Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

..

________________________________________________________________________


...

2011

1.
2.

.................................................................................................................................3
..............................................................................................................5
2.1
...........................................................................................6
2.2
..............................................................................................................8
2.3
..........................................................................11
2.3.1
....................................................12
2.3.2
..............................13
2.3.3
,
..............................................................................................................................14
2.4
.....................17
2.4.1
................................................................................17
2.4.2
..........................................................18
3. ...................................................................................................19
3.1
..............................................19
3.2
.........................................................................20
3.2.1
.....................................................20
3.2.2
.....................................21
3.2.3
...............................22
3.2.4
...............................................................22
3.2.5
....................................................23
3.2.6
...................................................23
4.
.23
5.
.24
6.
.24

1.

7-12% ,
90% , ,
, ,
. ,
XXI
.
.

, , , ,
,
.

.
: ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
, -,

.
,

, .
,
(
).
, .
,
.

,
.

, ,
10000 K+/Na+ [1;2].
.
,

[3]. ,
,
.

.

.

[4].

[5] [6], [7]
[8]. ,

[9;10], [3],
[11]. ,
, -
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
( ,
, ) . ,
.

[12;13].

,

.
4


[6;14]
,

(,
; -
). , ,
, ,
.



. : 1.
; 2.
; 3.

:

2.

.

.
.

:
5

( )

( ,

1 100 )

( 0.1

10 )


, - )

).


: ,

.
1.

: )

;
)

;
)
; )

.

, [15].
:

(. 1)

(. 1)

(. 1)

(. 1)

2.1

- . ,
.
0.1-10 . ,
.

J :
P:
J kP , k

( ), .
, -:
J

r 2 P
(1), ,

8 x

, , r , x .

, -:
J

3s2 D p2
P

(2), s , Dp [16].
2
150 (1 ) x


,
.
: ,
(. 2).
,
,
. (
), ,
70- XX [17].
,
: , , ,
. ,

. 2. : ) ; )
.
7

,
.
1 100 .
,

,

.

2.2

. ,

,

.
3.


: ,
,
,
,
.

.

, ( ),
, ,
. , , . 3.
,
.
.
.
, . 4
. (. 4 . 4),
, .

. 4. : )
, ) , ) .
8

.
, ,
( ) ,
,
,
.

Kn,
: K n

, d .
:
Kn<<1 (<<d), - Kn>>1 (>>d),
Kn d (d). ,
,
. ,
1-5 , .
1.

1.








>20
> 10
2-100
< 1.5

1/M

, ,
(Kn<<1),
, .

. , ,
.


, (Kn>>1)
.
:
9

J DC D

C1 C 2
(3), L , 1 2
L

1
, D v k (k
3
, v k

8 RT
), -
M

, M .

1_
D v k d
3

PV nRT CVRT ,

:
D
J

2 8 RT
d (4)
3 M

4d P 2
2 8 RT P1 P2
d
(5)
3 M RTL
3L MRT

M ,

.
,

.
(
),
J ,. J ,1 J , 2 .

(5) :
F

J
.
P

:
F

4d 2
3L MRT

(6)

, ,

. ,
, .
,
10

,
.
,
:
J

d k P
(7),
3RTL

, , ,
.

2.3
, , ,

.

)
.

. 5.
.


( , )
( ),
. 5 [18].

,
[18;19].
'-Al2O3 2 10
[20]. '-Al2O3
-Al2O3. . (G. Thompson) .
(G. Wood) , ,
:
, (. 5).
[2123].

11

2.3.1
, ,
[18].

.
, , ,
.

( 1 . 7), 2 ,
( 3),

. 6. . 7.
.
1 ; 2 . jb

. jp

; 3 . jhp
,
; 4 jp jb.
.
( 4) [18] jp,

, : jb
jhp ,
, . jp
, jhp
, , ,
.

12

. 6.
,
(. 7). ,
, ( = 1010 - 1012
[24]).
( 2 . 7),
( 3 . 7).
,

( 4 . 7). jp ,
.

[25].

2.3.2
1995 (Masuda)

.

[26;27].

.

[28].
[28;29]. ,

. 8.
, ) 1.7 . % H2SO4 25; ) 2.7 . % H2C2O4
40; ) 1 % H3PO4 195 .

13

,
, . ,
.

. ,
[30] ,
, ,
D./D. = 0.200.02 (. 8).

, 10%. , ,

.
,
.
,
, P=10%, pH , ,
, ,
. ,
pH, , .
[30] ,
, .

2.3.3 ,

. 9,


2.2 2.8 /.

,


.
,

. 9.

14


,
[6].
n n
(. 10).
pH

, pH ,
. pH ,

.
,

pH

. 10.

) 2; b) 3;c)
4 d) 16


(, H2SO4 pH =1.09 25
~65 24 ).


. ,

. ,
,

.

,
. ,

(. 11). ,

. 11.


: , .

[31]
.
15

. 12.

,
()
99.99%; ()
94%; ()

94%


600 1
N2.

(99.99%)
50
(. 12). 1.1 .
.
.
(Alcan heavy duty aluminum foil, 94%),
, , ,
,
. , ,
, 25 60 .
,
60 120 .
.
(. 12). . 12
,
.
, 80 .
,
. , . 12
500 ,
.

16

,
,
, ( 5%).
,
, .
,
, ,
.

( 5%).

2.4

,

32-35

[6;14;36-38],

[39]

2.4.1

.

,

. 13.


.
, ,
, ,
.
. 13 [32].

17

. 14. (),
() ()
15

,
TiO2 [33], ZrO2 HfO2 [34], SiO2 [35], V2O5 [40]. . 14
,
.
:

2.4.2





.

[6;14;36-38].

. 15. (-) (d-f)


,

(, ) ()
600 800. ,
,
. 15.

20% ,
[14],
C-F [41].
18

3.
3.1


(Goodfellow, 99.999% 5 99.5%)
0.5 . ,
Al
12 150 , 24
450 ( 1/)
.
46
CrO3+209 H3PO4 (.)+ 41 H2O. 80 .
20 .
0,65 /2. - 3, - 40 .


(. 16) GPC-6030D (V=0120 , I
= 03 ) Agilent N5751A (V=0300 , I= 02 ). ,
. ,
80 ,
,
, .
( >80)

- .

V = 5- 250

(Pt )

,
,

, 20 /
CrO3 35 / H3PO4,

(Al )
. 16.
.

19

.
.


0.5 CuCl2 5% HCl.
5% (.)
H3PO4 60 4 25 ,
.


, .
600 6
(15 . %) (85 . %), 150 /.
.
: C3H6()3C()+3H2().
,
.

450 90 .

3.2
3.2.1


.17.
,
.
( ).
FlowSelect (Bronkhost, ), -
. :

J
, F 3/(2), P
P S

, S .

Perkin

Elmer

Clarus

600,

20

- 1 .

. 17.
, .
3.2.2

, . 18.
5-10 ,
( 5 )
.

,
,

J
, F
P S

/(2),

. 18.

21

.
3.2.3

,
,
(. 19), , .
pH,
pH .

. in situ.

.
350 800

OceanOptics
QE65000,

HPX-2000.

1 .

(Aldrich).

400
.
3.2.4

. 19.

.


Leo Supra 50VP ().

ImageJ.
,
,
.

22

3.2.5

,
,
Leo 912AB Omega 120 .
, ,
3 NaOH 10 ,

.
3.2.6

,
,
Renishaw InVia
633 (Ar, 20 ) 785 (NIR, 300 ).

(520,5 1).

4.
:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
:


:
23

5.
1).
?
2) , n
n ?
3) ,
?
4)
?
5)
?
6)
, ?
7) ?

6.


(1) Doyle, D. A.; Cabral, J. M.; Pfuetzner, R. A.; Kuo, A. L.; Gulbis, J. M.; Cohen, S. L.;

Chait, B. T.; MacKinnon, R. Science 1998, 280, 69-77.


(2) Israelachvili, J. N. Intermolecular and Surface Forces; Academic: London, 1992.
(3) Itaya, K.; Sugawara, S.; Arai, K.; Saito, S. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan
1984, 17, 514-520.
(4) Patent 223,994 1923.
(5) Napolskii, K. S.; Eliseev, A. A.; Yesin, N. V.; Lukashin, A. V.; Tretyakov, Y. D.;
Grigorieva, N. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Eckerlebe, H. Physica E-Low-Dimensional Systems &
Nanostructures 2007, 37, 178-183.

(6) Meng, G. W.; Jung, Y. J.; Cao, A. Y.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005, 102, 7074-7078.

(7) Vasiliev, A. A.; Pavelko, R. G.; Gogish-Klushin, S. Y.; Kharitonov, D. Y.; GogishKlushin, O. S.; Sokolov, A. V.; Pisliakov, A. V.; Samotaev, N. N. Sensors and Actuators BChemical 2008, 132, 216-223.

24

(8) Feng, H.; Elam, J. W.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Stair, P. C. Chemical Engineering
Science 2009, 64, 560-567.

(9) Inada, T.; Uno, N.; Kato, T.; Iwamoto, Y. Journal of Materials Research 2005, 20, 114120.
(10) Lira, H. D. L.; Paterson, R. Journal of Membrane Science 2002, 206, 375-387.
(11) Osmanbeyoglu, H. U.; Hur, T. B.; Kim, H. K. Journal of Membrane Science 2009, 343,
1-6.
(12) Lee, S. B.; Martin, C. R. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2002, 124, 1185011851.
(13) Lee, S. W.; Shang, H.; Haasch, R. T.; Petrova, V.; Lee, G. U. Nanotechnology 2005, 16,
1335-1340.
(14) Kyotani, T.; Tsai, L. F.; Tomita, A. Chemistry of Materials 1995, 7, 1427-1428.
(15) Baker, R. W. Membrane technology and applications ; John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West
Sussex, England, 2004; p -538.
(16) McCabe, W. L.; Smith, J. C.; Harriot, P. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering
(seventh ed.). 163-165. 2005. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Ref Type: Generic
(17) Belfort, G.; Davis, R. H.; Zydney, A. L. Journal of Membrane Science 1994, 96, 1-58.
(18) Diggle J.W.; Downie T.C.; Coulding C; W. Chemical Reviews 1969, 69, 365-405.
(19) O'Sulliva J.P.; Wood G.C. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical and Physical Sciences 1970, 317, 511-543.

(20) P.A.M.E.A.J.Bard Encyclopedia of electrochemistry of the elements; Marcel Dekker:


New York and Basel, 1973.
(21) Thompson G.E.; Xu Y.; Skeldon P.; Shimizu K.; Han S.H.; Wood G.C. Philosophical
Magazine B 1987, 55, 651-667.

(22) Shimizu K.; Kobayashi K.; Thompson G.E.; Wood G.C. Philosophical Magazine B 1991,
64, 345-353.

(23) Thompson G.; Wood G.C. Anodic films on aluminum, In treatise on materials science
and technology; Academic Press: New York, 1983.

(24) Vanderlinden, B.; Terryn, H.; Vereecken, J. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 1990,
20, 798-803.

(25) Wehrspohn R.B.; Li A.P.; Nielsch K.; Muller F.; Gosele U. Oxide Films in The
Electrochemical Society Proceeding Series 2000, PV 2000-4, 271.

(26) Masuda, H.; Yamada, H.; Satoh, M.; Asoh, H.; Nakao, M.; Tamamura, T. Applied
Physics Letters 1997, 71, 2770-2772.

25

(27) Masuda, H.; Fukuda, K. Science 1995, 268, 1466-1468.


(28) Jessensky, O.; Muller, F.; Gosele, U. Applied Physics Letters 1998, 72, 1173-1175.
(29) Li, A. P.; Muller, F.; Birner, A.; Nielsch, K.; Gosele, U. Journal of Applied Physics 1998,
84, 6023-6026.

(30) Nielsch, K.; Choi, J.; Schwirn, K.; Wehrspohn, R. B.; Gosele, U. Nano Letters 2002, 2,
677-680.
(31) Lo, D.; Budiman, R. A. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2007, 154, C60-C66.
(32) ;
: , 2010.
(33) Xiong, G.; Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Han, C. Y.; Wang, H. H.; Iton, L. E.; Curtiss, L. A.;
Pellin, M. J.; Kung, M.; Kung, H.; Stair, P. C. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2005, 109,
14059-14063.
(34) Gu, D. F.; Baumgart, H.; Namkoong, G.; Abdel-Fattah, T. M. Electrochemical and Solid
State Letters 2009, 12, K25-K28.

(35) Elam, J. W.; Routkevitch, D.; Mardilovich, P. P.; George, S. M. Chemistry of Materials
2003, 15, 3507-3517.
(36) Schneider, J. J.; Maksimova, N. I.; Engstler, J.; Joshi, R.; Schierholz, R.; Feile, R.
Inorganica Chimica Acta 2008, 361, 1770-1778.

(37) Mattia, D.; Rossi, M. P.; Kim, B. M.; Korneva, G.; Bau, H. H.; Gogotsi, Y. Journal of
Physical Chemistry B 2006, 110, 9850-9855.

(38) Wang, C. W.; Li, M. K.; Pan, S. L.; Li, H. L. Chinese Science Bulletin 2000, 45, 13731376.
(39) Lazzara, T. D.; Lau, K. H. A.; Abou-Kandil, A. I.; Caminade, A. M.; Majoral, J. P.;
Knoll, W. Acs Nano 2010, 4, 3909-3920.
(40) Stair, P. C.; Marshall, C.; Xiong, G.; Feng, H.; Pellin, M. J.; Elam, J. W.; Curtiss, L.;
Iton, L.; Kung, H.; Kung, M.; Wang, H. H. Topics in Catalysis 2006, 39, 181-186.
(41) Hattori, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Okino, F.; Pradhan, B. K.; Kyotani, T.; Tomita,
A.; Touhara, H. Carbon 1999, 37, 1033-1038.

26