil survey I the systematic examination of soil in the field and laboratories, their descriptions and classification, the mapping of kinds of an area and also interpretation of soils according to adaptability to various

h. i.

plants and their productivity under different management systems. Soil technology is an applied science and deal with the principles and practices of soil erosion and conservation and management of problem soil.

1.6

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOIL AND ROCK


Although soils are mainly formed from rocks, they differ from rocks in three main ways. Unlike rocks, soil are made up mostly of secondary minerals which are formed from the products of the weathering of primary rock minerals Unlike rocks, soils contain active organic matter in the form of humus, plant roots and tiny plants and animals called micro-organisms. Unlike rocks, soils are distributed in regular fashion over the earths surface in accord with the variations in climate, rocks, vegetation and relief.

1.7 COMPONENTS OF SOIL


The soil body may be thought of as consisting of two main components; Solid materials and pore spaces. The solid material fall into two main categories, that is mineral matter and organic matter.

1.8

TYPES OF PORE SPACES


There are two types of pore space, the macro pores or large open space which are

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normally occupied by air and the micro pore or small spaces which normally contain water. Thus the soil is made up of four main constituents (a) Mineral matter (b) Organic matter (c) Water and (d) Air

K-soil phase Organic matter Mineral matter

pore space

Water

The mineral matter consists of all solid in organic material in the soil and they include:-

(i)

Rock fragments which are un decomposed reminants of the original rock material from which the soil is formed.

ii. iii. iv.

Sand Silt Clay

These are differentiated on the basis of the sizes of the particles.

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Air

WEEK TWO 2.0 SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Physically, soils are composed of mineral and organic particle of varying sizes. The particles are arranged in a matrix that results in about 50% pore space. The pore space and filled with water and air. The physical properties include: - texture, structure, consistence, porosity, density, color etc.

The soil texture:- The physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals results
in a wide range in size of particles from stones, to gravel, to sand, to silt, and to very small day particles. The particle size distribution determines the soils coarseness or fineness, or the soils texture. Texture is therefore the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay in soil. Texture is designated by using the names of predominant size fraction and the word loam when ever all three major size fractions occur in sizable proportions. Thus the term siltyclay describes a soil in which the day characteristics are outstanding and which also contains a substantial quantity of silt. A silty clay loam is similar to silty cl ay except that it contains sand in a sizable proportion sandy. Soils are classified as coarse textured, loam soils are medium. Textured and day soils are fine textured. The least complex textured group is sand which contains less than 15% silt and day sandy soils are relatively inert chemically, are loose and non cohesive, and has a low water holding

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capacity. The textural classification has only on approximate relation ship to the behavior of a soil as a medium for plant growth. The textural properties may be modified appreciably by organic matter content. The kind of day minerals present and kinds of iron associated with them. Example, aggregation effects of organic matter tend to give a fine textured soil high in days some of the pore space properties of a coarser textured soil. Similarly, colloid all effect of organic additions to coarse textured sandy soil give it some of the moisture and cation retention characteristic of a fine textured soil. The figure below shows the textured triangle of the limited of sand, day and silt. Soil therefore can be describe by the following

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Percentage silt

Percentage clay

Clay Silty Clay Sandy loam Clay loam Sandy clay loam Sandy Loam Loam Silt Loam Silty Clay Loam

Silt 100% Silt 20 10

100% Sand

Sand Loam sand 90 80

70

60

50

40

30

Percentage sand Problem: - calculate the percentage of sand; day and silt when the 40 second and 8 hour by diameter reading are 30 and 12 respectively assume a 50 gram oil sample is used. Sample weight 40 second reading x 100 = % sand Sample weight

50g 30g x 100 = 40% sand 50g

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8hr reading x 100 = % day Sample weight 12g x 100 = 24% day 50g 100 (40 + 24%) = 36% silt.

2.1

SOIL STRUCTURE
Texture is used in reference to the size of soil particle, where as structure is used in reference to arrangement of the oil particles, and silt and day particles are typically arranged into secondary particles called peds or aggregate. The shape and size of the peds determine the soil structure.

The structure modifies the influence of texture with regard to water and air relationships and the ease of root penetration. The macroscopic size of most peds results in the existence of interped pace that much larger than the spaces existing between adjacent sand, silt, and day particles. Grouping of particles into structural units occurs in all soils. However, the strength of the bond, the size and shape of the structural units and the proportion of the soil particles involved in the unit differ considerably among soils.

2.2

SOIL CONSISTENCE
Consistence is the resistance of the soil to deformation or rupture. It is determined by

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the cohesive and adhesive properties of the entire soil mass. Where as structure deals with the shape, size and distinctiveness of natural soil aggregate, consistence deals with the strength and nature of the forces consistence is important for tillage and traffic considerations.

2.3

SOIL CONSISTENCE TERMS


Consistence is described for three moisture levels wet, moist, and dry. A given soil may be sticky when wet, firm when moist, and hard when dry. A partial list of term used to describe consistence include:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Moist soil- loose, friable, firm Dry soil Loose, soft, hard Wet soil non sticky , sticky, non plastic, plastic

Plastic soil is capable of being molded or deformed continuously and permanently, by relatively moderate pressure, into various shapes when wet. Friable soils readily break apart and are not sticky when moist. Two additional consistence terms for special situations are cemented and indurated.

2.4

SOIL COLOUR
Colour is about the most obvious and easily determined soil property. Soil colour is

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important because it is an indirect measure of other important characteristics such as water drainage, elevation, and the organic matter content. Thus colour is used with other characteristics to make many important references regarding soil formation and land use. The soil colours are determined by matching the colour of a soil sample with colour chip in a munsells oil colour Brok. The books consist of pages, each having colour chip arranged systematically according to their hue, value and chroma. The three variables that combine to give colours. Hue refers to wave length or colour of the light. Value refers to the quantity of light and it increases from dark to light colours.

Chroma- refers to the relative purity of the dominant wave length of the light. The three properties are always given in the order of hue, value and chroma. In the notation, 10 year before, 10 year the hue, 6 is the value and 4 is the chroma. This colour is lightyellowish brown. This colour system enables a person to communicate accurately the colour of a soil to any one in the world.

2.5

FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL COLOUR


1. Organic Matter- is a major clouring agent that affect soil colour, depending on its nature, amount, and distribution in the soil profile. 2. Iron compounds- The major colouring agents of most horizons are non compounds in various states of oxidation and hydration.

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WEEK THREE

3.0

VOLUME AND MASS RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL CONTITUENTS


The constituent of the oil are the solids, liquids (water) and air. The diagram below show the volume and mass relationships of the three soil phases. Volume relative Mass relative Ma= Mass of air (negligible) Mw=Mass of water Ms=Mass of solid Mt=Total mass(Ma+Mw+Ms) Va=Volume of air Vw=volume of water Vs=Volume of solids Vf=Volume of pores Vt=Total volume (Vf+Vs)

va ma vw

Air

ma

Vt

mw m mw Water ms Solids

mt

vs

ms

The diagram above shows the presence of the three phases in relative proportion both in masses and volume. Density of solids of soil is the ratio of mass of solid to it volume. s =Ms Vsw. The ratio of mass of solid to its volume in which w= density of water @ 40c. Soil density is the mass per unit volume of the soil particles. Dry bulk density b is the ratio of the mass of dried particles to the total volume of solid (including particles and pores).

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b = Mt Vt

Ms Vs + Vw + Va

Total (wet) bulk density I the mass of moist soil per unit volume t = Mt Vt = M + Mw Vs + Vw + Va

Porosity is the ratio of the volume of pores (voids) to the total oil volume. n = Vf Vt = Va + Vw V a + Va + Vw

Porosity is an index of the relative volume of pores. It is influenced by the textural and structural characteristic of the oil. The more finely divided are the individual soil particle, the greater is the porosity. Void ratio- The quantity expressing the ratio of the volume of pores to the volume of solid is term the as void ratio or relative porosity. e = Vf = Vf Va + Vw Vs

This index has certain advantages over porosity. In the case of void ratio. Total volume changes with volume change of voids, where as in case of porosity the volume of pores may change without change in the volume of solids. The term is commonly used in engineering works relating to the compaction of foundation, Embankment etc. The following relationships exit between porosity and volume ratio to apparent and true specific gravity. b = s (1 n) 100

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Where s = b (1 + e)

3.1

SOIL WETNESS
Moisture content Degree of saturation should not be confused with moisture content, which is the ratio of the weight of water in the sample to weight of solids. Moisture content = m = Ww Ws Volume of wetness;- is the relative water content of soil expressed on volume basis of water and soil volume of wetness in the ratio of the volume of water to the volume of total soil. Vwt = Vw = Vt Vw Vs + Vf

Degree of saturation: refers to the volume of water, present in the total pore volume. Degree of saturation = Vw Vf = Vw V a + Vw.

Question 1:- A 500 m3 oven dry core has a bulk density of 1.1g/ cm3. The soil core is placed in a pan of water and becomes water saturated. The oven dry soil and water at saturation weight 825 grams. Calculate the total soil porosity. Weight of oven dry soil = 500m3 x 1.1g/cm3 = 550g Weight of water in saturated core = 825 550g = 275g 20

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275m3 pore space x 100 = 55% 500m3 soil volume

Questions 2: A sample of soil weighing 30.6kg had a volume of 0.0183m3, when dried out in an oven its weight was reduced to 27.2kg. The specific gravity of the solids was found to be 2.65. Determine the dry density, Bulk density, percentage of moisture cont. The Saturated density and the percentage of air voids. Solution: - (a) Bulk density() = w = 30.6 V 0.0183 (b) Dry density d = Ws = 27.2 V 0.0183 = = 1672kg/m3 1486kg/m3

(c) Percentage of moisture content = Ww Ws But weight of water in sample = 30.6 27.2 = 3.4 Moisture content = 3.4 = 27.2 0.125

Or percentage moisture content = 12.5%.

(d) Density of particles = s = Ws Vs Vs = Ws = GsVw

= GsVw

27.2 = 0.0103m3 2.65x1000

VV = V-Vs = 0.0183 0.0103 = 0.008m3

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If soil is saturated then voids will be all water Saturated density = Ws + Vv w V = 27.2 + 0.008 x 1000 0.0083 = 1923kg/m3

3.2

ASSIGNMENT
The following data were obtained in determining the soil moisture content at successive depth in the root zone prior to applying irrigation water. DEPTH OF SAMPLING Wt OF MOIT cm SAMPLES gm 0-25 134.60 25-50 136.28 50-75 122.95 75-100 110.92 SOIL OVEN DRY wt SOILS 5M gm 126.82 127.95 115.32 102.64 OF

The bulk density of the soil in the root zones was 1.50gm/c. The available moisture holding capacity of the oil was 17.8/m depth. Determine (i) The moisture content at the different depth in the root zone. (ii) Moisture content in the root zone at the time of irrigation. (iii) Net depth of water to be applied to bring the moisture content to Field capacity. (iv) Gross irrigation requirement at an estimated field irrigation Efficiency of 70%.

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WEEK THREE 3.0 VOLUME AND MASS RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL CONTITUENTS


The constituent of the oil are the solids, liquids (water) and air. The diagram below show the volume and mass relationships of the three soil phases. Volume relative Mass relative Ma= Mass of air (negligible) Mw=Mass of water Ms=Mass of solid Mt=Total mass(Ma+Mw+Ms) Va=Volume of air Vw=volume of water Vs=Volume of solids Vf=Volume of pores Vt=Total volume (Vf+Vs)

va ma vw

Air

ma

Vt

mw m mw Water ms Solids

mt

vs

ms

The diagram above shows the presence of the three phases in relative proportion both in masses and volume. Density of solids of soil is the ratio of mass of solid to it volume. s =Ms Vsw. The ratio of mass of solid to its volume in which w= density of water @ 40c. Soil density is the mass per unit volume of the soil particles. Dry bulk density b is the ratio of the mass of dried particles to the total volume of solid (including particles and pores). b = Mt Vt = Ms Vs + Vw + Va

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Total (wet) bulk density I the mass of moist soil per unit volume t = Mt Vt = M + Mw Vs + Vw + Va

Porosity is the ratio of the volume of pores (voids) to the total oil volume. n = Vf Vt = Va + Vw V a + Va + Vw

Porosity is an index of the relative volume of pores. It is influenced by the textural and structural characteristic of the oil. The more finely divided are the individual soil particle, the greater is the porosity. Void ratio- The quantity expressing the ratio of the volume of pores to the volume of solid is term the as void ratio or relative porosity. e = Vf = Vf Va + Vw Vs

This index has certain advantages over porosity. In the case of void ratio. Total volume changes with volume change of voids, where as in case of porosity the volume of pores may change without change in the volume of solids. The term is commonly used in engineering works relating to the compaction of foundation, Embankment etc. The following relationships exit between porosity and volume ratio to apparent and true specific gravity. b = s (1 n) 100 Where s = b (1 + e)

3.1

SOIL WETNESS
Moisture content Degree of saturation should not be confused with moisture

24

content, which is the ratio of the weight of water in the sample to weight of solids. Moisture content = m = Ww Ws Volume of wetness;- is the relative water content of soil expressed on volume basis of water and soil volume of wetness in the ratio of the volume of water to the volume of total soil. Vwt = Vw = Vt Vw Vs + Vf

Degree of saturation: refers to the volume of water, present in the total pore volume. Degree of saturation = Vw Vf = Vw V a + Vw.

Question 1:- A 500 m3 oven dry core has a bulk density of 1.1g/ cm3. The soil core is placed in a pan of water and becomes water saturated. The oven dry soil and water at saturation weight 825 grams. Calculate the total soil porosity. Weight of oven dry soil = 500m3 x 1.1g/cm3 = 550g Weight of water in saturated core = 825 550g = 275g 275m3 pore space x 100 = 55% 500m3 soil volume Questions 2: A sample of soil weighing 30.6kg had a volume of 0.0183m3, when

25

dried out in an oven its weight was reduced to 27.2kg. The specific gravity of the solids was found to be 2.65. Determine the dry density, Bulk density, percentage of moisture cont. The Saturated density and the percentage of air voids. Solution: - (a) Bulk density() = w = 30.6 V 0.0183 (b) Dry density d = Ws = 27.2 V 0.0183 = = 1672kg/m3 1486kg/m3

(c) Percentage of moisture content = Ww Ws But weight of water in sample = 30.6 27.2 = 3.4 Moisture content = 3.4 = 27.2 0.125

Or percentage moisture content = 12.5%.

(d) Density of particles = s = Ws Vs Vs = Ws = GsVw

= GsVw

27.2 = 0.0103m3 2.65x1000

VV = V-Vs = 0.0183 0.0103 = 0.008m3 If soil is saturated then voids will be all water Saturated density = Ws + Vv w V

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= 27.2 + 0.008 x 1000 0.0083 = 1923kg/m3

3.2

ASSIGNMENT
The following data were obtained in determining the soil moisture content at successive depth in the root zone prior to applying irrigation water. DEPTH OF SAMPLING Wt OF MOIT cm SAMPLES gm 0-25 134.60 25-50 136.28 50-75 122.95 75-100 110.92 SOIL OVEN DRY wt SOILS 5M gm 126.82 127.95 115.32 102.64 OF

The bulk density of the soil in the root zones was 1.50gm/c. The available moisture holding capacity of the oil was 17.8/m depth. Determine (i) The moisture content at the different depth in the root zone. (ii) Moisture content in the root zone at the time of irrigation. (iii) Net depth of water to be applied to bring the moisture content to Field capacity. (iv) Gross irrigation requirement at an estimated field irrigation Efficiency of 70%.

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WEEK FIVE 5.0 SOURCES OF IRRIGATION WATER


Most of sources of irrigation water are from surface water or ground water which can either be river, canal, Tank, open well or tube water well. All the sources of water contain some soluble salt which always dissolved in them. The main source of irrigation water includes:i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Rainfall Atmospheric water other than rainfall Flood water Ground water Snow Waste water

The main soluble constituents in water are calcium, magnesium, sodium and sometimes potassium as cat ions and chloride, soleplates, bicarbonate and sometimes carbonate as anions. However, ions of some other elements such as lithium, silicon, bromide, iodine, copper, nickel etc. and organic matters are present in minor quantities. These elements usually do not affect the quality of irrigation water as far as the total salt concentration is concerned.

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5.1

STANDARDS FOR IRRIGATION WATER


Irrigation water maybe said to be unsatisfactory for its intended use if it contain:Chemicals toxic to plants or the person using plant as food Chemicals which react with the soil to produce unsatisfactory moisture characteristics. Bacteria injurious to persons or animal eating plant irrigated with the water.

5.2

PROBLEMS OF USING POOR QUALITY IRRIGATION WATER


The following are the most common problems that result from using poor quality irrigation water. i. Salinity: - A salinity problem related to water quality occurs if the total quantity of salts in the irrigation water is high enough for the salts to accumulate in the crop root zone to the extent that fields are affected. If excessive quantities of soluble salts accumulate in the root zone, the crop has difficulty in extracting enough water from the salty soil solution. ii. Permeability:- A permeability problem related water quality occur when the rate of water infiltration into and through the soil is reduced by the effect of specific salts or lack of salts in the water to such an extent that the crop is not adequately supplied with water and yield is reduced. The poor soil permeability makes it more difficult to supply the crop with water and may greatly add to cropping difficulties through crushing of seed beds, water 29

iii.

logging of surface soil and accompanying disease, salinity, weed, oxygen and nutritional problems.

iii.

Toxicity: - A toxicity problem occurs when certain constituent in the water are taken up by the crop and accumulate in amounts that result in reduced yield. This is usually related to one or more specific ions in water, namely, boron, chloride and sodium. iv. Miscellaneous:- Various other problem related to irrigation water quality occur with sufficient frequency and should be spastically this include excessive vegetative growth, lodging and delayed crop maturity resulting from excessive nitrogen in the water quality, white deposited on fruit or leaves due to sprinkle irrigation with high bicarbonate and abnormalities by an usual pH of the irrigation water.

5.3

QUALITY OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION


The term quality as applied to water, embraces its combined physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The quality of water for irrigation is as important as nature of soil. Good quality water improves the soil because of it calcium content, conversely, if water applied for irrigation is not of suitability quality soil deteriorate and crop yield decreases the suitability of water for irrigating a particular crop grown on a particular soil require consideration of

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i.

Sodium and calcium salt dissolved in it

ii. iii. iv.

Its pH Texture of soil and salts present in it. Sensitivity of crop and drainage conditions of soil.

Water in streams in humid areas is generally suitable for irrigation. Streams in industrial locations are, however, polluted with industrial waste rendering it unsuitable for

irrigation. Irrigation water is generally obtained from rivers, canals, reservoirs, ground water, and tanks. Reservoirs yield better quality water than rivers because of beneficial effects of impoundment. However, water quality characteristic depends on the source and storage. Based on the source of the irrigation water the chemical and salts content it can be classified as follows:1. Quality of the surface water for irrigation. Class of total dissolved water Electrical salts (mg/L) conductivity Micro ohms/cm I 0-700 0 1000 II III 700 2000 Over 2000 1000-3000 Over 3000 Na2 S04 Cl Boron Suitability excellent to good.

0 192 192-480 Over 480

0142 142355 Over 355

0-0.5 0.5-2.0 Over 2 Good to injurious Unfit.

1.

Total Concentration of Solids-

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Total dissolved solids in water are related to the specific conductance. Salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium present in irrigation water may prove detrimental to crops. Irrigation water within the zone of good or

moderate is okay. Is: 11624 1986 has specified classification on the basis of hazardous effects of total salt concentration into four groups, as under.

S/no 1. 2. 3 4

Class Low Medium High Very high

Range of electrical conductivity (EC) Below 1500 1500-3000 3000-6000 Above 6000

2.

Electrical ConductivityElectrical conductance is the ability of water solutions to conduct an electric current and is measured is ohms. It is a function of temperature, type of ions present and concentration of various ions. The classification of irrigation water based on electrical conductivity is shown below:

Type of water

Classification

Fresh water Low saline (G)

Excellent

Electrical conductance micro ohms/c at 25oc 0-100 100-250

Suitability for irrigation excellent to good Excellent to good All ropes and all soils except extremely low permeable soils.

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Medium saline

Good

250-750

Saline (c3)

Permissible

750-2000

Highly saline (c4)

Doubtful

2000-3000 Over 3000

Very highly saline Unsuitable c5

Normal salt tolerant plants with moderate leaching Only high salt tolerant plants, drainage is required. Bad water for irrigation Unsuitable.

There are several other standards of salts contents that have to be analysis and compare before selecting the required quality of irrigation water such as the sodium, Boron etc. The irrigation water with PH value more than 8.5 will cause sodium hazard.

3.

Quality of Ground water for Irrigation


Suitability of ground water for irrigation depends upon the effect of mineral constituents of water on both plants and soils as also on the piping system of the tube well. Quality of ground water varies from place to place, from stratum to stratum and fro season to season. The suitability of ground water for irrigation is determined on the basis of chemical, physical and biological characteristics. Chemical analysis required determination of the concentrations of in organics constituents, measurement of pH and specific electrical conductance. Physical analysis requires determination of the colour, odour, taste, temperature, turbidity etc. Bacterial analysis is done to determine the presence of coli form organisms.

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WEEK SIX 6.0 INTERRELATION OF SOIL MOISTURE AND PLANT MOVEMENT OF WATER IN SOILS
The movement of water in the soil controls not only the rate of infiltration but also the supply of moisture to plants roots and the rate of underground flow to springs and streams and recharge of ground water. Water in the liquid phase flows through the soil filled pore space under the influence of gravity. In the films of surrounding soil particles (under unsaturated conditions, it moves under the influence of surface tension forces). Water also diffuses as vapour through air-filled pore spaces along gradients of decreasing vapour pressure. In all cases, the movement is along gradients of decreasing water potential. In dealing with the movement of the water into the soils, the following terminologies are very important to be considered.

1.

Water Intake
The movement of irrigation water from the soil surface into and through the soil. It is the expression of several factors including infiltration and percolation.

Percolation- is the down ward movement of water through saturated or nearly


saturated soil in response to the force of gravity. Percolation is

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synonymous with infiltration rate with the qualitative provision of saturated or nearly conditions. The water intake differs from the soil type and different soils absorb water at different rates. The soil intake is Ana logging to infiltration.

fo

Infiltration rate mm/ hr

fc

t
Fo Fc Fo F K t = = = = = = Initial infiltration Infiltration capacity

Time

Depends on soil moisture content f + (Fo - Fc) e ktConstant time.

Seepage is the infiltration (vertically) down ward and lateral movement of water into
soil or sub strata from a source of supply such as a reservoir or irrigation.

35

Such water may reappear at the surface as wet spots or seeps or may percolate to join ground water or may join the sub surface flow to springs or streams. Seepage rate depends on the wetted perimeter of the reservoir or the canal and the capacity of the soil to conduct water both vertically and horizontally.

6.1

MEASUREMENT OF SOIL MOISTURE


The importance of the moisture content in the soil in relation to plant growth has resulted in the development of many methods for measuring soil moisture.

Soil moisture measurements are important in the suitable scheduling of irrigation and estimating the amount of water to apply in each irrigation. Measurement of changes in soil moisture storage with time is important in estimating evapo-transpiration. There are many experimental situations where careful measurement and investigations on soil-plant water relationship are to be interpreted properly. The principal methods of expressing soil moisture are:a. b. By the amount of water in a given amount of soil The stress of tension under which the water is held by the soil. The

36

c.

relationship between these two properties through out the entire moisture range gives a good deal of insight into the physical properties of a soil.

Expressing the amount of soil moisture, the amount of moisture that is held by a certain mass or volume of soil can be expressed as weight % or volume %. weight basis is based on the dry weight of the sample. Soil moisture on

Soil moisture, % by weight = wt of moist sample wt of oven dry sample Wt of oven dry sample.

= wt moist sample wt of dry sample x 100 Wt of dry sample.

Expression of moisture content as a percentage of dry weight may not indicate the amount of water, available to plants, unless the moisture characteristics curve or field capacity and permanent wilting point are known.

Field capacity: This is the moisture content of an initially saturated soil after all the
gravitational water has drain out. It is regarded as the storage capacity of the soil for irrigation purposes.

Wilting point- This is the maximum moisture content of the soil at which roots of
plants can no longer extract water from the soil and the plant wilts and may die if water is not added to the soil.

37

Available water = (Fc wp) % - soil moisture between field capacity and permanent
wilting point, and it is also referred to as readily available moisture. It is the moisture available for plant use.

inflow

fc AW WP Overflow Out flow

Fc Wp Aw

= = =

field capacity wilting point Available water.

6.2

CLASSES AND AVAILABLE OF SOIL WATER


Water present in the soil may be classified under three heads, because some moisture is not available to the plant. Hygroscopic water Capillary water Gravitational water 38

GRAVITATION WATER
This occupies the larger pores of the soil and drains away under the influence of gravity. The upper limit of gravitational water is when the soil is saturated, that is, when the pores are completely filled with water.

The saturation capacity is then equal to the porosity of the soil which may be expressed as P = 100(s-v) S Where P = Porosity % S = density of the soil grains (gm/cc) V = bulk density of the dry soil Mass (gm/cc) If the porosity of the soil is 50% by volume, then the saturated capacity can be expressed as 500mm of water per meter of soil. In other words, the amount of water held at saturation in one metre depth of this soil is 500mm.

Gravitational water drains from the root zone unless prevented by a barrier such as head pan or a high water table. This process takes less than one day for coarse sandy and three to four days for a heavy clay soil. Because of the relatively rapid disappearance of this drainable water, it is not normally included in the amount available to plants, but some allowance in the calculation of an irrigation cycle should be allowed for the time taken for the soil to drain to the gravity limit.

ii.

CAPILLARY WATER
Capillary water is that held by surface tension in the pores between the particles. The upper limit is when all the gravitational water has drained away: Soil in this

39

state is said to be at field capacity, which is normally taken as the upper limit to the water available to the plant.

iii

HYGROSCOPIC WATER
This water is held as a very thin film round the soil particle, and is held so firmly that it is unavailable to the plant except perhaps in extreme cases of drought. The figure below shows the schematic of classes of soil water. Gravitational water

Capillary water Wilting coefficient

Hygroscopic water.

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WEEK SEVEN 7.0 7.1 CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS FUNCTION OF IRRIGATION WATER
It acts as a solvent for the nutrients. Water forms the solution of the nutrients and this solution is absorbed by the roots. The irrigation water supplies moisture which is essential for the life of bacteria beneficial to the plant growth. Irrigation water supplies moisture which is essential for the chemical action within the plant leading to its growth. Some salts present in soil react to produce nourishing food products only in the presence of water. Water cools the soil and the atmosphere, and thus makes more favourable environment for healthy plant growth. Irrigation water, with controlled supplies, washes out or dilutes salts in the soil. It reduces the hazard of soil piping It softens the tillage pans.

7.2

WATER REQUIREMENTS (WR) OF CROPS


Having established the suitability of an area for irrigation, the next step is the determination of water requirement. Knowledge of the rate of water use by crops and the water retention characteristic of soils is fundamental in the design of the water supply system and scheduling of the irrigation scheme. The pattern of crop water use, allowing

41

for rainfall and operational losses, determines the canal, pipeline, storage and pumping capacities of the system. The total water requirement consists of the water needed by the crop, the losses associated with the delivery and application of the water. The best source of information on over all water requirements is often the experience of a good irrigators operating under conditions similar to those of the project area. Such information must be selected with care since it is a common practice to use excessive amounts of water if abundant supply is available. Water requirement includes the losses due to evapo-transpiration (ET) or consumptive use (CU) plus the losses during the application of irrigation of water (un avoidable losses) and quantity of water required for special operations such as land preparation, transplanting, leaching etc. it may thus be formulated as follows:

WR = ET or CU + application losses + special needs. Water requirement is therefore a demand and the supply would consist of contributions from any of the sources of water, the major source being the irrigation water (IR), effective Rainfall (ER) and soil profile contributions (S) including that shallow water tables. Numerically, therefore, water requirement of a crop is given as WR = IR + ER +S. The field irrigation requirement of a crop, therefore refers to the water requirement of crops, exclusive of effective rainfall and contribution from soil profile, and is given as IR = WR (ER + s)

42

The farm irrigation requirement depends on the irrigation need of individual crops their area and the losses in the farm water distribution systems, mainly by the seepage.

7.3

FIELD WATER BALANCE


The water balance of a field is an itemed statement of all gains, losses and changes of storage of water occurring in a given field with in specified boundaries during a specified period of time. The task of monitoring and controlling the field water balance is vital to the efficient management of water and soil. Knowledge of the water balance is necessary to evaluate the possible methods to minimize loss and maximize gain and utilization of water which is so often the limiting factor in crop production. Accordingly the water balance equation may be stated as follows: Gains Losses = change in Storage P + - (R + D + E + T) = DS +DV Where p is precipitation, I is irrigation, R is run off from the field, D is down ward drainage out of the root zone, E evaporation from the soil, T transpiration by the crop canopy, Ds the change in soil water content of the root zone and Dv the charge in plant water content.

7.4

EFFECTIVE RAINFALL
In the simplest sense, effective rain fall means useful or utilizable rainfall. Rainfall is not necessarily useful or desirable at time rate or amount in which it is received. The useful portion of rainfall is stored and supplied to the user, the unwanted parts need to be conveyed or removed speedily. An agriculturalist considers effective rainfall as that

43

portion of the total rainfall which directly satisfies crop water needs and also the surface run off which can be used for crop production on their farms by being pumped from ponds or wells.

7.5

FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE RAINFALL


There are so any factors influencing the proportion of the effective rain fall but only very few will be mentioned here;Rain Fall Characteristic: a soil has a definite and limited infiltration and moisture holding capacity. Hence greater quantities as well as intensities of rain fall normally reduce the effective fraction, increasing run off and lessening infiltration. Land Slope: - The slope of the land has profound influence on the time available for the rain water to infiltrate into soil. Characteristics of the Soil: - The soil properties influencing infiltration, and moisture retention release and movement influence the degree of effective rainfall. Crop Characteristics: - Crops with high water consumption create greater deficit of moisture in soil. The effective rain fall is directly proportional to the rate of water up take by the plant. Crop characteristics influencing the rate of water up take are the degree of ground cover, rooting depth and stage of growth. Management Practices;- Any management practice which influences run off, information, hydraulic conductivity or evaporation separation also influences the degree of effective rainfall.

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WEEK EIGHT 8.0 IRRIGATION


Irrigation may be defined as the artificially supplying water to soil for raising crops. It is the engineering of controlling and harnessing the various natural sources of water, by the construction of dams and reservoirs, canals and head works; and finally distributing the water to the agricultural fields. Irrigation engineering includes the study and design of works in connection with river control, drainage of water logged areas, and generation of hydro electric power.

8.1

NECESSITY OF IRRIGATION
Less Rainfall: - When the total rainfall is less than needed for crop, artificial supply is necessary. In this case irrigation work can be constructed at a place where over water is available and convey to less disadvantage area. Non Uniform: - The rainfall in a particular area may not be uniform one the crop period. During the early stage rain may be more, but no water may be available at the end. Commercial Crops with Additional Water:- The rain fall in particular area may be sufficient to raise the usual crops, but more water may be necessary for raising commercial and cash crops. Controlled Water Supply: - By the construction of proper distribution system, the yield of the crop maybe increased.

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8.2

BENEFITS OR ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION


Increase in food production Protection from famine; - During the contraction of the irrigation works, employment is carried to the people and this relief famine, and after the construction of such works, continuous water supply is maintained during drought. Cultivation of cash crops: - Irrigation makes it possible to grow cash crops such as sugar cane, tobacco cotton, etc. Addition to the wealth of the country: - The water tax obtained from farmer, the bumper crops produced due to irrigation makes country self sufficient in food requirements and this serves the foreign exchange and therefore increases revenue. Increase in property of people: - Due to irrigation facility, the value of land is increased. The increase in the yield of the crop, the growing of cash crops makes the formers to prosper and the living standard also improved. Generation of Hydro Electric Power; - majesty of large river valley projects are usually planned to provide hydro electric power together with irrigation. Also, falls on the irrigation channels can be vitalized to generate electricity which may help in industrializing the viral area. Domestic and industrial water supply: They can be use for domestic and for industries that need water for their functions.

46

Inland navigation: It can be use a means of transporting the people and agricultural products. Improvement in the Ground water storage; - Due to constant percolation and seepage of water, the ground water table is raised in the area where irrigation facilities are prevalent. General development of the country: Due to the increased yield and value of the crop, means of communication such as wad ways, rail ways and post and telegraph facilities are introduced. Due to the living standards, of the people, schools, hospitable and other facilities are provided.

8.3 METHOD OF IRRIGATION


Irrigation water may be applied to crops by flooding it on the field surface, by applying it is not the soil surface, by spraying it under pressure or by applying it in crops. The common methods of irrigation are indicated below. Irrigation methods

Surface

sprinkles

sub surface

Drip

Border check basin

Furrow

Rotating head

perforated pipe

In the surface methods of irrigation, water is applied directly to the soil surface from a channel located at the upper reach of the field, water may be distributed to the crops in border strips check basin or furrow. Two general requirements of prime importance to obtain high efficiency in surface methods of irrigation are properly constructed water

47

distribution systems to provide adequate control of water to the fields and proper land preparations to permit uniform distribution of water over the field.

8.4

BORDER IRRIGATION
In the border strip flooding method, the farm is divided into a series of strips 10 to 20 meters wide and 100 to 300 meters long. These strips are separated by low levees or border (low flat dillies) and run down the predominant or any other desired slope. To irrigate, water is turned from the supply ditch on to the head of the border. Water advances confined and guided by two borders in a thin sheet towards the lower end of the strip. The surface is essentially level between two borders so that the advancing sheet of water over the entire width of the strip. The length wise slope varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. This method is especially suited to forage crops, its advantage being that for a relatively low investment a system can be developed which can afford the highest irrigation efficiency and lowest labour requirement. With highly mechanized farming, large area and be irrigated within a short time by border strip method. The length of border strip depends upon how quickly it can be wetted over its entire length. This, however, depends upon: i. ii. iii. Infiltration rate of the soil Longitudinal slope of the land Size of irrigation stream available

The following lengths are suggested for moderate conditions Types of soil i. ii. Sandy soil or sandy loam Medium silt loam Length of border strip 60 to 90m 90 to 150m

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iii.

Clay loam or clay soil

150 to 300m.

The first 6 to 12m length of the strip should be made level to ensure uniform spreading of water. Water is diverted to the border strips from the following a. Earth or concrete ditches (canals): These run at a flat longitudinal grade. The water is discharge into the trip via border gates, aluminum siphon or plastic piping. b. Under-ground concrete pipes through risers: In this method, water is let into the trips by concrete risers. The figure below shows the border strip method. SUPPLY DITCH CONCRETE RISER PIPES

300m

8.5

ADVANTAGES OF BORDER METHOD


Border ridges can be constructed economically with simple farm implements like a bullock-drawn Labour requirement in irrigation is greatly reduced as compared to the conventional check basin method.

49

Uniform distribution and high water application efficiencies are possible if the system is properly designed. Large irrigation streams is properly efficiently used Operation of the system is simple and easy Adequate surface drainage is provided if out lets are available.

8.6 CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION


This is the simplest in principle of all methods of irrigation. There are many variations in its use, but all involve dividing the field into smaller unit areas so that each has a nearly level surface as shown in the figure.

Levelled Flot Check or levee


BASIN

Figure showing Check basin.

50

Bunds or ridges are constructed around the areas forming basins within which the irrigation water can be controlled. The basins are filled to the desired depth and the water is retained until it infiltrates into the soil, the depth of water maybe maintained for considerable period of time by allowing water to continue to flow into the basins.

8.7

THE COMPONENTS AND CONTROLS OF CHECCK BASIN


The distinguishing feature of the various uses of the check basin method of irrigation involve the size and shape of the basins and whether irrigation is accomplished by intermittent or continues ponding of water in the basins. The ridges or bunds may be temporary for a single irrigation as in the pre-sowing irrigation of seasonal crops or semipermanent for repeated use as in the case of paddy fields. The size of the ridge will depend on the depth of water to be impounded as well as on the stability of the oil when wet. Water is conveyed to the field by channel supply.

51

As the infiltration rate of the soil increases, the stream size must be increased or the size of the basins reduced in order to cover the area within a short period of time.

8.8

ADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN


It is suited to smooth gentle and uniform land slope and for soils having moderate to slow infiltration rates Both row crops and close-growing crops are adapted to be used with basin as long as the crop is not affected by temporary inundation or is planted in beds so that it will remain above the water level. It is also suitable in very permeable soils which must be covered with water rapidly to prevent excessive deep percolation losses at the up stream end. The method is especially adapted to very slowly and is required to stand for a relatively long time to ensure adequate irrigation. The method enables the conservation of rainfall and reduction in soil erosion by retaining a large part of the rain in the basin to be infiltrated gradually with out loss due to surface run off.

8.9

DISADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN


The ridges interfere with the movement of animal drawn or tractor-drawn implement for inter-culture or harvesting of crops. Considerable land is occupied by ridges and lateral field channel and crop yields are substantially low on the ridge and in the lateral channels. The method impedes surface drainage. Labour requirement in land preparation and irrigation is much higher compare to other methods.

52

The method is not suitable for irrigated crops which are sensitive to wet soil conditions around the stems of plant.

8.10 FURROW IRRIGATION


The furrow method of irrigation is used in the irrigation of row crops with furrows developed between the crop rows in the planting and cultivating process.

The size and shape of the furrow depends on the crop grown, equipment used and spacing between crop rows. Water I applied by running small streams in furrows between the crop rows. Water infiltrates into the soil and spreads laterally to irrigate the areas between the furrows a shown below.

Row

Furrow

Schematic sketch illustrating furrow irrigation of a vegetable crop with one furrow for each two rows of the crop.

53

The length of time the water is to blow in the furrows depends on the amount of the water required to replenish the root zone and the infiltration rate of the soil and the rate of lateral spread of water in the soil. Both large and small irrigation streams can be used by adjusting the number of furrows irrigated at any one time to suit the available furrow.

8.11 COMPONENTS AND ONTROLS OF FURROWS


Efficient irrigation by the furrow method is obtained by selecting proper combination of spacing length and slope of furrows and suitable size of the irrigation stream and the duration of the water application. j. Furrow spacing Furrows can be spaced to fit the crops grown and the type of machines used for planting and cultivation. Furrows should be spaced close enough to ensure that water spreads to the sides into the ridge and root zone of the crop to replenish the soil moisture uniformly. The spacing depends on the type of crops e.g. potatoes, maize and cotton are planted 60 to 90cm apart and have furrows between all rows. The lateral movement of water depends on soil texture and depth.

54

ii

Furrow length The optimum length of a furrow in usually the longest furrow that can be safely and efficiently irrigated. Long furrows are an advantage in inter-cultivation. If the length is too long, water soaks in too deep at the head of the furrow by the time the stream reaches the lower end. This results in the over-irrigation at the upper end or under-irrigation at the lower end. Short furrows require field supply channels to be spaced too close with consequent loss of land and increase in labour requirement. Proper furrow length depends largely on the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Furrows must be shorter on a porous sandy soil than on a tight day soil.

iii Furrow slope The slope or grade of the furrow is important because it controls the speeds at which water flows down the furrow. A minimum furrow grade of 0.05 percent is needed to ensure surface drainage. In general, the ranges in slope recommended for borders apply to furrows also. As the furrow grade increase, the rate of infiltration slows down and the side spread of water into the crop ridge decrease, so that, wastage may occur at the end of the furrows. With highly permeable soils, these factors may not be limiting. However, steeper grades lead to higher water velocities and more erosion. iv. Furrows stream- The size of the furrow stream is the one factor which can be varied after the furrow irrigation system has been installed. The size of the furrow usually varies from 0.5 to 2.5 litres per second. To obtain the most uniform irrigation, the largest stream of water that will not cause erosion is used in each furrow at the beginning of irrigation. Its purpose is to wet the

55

entire length of each furrow as quickly as possible, thus enabling the soil to absorb water evenly through the entire furrow length. After the water reached the lower end of a furrow, the stream is reduced or cut back so that it will just keep the furrow wet through out its length with a minimum waste at the end.

8.12

ADVANTAGES OF FURROW IRRIGATION


Water in the furrows contacts only to 1/5 of the land surface there by reducing pudding, and crusting of the soil, evaporation losses. Earlier cultivation is possible which a distinct advantage in heavy soils. There is no wastage of land in field ditches. Labour requirements in land preparation and irrigation are very much reduced. It is especially suitable for those crops (like maze etc) that are injured by contact with water.

56

WEEK NINE 9.0 SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION


It is irrigated by water movement upward from a water table located some distance below the soil surface. Inherent advantages make controlled sub-irrigation an attractive proportion to the irrigate if he can device the means of execution. The advantages are the avoidance of the evaporative losses of open water or wet soil surfaces and the elimination of the impedance caused to cultivation by pipes and ditches. The sub-surface irrigation is classified into two:The natural sub-surface irrigation and the artificial sub-surface irrigation. i. Natural sub- Surface irrigation is so called because the conditions which make it possible are geological and topographical. These are near level terrain, and a deep top soil of very high lateral permeability under laid at 2m to 7 depth by an impermeable stratum. If the area with this soil profile is sufficiently expansive, it constitutes a convenient under ground reservoir which can be replenished by spreader ditchers and wells. A constant heck is kept on the water table at representative points in the irrigation area, and losses, comprising consumptive use by vegetation and net seepage outflow, are replaced by supply. Since all water movement in the process of supply to the plant is upwards from the water table, there is also an upward movement of unwanted salts within the soil.

57

In arid climates where there is no significant rainfall to countered this, there is a risk of a built-up of harmful salts close to or on the surface. Should this be the case, provision is made for periodic leaching of the soil by heavy application of water to the surface. There must be drainage for the removal of the salts thus leached. In humid climate where supplemental irrigation is beneficial during spring and summer but drainage is needed during the winter, and where the soil is a highly permeable sand or peat, water table control can be affected by parallel deep ditches. In times of excess rain water is removed by gravity or pumping and part is stored in reservoirs to be fed back to the field via the dither during the dry periods. ii. Artificial sub-surface irrigation: Involves the use of a system of buried perforated pipes through which water is passed at pressure to percolate into the soils. This method will only function effectively if the soil has high horizontal and low vertical permeability. Systems of this type require pipes at spacing as low as 450mm and depths in the region of 500mm. There are expensive and liable to be managed by deep cultivation. In operation they require the maintenance of pressure by pumping or gravity form an elevated storage.

Ditch

Ditch

Water Table

58

Impermeable clay

9.1

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

Figure showing sprinkler irrigation. The sprinkler method consists of applying the water in the form of spray, some what as in ordinary rain, as is done in the garden lawn sprinkling. The greatest advantage of sprinkler irrigation is it adaptabilities to use under conditions where surface irrigation methods are not efficient. This method is move useful where: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The land can not be prepared for surface methods. Slope are excessive Topography is irregular Soil is erosive Soil I excessively permeable or impermeable Depth of soil is shallow over gravel or sand.

In this system, the cost of land preparation and permanent water delivery system of channels or conduct is less. However, there is large initial investment in the purchase of the pumping and sprinkling equipment.

59

Sprinkler system can be classified under three heads:i. ii. iii. Permanent system Semi-permanent system Portable system.

Earlier, stationary over- head perforated pipe installations were used. However, with the introduction of light weight steel pipes and quick couplers, portable sprinkler system was developed. In the permanent system, pipes are permanently buried in such a way that they do not interfere with tillage operations. In the semi-permanent system, the main lines are buried while the laterals are portable. Portable system has both portable main lines and laterals. These systems are designed to be moved from around the farm from field to field. A pump usually lifts the water from the source, pushes it through the distribution system and through the sprinkler nozzle on the sprinkler heads mounted on rising pipes attached to the laterals. Turbine and horizontal centrifugal pumps are usually used. Sprinkler system usually is opposed of perforated pipes or revolving head sprinklers and may be high pressure (201/kg/c2) or low pressure (1.4kg/2) system. Generally, perforated pipe system operates on the low pressure where as the resolving head sprinklers operate in both ranges depending on the type of rotary head used.

9.2

ADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION


i. ii. Erosion can be controlled. Uniform application for water is possible

60

iii.

Irrigation is better controlled; light irrigation is possible for seedling and plants which are young.

iv.

Land preparation is not required, labour cost is reduced more land is available for cropping and surface run off is eliminated.

v. vi.

Small streams of irrigation water can be use efficiently. Time and amount of fertilizers can be controlled for application.

9.3

DISADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLES IRRIGATION


i. ii. iii. iv. v. Wind may distort sprinkling system. A constant water supply is needed for commercial use of equipment Water must be clean and free from stand. Power requirement is high. Heavy soil with poor intake can not be irrigated efficiently.

9.4

DRIP IRRIGATION
In drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, water is applied in the form of drops directly near the base of the plant. Water is conveyed through a system of flexible pipe lines, operating at low pressure, and is applied to the plant through drip nozzles. This technique is also known as feeding bottle technique where by the soil is maintained in the most congenital form by keeping the soil water air proportion in the optimum range. Drip irrigation limits the water supplied for consumptive use of the plant by maintaining minimum soil moisture, equal to the field capacity, there by maximizing the saving.

61

Figure above showing Drip irrigation. The system permits the fine control on the application of moisture and nutrients at stated frequencies. The method of drip irrigation was first introduced is Israel but is now practiced in many countries of the world. Along with irrigation water, nutrients (fertilizer solutions) are also fed to the system. Water is first filtered so that the impurities may not clog the fine holes of the drippers.

9.5

ADVANTAGE OF DRIP IRRIGATION


Less requirement of irrigation water. Water logging avoided Cultivation of cash crops No over irrigation Reduced labour cost Nutrients preservation Suitable for any topography

9.6

DISADVANTAGES OF DRIP IRRIGATION


High initial cost Danger of Blockade of nozzles Shallow root depth of the crops, especially for fruit trees.

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Pump. Water source


OVERHEAD TANK

Fertilizer Tank. Filter Unit Pressure Regulator.

(P.V.C. PIPES)

TRICKLE LINES

TRICKLE LINES

63

(P.V.C. PIPES)

WEEK TEN 10.0 FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE CHOICE OF IRRIGATION METHOD
The choice of irrigation methods is based on technical feasibility and economics. Surface methods are generally the cheapest to install, and where conditions are suitable there is little point in considering other methods. However, where high value cash crop is to be grown there may be economic justification for considering other types of irrigation, especially where conditions are not ideal for surface irrigation. a. Land preparation Surface irrigation requires uniform slope which are too steep. Unless terracing is to be carried out, an expensive process, steep slope probably preclude surface irrigation in favour of sprinkler or trickle irrigation. The uniformity of the land surface is also important. For efficient irrigation by a surface method, slopes must be uniform with no high or low spots. To accomplish this, land grading is required, the extend of which depends on the natural topography. Land grading reduced top-soil, neither of which aid crop production. It should be noted that land grading may be an expensive operation, and therefore in some cases, it may be cheaper to install sprinkler irrigation at the out set.

b.

Variability of soil type: - The soil types in the irrigation area also affect the choice of method. Soils with low available water require frequent light irrigation which is difficult with surface methods. Soils with a high infiltration rate tend to

64

waste water because of percolation below the rooting range unless surface irrigation run are very short. The short runs increase labour costs, waste land because of the number of canals required and produce mechanization difficulties. Soil variability causes difficulties for engineers scheduling irrigation, especially if over than one type of soil I present in one field. Therefore in this type of condition sprinkler and trickle irrigation designs can easily be adapted to suit areas of variable soil type. c. Water quantity and quality: - The amount, quality and cost of the water supply also have some bearing on the irrigation method. Where the flow of water is small, surface irrigation is often uneconomic if possible at all, although the effective flow can be increase by providing farm storage during periods when irrigation is not being practiced e.g. at night. If the total quantity of the water is small, then it must be used with the highest efficiency. High efficiencies are not generally attained with surface methods unless design, operation and management are of a high standard and distribution canal are lined. Sprinklers and trickle irrigation generally have a much higher efficiency than surface methods. Where sediment is in water and the water contains objectionable matter, for example sewage, then sprinkler and trickle irrigation can not be choused. d. Climate- Winds in excess of 15 to 20km/h generally make sprinkler unsuitable as the smaller droplet are blown away and the water application pattern is distorted resulting in low efficiencies. High temperatures and low humidity reduce sprinkling efficiencies, but sprays; by lowering the atmospheric water demand, can alleviate water stress in

65

the plant and increase growth. Heavy rain after irrigation by surface method can result in flooding. e. Crop: - The type of crop being irrigated has little effect technically on the choice of a surface or sprinkler method. Tall crops are difficult to work in and thus the movement of pipes and sprinklers can be difficult. Surface irrigation, by its nature, has relatively long irrigation cycles, and in extreme circumstance will cause the plants to lose more growth than they would under short interval sprinkler or trickle method.

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WEEK ELEVEN 11.0 IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES


Efficient use of irrigation water is an obligation of each user as well as of the planners. Even under the best method of irrigation, not all the water applied during irrigation is shored in the roof zone. In general, efficiency in the ratio of water out put to the water in put and is expressed as percentage. The objective of efficiency concepts is to show when improvements can be made which will result in more efficient irrigation. The following are the various types of irrigation efficiencies. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Water conveyance efficiency Water application efficiency Water use efficiency Water storage efficiency Water distribution efficiency Consumptive use efficiency

1. Water Conveyance Efficiency: - This term is used to measure the efficiency of water conveyance systems associated with the canal network, water courses and field channels. It is also applicable where the water is conveyed in channel from the well to the individual fields. It is expressed as Ec = Wf x 100 Wd Where Ec = water conveyance efficiency % Wf = water delivered to the irrigated plot (at the field supply Channel).

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2. Water Application Efficiency: - After the water reached the field supply channel, it I measure of how efficiently this I done I the water application efficiency. And it is defined as Ea = Ws x 100 Wf Where Ea = water application efficiency, %

Ws = water stored in the root zone of the plants. Wf = water delivered to the field (at the field supply channel).

Water application efficiencies decreases due to seepage, percolation and run off losses at the tail and of borders and furrows. 3. Water use efficiency It is the ratio of water beneficially use, inducing leaching water, to the quantity of water delivered, and is determined from the following expression. Eu = Wu = 100 Wd Where Eu = water use efficiency Wu = water used beneficially or consumptively Wa = Water delivered 4. Water surface efficiency The concept of water storage efficiency gives an insight to completely the required water has been stored in the root zone during irrigation. Is is determined from the following expression: Es = ws x 100 Wn Where Es = water storage efficiency, % Ws = water stored in the root zone during irrigation Wn = water needed in the root zone prior to irrigation

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Water storage efficiency becomes important when water supplies are limited or when excessive time is required to secure adequate penetration of water into the soil. 1. Water distribution efficiency This indicates the extent to which water is uniformly distributed along the run. Not only the application of the right amount of water to the field but also its uniform distribution over the field is important permissible lengths of irrigation runs are controlled to large extent by the uniformity of water distribution which is possible for given soil and irrigation management practice. It is also defined mathematically as Ed = (1 y) x 100 d

Where Ed = water distribution efficiency, % d = average depth of water stored along the run during the Irrigation y = average numerical deviation from d 6. Consumptive use efficiency (cue) It is given by cue = wcu x 100 Wd Where wcu or cu = normal consumptive use of water Wd = net amount of water depleted from not zone soil. The efficiency, therefore, evaluates the loss of water by deep percolation and by excessive surface evaporation following irrigation.

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11.1 1.

WORK EXAMPLES ON IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY


A stream of 135 liters per second was delivered from a canal and 100 litr per second were delivered to the field. An area of 1.6 hectares was irrigated in eight hrs. The effective depth of root zone was 1.8m. The run off lose in the field was 432m3. The depth of water penetration varied linearly from 1.8m at the head end of the field to 1.2m at the tail end. Available moisture holding capacity of the soil is 20cm per metre depth of soil. Determine the water conveyance efficiency, water application efficiency, water storage efficiency and water distribution efficiency, irrigation was started at moisture extraction level of 50% of the available moisture.

Solution
i. Water conveyance efficiency, Ec = wt x 100 wd = 100 x 100 = 74% 135 ii. Water application efficiency, Ea = ws x 100 wf But water delivered to the plot = 100 x 60 x 8 = 2880m3 1000 Water stored in the root zone = 2880 432 = 2448m3 :. Water application efficiency = 2448 x 100 = 85% 2880 iii. Water storage efficiency, Es = ws x 100 wn Water holding capacity of the zone = 20 x1.8 = 36cm

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Moisture required in the root zone = 36 36 x 50 = 18cm 100 18/100 x 1.6 x 10,000 = 2880m3 Water storage efficiency = 2448 x 100 = 85% 2880 1v. Water distribution efficiency, Ed = 100 (1 y) d d = 1.8 + 1.2 = 1.5m 2 Numerical deviation from depth of penetration: At uppers end = 1.8 1.5 = 0.3 At lower end = 1.5 1.2 = 0.3 Average numerical deviation = 0.3 + 0.3 = 0.3 2 Efficiency Ed = 100 (1 0.3) 1.5 = 80% 2. An area of 20 hectares is to be irrigated by a pump working for 12hrs a day. The available moisture holding capacity of the soil is 16cm/m and the depth of root zone is 1m. Irrigation is to be done when 50 percent of the available moisture in the root zone is depleted. Water application efficiency is 70%. Peak rate of moisture use by the crops is 4mm (weighted average). Losses in water conveyance are negligible. Determine the irrigation period, net depth of water application, depth of water application efficiency is 70%. Peak rate of moisture use by the corps is 4mm (weighted average). Losses in water conveyance are negligible. Determine the irrigation period, net depth of water application, depth

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of water pumped per application, and the required capacity of the irrigation system in hectare cm/day and litres per second.

Solution
Net depth of water application = 16 x 50 = 8cm 100 Irrigation period =net irrigation required = 8 = 20 day Peak use rate 0.4 Depth of water pumped per application = 8 = 11.4cm 0.7

Required capacity of irrigation system = 11.4cm x 20ha 20 days = 11.4 x 10,000 x 1000 100 x 12 x 60 x 60 = 26.4 litres/sec

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WEEK TWELVE 12.0 WATER LOGGING


An agricultural land is said to be waterlogged when its productivity or fertility is affected by high water table. At which it tends to make the soil waterlogged and harmful to the growth and subsistence of plants life. Depends upon the height of capillary fringe, which is the height to which water will rise due to capillary action. The normal height of the capillary fringe met within agricultural soils varies from 0.5m to 1.60m.the land will therefore, be waterlogged when the water table is within 1.5m below the ground surface. The adverse effects of high water table upon the yield of crops also depend upon the nature of crop grown. The dept of water table which adversely affects the growth of different crop is given below CROPS Wheat Cotton Rice Sugar cane Folder crop DEPT OF WATER TABLE 0.9m to 1.2m 1.5m to 1.8m 0.6m 0.3m 1.2m

12.1

EFFECTS OF WATERLOGGING
The fertility of the soil when an area becomes waterlogged is usually due to the following reasons. Inhibiting activity of soil bacteria The liberation of plant food is independent upon the activity of soil bacteria which require adequate amount of oxygen in the air for proper functioning. When the soil pores within the root zones of the crops normally grown so saturated as to effectively cut off the normal circulation of air, the land is said to be waterlogged decrease in available capillary water Plant life draws its substance from the soilsolution round the soil particles which is drawn in the plants by capillary action and osmosis. If the water table is high the roots

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of the plants are confined to the top layers of the soil above the water table while if the water table is low, the roots of plants have more room for growth. Fall in soil temperature A waterlogged soil warms up slowly and due to lower temperature, action of soil bacteria is sluggish and plant food available is less. Defective air circulation When the water table is high, the drainage becomes impossible and the Rise of salt The rate of water table also causes accumulation of alkali salt in the surface soil by the upward flow of water which is established in waterlogged lands. If the underlying layers contains alkali salt in solution. They are brought up with water which evaporates having the salt on the surface. The alkaline deposits change the PH value of soil. Soils with PH value 7.0 to 8.5 gives normal yields, with PH value 8.0 and 9.0. The yield decreases when PH value rises to 11.0. The soil becomes infertile.

12.2

CAUSES OF WATERLOGGING
Water logging in any particular area is normally the result of several contributory factors. The main factors causing water logging areas are giving below In adequate surface drainage When the surface drainage is not adequate the heavy precipitations in the area is not drained off quickly and the rain water remains stagnant over the area for considerable time. This gives rise to heavy percolation and water table rises in the area. Natural obstruction to the flow of ground water Sometimes subsoil does not permit free flow of sub soil water due to some natural obstruction. This may accentuate the process of raising the water table. The creation of a high false water table or parched water table also leads to water logging. Construction of water reservoir Similar to the seepage from a canal, the seepage from the reservoir augments the water table and may cause water logging. Obliteration of natural drainage Sometimes the cultivator plough up and obliterates an existing natural drainage. This results in stoppage of storm water flow, consequent flooding and water logging. Inadequate capacity for arterial drainage

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This arterial drainage or nadi may not have adequate capacity to pass the heaviest floods in the entire catchments. As such the function of all the drains connected to the arterial drain is seriously hampered. The flood water of local drains thus spreads over the country side for clays and heavy percolations into the sub soil causes alarming rise in water table. Over irrigation of fields When the irrigation water applied to the field is in excess of the requirement of the crop, deep percolation takes place which is retained in the intermediate zone augmenting the ground water storage. Obstruction of natural drainage If a natural drainage is obstructed by irrigation channel, rail or road embankments, it will not be able to pass the rain water of catchments. There will thus be flooding of land and consequent water logging.

Carbon dioxide liberated by the plant root can not be dissolved and taken away. Adverse effect on community health The climate of a waterlogged area becomes damp. Formation of stagnant pools may become breeding places for mosquitoes. The climate does become extremely detrimental to the health of community.

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WEEK THIRTEEN 13.0 REMEDIAL MEASURES


In devising anti-water logging measures, the nature and magnitude of various factors, enumerated in previous article should be correctly assessed and allow for, various remedial measures adopted for prevention of water logging are discussed below Efficient surface drainage An efficient drainage system which permits a quick flow of rain water in short period helps to reduce the water logging. Under-drained by tile drains The drainage of agricultural lands is done more satisfactorily by the drains. A suitable tile drain can hold the water table at a pre-determined level which will be most beneficent to the crops. Restriction of irrigation a. The cultivators should be educated for economic use of water and induce to divide his field into "Kiaries" to avoid wastage. He should also be encouraged to supplement his water requirement from open wells and tube wells. b.Area with critical water table may be allowed only for kharif irrigation and during Rabi the cultivators may irrigate from open wells and tube wells. Removing obstruction in natural drainage Drainage crossing with road, railways and canals should be remodeled to make it more efficient. Prevention of seepage from water reservoir Adequate and suitably designed toe filters are provided so that seepage ultimately fines its way into the natural stream. Change in crop pattern A change in crop pattern may minimize the damage to plant line. Adoption of sprinkler for irrigation This reduces the percolation losses from water causes as only predetermined amount of water is applied to the land.

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13.1 DESIGN OF DRAINAGE


For design, we are normally given, 1) Design capacity Qm/s 2) Slope [longitudinal] 3) Channel section type [rectangular /trapezium] We are required to obtain the actual size of the channel. Example: Design a trapezoidal canal to convey, 10m/s of water across a land slopping at 3.5m over 3000m. Take marnings n=0.015 Soln Assume Z, M and estimate B Maximum velocity =1.75m/s .: Area =10/1.75 =5.7m Normally for maximum efficiency, the depth is about half of the width (or top width for trapezoidal). Assuming side slope of 1:1 (i.e. 45), Z=1, M=1 .: A=By +y 5.7=By +y 5.7=By +y Try B=2, y=1 Area (A) =2x1+1=3 Try B=2, y=2, =A=2x2+2=8 B=2, y=1.5, A=2x1.5+1.5=5.25 Use B=2m (Z=1/m and m=1/2)

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Depth=y

A=2y+y

P=2+22Y

R=A/P

V=1/nR2/3 s

Q=AV

1.5 1.45

5.25 5.003

6.245 6.104

0.840 0.820

1.983 1.995

10.408 9.981

The capacity of the drainage is determined from the velocity of flow and sectional area of the canal and its bank/ sides are not eroded by the water, also deposition of salt or suspension solids should be avoided. To obtain velocity of flow, we use the manning equation : V=1/n R2/3 S

V=Velocity of flow m/s S=Longitudinal slope of channel R=Hydraulic radius =A/P A=Area of flow m P=Welted perimeter m n=Manning constant Varies with the type of surface of the channel.

MATERIAL Concrete Wood Earth Metal Corrugated metal

N 0.015 0.012 0.032 0.011 0.024

Maximum velocity is about 1.75m/s for concrete Normally we get the size by trial, i.e. we assume a given section of certain depth. We then compute its capacity using manning equation. If the result is less than the given capacity, we increase the depth. If it is more, we decrease the depth, until we get the correct size.

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Channel section

Area of flow

Welted perimeter

By y

B +2y

------- B------By +Zy 1 Z ---B---y 1 m OR By +y/m B+Zy1+Z OR B +y1+1/m

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WEEK FOURTEEN 14.0 DRAINAGE


The term drainage is applied to systems for dealing with excess water. The three primary drainage tasks are urban storm drainage, land drainage (agriculture drainage) and high way drainage. Our primary concern is the agricultural drainage so far we are dealing with irrigation engineering. Agricultural drainage is the removal of excess water from agricultural lands by means of open or covered drains, shallow surface drains, bedding and land grading or smoothing are measures use to collect and remove surface water from fields.

14.1 BENEFITS OF DRAINAGE


The benefits of drainage are:Improvement of the soil structure and increase in productivity of the soil Lengthening of growing season Facilitates early ploughing and sowing of the crop. Crop period is thus increased resulting in higher crop yield. More soil moisture is made available for crop growth due to extension of crop root zone into the soil, there by ensuring vigorous plant growth. Maintains proper aeration of upper soil layers Maintains higher soil temperature. The soil is kept warmer. Reclamation of water logged lands. Harmful salts are leached off. Improvement in sanitary conditions of the area. Malaria and weed control. Maintenance of water table at a reasonable depth so that water cannot rise above the natural ground by capillary action.

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14.2

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DRAIN


The essential requirements to be satisfied by a drain are:Admit all the flood discharge from the catchments Quick and unobstructed flow towards the drain from the catchments Capacity to carry away the received water to the out fall Seepage and or low discharge does not spread thin over the entire section Low maintenance cost Low initial cost Stable section with non-silting tendency and capable of avoiding sloughing of side slopes.

CLASSIFICATION OF DRAINS ________________|_________________ | According to construction _________|_________ | artificial open drains | closed drains | According to functions _________|_________ | Natural

14.3 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO CONSTRUCTION


1. NATURAL DRAINS: - These are the lowest valley line between two ridges. 2. ARTIFICIAL DRAINS: -These are the constructed drains generated aligned along drainage line. Sometimes taken across the valley to reduce length of the drain or to reduce length of the drain or to have proper out fall condition.

14.4 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FUNCTION SERVED


1. OPEN DRAINS:

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I. Surface drains: - surface drains are normally used for removal of excess surface irrigation water or for the disposal of storm water. They remove water before it has entered the soil. II. Seepage: - Cater for the sub soil water. They are made deep enough to allow water table to drop in the drain and seepage water is carried away. They are of smaller section compared to surface drains. They help maintain aeration of root zone depths. III. Surface-cum-seepage drains: - They are the dual purpose of seepage and storm water drain. During rainy season they carry storm water and seepage water in non-monsoon months. 2. CLOSED DRAIN: - The sub-surface drains remove water which has entered the

soil. They are usually laid 1 to 1.5m below the ground surface and at a suitable spacing and grade to lower water table to greater depths.

14.5 DISPOSAL METHODS OF DRAINAGE WATER


Sub surface drainage water in arid region is likely to be saline and disposal should be considered with care. Return to the natural drainage channels can lead in time to serious river water salinity. Some irrigation areas are under laid by extensive highly permeable, volcanic deposits which if they have a suitable zone of discharge, can be used as a cheap and convenient medium for the disposal o drainage water. Another geological asset to drainage is a buried historical river bed. This may be a course of very permeable sands and gravels, sealed from the surface by over laying clay layers, which if penetrated forms an excellent and cheap drainage disposal channel. Depending on the extent and depth of the quiver, it can be reached by a system of small down wells each draining its immediate vicinity, or by a small number of main wells into which the out flow from a system of surface and under drains can be discharged. While it is generally inadvisable for sub surface drainage water to be returned to the irrigation supply unless monitored for undesirable solutes, excess storm rain and surface irrigation run off are unlikely to be contaminated and can safely be re-used. Re-use of irrigation run off in particular is practiced widely where economically justified

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Figure shows down well.

Drainage channel

Impermeable stratum

Sand and gravel

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WEEK FIFTEEN 15.0 FLOOD


Flood is terms used to describe the inundation of an area by water for a certain period of time, leading to disruption of normal activities and possible lose of properties and life. The flood could be caused by any of the following: i. ii. iii. Excessive rainfall leading to extra ordinary run off. Poor drainage system and drains of inadequate capacity. Silting up of natural drains and river beds with sediments due to erosion in the catchments area. iv. v. vi. vii. Encroachment of flood plain by human settlement. Construction of structures on river banks and beds. Highly meandering streams. Sudden failure of water retaining structures.

15.1 THE PROBLEMS OF FLOOD AND THE NEED TO FIND SOLUTION


Civilization has always developed along rivers, whose presence guaranteed access to and from the sea coast, irrigation for crop water supplies for urban communities and latterly power development and industrial water supply. The many advantages have always been counter balanced by the dangers of floods and in the past levees or flood banks were built along many major rivers to prevent inundation in the flood season. Flood-damage mitigation was distinguished from drainage as embracing methods for combating the effects of excess water in streams. More commonly called flood control in the United States, the terminology flood-damage mitigation has been adopted in Australian practice to emphasize that absolute control over flood is verily feasible either physically or economically. What we seek to do is to reduce flood damage to a minimum consistent with the cost involved. The flood is the result of run off from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Man

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can do little to prevent a major flood, but he may be able to minimize damage to crops and properly with in the flood plains of the river. The commonly accepted measures for reducing flood damage are: Reduction of peak flow by reservoirs Confinement of the flow with in a pre-determined channel by levees, flood walls or a closed conduit Reduction of peak stage by increased velocities resulting from channel improvement. Diversion of flood water through by passes or flood ways to other channel or even another water shed. Reduction of flood run off by land management Temporary evaluation of flood threatened areas on the basis of flood warnings.

15.2 TYPES OF FLOOD CONTROL STRUCTURE


The types of flood control structures usually used are: 1. Flood mitigation reservoirs 2. Levees and flood walls. FLOOD MITIGATION RESERVOIRS: - This is a structure used to store a portion of the flood flow so as to minimize the flood peak at the point to be protected. The reservoir is situated immediately upstream from the protected area and is operated to cut off the flood peak. This is accomplished by discharging all reservoirs in flow until in flow drops below the safe channel capacity, and the stored water is reduced to recover storage capacity for the next flood. If there is some distance between the reservoir and the protected area but no local in flow between these points, the reservoir operation will be quite similar.

15.3 LEVEES AND FLOOD WALLS


One of the oldest most widely used methods of protecting land from flood water is to erect a barrier preventing over flow levees and flood walls are essentially longitudinal dams erected roughly parallel to a river rather than across its channel. A levee is an earth like, while a flood wall is usually of masonry construction. 85

In general, levees and flood walls must satisfy the same structural criteria as regular dams. Levees are most frequently used for flood mitigation because they can be built at relatively low cost of materials available at the site. Levees are usually built of excavated material from borrow pits paralleling the levee line. The material should be placed in layers and compacted, with the least pervious material along the river side of the levee. Usually there is no suitable material for a core, and most levees are homogeneous embankments.

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