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. .

. , , , , .
.

1.
. .
1980- . [V1, V2, V3]
(1990), , . . , 1987 ,
[G1] 1991 ,
1994 . 199091 . .
, 1992
[Arn].
, ,
.
; . V, 0 V0 V1 V2 . . .
Vm Vn Vm+n .
1991 . .-. [BL] ,
1, . - [BN1]
grV = n>0 Vn /Vn1
grV ( ) . 1992 . [Kon]
,
Q
grV = n>0 Vn /Vn1 .
, :
(1) Vn
n .
(2)
() ? , , K1 K2
08-01-00379-, -709.2008.1, 06-01-72551--.
1 [G1].
1

. .

, v , v(K1 ) 6=
6= v(K2 )?
(3) , ?
, K, K ,
, v, v(K) 6=
v(K )? [Kn], , ,
13. 2

, 3- . 17 , . [ViB].
:
( [LM]).
,
(. [Vo], . [Lieb]).
- , . .
[PV] . [G4] , .
. - [BN2] ,
3, .
[Ha, G3].
. [V4, V5],
(
).

[BGRT, BLT, Roz, Kri, Mar].
2.
2.1. . S 1
R3 , ,
,
. , R3 ,
.
R3 S 3 ; -
. .
() , .. R1 R3 , t 7 (t, 0, 0)
, . R3 , , -
; , .
2

. [Tur] , , , 20.
3 . [Koh],
.

, S 1
S 1 R3 , .
k : S 1 R3 , R3
l : R3 l. , k
, (k(S 1 ))
,
( ). ,
( ), ( )
.
.

.
( ) 0,
1 2 , .
:

817

2.2. . S 1 R3 . .

. ,
.
, .
. (1) . . (2) : , , ,
.
, , . .
, .
. (1) , 180 . (2)
817 : ,
(
1979 . [Kaw]).

. .

2.3. . ,
.. , (, ,
..) . . , -, ..
,
. : ( ., , [PS]).
. C ( , ), Z[t],






(1)
C
C
= tC
(- ) 1 .
, ,
, . ,
. -
, ,
( ). ,
, t. : ,
817 (. ) 1 + t2 ,
1 t2 , 1 t2 2t4 t6 .
3.
3.1. . f
. , K, -
D S,
m . :
X
(2)
S (f, D) =
(1)|| f (K,D ),
1 ,...,m

= (1 , ..., m ) , || = 1 + + m , K,D ,
D, S : i = 0, i- ,
i = 1, .
f , [G1], n,
n + 1 D ( n + 1) K.
.

. 2 ,

, :

, , , , 2
.
,
. . , [G2].

i ,
. i , i ,
, . ; ,
i ,
.

:


, (2). , n + 1 ,
, n.
, .
3.2. .
, , , , ,
, .
.
K : S 1 R3 ,
, (. .
).
Emb (Imm) ()
R3 . = Imm \ Emb , ,

. .

Emb. , ..
Emb , () ; , .
;
Emb , ..
.
n , , Xn . , X0
( ) . X Xn .
,
, , ,
.
f : X0 C . f f : X C, X0 f
-
(3)

f(

) = f(

) f(

).

, , . ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
. , , , ,
- .
f : X0 C ( ) 6 n,
, n . ,
, , (2).
3.3. . cn tn 6 n. , - (1) (3), ,
n + 1 , tn+1 ; ,
tn 0. ,
cn n.
3.4. . Vn 6 n ,
Vn . , , ,
, . .
.
. V0 .

, f V0 , f ,
. , ,
f .
, . .
. , f
, , f .
1. .
, V2 . ,
, c2 . (, c2 ,
.)
, 2, . v n. , n
. , v
, , n , v(K)
, K ( ),
. , v(K) ,
.
(a), : aa.
(a b), ,
, aabb abab.
.

3.5. . n , n , .
:
,
, , ,
. , n
a1 , . . . , an , .
a1 , . . . , an .
.
1. 1:

2. 2:

3. 3:

( , .)

. .

K, n ,
(K) n, :



=
,


3.6. . CDn
n. #(CDn ) Vn Vn1 Vn . ,
, n
n. n Fn ,

: Vn Fn .
,
6 n1,

: Vn /Vn1 Fn .
, Vn ,
dim Vn /Vn1 = dim Vn dim Vn1 6 dim Fn = #(CDn ).

?
, , . .
?
,
.
. (1) (.4)
() : f (D) = 0 D, , .
()
(4)

f(

) f(

) + f(

) f(

)=0

( ; ,
,
).
(2) (. ) CDn ,
) ), 6 n.
, dn = dim Vn dim Vn1 ,
, n,
1- 4- . , An , An
.
4

1 . .

An , n ( , )
(5)

= 0.

4- :

=0;

+2

=0,

:
2

=0,

3.7. . An 6 4. . A1 , A2 , A3 , A4
0, 1, 1, 3 ;

;
;
,
,
.
n An .
, An n 6 9 [BN1]. An , , Vn , n = 12:
n
dim Pn
dim An
dim Vn

0
0
1
1

1
0
0
1

2
1
1
2

3
1
1
3

4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
2 3 5 8 12 18 27 39 55
3 4 9 14 27 44 80 132 232
6 10 19 33 60 104 184 316 548

n = 10, 11 12 [Kn] 1997


, , P = n>1 Pn (.
).
dim An n . . [Zag];
, dim An , n!/an
a < 2 /6. . [Das],


[CD1]; , dim Pn , eb n p
b < 2/3. An , [CD1], dim An & en/ logc n
c < 2 /6. , ,
dim Pn
dim An . , , ,
.

10

. .

4.
4.1. A. An = Vn /Vn1
,
A=

An = A0 A1 A2 . . .

n=0

:
:

, ,
, , , , 4- ( A)
.
, A
(, ).

X
(D) =
DJ D J ,
J[D]

[D] D, DJ , J, J J [D]. A
(. [MM, CDM])
P A.
P , , p A (p) = 1 p + p 1;
Pn = P An . Pn ,
A
.
;
.
4.2. . n 2n , , , , , .
(
). f (f ),
STU
, ( , ;
):
(6)
:

11

2

. n n f n ,
(f ) An . ,
.
[BN1, CDM]. Pn (n > 1) (f ) f n .
.
P1 = A1 .
P2 P3 , ,

A4 P4 ;

( . [Vo] 1995 ),
P =
n=1 Pn
. . 1997 , . - 1993 .
5.
1992 [Kon]
(. 8) .
, .
K K
, , ( ),
. :

.
5.1. . R3 C z
R t. L = K K
R3 = Cz Rt , t
L. , , t
,
, t ( )
.
, :
Z
X d(zj (t) zj (t))
1

lk(K, K ) =
j
,
2i m<t<M j
zj (t) zj (t)

12

. .

m M t
K K , j , zj (t), zj (t), K K , j = 1
,
.

zj (t)

zj (t)

, , K K ,
.
[CDM].
5.2. . , ( )
,

.
. K A :
Z
m

X
Y
X
dzj dzj
1

.
(1)
D
Z(K) =
P

m
(2i)
z

z
j
j

m=0
j=1
tmin <t1 <<tm <tmax
tj

P ={(zj ,zj )}

, .
A , ,
A P
m m am , m C ,
am Am m.
tmin tmax
t K.
m- tmin < t1 <
< < tm < tmax , . , m = 2
:
t2
t
tmax
tmax
b
b
a
a
tmin

tmin

t
tmin a b tmax 1
, .
, t,
z

13

, t. {t = tj } R3
(zj , tj ) (zj , tj ), K.
P = {(zj , zj )} m j = 1, . . . , m.
{tmin < t1 < a,
b < t2 < tmax } {t = t1 } {t = t2 }.
,
. , {tmin < t1 < a, a < t2 < b}
- {t = t1 },
{t = t2 } 
4
K , 2 = 6
(z2 , z2 ), .
P (zj , tj )
(zj , tj ) P , t .
P . K
(zj , tj ) (zj , tj ) . m.
A, DP .
zj zj
m
^
dzj dzj
tj .
,

z
j
j
j=1
t1 , . . . , tm ,
m- . . .
m > 0. m = 0
, 0 ( , A) 1.
5.3. . [BN1, CDM],
Z(K), -, ,
, -,
, t.
, ,
. , Z(K) , , K1
K ,


Z(K1 ) = Z(K) Z
.
H , ,

Z(K)
,
I(K) =
Z(H)c/2
c t K,
A, (1 + a)1 = 1 a + a2
a3 + . . . .

14

. .

, I(K) (
) . , I(K) . , f (I(K)),
f A (. [CDM]).
Z(K) , I(K) .
. O , ,
. :
Z(O) = 1,
I(O) = 1/Z(H),
I(H) = Z(H)/Z(H)2 = 1/Z(H).
. , I ,
O H .
.
5.4. . .
: . (, I(O), Z(O)
1, .)
1997 . - [BGRT] ( 1998 [BLT]) , :
I(O) = exp

b2n w2n

n=1

X
1 X
=1+(
b2n w2n ) + (
b2n w2n )2 + . . .
2
n=1
n=1

b2n , . .
:

X
1 ex/2 ex/2
,
b2n x2n = ln
2
x
n=1
(b2 = 1/48, b4 = 1/5760, . . . ), w2n , . .
w2 =

w4 =

w6 =

, ...

, , , (
) , (2n)! .
(2n 1)! .
,


1
.
=
+
+
+
+
+
6
.
, :

15

1
2
+
.
3
3
STU ( (6) . 10) :
=

10
4
+
.
3
3
( )
w2 w22 .

1
1
1
w22
w4 + . . . ,
I(O) = 1 + w2 +
48
4608
5760
.
=

, ,
:
1
1
1
1
I(O) = 1

+
+
+ ...
24
5760
1152
2880
.
( [LM]); .
( . [CD2, CDM]). ,
, .
, ,
, ,
. a =
,b=
, .
[Dr] ; , ,
( ,
) .
5.5. . B; ,
1-3- () , :

IHX

( ,
). , ,
. B ,

.
( ), .

16

. .

[BN1, CDM], B A ; , . A B
. ,
B
= A (. [BLT, CDM]). , , B,
, :
.
A B , . 2 ( . [CDM]):
1. ( ),
4- ?
2. ?
,
; ,
.
6.
6.1. c2 . 1994 [PV] 2, t2
. D
K, ,
, i j, (i...j...i...j),
(U) (O) U...O...O...U.
(7)

c2 (K) =

i j i j
U O O U

i j ,

i = 1 i- : +1

, 1

.

,
, ( 1). , 6 n
D , 6 n. .
, .
6.2. . n , 2n ,
, n , ,
+ .
.
, ,

17

.
, ,
(i (7)).
, . 3:

6.3. .
, , d GD . GD , GD
(.. - ).
CGD , GD.
S : CGD CGD,
, CGD CGD C
,
X
hA, Di = (A, S(D)) :=
(A, D ) ,
D D

- (1, , 0, ).
c2 :


+
+

c2 (K) = +

+
+
, G(K)
.

, G(K)
c2 (K) =

, , .
. (. ) v 6 n A n ,
v(K) = hA, Gi, G
K.

, v d C. A = P D D
v : CGD
D
: CGD C, D D .
: 6 n v = S |CGD
d
, 0
n.
6.4. . ,
[G4], , . ,
[GPV]. .- . [Rou]; . , n . 6 n

18

. .

, 6 n
.
v 6 n. , S :
CGD CGD ( , ,
1 ).
: = v S 1 . : (1) d C , S
v : GD
, (2) ,
n.
,
:
. ,
. ,
, .
6.5. . .
, , , ( ), (
). :
() , (),
(). , ,
.
.
(1) :
+
.
+
(2) :
+
+

,
- .
. , ( )
(1) () (), (2) ( ). , (1) , (2)

(8)
, , .

19

6.6. P . (D) D, P : CGD CGD,


P
i i Di n .
: (.. , ) () ,
.
, v Di ,
. v > n
, (D).
P .
(1) , ,

- :

(2) ( (8)), ,
:

, v 6 n
A , v(K) =
hA, G(K)i.
6.7. . (1) c2 , :


+
+

c2 (K) = +

+
+
, G(K) ,

.
(2) (. [CDM]) , 3.
.
(3) [CKR] - c2n . [CP] HOMFLY.

6.8. . n , . ,
Ln . , ,
Ln Ln . , Ln /Ln Vn 6 n. ,
c2
x1 x2 . , ,
, 1, L2 , L2 x1 x2 . ,
dim L2 /L2 = 2 = dim V2 . ,

20

. .

( - ) Ln Ln
n - Vn .
7.
.
, , [Arn, BN1, CD2]
[PS, Oht, CDM]. [PS, Arn, CD2].
. . , . .
.
;
.

[Arn]

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[G4]

[GPV]
[Ha]
[Kaw]
[Kn]
[Koh]
[Kon]
[Kri]
[Lieb]
[LM]
[Mar]
[MM]
[Oht]
[PS]
[PV]
[Rou]
[Roz]

[Tur]
[V1]
[V2]
[V3]
[V4]

[V5]

[ViB]
[Vo]

[Zag]

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