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1.2. - . 6
1.3. 7
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2.1. 8
2.2. ,
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2.3.
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2.4. .... 11
2.5. . 12
2.6. .. 13
2.7. 14
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2.9.
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2.10. ..15
2.11. ... 16
2.12. .. 18
3. . 20
3.1. . 20
3.2. . 20
3.3. .. 20
3.4. -. 21
3.5. 22
3.6. ... 22
3.7.
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3.8.
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3.9. . . 25
3.10.
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3.11. . 27
3.12. .. 28
3.13. .. 28
3.14. ... 29
3.15. . 30
3.16. -. 31
3.17. ... 31
3.18. ... 32
3.19. . 33
3.20. . 35
3.21. ..36
3.22. . .. 36
3.23. . 37
3.24.
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4.
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4.1. .39
4.2. .. 39

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4.4. .. 40
4.5. , 41
4.6. , .. 42
4.7. ... 43
4.8. .. 44
4.9.
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4.10. ... 47
5. . 49
5.1. 49
5.2. RS.49
5.3. . 50
5.4. -. 51
5.5.
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5.6. JK 53
5.7. JK- 54
5.8. .. 55
5.9. . 56
5.10. . 56
5.11. 57
5.12. .58

.. 59
1. . 59
1.1. . 59
1.2. .. 60
1.3. .. 61
1.4. . 62
1.5. . 62
1.6. 62
1.7. .. 63
1.8. . 64
1.9. . 65
1.10. . 67
1.11. 68
1.12. .. 69
2. ... 70
2.1. .. 70
2.2. .. 72
2.3. 73
2.4. .. 74
2.5. .. 75
2.6. .. 75
2.7. - ... 76
2.8. . 77
2.9. . 78
2.10. . 79
2.11. .. 80
2.12. .. 81
2.13. .. 82
2.14. .. 83

.. 87
1. . 87
1.1. .. 87
1.2. . 87
1.3.. . .. 88
1.4. . . .. 89
1.5. . .
.. 90
1.6. .. 90
1.7. . 91
1.8. . 92
2. .. 93
2.1. , , . 93
2.2. .. 94
2.3. . 95
2.4.
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2.5. .
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2.6. .. 98
2.7. .. 99
2.8. .. 99
2.9. . 100
3. 101
3.1. 101
3.2. . 101
3.3. . 101
3.4. - . 102
3.5. .. 103
3.6. . 104
3.7. ... 104
3.8. 105
3.9. 105
3.10. 106
3.11. ... 107
3.12. . 108
4. .. 108
4.1. . . 108
4.2. . 109
4.3. , , . 110
4.4. .
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4.5. 111
4.6. .. 112
4.7. 112
4.8. . 113
4.9. . . 114
4.10. ? .. 115

. 116
1. 116
1.1. . 116
1.2. - 116
1.3.
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2. . 117
2.1. .. 117
2.2. . 117

2.3. .. 117
2.4.
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2.5. . 118
2.6.
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2.7.
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2.8. 118
2.9.
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2.10. . 119
2.11.
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2.12. 119
2.13.
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2.14. . 119
2.15. .. 120
2.16.
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3.1. .. 120
3.2. . 120
3.3. . 121
3.4. . 121
3.5. ... 121
3.6. JK- .. 121
3.7. JK- .. 122
4. . 122
4.1.
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4.2. 122
5. . 123
5.1. .. 123
5.2. 123
5.3. . 123

1. 124
1.1. . 124
1.2. 124
1.3. ... 124
1.4. .. 125
1.5. 125
1.6. . 125
2. ... 125
2.1. .. 125
2.2. ... 126
2.3. ... 126
2.4. . . 126
2.5.
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2.6. . 127
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n 2 (n 1)
N = nCn2 =
.
2
,
.
M , , S2(n), (n 2):
M = 5n 8.

-
S2(n),
- k :
n 2 (n 1)
.
2(5n 8)
, .
, n = 6
- 4,1 ; n = 10
10,7 ; n =20 41,3 . .
- n/2 . , N
S3(n) :
n 2 (n 1)(n 2)
N = 3 =
.
6
M , , S3(n) :
M = 7n 18.
n = 6 - 5 ; n = 10 23,1 ;
n = 20 187 . .
k=

1. ().

S2(8)
?
2. (136)! S3(4) - ( )
?
3. (). , S2(n), 32 . , ?
4. ,
f = S2(A, B, C, D, E, F) S3(P,Q,R,S,T).

) (987). ?
) (87). (,
) ?
) (). ,
- ( )?
) (5). , ?
5.
- , :
) (79)! S0(A,B,C,D,);
) ()! S5(A,B,C,D,E);
) ()! S1(P,Q,R,S,T); ) ()! S5(A,B,C,D,E,F).
6. (). ,
S2(5), .
?
7. (280). ,
S3(6), A = 1.

.
?

14

2.7.

( ) , , - , , .

, n +1
, n -.
. 29 .
. ,
S0(5) . S1(5)
, . S2(5)
() S5(5), , .
(. 29)
S5(5)
, E

E
S4(5)
D
E

,
D
D

E
S3(5)
D
C
E

D
E S2(5)
C
. D
B
C
E
D
C
B
E S1(5)
A
D
B
E
,
C
D
C
B
A
E S0(5)

. 29
[26].

1.

29

-: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. ,

, :
) (281) A = B = 1, C = D = E = 0;
) () B = C = E = 1, A = D = 0;
) () B = C = D = E = 1, A = 0.
2.
A,B,C,D,E, :
() S2(5); (229) S3(5); (839) S4(5); () S5(5).
3. (). , . 29, F K.
?
4. (289).
380 . ?
5. ().
S1(5) + S4(5).
?
2.8. -

.
n , . . -
( ),
, ,
.

[24; 26; 31; 33; 56].


-.
[26, . 269272] .
-.
, . . . , . 30.
1

2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3

n -1
An -1

n -1
n -1

n
n

. 30
(. 30) , , , .

,
, -.
1

220

. 31
. 31 n = 7 ,
, . 7 ,

, ,
. (
2 , 3.
tumble [47].) , . 31,
. - .
, .

1. ().

1, 2, , 7
. 31. 7- ,
?
2. (899). , . 31 ,
1, 2, , 7 (
):
1) 1 0 0 1 1 0 1;
2) 0 0 1 0 1 0 1;
3) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1;

4) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1;
5) 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 ;
6) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ;

7) 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 ;
8) 1 1 1 0 0 0 1;
9) 1 1 0 0 0 0 1.

2.9.
-

,
,
(
). ,
:
, .
,

15

.
.
,
6-

,

.
5-
.

.
.
4-

() ,
3-

.

. 32.
2-

. .
1-

, . 220
,

. 32
, .
,
. , .
.
.
, ,
. .
-,
.
2.10.

, ,
. ,
.
,
.
. .
1. A B . 00 . 01
, . -

10 (). 11
, . -
.
1

U
4

1 2

A B

4 5

4 A
A

6
B

. 33
. 34
. 35
, :
U 1 H2.
, (. 33). . ,
2 3,
5 6.
, .
,
. 5 6. , ,
1 2. . 34.

.
.
(. 3).
f4 5 , f3 4 , f2 3 , f45 , , 4 5 . 34; f3 4 , , 3 4; f2 4 , , 2 3. 00 :
. , f4 5 . f3 4 .
f2 3 , , f4 5 = f3 4 = 0 f2 3 .
3

f4 5 f3 4 f2 3

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1

0
0
1

U
5

2
4
6

1
1

. 36
01. U.
3 4,
f3 4 ,
.
10. ,
4 5.
f4 5 . 2 3 , , f2 3 . 3 4 ,
2 .
f3 4 .
,

U. 4 5,
2 3, f4 5
f2 3 . f3 4 , 3 4 .

16

:
f4 5 = ;

f2 3 = .

f3 4 = ;


4 5, 3 4, 2 3, , (. 35).
2. . 36
, U
1 2.
.
00 U. 01
U,
: 1, 2.
10 : 2,
1. 11 . .

f5 6 f1 3 f2 4 f1 4 f2 3
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
1
1

0
1

0
1

1
0

1
0

1
2

(. 4).
, . :
f1 3 = f2 4 = ;

f1 4 = f2 3 = .


,
. 36. , , . 37.

1. (. 38) 1, 2, 3, 4 ,
a b:
= 0,
; = 1, , . ()! :
f2 3 = ;
f2 4 = .
f1 3 = ;
+

1
R1
4
2 3

R2
a

. 38

U1

1 2

U2

U3

2 3
U

3 4

U4

4 5

2.11.


, .
, ,
.

f1 5 f1 4 f2 4
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

1
0

0
1

1
4

3
2

220
. 40


3
4

220

. 41

1.

. 37

f5 6 = + ;

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
U :
() 125 ?
() 45 ?
() 95 ?
() 150 ?
() 60 ?
() 15 ?

U5

. 39

2. . 39 : U1, U2,
U3, U4, U5, U
1, 2,
3, 4, 5. U1 = 48 ; U2 = 24 ; U3 = 12 ;
U4 = 6 ; U5 = 3 . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 , 5
.
U, :
() 10011?
() 11110?
() 00011?
(370) 00001?
() 00000?
() 10010?
3. . 39 U1 = 80 ; U2 = 40 ; U3 = 20 ;
U4 = 10 ; U5 = 5 .

: 1, 2, 3. 1 2

( 220 ). 3 1 .
, , . 3 2,
.
,
() ,
: = 0, ; = 1, = 0, ; = = 1,
.

.
, .
. 40 ,
. : f15, f1 4, f2 4 , 1 5, 1 4, 2 4
.
. 5. 00 01
, .
. 10
, 11
. :
f15 = A;

f1 4 =

f2 4 = B.

, , . 41.
2. : ,

( . 31); ,
220 30 ; ,
, . 00, 01, 10, 11.
, 0 ; 190 ; 220 ; 250 .
( ) ,
. , ,
,

17

.
,
.

1 R 2

30

220

. 42

. 43

. 42.
00, . . = = 0 (
. 42), R 220 .
= 1,
220 30 : 2
( ) (
) 3 4 (
) 1 . ,

, . . 190 .
= 1, = 0.
, 250 , 2 4 1.
= = 1, .
3. ,

;
(. 43).
,
.
- , -
.
, ,
,
.
.
. 44.
.
4.
P

Q
1
2
3
. P

220

. Q
. 44
.
= 0, . = 1, = 0, . = = 1
. .

2
P

220

220
Q
P

. 45

. 46

, P Q (. 45), .
. 46.
,
.
.
, Q. ,
, 1.
= 1, 2.
, , .
( ),
.
5. P Q . P . Q
. = = 0,
. = 1, = 0
, . = 0, = 1
, . = = 1
. .
.
. . 47.
, P
Q



,
1
2 ~
, ,

. 47
.

1. (762). ,
(. . 42).
1) ( 30 ) , 30 . , , ?
2) , = = 0?
3) R = = 1?
4) , , ?
5) , R 220 ,
?
6) ,
?
2. (92). ,
(. . 44).
1) -
, ?
2) ,
?
3) , ?
4) ,
?
5) , ?
6) , ?

18

2.12.

,
, (, , ),
.
,
, ,
.
1.
,

(. 48).
f
, . . , U
, .

(: ),

. 48
.
(: ),
, .
, .
, , ( f ),

f = ( + ) ,
, .
, . 48,
, , ,
, ,
.
2. (. 49). ,
fi = i + Ai S1(A1, A2, A3, A4, A5),
i , i- (i = 1, 2, 3,
4, 5); S1(A1, A2, A3, A4, A5) -, .

1
+
U

f1

2
2

2
1

f2

f3

4
3

2
1

f4

f5

S1(5)

5
4

5
4

. 49
.
, 1, () 1
,

S1(5) = S1(A1, A2, A3, A4, A5)

1 = 1 . , , 3. : 1 3.
1 = 3 = 1 S1(5) ,
1 , S1(5)
3 . ,
i- i- , , i, .
3. , , , (. 50).
,
U. .
,
.
, , R,
.
, . . , , 10 15 .
,

.

+
U

f1

f2

. 50
. 51
4. ,
(. 51). 1,
, , . 2, ( . 51
).
, (
). ,
,
, :
f1 = ( + 1) ;
f2 = (B + 2) ,
1 1, 2 2,
. = 1 ( 1), f2 = 0 . = 1 ( )
.
2. . = 1, f1 = 0
.
, ,
.
1 2
, -
, , .
, 1
2,

19

f1 f2 :
f1 = ( + 1 )
f2 =

2 ;
( + 2 ) 1 .

5.
(. 52) : 1, 2, , 6 ,
;
, ; 1, 2, , 6 , ;
, ;
, .
.
,
() .
.

, .

,
.
. .
,
.

P
f1

. 52
,

= ( 1 1 + 11 )( 2 2 + 2 2 ) && ( 6 6 +

6 6 ).

( . 52)
: f = 1. .
- , 110010.

f
f = ( 1 2 3 4 5 6 + ) ,
,
1, 2 5
, f = 1, ,
.
.
, . 52,
. ,
, ,
, 1/64 (
). , ( ). , 20
1/1048576. n
1/2 , n
.
6. P, Q, R
1 1, 2 2 3 3.
,

2
R

53

. 53. f1, f2, f3


, , :

f1 (,1,P,Q,R) = (1 + PQ + PR);

f2 (,2,P,Q,R) = (2 + PQ + QR);
f3 (,3,P,Q,R) = (3 + QR + PR),

(PQ + PR);
2 = (PQ + QR);
3 = (QR + PR).

f = ( + ) ,

; , ,
, , :

1 = 2 = 5 = 1,
3 = 4 = 6 = 0

f3

Q
f2

.
1, P.
:
= 0; 1 = 1; 2 = 0, 3 = 0, P = 1, Q = 0, R = 0.

:

f1 = 1;
= 0;

f1 = 0;
= 0.
, 1 = 0.
, 1 P
.
, , 2 3. .
.
P Q. :
= 0; 1 = 1; 2 = 1, 3 = 0, P = 1, Q = 1, R = 0.
,
1 = 2 = 1. ,
P Q
.
,
P R ,
1 = 3 = 1. P R.
.
, , .
1

f1 = 0;
= 0;

20

3.
3.1.

() ,
().
,

.
, ,

.
.
: ,
, ().

.
.
,
.
3.2.

. 1. :
U, , R1
R2, V1 V2.
, 1 2 .
. . -,
, . .
. -,
, U.
, = 0,
() .
= 1, () . , , .
, = 1.
, .

R1
U 3

A
B

R2

1 V1

& f =

. 2

B 2 V2 7 U
6

A
B
C
D

& f

. 1
. 3
. 1 . , = = 0, .
,
. , U
. , = = 0,
U = 0. U = 0, : .
= 1. 2 , U. , V1 .

,
. -
, V2 .
,
= = 1.
U. : .
f . 1
1
. ,
f U . , 0 0 0 0
: 0 1.
0 1 0 0
,
1 0 0 0
1 1 1 U
, .
. 1

( f ). U
. ,
.
,
. 2.
, f .
. . ,
. 3
, f = ABCD.

. 1 U = 5 .
( ) ( = = 0):
(73)! 1 6; 12; 27;
(62)! 15; 32; 2 6;
(58)! 3 4; 35; 3 6;
()! 5 6; 25; 13;
()! 17; 1 4; 2 4;
()! 37; 45; 4 6.
2. U = 5 = 1, = 0 (. 1)
( ) :
1.

(323)! 35; 3 6; 2 6; 2 4; 27;


()! 4 6; 5 7; 6 7; 37; 12.
3. ()! (.1) U = 5 ,
= = 0? = = 1? = 0, = 1? = 1, = 0?
4. (. 1; U = 8 ):
()! =1, =0, U 1 =; U 2 =; U = .
()! ==0, U 1 = ; U 2= ; U = .
()! = = 1, U 1 =; U 2 = ; U = .
5. U (. 3) ,
, UB ,
, . . :
() UA = UC = 0 B, UB = UD= 5 B,
U = ; = ; = ; = ; D = ,
, , , D ;
(826) UA = UB = UC =UD = 1,
U = ; = ; = ; = ; D = .

3.3.

. 4,
.
, . . = = 0. ,
f = 0.
.
V2 .
R2 >> R1, U,
,
, f = 1.

21

,
. ,
f = 1.
R1
1


1 V1

2
f

0
0
1
1

B 2 V2 5
7

R2 8
U
6

. 4

A
B

0
1
0
1

0
1
1
1

1 f =+

. 5

, -
.
. 2
. , .
,
. 5. ,
, .

1. . 4 U = 5 .
( ) = = 0:
()! 12; 17; 15; 18; ()! 26; 34; 86; 69;
()! 25; 27; 35; 85; ()! 57; 29; 28; 23.
2. U = 10 , = 1, = 0, R1 = 10 , R2 = 90
(. 4) :
()! 12; 57; 15; 16; 18;
()! 27; 13; 14; 23; 24;
()! 25; 26; 28; 56; 36;
()! 59; 87; 86; 89; 54.
3. ()!
(. 4) U = 10 , R1 = 10 , R2 = 90 ,
= = 0? = 1, = 0? = 0, = 1? = = 1?
4. ()!
(. 4) U = 5 , R1 = 0 , R2 = 50 ,
= = 0?

= = 1? = 1, = 0? = 0, = 1?
5. ()! (. 4) U = 5 , R1 = 10 , R2 = 0 O,
= = 0; = = 1; = 1, = 0 = 0, = 1.
6. (. 4; U = 10 ,
R1 = 10 , R2 = 90 ):
() = 0, = 1, U 1 = ; U 2 = ; U=;
() = = 0, U 1 = ; U 2 = ; U = ;
() = = 1, U 1 = ; U 2 = ; U =
7. U ,
,
UB . . :
()! U = UB = 8 ; UC = UD = 0 ; =;
=; =; D =; f =; U = ; U =
( R1 = 10 , R2 = 80 ; . 4);
()! UA = UC = 14 ; UB = UD = 0 B,
= ; = ; = ; D = ; f =; U = ;
U = ( R1 = 12 ; R2 = 84 ; . 4).
3.4. -

. 6 (
). , = 0 ( -

. 6)
. , U = U,
. . = 0 f = 1.
,
. . = 1. , U
R1 , () .

. , f = 0, = 1.
,
f=

. 7,

.
R1
R2

f=A
4
U 2

6 U
.

5
3
7

. 6
- (. 7,).
( )
. . , f = .
1

. 7, -

, . 7, -.
.

&

f = A

1 A

1 A

&

f =

&

&

. 7
- (. 7,),
,
. , ,
,
. 1, 4, 6
.
,
, . ,
, ,
, .

1. (. 6; U = 6 ):
() = 0, U = ; U = ;
(55) = 1, U14 = ; U = .
2. U = 6 (. 6).
( = 0):
(983) 12, 14, 17, 67;
(934) 23, 43, 47, 57;
(6) 16, 15, 47, 24, 26;
() 35, 37, 46, 27, 25.

22
3. U = 7 , = 1 (. 6). :
() 14, 24, 67, 34, 27;
() 25, 23, 17, 13, 16;
() 47, 26, 36, 37, 67.
(63) 35, 57, 56, 12, 15.

3.5.

. 1, 4, 6
,
. , ,
(. 7,).
(. 8),
f1 = AB;

f2 = C + D.

, A, B, C, D ,
(. 7,) , . 1 4. (. 8)
.
f1 . : f3 = AB + D,
. 9.
& f1

f2

& f1 =AB

f3 = AB + D

. 8
. 9
f3 ,
- . , , f = + . f4, f3:
f4 = A(C + E) + D.

, , , :
f = 1, f = 0, f = , f = , f = . .
[13, 14, 18, 35, 46]
. , , , , . , ,
f1 = + D +EF

f2 = PQR +

P , Q ,
, 1 F.

D,

f3 = PQR +E.

.
:
f5 = PQR + .
f4 = PQR +

1. (58.). f3 = , f2 = CD f1 = AB + C.
2. (.45). f3,
f1 = AB + CD,
D f2 = A .

3. (). f1 = AB + BC + CD. f2 = AB.


f3.
4. (61). f1 = AB + B C D + D .
D . f2. , f2:

1) f = + + ;

5) f = ( + + )( + + ) ;

2) f = + + ;

6) f = ( + + )( + + ) ;

;
7) f = ( + + )( + + ) ;
4) f = + + + ; 8) f = ( + + )( + + ).

3) f = + +

3.6.

. 9 . . R1 (. 1),

0 U . , .
( )
?
, , . 9, (. 10).
V3
R1
U

R2

R4

R3

V1

V2

f1 = AB
D

V4

f3
R5

. 10

= = 0, = 1, = 0, = 0, = 1,
D = 1 ( f3)
R4 R5.
R3
, R5 >> R3.

U.
,
, , ,
.
, R5 R3
. (.10)
f3 = AB + D,
,
U/2.

. , . 8.
:
f1 = AB ;

f2 = C + D.


:
f2.
f3 = A(C + D).

23

. 11. (. 12).
= D = 0, = 1,
1

f3 .
f
D
& 1

(.12)
. 11
. ?
V1 V2 ,
D . V4,
= 1.
V3. R4 R5
. ,
, ,

,
R5 >> R4.
C = D = 0 = 1 U
.

R1
U

R2
V1
D

R3

V2

V3
V4

R4
f3
U

R5

. 12
, U/2. (. 12) .
, = D = 0 = 1
(
).
, (. 1)
(. 4)
- .


,
. . . 13 ,
. ,
.
.
,
.

( ) ,
,
. ,
, R1 R2.

( ).
- ,
.
,

U.
(. 12) ,
. 13, = D = 0 = 1

V3 . : U = 0; f3 = 0,
f3 = A(C + D).

R1

U
R3
f = A+B+C

R2

R4

f = A+B+C

. 13

, , , .

(. 10), , ,
(
, ), :
()! = =D = 0;
(35)! = 0, = D = 1;
()! = 1, = D = 0.
()! = = 1, D = 0;
2. (1). ,

, , D (. 10).
3. , , D (. 10) .
( ), :
(12) V1 ;
() V3 ;
(822) R3 ;
(633) R5 .
4. (674). ( ), R3 = = 0, U = 20 ,
R3 = 500 (. 10).
5. (795).
, , D (. 12), f3 = 1
1.

R1 = R2 = = R5.
6. (). f3
f 3 D = 1 (. 12).
7. (). , . 12
, . 13.
, , D,
f3 = 0.

3.7.

2.2 ,
- .
,
, , .
, :
f = BC + DEF + B C + A.

(1)

,
f = P + Q + R + A,
P = BC;

Q = DEF;

R= B C ,

24

BC P, DEF Q, R.
, BC,
, P + Q + R + A. ,
DEF . , .
(1) . , , ,
(. 6).
(. 7,). ,
.
.
. . 14
, . .
,
() . , , .
,
.

R
U

D
E
F
B
C

& P
& Q

&R

D
E
F
B
C

& 1
&

&

14
. 15
. 15, ,
(1). . 15, ,
.
, ,
. . 8, 9, 11. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
(.15,) . ,


, .
(. 14) (. 7,).
.
. 15 ,
, .

.

:
f = (A + B)(C + D )( A + B + D) EF .
:
P = A + B; Q = C + D ; R = A + B + D.

(2)

(3)

(2)

f = PQREF.

, (3) C 1
C 1
D
f .
D
1
1
&
B
B
, f D
D
E
E
F

F

. 16
(. 16,).
. 16,
.

1 &

3.8.


,
.
f = A + B(C + DE).

f = A + 1, 1 = ( + DE).
, + 1
,
, ,
1. : 1 = 2, 2 = + DE. , ,
2. :
2 = + 3, 3 = DE.
D & 3 = DE

, E

1 2 = C + 3

.
C

3 = DE.
& 1= B2

.
f
1

, .17

(. 17).
:
f = [( AB + A B )CD E + AC + BD]DEF + D F .

(4)

:
f = 1 + 2, 1 = [( AB + A B )CD E + AC + BD]DEF ;
2 = D F .
1 = 3DEF, 3 = ( AB + A B )CD E + AC + BD.
3 = 4 + 5, 4 = ( AB + A B )CD E + AC; 5 = BD.
4 = 6 , 6 = ( AB + A B )CD E + AC.
6 = 7 + 8, 7 = ( AB + A B )CD E; 8 = .
7 = 9 D E, 9 = AB + A B .

= 10 + 11, 10 = ; 11 = .
,
, . 18.
(4) . , , , D, D , .
. 18 .
9

25
,
: 8 10. , , ,
, . .
.
, , D, ,
D
.

& 10
&

C
1

11

D
E

& 7

&

B
D

D
E

&

1 f

F
D
F

. 18

&

&

3.9.

,
-
. .
-
. .
.
, .
.

1.

( ):
(1) f = ABC + DE + P?
() f = A(B + C)D + Q?
() f = A(B + CD) + EF + Q?

(344) f = (A + B + C)(D + E + PQ) + R?


2. ,
:
(541) f = + + P + Q + A + C ?

() f = + + D + A + B + C + D ?
(2) f = AB + C D E + A + BC E ?

(533) f = ABCDE + PQ ?

B
C
D
A
B

&
&
1

2
3
. 19

&
1

B
C
A
D
B

1 1

&

1 2
1

1 5
&

4. (). , . 19,
5.
5. (). (0 1) f (. 17) 0, 3, 8, 12, 15, 20, 31?
6. (). , . 20,
5.
7. (529). 4 (. 20)
: ,
.
8. ().
A, B, C, D,
f (. 20) .

. 20

3. f
, . 19.
(). .
(). :
,
.
(620).
: ,
.



, .

, ,
, .
, .
,
.

,
.
, , 20
.
.
,
,
,

,
(. 3.14 3.18).

f


,

. 21
.
1. .21 ,

.
-

,
. , (. 14),

(.7,).
:
( ) f
, N, , , N < 14.

26
. , , 13 (
). , .

3
A, B, C, D,
A C D f

0 0 0 0 0 0
,
1 0 0 0 1 0
D .
2 0 0 1 0 1
3 0 0 1 1 1
( 3)
4 0 1 0 0 0
16
5 0 1 0 1 1
.
6 0 1 1 0 0
.
7 0 1 1 1 1
8 1 0 0 0 0
, .
9 1 0 0 1 0
10 1 0 1 0 0
f. ,
11 1 0 1 1 1
. 12 1 1 0 0 0
f :
13 1 1 0 1 1
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13. 14 15
14 1 1 1 0
,
15 1 1 1 1

( ).
(. 22) :

f = BD + CD + A B C.
,
: 1110 , , 1111 .

f = ( A + D )( B + C )( B + D).

1 &
,
B
f
1 1 1
1
D
1 1
. 1
1
C

. 22
. 23
. 23.
2. .
.

N < 12
4
N + 4 ( B C D f1 f2 f3 f4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ).
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1
2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1111, , 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 4 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 .
6 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
7 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 (. 4). 8 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 9 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 10 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0
11 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 12 1 1 0 0 f1, f2, f3, f4,
13 1 1 0 1 f1 14 1 1 1 0 15 1 1 1 1 , f4 . . 4
12, 13, 14, 15 -

D
B
C
B
D

.
. (. 24)
:

f1 = + ;

1
1

1 1
1 1
1
1
f1

f2 = ;

f3 = ;

f4 = D.

1
1

1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 f2
1 1
f3
f4
. 24
, , . 25. . , .
,
1
f1 f1. B

f1
B
( ),
f1 .. C
D
f1 .
. 25

1. ,
(. 25), :
() 1101; (653) 0110; (525) 1001; () 1110.
2. N
N + 6, N = 0, 1, 2, , 9.
()!
?
(132). ( ),

.
(). ( ),
.
(454). , ?
( f1 ):
() f3 =;
(15) f1 =;
() f4 =
(11.) f2 =;
:
(76) f1 ? () f2 ? () f3 ? () f4 =?
()!
?
, 9. .
( )
, :
() 1010? () 1100? (882) 1110? (039) 1011?

3.10.
2 5
:
,
. : 11000, 10010, 00110 . 10 , , N < 10, N .
(. 5).
10 . 2 5,
,

27
. (
2 5
. . 5
.) 2 5 10,
. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 .
5
f1.
6, 7,
B C D f1 f2 f3 f4 f5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
8, 9. 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
(. 26).
3 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
4 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

,
5 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
6 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
. 7 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
8 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
,
9 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
:

B
1
1

f1 = + .

1
1

(. 27)
(
D ).
:

C
. 26


1
B
1
D
1 1

. 27

f2 = AD + BC + B CD.

:

f3 = AD + A C D + B CD ;
f4 = BCD + A C D + A B D ;
f5 = BCD + A B C + B CD.
. 28 . , f2 f5

B CD .
A A BB C C D D
, f
&
1 1
,
&
. 28.
f2 1
&
,

&
.

&
, f
1 3
&
.

&

&
f ,
1 4
&
:
&
f
1 5 &
(BCD BCD ).
&

, . 28
f4 f5 .
,
.

,
.
,
, , B CD (. 28).

1.
(. 28), :
() 12?
(457) 17?
(868) 24?
(21) 10?
2. . 28
2 5, . 5. . 2 5, . . (
): 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 20, 24.
, : 0000, 0001,
0010, ,1001. , 2 5,
, . .
. 2 5
A, B, C, D, E, f1, f2, f3, f4 ,
f1 , .
()!
?
(). ,
, , ?
,
:
() f2;
(115) f3;
() f4.
() f1;
,
:
(.4) f2; (.) f3; (.) f4.
() f1;
()!
?
(5)! ?
?

3.11.

, ( [7, . 398]). n-
, .
n-
, .


n
f0 2 . &

f
& 1 n . ,
f
& 2 n = 3, f
& 3 :

; f1 = ; f2 = ;
; f4 = ; f5 = ;
f6
&
f6 = ; f7 = .
&

f4

&

f5

& f7

. 29

f0 =

f3 =


. 29, ,

28

. . 30.
C
1, 2, 4,
B
. 1

,
4 . .
000, f0 = 1, .
. 30
001, f1 = 1 . .
16
16 ,
.
32
, 64
. .

1. (81). , 8?
2. (9). .
,
, ?
3. ().
,
?
f0
DC 0 f1
1
f2
2
1
f3
3
2
f4
4
4
f5
5
f6
6
f7
7

3.12.

,
2n, n
. n- .
. . . .
.
,
,
, ,
.

2 5, . 5.
, .
10 2 5,
10 .
f0, f1, f2, , f9.
. 6.
.
00011,
f0.
f0 00011 ,
.
.
f0 (. 31)
(22 ).
7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31
,
, :
f0 = DE.

6
B C D E
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0

1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

f0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

f1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

f2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

f3
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

f4
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

f5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

f6
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

f7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

f8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

f9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

. :
f0 = DE;
f1 = CE;

f2 = CD;
f3 = BE;

f4 = BD;
f5 = BC;

f6 = AE;
f7 = AD;

f8 = AC;
f9 = AB.
,
,

B
,
D
1




32
C
C

. 31
.

1. , .
.
(330). (
).
(489). ,
?
(5). (),
f8 .
()! : f2 = ; f9 = .
2. (795). (.
) 1111.
, .
3.13.

(, [56, . 145])
, n , 2n
0, 1, 2, , 2n 1 ( ) fn, n
, n . n-
i, fn i- , . . , i- ,
,
(i = 0, 1, 2, , 2n 1). ,
n = 3,
f 3 = Q0 A B C + Q1 A B C + Q2 A DC + Q3 A BC + Q4 AB C +

+ Q5 AB C + Q6 ABC + Q7 ABC ,
Q0, Q1, Q2, , Q7 ; , ,
,
.

29

n = 4, 16 . ,
,

f 4 = Q0 A B C D + Q1 A B C D + Q2 A B CD + ... + Q15 ABCD.


, . 0, 1, 2, , 7
.
,

f3 = Q00 + Q11 + Q22 ++ Q77,

8 .
n-

fn = Q00 + Q11 + Q22 ++ Qrr ,

r = 2n 1.
, n ,
fn.
f = ABC + B D. :
f = (1, 3, 9, 11, 12, 13).

1, 3, 9, 11, 12, 13 ,
.
- ,
.
,
,
Qi
(i = 0,1,2,3, ,r). , f2(,)
f 2
= A B,
Q1

, = 1, f2 = Q1, . .
f2
Q1.
,
, . .
2 n 1 , (. 2.8).
n = 4 8 , ,
f4, 16
16- .

,
.
,
2n. ,

, .
10 -

1, 2, 3 ,4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12. ,


( n = 4)
, ( )
f 4 = Q1 A B C + Q2 A B D + Q3CD + Q4 A C D + Q5 BD +

+ Q6 BC + Q8 B C D + Q9 AD + Q10 AC + Q12 AB.

f6,
64 ?
2. (). , f3 = 0, 001, 011, 100, 110, 111, f3 = 1
. Q0, Q1, Q2, , Q7.
3. (1). 11 : 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.

, ?
1. ().

3.14.

,
,
.
(. 32).
1

&

&

&

&

n+1

. 32
. 32 ,
, .
. 32 ,
.
N

&

&

1 1 1

2 2 2

1
&

n n n

. 33
. 33
.
, 3.
f = N + A1B1C1 + A2B2C2 + A3B3C3 + + AnBnCn,

(5)

N = A; 1 = ; 2 = ; 3 = D; 4 = ;
1 = 1= 2 = 2 = 3 = 3 = 4 = 4 =1,
,

N , , .
(5) 3n + 1 . n = 4
, 13
. , :

f = A + B + C + D + E.

30

N = 0; 1 = ; 1 = ; 1 = 1; 2 = ;
2 = ; 3 = 1; 3 = 4 = 0
f = AB + .
N = 1, .
( . 33)
,
. ,
, :
f = N(A1+ B1+ C1)( A2+ B2+ C2) ( An+ Bn+ Cn),
(6)
N , ,
(5), , .
,
, .
, .
.
. (. 33). , , . , (6).
(3.15 3.18)
,
.


,
,
.

1. (551). . 32,
n = 4; f = 1.
2. (3). ,
, . 33, n = 4:
1) f = A;
2) f = ABC + BCDE + F +K;
3) f = A + B;
4) f = 1;
5) f = A + B + C + D + E + F;
6) f = AC + E + F + K;
7) f = AB + CD + EFKL + PQ.
3. , n = 3 (. 33),
:
() N =1; 1 = 1 = 1 = ; 2 = Q;
2 = 2 = 3 = 3 = 3 = 0;
() N = 0; 1 = ; 1 = ; 1 = ;
2 = 2 = 2 = 3 = 3 = 3 = 0;
() N = ; 1 = 2 = 3 = ;
1 = 2 = 3 = ; 1 = 2 = 3 = .

3.15.

. 1, 2, , n , n--

; 1, 2, , Bn
b. ,

. ,
, (. 5 2.11)
f = ( A1 B1 + A1B1 )( 22 + 2 2 )...( An Bn +

n Bn ). (7)

. ,
,
1 = 1 = 0 1 = 1 = 1. ,

b.
1 1

2 2

&

&

n n

&

&

&

&

&

A1

A2

&

&

An Bn

. 34

, (7),
. 34. 2n
, n
n- . n- . 34 , . 32.
. , = 0.
(7),
, ( = 1 b):
=

11 + 11 + 2 2 + 2 2 + ... + n n + n Bn .

, . 33, 2n
N = 0.
1

&
&

f0

&
1

&

&

&
1

&

&

. 35

fn

&

. 35 ,
fn,
< b. ( [60, . 143149])
f n = Bn An + Bn f n 1 + An f n 1 ,

An n , .
f0
, f1 f1 = 11.

f2 =

2 2 + f1 2 + f1B2.


f3 = 3 3 + f2 3 + f2B3 . .

31

1. b ( ),
n = 4 (. 34):
() 1 = 2 = 3 = 2 = 0;
1 = 3 = 4 = 4 = 1;
(138) 1 = 2 = 3 = 3 = 4 = 1; 1 = 2 = 4 = 0;
() 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 1;
1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 0.
2. ()! b ( )
, n = 4 . 34 :
1 = 3 = 1; 2 = 4 = 0; f = 1.
3. (920)! . 34 n = 5 :
1 = 3 = 5 = 1; 2 = 4 = 0; f = 1.

b .
4. (856)! . 34 n = 5 :

1 = 3 = 1;

2 = 4 = 5 = 0;

f = 1.

b. .
5. (695). f (. 35),
n = 4 : = b = 1100, = 0.
6. (3). . 35 n = 4 :

1 = 2 = 4 = 0;

3 = 4 = 1 = 2 = 3 = 1.

b ( ).
7. a b . f1, f2, , fn, (. 35), n = 6 f = 0:
(524) = 001101; b = 010011;
() = 001000; b = 000100;
() = 101100; b = 101110;
(472) = 100010; b = 100000.
8. (. 35)
. b, f6 = 1, :
(695) = 63?
() = 36? () = 0?
() = 12? (76) = 60?
(552) = 1?
9. b (. 35,
n = 6), f6 = 0, :
(97) = 1?
() = 25? () = 63?
10. (). ,
10000 ( )?

3.16. -
2.8 , ,
. . 30 31
.

- , , .

&
0

&
1 1

&

&
1 2n-1

1
&

&

. 36

1, 2, , n , n-
. , n = 1,
1 =

1 ,


, .
, :
2 =

1 2 + 1 2 = 1 2 + 1 2 .

n-

n = n 1 An + n 1 An .
, ,
, 1, 2, 3, , n (. 36).
0 . 0 = 1,
. 0 = 0, .

1. :
(52) 111110; (75) 00000.
() 001100;
2. :
()
(8)
()
1) 0011001;
1) 1000001;
1) 000111;
2) 111011;
2) 0111110;
2) 1100;
3) 11110;
3) 11;
3) 111001;
4) 00000;
4) 1111;
4) 0000;
5) 111111;
5) 0;
5) 1111;
6) 011001;
6) 00011;
6) 111110011.
3. 1, 2, , n (. 36),
0 = 1:
() = 1110001;
() = 101011;
(24) = 1001100111;
(963) = 0001101;
() = 111111.
(935) = 0000;
4. 1, 2, , n (. 36),
0 = 0:
(98) = 11011;
() = 011010;
(50) = 100001;
() = 010000;
() = 1111111.
() = 011111;
5. (). :
1) ,
- ;
2)
Ai i (i = 1, 2, , n), ;
3) ,
1 ,
;
4) 1 = 1, n,
n;
5) 3 = 0, n,

n;
6) . 36 n. n
, 1 , 0 = 0;
7) n
,
.

3.17.
. 37 ,

, SM,

32

. . 37 ,
.
1, 6.
6 P5 . , P5
.
P0.
.
. , P0 = 0.
-
P0
i (

SM
1
P1 1 , ,
B1
i = 2, 3, 4, 5).
2 : i, i, Pi-1 :
SM
2
P2
i Pi. 7
B2

3 i- . ,
SM
3
P3
000 : i-
B3

SM
4

4
P4
B4
. i Pi
.
SM

5
P5 5 , i-
B5
6 ,

. 37
. .
. 7 :

i = Ai Bi Pi 1 + Ai Bi Pi 1 + Ai Bi Pi 1 + Ai Bi Pi 1 ; (8)

Pi = Ai Bi + Ai Pi 1 + Bi Pi 1.
7

Ai
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

Bi
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

Pi1 i
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1

Pi
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

(9)


.
,
, ,
, Pi
10 .


(8) (9)
. ,
(8) (9)
:

i = S1 + S3;
Pi = S2 + S3,
1, 2, 3
.
(10):
i = S 0 + S 2 .

(10)
(11)
- -

(12)
(11) (12)
S2:
S2 = Ai Bi Pi 1 + Ai Bi Pi 1 + Ai Bi Pi 1 =

= Ai Bi Pi 1 + Bi Pi 1 + Ai Bi Pi 1.
: 1 = Bi Pi 1; 2 = Bi Pi 1 ,
S 2 = Ai 1 + 2 + Ai 1 = Ai + Ai 1 , = 1 + 2 ;
i = S 2 + Ai 2 = Ai + Ai 1 + Ai 2 = Ai + Ai ;

i = S2 + i1 = Ai 1 + 2 + i 1 + Ai 1 = Ai + 1.
: = i , :
i = + Ai ;

Pi = + 1.

. 38 i- .
10 , , (8) (9).
. 38 ,
,
17,
26 .

i
Pi1

i
&

Ai

Ai

Pi
Pi

Pi1

& 2

&

1 i 1

&
. 38

,
. ,
. 38, 6- . , , 40- ,
, 40 ,
000 01 (39 ) 41-
, ,
40 .
240 .
9
1 (10 ),
4 .

1. (). b ( ), (. 37), :
1 = 2 = 5 = 2 = 3 = 1;
3 = 4 = 1 = 4 = 5 = 0.
2. : P1, P2, P3,
P4, P5 (. 37), :
() 12 14;
() 31 31;
() 25 6;
() 10 10;
() 10 12;
() 31 1.
3. ().
,
, 12
. ( .)

3.18.

,
,
. ,
, . ,
f = + D + , ,

f = AB + CD + E + E,
,
.

33

,
n, n
,
. n1 . ,
n1 1 , n1 1 . n2 ,
n2- , n2 1 , . .
(. . ), ,
-. ,

f = A1 A2 A3 + A4 + A5 A6 A7 A8,
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
- 00110001.
, -
. :
-: 010001101; : f = A1A2+A3A4A5A6+7+A8A9;
-: 11100111; : f =1+2+3+456+7 +8;
-: 000001; : f = 1 2 3 4 5 6;
-: 11111;
: f = A1 + A2 +A3 + A4 + A5.
, , . ( )
. n1
. ,
n-1
2
n ,
.

1
0 =1

2
&

f0 = 0

1 1

n
1 2

&

&

&

1 f1

1 f2

&

&
1

fn

. 39
. 39 ,
, . fn. 1, 2, , n - (
-). 1, 2, , n . - -,
, , -,
. . -
.

f = A1 A2 + A3 .

-: 011.
- :

1 = 0, 2 = 1, 3 = 1.

-, n > 3, .
, , : 0,
f0.

, - 011, 1 = 1
f1 = 0, 1 = 0. :
2 =1, 2 = 1 f2 = 12. :
3 =1, 3 = 1 f3 = 12 + 3. :
4 = 0, 4 = 4 f4 = f3 = 12 + 3. ,

f3 = f4 == fn = 12 + 3,

.
n .
.
, , (
),
.

1. (). ,
:
1) f = (A1+A3)(A1+A4)(A2+A3)(A2+A4);
2) f = A1A2A3+A4A5+(A6+A7)(A6+8);
3) f = A1A3+A5A7;
4) f = A1(A2+A3);
5) f = A2A3+A3A4+A3A4;
6) f = (A1+A3)(A1+A4);
7) f = A2A5.
2. - :
(581) f = A1A2+A3A4;
() f = A1A2A3A4A5;
() f = A1A2A3+A4+A5;
() f = A1+A2+A3A4A5.
3. ,
-:
() 00110011;
() 00100111101;
() 1110110001;
() 0110110001.
4. - 0101 (. 39).
(721). f1, f2, f3, f4,
1 = 0, 2 = 3 = 4 =1.
(52). 1, 2, 3, 4
.

3.19.

, , , . - . , , , , ,
.
( )
, .
,
,

,
, .
. ,
(, , , .).

n,

34
n = log2N , ;
N . n ,

N , . . n
.
n- (n+1)- .
: ? . : n- ,
, , , n- ( ,
, ).
n- ,
. (n + 1) , . . .
, ,
(n+1) . -
, , n + 1
. ,
, , . . (n+1) ,
, , , . .
, . , ,
, .

A1
A2

An

f1
f2

f
fn+1

f1
f2

fn

fn+1

. 40

1
2

n+1

. 41

. 40 , n- (n+1)-,
, (. . 36).
1, 2, n,
i = 1, i- , i = 0, i-
(i = 1, 2, , n).
f1, f2, , fn, fn+1:

fi = Ai;
fn+1 = 1

2 3 n,

(13)

.
f1 f2 fn+1
.
. 41 , , .
(n+1)-

f1 f2 f3 fn fn +1.

1, 2, , n.
1 2 n (. .
), n+1 = 0,

n+1 = f1 f2 fn fn+1.

(14)

n+1 = 1, ,
.
. 40 41 , , ( ),
,
, :
, . ,

, .
, . 40 41, , ,
(. . 21).
n- , (n + 1)-.

1. (89). (n = 8),
1 ( ):

1) 00001000;
4) 00000011;
7) 11001101;
2) 01111000;
5) 00000111;
8) 11111111;
3) 11111110;
6) 00000000;
9) 01010101.
2. (71). (n+1)-
, n = 6:
1) 0110011;
4) 1110111;
7) 1000000;
2) 0100110;
5) 1001001;
8) 1111111;
3) 0011011;
6) 1110100;
9) 1001111?
3. (13)
n = 8 :
(52) ;
(3) ;
() ;
() .
4. (86). 8-
1, 2, , 8,
(13) ?
5. (7). :
1) , 1 2 3 n 1 2 3 n (. 41),
, . . ?
2) , (14) ?
3) , (13)
n ?
4) , (13)
n ?
5) , (13) n: ?
6) , (n + 1)- ?
6. 001101100,
. ,
, 9 = 1 (. 41).
(8). 9- , 9 = 1, , ?
(). 9- ,
9 = 1, ,
?

35

3.20.
,
, (n+1) , n+1 . ,
,

. .
n xn xn1 x2 x1; m , ym ym1 y2 y1.
m + n
. , m
,
m + n (m + n)- ,
m + n . , m n

2 m + n + 1,
m

(15)

,
.
11- .
(15) .
? . ,

, 2, .. 1,2,4,8, [26, . 445]. n = 11 :

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
x11 x10 x9 x8 x7 x6 x5 y4 x4 x3 x2 y3 x1 y2 y1,

(16)

1, 2, 3, , 15 15- . xi ,

, yj (j = 1, 2, 3, 4)

y1 = x1 x2 x4 x5 x7 x9 x11;
y2 = x1 x3 x4 x6 x7 x10 x11;
(17)
y3 = x2 x3 x4 x8 x9 x10 x11;
y4 = x5 x6 x7 x8 x9 x10 x11.
, (16) . ,
,
:
1 = y1 x1 x2 x4 x5 x7 x9 x11;
2 = y2 x1 x3 x4 x6 x7 x10 x11;
(18)
=y x x x x x x x ;
3

10

11

4 = y4 x5 x6 x7 x8 x9 x10 x11.
i (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) - 4 3 2 1, 4 , 1 .
, . , , . = 0, ,
.
.
x = 10011110111.
:
x1 = x2 = x3 = x5 = x6 = x7 = x8 = x11 = 1;
x4 = x9 = x10 = 0.

(17),
:

y1= 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 = 1;
y2= 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 = 1;
y3= 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 = 0;
y4= 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 = 1.
(16) :
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1,
1, 2, 3, , 15 15-
, .
, :
: 100111110100111.

xi yj (16):

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1, (19)
x11 x10 x9 x8 x7 x6 x5 y4 x4 x3 x2 y3 x1 y2 y1.

(18). ,
, . .
8, 9, , 15. (19):

y4 = x5 = x6 = x7 = x8 = x11=1;

x9 = x10 = 0,

4 = 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1= 0.

,
.
-:

3 = 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 = 1,

,
4, 5, 6, 7. 2:

2 = 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 = 0,

, 6 7 , 4, 5. 1:

1 = 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 = 1.

, -
0101. . (
), , 11- , .
,
, .
, [2, 4, 14,

20, 26, 39, 52].

1. (881). 28
(,
). , ?
2. (42). , 25 .
?
3. (23). 110010101010001.

, .
4. ( )
( ), :
() 01110011001;
(39) 111001000101101;
(5) 00011101110011; () 1111110000000000.

36
5. , , :
(27) 111111000110;
() 001111010001;
(38)! 110011110010; 011000100100;
(3)! 110110000110; 110010110111.

,
. ,
, . , .

3.21.

3.22. .

. 42.
, (17).
(. 36),
.
(17).

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5

x11

y1
y
2
y3

y4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

15

DC
3

z1
z2
z3
z4
z
5
z15

1
2
3
4

5
1
6
2
7
4
8

9
10

15

z3

z5

z6

z7

z9

z10

z15

11

3
5
6

7
9

10
15

. 42
. 43
. 42 x1, x2, , x11,
1, 2, 3, , 15.
.
, , (. 43).
z1, z2, , z15, 1, 2, , 11,

1 = z3 3 + z33 ;
2 = z5 5 + z5 5 ;
3 = z 6 6 + z 6 6 ;
4 = z 7 7 + z 7 7 ;
5 = z9 9 + z9 9 ;

11 = z15 15 + z15 15 .
-,
, , 15 ,
, , . .
- 0000, ,
DC
,
1 = z3; 2 = z5; 3 = z6; 4 = z7; 5 = z9; 11 = z15,
. . 15- , , .
, 15- , : = 0101, 5 = 1, 2 = z5 . ,
, -

- . .


. . , . . .
. 44
15 0
, 14
1
16
13
2
(
3 ). 12
11
4

10
5
, 9
6
8
7

.
. 44
,
.
, .
, . . , .
.
.
,
,
.
,
15- ,
. ?
, , , .
15- 0 15.
,
, .
, , n- ,

. . [52, . 226] , [61]
, [48, . 69] ; [39, . 278] ; [26, . 428]
, .

, , .
. , -

37
, .
n- ()
, b
. ,
,

bi = ai ai+1,

2; i ; i = 1, 2, 3, , n;
.
,
2 ,

:

= n an1 an2 2 1
0 an an1 3 2

(20)
b = bn bn1 bn2 b2 b1 ,
b1 = a1 a2; b2 = a2 a3; bn1 = an1 an; bn = an.
, n = 4
: 0000, 0001, 0011, 0010, 0110, 0111, 0101, 0100,
1100, 1101, 1111, 1110, 1010, 1011, 1001, 1000.

. ,

. , 10011
( 19)
11010, , 26
( ).
, ,
.
. 44 ()
,
.

.

1. ,
:
() 32;
(862) 12;
() 19;
() 24;
(035) 36;
() 40.
2.
( ),
(. 44):
() 5 6; () 9 10; () 13 14.

3.23.

,
, .
,
,
.

,
bi = ai ai+1,
ai = bi ai+1.

(21)

. . 8, ,
bi, ai ai+1
,
,
(21).
n = 5, . .
8
bi ai ai+1 bi = ai ai+1 ai = bi ai+1
0 0 0 0=00
0=00
0 0 1 001
001

0 1 0 010
100
b5 b4 b3 b2 b1.
0 1 1 0=11
1=01

1 0 0 100
010

1 0 1 1=01
0=11
5 4 3 2 1,
1 1 0 1=10
1=10
5 1 1 1 111
111
, 1 .
.
, (21), :
5 = b5;
4 = b4 5 = b4 b5;
3 = b3 4 = b3 b4 b5;
2 = b2 3 = b2 b3 b4 b5;
1 = b1 2 = b1 b2 b3 b4 b5.
,
, . 45 , i- bi, ,
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
0

a4

a3

a2

a1

. 45
, ai
, (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
()
. () , (. . , ) .

(. 45) .
, :
() b = 00111; (5) b = 01101; () b = 10001;
(291) b = 11011; (294) b = 10111; () b = 11100.
2. (. 45)
. , b :
() b = 10000; () b = 01010; (459) b = 00000;
() b = 11111; () b = 01110; (128) b = 00010.
1.

3.24.


. n , , ,
,

38

[26, . 426 431] (:


, ). -
.
. . . 46
.
, ,
. 9.
() , .
A

12 14
6
4
,
B
,
13 15
7
5
D

9
11
3
1
. , . 9 8
10
2
0
C
. 46
.
.
,
. 9 . . 10. A, B, C, D , f1, f2, f3, f4 .
f1, f4. 10 , :
f3 = + ;
f1 = AB + + D ;
f2 = A C

+ AB ;

f4 = S3 + S1,

S1 S3 -, 1 3:
S 1 = D + A B C D + A BC D + AB C D ;
S3 = ABCD + ABC D + AB CD + A BCD.

f4 ,
- (. 3.16).
9
10
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0

0
1
5
4
6
7
3
11
15
14
12
13
9
8
10
2

8 4 2 1

ABCD
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 0 1 0

f1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

f2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

f3
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

f4
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1


, 2n. ,

0000, 0010, 1010, 1011, 1111,
1101, 1100, 1110, 0110, 0100. ,
,

. , ,
f1 = ;
f2 = AB;
f3 = D + AB ;
f4 = C D + B D + A B C + A BC + ABCD .

,
, . , .

, 0000, 0100, 0110, 0111, 0101, 0001,


1.

0011, 0010, 1010, 1110, 1111, 1011, 1001, 1101, 1100, 1000

.

:
() f1,
() f2, () f3,
() f4,
f1 ?
2. (. )
.
(1).
?
(3).
?
3. , 0011, 0010, 1010, 1011, 1001,
1101, 1111, 0111, 0101, 0001
.
. 0011
0000. :
() f1, (922) f2, () f3, (734) f4?
f1 .
4. (. )
.
()! ?
?
()! ? ?
5. (). , :
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

0001, 0101, 0111, 1111, 1101;


0010, 0011, 0111, 0110, 1110, 1111, 1011, 1010;
0111, 0101, 0001, 0000, 0010, 1010, 1000, 1001;
0000, 0100, 0110, 1110, 0111, 0010, 0011;
1001, 1100, 1010, 1011, 1001;
1100, 1101;
1110, 0110, 0111, 1111;
1110, 1100, 1000, 0000, 0001, 0011, 0111;
1001, 1101, 1011, 110.

39

4.

4.1.

, , , .
,
, , ,

, . (, [16]) .
: , , ,
,
? , . .
, ,
? ,
, , , -
, ,
, f1 = AB + A B ; f 2 = AB + BC + D ;
f 3 = ABC + B C D + EF .?
,
, . .
?
,
. (
- [18, . 29]).
.
: , ,
, .
.

,
.
4.2.

,
[16, . 57; 18, . 29]:
f (1, 2, , n) = f ( A1 , 2 , ... ,

n ).

(1)


.
( ),


2n 1, n .

: , .
, 01100 , 10011.
. 1 A, B, C, D.
: , , . ,

0000 0111 , ,
.

, . . 1
:
f1 = A B C + A BC + ABC + A C D + AB CD ;

f2 = A C + A D + A B + B C D ;

(2)

f3 = BC D + BCD + ACD + AC D.

(3)

1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

CD
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

f1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

f2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

f3
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1

?
n = 4
, , 256 . n ,
,
N :
n 1

N = 22 .

. [35].
: ?

. , . .
. .
? ,
.
, , , . . .
. (2)
(3). f4:
f 4 = BC D + BCD + f 2CD + f 2C D =
= A C D + A CD + BCD + BC D .

,
,
.

1. :
(1) ? (23) ?
(2) ? (54) ?
2. , :
(97) 1001.
() 00110; () 110010;
3. ,
, :
(00) ?
() ?
() ? (2) n ?

40
4. (2). 0, 1, 2, 4.
,
.
5. :
(28)
()

1) f = AB + A B ;

1) f = AC D + ABC + A CD + A BC ;

2) f = AB + A B;

2) f = AB C + ABC + A B C + A C D;

3) f = ;

3) f = AC D + ACD + A B C + A C D;

4) f = ;

4) f = ABC + ACD + A BC + A C D ;

5) f = AB + AC + BC ; 5) f = AC D + ABC + A CD + A BC ;
6) f = AC + BC;
6) f = AB C + ACD + A B C + A C D;
7) f = A B + A C + B C ; 7) f = AC D + ABC + A C D + A BC .
6. , k .
, , :
() k =64?
() k =256?
() k =1024?

4.3.

, (. . ). ,
f1 = A B,

f2 = A B C 1,
f3 = B 1
. f = A B
, .
n ,

f = 0 11 22 nn,

(4)

1, 2, , n 0, 1, , n
, .
. n + 1 , M :

M = 2 n +1.
, n = 0 ( ), M = 2. ,
.
, , , . ,
, .
, , ,
. :
f = AB + A B .
:
f = AB + A B = AB (1 A)(1 B) =
= AB 1 A B AB = A B 1.
, f = AB + A B
.


, . .
.
,
- , 1,
(4)
f1= b0 b1B1 b2B2 bkBk.

f = a0 a1 (b0 b1 B1 ... bk Bk ) a2 A2 ... an An .

, 1 = 0 f = f , f
(4), . 1 = 1, f ,
, ,
, f .

:
()
(32)
1.

1) f1 = A + B;

1) f1 = ABC;

2) f 2 = A ;

2) f 2 = ABC + AB C + A B C + A BC ;

3) f 3 = A 1;

3) f 3 = ABC + AB C + A BC + A B C ;

4) f 4 = A ;

4) f 4 = A + B + C + D;

5) f 5 = 1;

5) f 5 = AB A B AB;

6) f 6 = AB;

6) f 6 = A B;

7) f 7 = A + B + C ; 7) f 7 = A + B + 1.
2. ,
:
(53) 5? (84) 6? (75) 9?
3. (). :
1) f , f
;
2) f1 f2 , f1 f2
;
3) f1 f2 ,
;
4) f , ;
5) f , ;
6) f , f f ;
7) f , .
4. (317). :
1) ;
2) ;
3) f1 , f2 ,
;
4) f1 , f2 ,
2 ;
5) ;
6)
, ;
7) .

4.4.

n ,

[7, . 38]. . a b
a = a1 a2 an1 an;

b = b1 b2 bn1 bn,

ai bi (i = 1, 2, 3, , n) a b. :
b1 a1, b2 a2, , bn1 an1, bn an,
(5)
b a.

b a. ,

41

, (5), . . ,
= 010010 b = 100011 , b a
a b, b1 > a1,
a2 > b2.
.
,
, . . .
. 2. 010
011
2
, 011
f
100 0 0 0 0 0
.
1 0 0 1 0

2 0 1 0 0

, 3 0 1 1 1

.
4 1 0 0 0

5 1 0 1 1
, 6 1 1 0 1
,
7 1 1 1 1
, ,
. ,

f = (3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15)

:
f = AB + AC + BD + CD;

f = (A + D)(B + C).

:
,
.
. ,
, N
:

N = C 2n = 2 n 1 (2 n 1) = 2 2 n 1 2 n 1 ,
2
n . , 28
, 120 . . ,
.


. ,

.
[35, . 53].

1. , :
()
()
1) 1100 11000;
1) 01100 11100;
2) 0000 11111;
2) 00000 11111;
3) 1111 1111;
3) 00001 00010;
4) 10101 01010;
4) 11100 11100;
5) 10001 11101;
5) 0011 1100;
6) 00000 10000;
6) 1001 1001;
7) 10000 00001.
7) 10001 01110;
2. (). ,
10001:
1) 11100;
2) 01101;
3) 11001;

4) 10000;
5) 10011;
6) 11111;

7) 10001;
8) 11110;
9) 11011.

3. :
(73)
()
1) f1 = A BC ;
1) f1 = A( A + B) ;

2) f 2 = A + B + C ;

2 ) f 2 = A B + AB ;

3) f 3 = A + B ;

3) f 3 = AB + A B ;

4) f 4 = 0 ;

4) f 4 = A B + A B ;

5) f 5 = A + A ;

5) f 5 = ( A + B )( A + B ) ;

6) f 6 = A( A + B ) ;

6) f 6 = A BC + A B C ;

7) f 7 = A + A B ;
7) f 7 = A BC + A B C .
4. :
(7)
()
1) f1 = AB + A BC ;
1) f1 = S 4 ( A, B, C , D) ;
2) f 2 = ( A + B)( A + B + C ) ;

2) f 2 = S 2,3 ( A, B, C , D) ;

3) f 3 = A + B C ;

3) f 3 = S 2,3,4 ( A, B, C , D) ;

4) f 4 = A BC + C ;

4) f 4 = A + B + A B ;

5) f 5 = B + A C ;

5) f 5 = A + B + C + A B C ;

6) f 6 = C + A B C ;

6) f 6 = S1, 2 ( A, B, C , D ) ;

7) f 7 = AB + AC + A B C ;

7) f 7 = S 3,4 ( A, B, C , D) .

5. (). :
1) ?
2) ?
3) ,
?
4) ?
5) ,
?
6) ,
,
?
7) f1 f 2 , f1 f2
?

4.5. ,

, . , , . , ,

f = ABC + BCD + A C D.
A=B=C=D=1 (
1111), .

f = A BC + BCD + AC D
, f = 0 A=B=C=D=1.

. ,
, ,
, . . ,
n
2 1, n . , ,
m7.
,
m15, . .

42
. ,
,
. ,
.
, , ,
n
, 2 1. , , ,
.
, , f (A, B, C, D) .
D :

AC = A( B + B )C ( D + D ) =
= A B CD + A B CD + A BCD + A BCD.
,
m15 = ABCD,
1111, , f (A, B, C, D) .
.
,
.

= ( A + B + C )( A + C )( A + B + D ).
, . . ,
AC ACD, m15.
, .
n , ? .
n
2 1.
n
, 2 1,
. ,
R , ,

R = 2 2 1.
n = 0 R=1. . n = 1, R = 2. f = 1 f = A.
n = 2, R = 8, . . ,
n
.
, , , . . ,
, .
[7].
n

1. ().
1111:
1) f = A B + C D ;
4) f = ( A + B + C )( A + B + C ) D ;

2) f = BCD + A BC ;

5) f = A + B + C + A B C D ;

3) f = A( B + CD ) ;
6) f = ( A + B)( B + C )(C + D ) .
2. , :
(52)
()
1) f = AB + C ;
1) f = A B ;
2) f = A( B + C )

2) f = A + A ;

3) f = ( B + C )( A + B) D ;

3) f = ( B + A C D ) D ;

4) f = ( B + C ) A + A C ;
4) f = A BC + A + B + C .
3. , , :
(86) ? (57) ?

4. , :
()
(5)
1) f = ( A + B)( A + B ) ;
1) f ( A, B, C , D ) = (0,1,4,7) ;

2) f = ( A + BC ) A ;

2) f = S 2,3,4 ( A, B, C , D) ;

3) f = A ;

3) f = S 0,1,2 ( A, B, C , D) ;

4) f = BC + C D ;

4) f = A + B CD ;

5) f = ( A + A )( B + B ) ;

5) f = ( B + C ) B + C ;

6) f = A ( A + A ) ;

6) f = A + B (C + D ) ;

7) f = ( A + B )( B + C ) D ; 7) f = A + B (C + D) .
5. (78). :
1) , f ,
f ?
2) , ?
3) ,
, ?
4) , ?
5) , f1 + f2 ,
f1 , f2 ?
6) , f1f2 ,
f1 , f2 ?
7) , f1 f2 ,
?
6. (229). , ,
S 2,3,4,5 ( A, B, C , D, E ) ?
7. (60). :
1) , f1 f2 ,
f1 , f2 ?
2) , f1 f 2 ,
?
3) , f1 + f 2 ,
?
4) , f1 f2 f3 , f1, f2, f3?
5) , f1 f2 f3 f4
,
f1, f2, f3, f4?
6) ,
, ?

4.6. ,
, .
n , n
. ,

f = AB + BC + A CD
,
0000, . . A = B = C = D = 0.

f = AB + A C + AC D
, .
, , ,
m0.
, ,
, ,

43
. ,
f = A B + BCD + ACD ,
.
A = B = C = D = 0
,
.
, , ,

( ),
. ,

f = ( A + B )( B + C + D)( A + B + D )
, B+C+D
, ,
,
.
, ,
, , . :
f = ( A + B )( A + B + C ) D.
D .
D = 0, , f = 0, . .
.
, ?
m0,
, . , Q , , :
Q = 22

. V :

V = 2 2 2 2 1 = 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 = 2 2 1.
, , ,
, .
, , , . . , ,
n


. [7].

1. , :
()
(22)
1) f = AB + BC + AC ; 1) f = ( A + B )( B + C )(C + D) ;

2) f = A + B ;

2) f = A( B + C )( D + E ) ;

3) f = ABC + B C + D ;

3) f = ( A + B + C )( D + E ) F ;

4 ) f = A B + AB ;

4) f = A B C ( D + E + F ) ;

5) f = AB + BC + C D ; 5) f = ( A + B ) D ( E + F ) .
2. (). :
1) , ,
, ?
2) ,
?
3) ?
4) , ?
5) f1 + f2 , f1 f2
, ?
6) f1 f2 , f1
, f2 ?

3. , :
()
()
1) f = A ;
1) f = ( A + A B)C ;

2) f = BC DE + B D ;

2) f = ( P + Q )( P + Q ) ;

3) f = A ;

3) f = ( P + Q) R S T ;

4) f = 0 ;

4) f = 1 ;

5) f = ( A + B )( A + B ) ;

5) f = D E ( F + K )( F + K ) ;

6) f = ( A + B )( A + B ) ;

6) f = A + B (C + D ) ;

f = ( A + B )C ;
7) f = A B + A B + A B + A B .
(84). ,
?
(). , ?
6. (2). :
1) , ,
, f = A B + C , ?
2) , f = A B ?
3) ,
f = S 0,1, 2 ( A, B, C , D ) ?
7)
4.
,
5.

4) , , ,
, ?
5) , m0,
, ?
6) f , f , , ?
7) f1 f 2 f 3 ,
f1, f2, f3 m0?

4.7.

, , .
,
, , ,
.
.
[7; 16; 35; 43; 56].

,
, ,
, ,
, , .
[56, . 152].
, -


. . ,
. ,
f = AB+CD . f = A B + AC + BC + A B C

44

, , , . f = A + B + C , , , ,
.

1. (). :
1) f1 = ABC; f 2 = A + B + CD; f 3 = 1;

2) f1 = A B + A B;
3) f1 = A B;

f2 = AB + A B ;

f 2 = A + B;

4) f1 = A BC + A B C ;
5) f1 = A + B CD;

f3 = AB ;

f 3 = A + B;

f 2 = A B + CD;

f 2 = A + BCDE ;

f 3 = 0;
f 3 = A B C;

6) f1 = A B; f 2 = A + B + C .
2. ,


:
()
()
1) f = A + B + C ;

1) f = A + B ;

2) f = AB + CD ;

2) f = A + B + C + D ;

3) f = A B C ;

3) f = A + B + C ;

4) f = ( A + B )(C + D ) ;

4) f = A + B + C ;

5) f = A BC + A B C ;

5) f = A + B C D ;

6) f = A + BCD .
6) f = A B + AC + BC ;
3. :
0 , ;
1 , ;
;
;
,
, (
: 0, 1, , , ):
() f = A BC + A B C ;
(52) f = A + B + C + A + B + C;

() f = ABC + DE ;

() f = ( A + B )( A + B )( A + B );

(7) f = A B C + B CD ;
() f = ABCD + C.

4.8.
:
m0 = A B ; m1 = A B; m2 = A B ; m3 = AB.

. ,
16 . . 3.
: , , . : f 0 = f15 ; f1 = f14 ;
f 2 = f13 f 7 = f 8 . .
. 3 .

.
. , -

,
: f = ( A + B )( A + B)( A + B )( A + B) = 0.

f15 = 1.
.
:
C

f15 = A B + A B + A B + AB = 1.

,
.
3
m0 m1 m2 m3

0 0 0 0 f0 = 0
0 0 0 1 f1 =
0 0 1 0 f2 =
0 0 1 1 f3 = .
0 1 0 0 f4 = .
0 1 0 1 f5 =
0 1 1 0 f6 = +
0 1 1 1 f7 = + .
1 0 0 0 f8 =
1 0 0 1 f9 = +
1 0 1 0 f10 =
1 0 1 1 f11 = +
1 1 0 0 f12 =
1 1 0 1 f13 = +
1 1 1 0 f14 = +
1 1 1 1 f15 = 1
. 3 f1=AB.
. f14 = A B = A + B
(
, ) [7; 15; 16]. ,
, , .
f2 f13.
f13 = A B + A B + A B = A + B

. : , . , : , . :
; .

:
= = 0 ;
= = 1 ;
= 0, = 1 , ;
= 1, = 0 , .
= =1, , , . . .
= 1, = 0, . . , -
, ,
, . , , ,
, ,
.
, = 0. , ?
.
. = 0,
:

45

) (. . = 0),
( = 1). ? .


( , )
. ,
;
) ( = 0)
( = 0). ? .
: (
, ), . ,
.
, , , .
= 1 = 0, , , = 1 = = 0 = 0, = 1.

4
. 4, ,

= + .

3. (). :
4) f = ( A B )( B A ) ;
1) f = ( A + B )( A + B ) ;

2) f = ( A B)( B A) ;

5) f = A B A B ;

3) f = ( A B )( B A) ; 6) f = A B + A B .
4.
()
()
1) f = A B + A B + A B ;
1) f = A + B ;
2) f = A B 1 A B ;

2) f = A B + A B + A B ;

3) f = A B A B ;

3) f = A B + A B ;

4) f = A B ;

4) f = B A B ;

5) f = S1 ( A, B) + A B ;

5) f = B + A B + A B ;

6) f = A + A B ;
6) f = S 2 ( A, B) + S1 ( A, B) .
5. :
()
()
1) f = S1 ( A, B) + A B ;
1) f = A B B ;
2) f = A B AB ;

2) f = S0,2 ( A, B) + AB ;

2) f = A + A B ;

2) f = ( A + B ) A B ;

3) f = B + A B ;

3) f = 0 ;

4) f = A S1 ( A, B) ;

4) f = A B ;

5) f = B S1 ( A, B ) ;

5) f = ( B A) A B ;

f2 . 3 3) f = A + B ;
3) f = B + S 2 ( A, B) ;
.
4) f = B + S1 ( A, B ) ;
4) f = A B AB ;
, 5) f = A + B ;
5) f = A + S 2 ( A, B) ;
, 6) f = A B + A + B .
6) f = A + A B ;
.
6.

:
f11 f4.
(96)
(86)
f9 () f6 (, . .
) :
1) f = ( A + B )( A + B )( A + B ) ; 1) f = A B ;
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

1
1
0
1

f9 = 1;

f9 = ,

, .
, f6 , f9
.
f7 .

f8 = A + B = A B
[15, . 28]. f8 [16, . 59; 1, . 27]. , , .
, 16


: . , , .

1. :
(46)
()
1) f = A B ;
1) f = A B 1 ;

2) f = A B 1 ;

2) f = ( A + B)( A + B ) ;

3) f = A B + A B ;

3) f = A B ;

4) f = A B + A B ;

4) f = ( A + B )( A + B ) ;

5) f = A B A B ;

5) f = A B + A B ;

6) f = A B A B ;
6) f = A B A B .
2. (23). :
1) f = A B A B A B + A B ; 4) f = S0 ( A, B ) + S 2 ( A, B) ;
2) f = A B A B A B A B ;

5) f = A B A B ;

3) f = S1 ( A, B) ;

6) f = A B + A B .

6) f = ( B A)( A B) .
6) f = A S 2 ( A, B) ;
7. :
(29)
()
1) f = A B ;
1) f = + A B ;

+ ;
3) f = + ;
4) f = + ;
5) f = ;

2) f = ( ) + ;

2) f =

3) f = ( ) +

;
4) f = + + ;
5) f = S1 ( A, B ) + A ;

6) f = A B + AB + A B ;
6) f = S1 ( A, B ) + B .
8. , :
(33)
()
1) f = + ;
1) f = + ;
2) f = ( + )( + )( + ) ;
2) f = ;
3) f =

;
4) f = + ;
5) f = + ;

3) f =

( + ) ;
4) f = ( + )( + )( + ) ;
5) f = ( + ) ;

6) f = S1 ( A, B ) + AB ;
9. ()!

6) f = ( A + B )( A + B )( A + B) .


?
10. (22)! , , ,
?

46
11. ()! , ?
?
12. (). :
1) , ?
2) ,
?
3) , ?
4) ?
5) , ()
?
6) , ?
13. (77). :
1) ?
2) , ?
3) ?
4) ?
5) ?
6) ?
7) ?
14. ( , , ):
() f = A ( A B) ; () f = A ( B C ) ;
(15) f = ( A B ) A ;
(113) f = ( A B ) C ;
() f = ( A B) B ; () A ( A B) .


:
.
, f11
, f13.
f2, f4 f10, f12.
f1 = f7 = + , , , ,
,
.
, .
, (. 5).
5

f0 = 0

f1 = AB

f2 = A B

f6 = AB

f7 = A+B

f9 = A B + AB

,
[18, .31].
( ) ? , ,
[16, . 58].
, , .
.
. 3 16 . , . . .
, . f3 =
f5 = ,
,

. ,
.
f11 = + f13 = + .
, , ,
. , , f11,
. f2 f4,
f4. ,
f10 = f12 = . , f10, .

f13 =

1
1

1
1

f15 = 1

f12 =

4.9.

- - - -
-

.
.

1
1

1
1

. ,
a,
b, c, , n. a
, f0 , ,
.
.
, .
,
f9, f12, f13, f15. ,
.

.
, , f9, f12, f13, f15.

:
1 = f + k + m + n.


. 5:
2 = a + c + d + k;
3 = b + c + e + m;
4 = a + b + c + d+ e + f + m + n;
5 = c + d + f + k + m.

1234 5= 1

(6)

,
, ( 1=1),
, ( 2 = 1),
( 3 = 1),
( 4 = 1) ( 5 = 1) .

47

(6) :
(f + k + m + n)(a + c + d + k)(b + c + e + m)&
&(a + b + c + d+ e + f + m + n)(c + d + f + k + m) = 1.

. 1 5, 3 4:

15 = (f + k + m + n)(c + d + f + k + m) =
= f + k + m + cn + dn;
(7)
34 =(a + b + c + d+ e + f + m + n)(b + c + e + m) =
= b + c + e + m.
234:
234 = (a + c + d + k)(b + c + e + m) =
= c + ab + bd + bk + ae + de + ek + am + dm + km.
(7):
12345 = (f + k + m + cn + dn)&
&(c + ab + bd + bk + ae + de + ek + am + dm + km) =
= cf + ck + bk + ek + cm + cn + am + dm + km + abf +
+ bdf + aef + def + bdn + den = 1.
15
, . .
. , cf = 1
:
f9 = AB + A B .
f2 = A B ;
6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

f0 = 0

f1 = AB

f2 = A B

1 1

1 1

f8 = A B

1 1

f6 = A B

f7 = A + B

1 1 1
1 1

= f9 = AB + A B

1 1 1 1
1 1 1

f12 = A
f13 = A + B
f14 = A + B
f15 = 1

1
1

1 1

15 ,
. , 17 .
. 6.
. ,
i- (i = 1, 2, , 17), , i- . , i = 12

f 0 = 0;

f1 = A B;

f 9 = A B + A B.

, , , ,
: ,
. , , ,
,
. f1 (), f7 (). .

1) f = A+, = , = + ;

2) f = A, = + ;

2) f = A, = A+, = A+ ;

3) f = A, = ;
4) f = + , = ;
5) f = A + , = A+;
6) f = A+, = 0;
7) f = A + , = 0;

3) f = A, = A+, = + ;
4) f = A , = , = 1;
5) f = A, = A+, = 1;
6) f = 0; = A, = A+ ;

7) f = A, = , = + .

4.10.

,
,
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
,
,
-.
f = A B + CD + A B D + E.
(8)
, (8) ,
. .
, , :
f = P + Q, P = , Q = CD + A B D + E.
P + Q:
f = P + Q =P +Q= P Q = AB Q .

1 1 1

:
()

3.
(026)
1) f = A , = 1;

Q:
Q = CD + A B D + E = R+S, R= CD, S= A B D + E,
(8)
f = A B R + S = A B R S = A B CD S .
S
S= A B D + E= T + E,
T=ABD.

f = A B CD S = A B CD T E.

- , A B D
:
T = A B D = M D , M = A B .

f = A B CD M D E = A B C D A B D E .
(
)
:



f = X Y Z E , X =AB, Y = CD , Z = A B D .

f = X Y Z E = A B CD A B D E .
f = A B?
,
(. 1). 10
? ?
1. (
).
,
2. (037)!

48

. (
, , ),
: , (. 2), . . . ,
, , .
A &
A
& 1
,
B
B


&
&
C
&

& f

. f
D
C &

D
&
A

, , D
B
, , &
A &
&
&
&

D

B
.
E
E
,
. 1
. 2

- ,
, . , , ,
.
( ).
, , -
30 (). 1. :
15. (66) f = AB C D ; () f = AB C D ; (279) AB C B .
, , , 2. . ,
. , 17 , , , :
- (95) f = ;
(239) f = + ;
. - () f = ;
(70) f = + + ;
(97) f = D; (2) f = + + + D;
. () f =DEFK; () f =+++D+E+F+K.
, 3. , -, - . ?
, .
, ()! f = AB + C + D ; (7)! f = A B + C + D + E ;
, - ()! f = ABC + F + D + E .
.
(74). :
- 4.
, , . 1)
- ? ,
(), n m . 2) n- - ,
, m- - ?
, , - 3)
.
?

4)
. -
. ,

?
n = 5. 5) ,
A, B, C, D, E, , ?
. 6) ,
m = 1
( !) . ?
, 7) ,
. :

f = (0, 2, 5, 7, 14, 19, 20, 24, 25, 30).
?
, , -
5.

,
? .
.
, .

9)!
f
=
A
B
;
()! f = A + B + C ;
(
, , (8)! f = A + B ; (5)! f = A + B + CD ;
.
(8)! f = A B+ CD + E+F.
()! f = A BC ;

49

5.
5.1.

, 3, , ,
, (
10 9). ,
, .
,
, , , ,
.

. , , ,
,
.

,

.
?
, . ,
. ,
.
,
( - ), .
,
.

RS
JK,
. .
.
,
,
,
. ,
,
, .

5.2. RS

RS . 1,.
R S .
, . R , S .
R . R=0, S =1. ,
( ), ()
, , . . = 0, = 1 .
S . R= 1, S = 0. , ( ), ,
, . . = 1, = 0 (. 3.7).
RS , ,
.
, R = S = 0, .
R S ,
.
RS
.
R S .
S

&

&
R

1
S

R T
S

. 1
. 2
. 1, RS .
,

, .
, R = S = 1.
RS
. 2. , , ..
( ,
. 1,).

, RS (. 1,) . (0 1)
: = ; = ; S = .
2. ()! S (. 1,)
. : A =; = ; R =; S = .
3. (83)! R (. 1,)
. : A =; = ; R =; S = .
4. ()! (. 1,)
. : A =; = ; R = .
5. (). (. 1,) ,
= 0. : A =; = ; S = .
6. (9). (. 1,) . : A =; = ; S = .
1. ()!

50
7. ()!
.

RS (. 1,)
R, S, , .
8. (7)! (. 1,)
. R, S, ,
.
9. (8)!
(. 1,)

. R, S, .
10. ()! S (. 1,) . , , R, S.
11. ()! (. 1,)
. , , R.
5.3.

. ()
. ,
R S.
- ,
, .
.
U t, U , t , , , . .
. . 3. ,
, , . .
,
- .
, .
-
. 4. ()
(
U
1
).
, -
t
0
RS- ,

(

)

.

. 3
, = = 0
( , S = R = 1).
,
1 = 2 = 1;

3 = 1;

4 = 0.

.
1 5 9, :
3 = 4 = 1. ( ) 3 7
2. = 0,
1 = 0, 2 = 1 ,
- .
.
5 9. = 1,
5
. 3 7. 3 = 0 -

S
J
T

1
1

2
1

3
& 1

4
&

5
& 3

6
&

7
& 2

8
&

9
& 4

10
&

. 4

. ,
: = = 1. -
.
. 1 5 9.
, 3 = 4 = 1.
, = 1 2 = 0.

3 7,
, 4 = 0, 3 = 1.
, S B Q (Q = 0, 1)
( ),


B
( ). -
R
RS-.
. 5
, , . .
.
-
. 5. : , . .
RS-,
,
[43, . 143].

= = 0, R = S = 1, = 0 (. 4). (0 1) : () 1,2,3,4,5; () 6,7,8,9,10.


2. (). . 4 = 1, = 0.
(0 1) S, , R, 1, 2, 3, 4.
3. (). , . 4 R = 0, S = 1, = 1.
(0 1) 1, 2, 3, 4, , .
4. (). . 4 R = 1, S = 0, = 1. (0 1) 1, 2, 3, 4, , , , .
5. (). , . 4 R = S = = 0.
(0 1) 1, 2, 3, 4, , , , .
1.

5 6
. 6

6. 4 .
. 6, ,
:
(5) (. 4) , , . . t = 0,
= = 0;

51
() (. 4) , = = 0;
() (. 4)
,
= = 1;
() (. 4) , = = 0.
7. (. 4) ,
57 . :
().
?
().
?
()!
? ?

5.4. -

, :
1) , . , . ( : syn , chronos ; synchronismos , );
2) , ,
.
( : , synchronos ).
-.
. 7 , , A, B, C, D, E, F,
, F .
25

24

23

22

21

20

S A

S B

S C

S D

S E

S F

. 7
R
. Y.
Y. : A = B = C = D = E = F = 0, . . 000000.
.
F
.
, .
, 000001.

. F ,
,
. D
, D . ,
000010. ,
000011, , ,
000100 111111,
63- .
, 000000 .
? 011111
( 31). .
F
E,
D, D
, , ,
.
100000. ,
, ,
. , 32-
100000,
011110, 011100,
011000, 010000, 000000 , , 100000.
.
, . ,
,
.
.
. 7, ,
,
.. F ,
D , ,
.
,
, .

(. 7) 19 .
( ),
.
2.
n .
, , :
(21) n = 300;
(2) n = 512;
() n = 127.
3. (). Y = 0 20
(. 7). ,
.
4. ,
(. 8),
( 000000):
() ;
(9) ;
(26) ;
(40) ;
() ; (33) .
1. (71).

52
5. (. 8) n.
, , :
() n= 011011;
() n= 100110;
() n= 010110;
(84) n= 100010;
(81) n= 010010;
(55) n= 111100;
(2) n= 100100;
(26) n= 101001.
25

24

23

22

21

20

S A

S B

S C

S D

S E

S F

. 8

6.
( , ). ,
,
:
(7) ;
() 48 ;
(8) 12 ;
() 257 .
7. . 7 .
, . ,
,
( R) :
() 0 ;
() 32 ;
(52) 1 ;
(776) 64 ;
(53) 4 ;
(7) 140 ;
() 63 ;
() 1000 .

5.5.

, ,
. , . 9.
,
1, 2, , n.
,
n-
n- , f1, f2, , fn. Y
() .

S

, f1

=
0.
&

f
2
&

1, 2, , n.
R

f1, f2, , fn S n
fn


&

An

.
Y

. 9
1

, ( ). ,
,
.
,
,
. f1, f2, , fn
.
, ,
.
. . ,

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, , = 0,
7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 7, , = 1.
.
, : ,
,
,
. B, C, D ,
1
. A B C D fB fC fD (. 1).
,
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
,
1
0 0 0 1 0 1 1
, , D, 2
0 0 1 0 0 0 1
: = 0,
3
0 0 1 1 1 1 1
4
0 1 0 0 0 0 1
: 000, 001,
5
0 1 0 1 0 1 1
010, , 111, = 1,
6
0 1 1 0 0 0 1

7
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
: 000,111,
8
1 0 0 0 1 1 1
110, , 001. 15 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
, .,
14 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
13 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
12 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
,
11 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
.
10 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
. 1 9 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
: fB, fC, fD.
, , , D. ,
,
. 1 fA .

.
0000, . . = = = D = 0. (. 9) ,
0001. ,
D
.
0000 001.
, 0001. D . , D .

53

011. 0011.
0010,
0011 D. 001 . . .
, , :
f B = AC D + A CD;
S

&

&

C
C

f C = AD + A D;

& 1
fB
&
& 1 f
C
&

fD = 1 .

,
,
. 10.
, ,
D,
,
D

D = fD = 1 = ,

D
R
Y

. 10
D.
: , ,
. , , D
, , .
S

1. (. 10) 011
= 0.
(). , .
(67). ,
011?
(78). , ?
2. Y (. 10) . ,
= 0 n :
(061) n = 333?
(79) n = 10? (00) n = 24?
3. (. 10) 111.
, = 1
n :
() n = 90?
(2) n = 4? (666) n = 48?
4. (25)! , , (. 10)
110 = 0; 110 = 1.
5. (65)! 101
(. 10).
, = 1? = 0?
6. ,
: = 0,
0, 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, ; = 1,
0, 4, 6, 7, 5, 1, 3, 2, 0, .
. 1. :

1) (B, C, D),
, = 0 :
(227)! 000; 001;
(49)! 010; 011;
(840)! 110; 111;
(38)! 100; 101;
2) (B, C, D),
, = 1 :
(782)! 110; 111;
()! 000; 100;
(25)! 011; 010;
()! 101; 001;
3) (2)! fB ? fC ? fD ?
4) ,
:
(7) fC ;
(5) fD ;
(36) fB ;
5) ( B, C, D) ,
= 1 (
): ()! 111? ()! 010? ()! 100?

5.6. JK

. 4 JK, , . J = 1, K = 0
JK ,
.
J JK.
J = 0, K = 1, . , K .
. 4 , J = K = 0, ,
: J K.
:
.
J = K = 1
S Q -, J
, . . J = K = 1 C
Q .
K
R
JK-

. 11. JK,
. 11
-, .

1. (). JK (. 11)
. J , K .
(. 6). . 6 , , JK- .
2. (). JK (. 11)
. J K
, . . J = K = 1.
(. 6).
, ,
.
3. (). , R = S = 1,
, . , :
1) = 1, J
?

54
2) = 1, J K
?
3) J, K T ,

?
4) J = K = T = 1 J = K = 0,
,
?
5) = 0, J K
?
6) J, K = 1
, J?
7) K, J = 1
, K?

5.7.
JK-

JK- .
, 3, 4, 2, 0, 5, 7, 6, 1, 3,
.
,
.
011, , Y ( ) R , S S .
, 011.
. 1,
, ,
JK- : JA, KA
; J, K ; J, K
(.2).
2
JA KA JB KB JC KC 0 1 1 1
1
1
100,
1 0 0 1
1
0

0 1 0 0
1
0
. 0 0 0 1
0
1
,
1 0 1 0
1
0
JA 1 1 1 0
0
1
. 1 1 0 1
1
1
, JA
0 0 1 0
1
0
011
. KA ( ),
,
KA.
, KB
, JB
, . , KB
, JB .
J K.
,
100.

010. ,
KA . SA

. , KA , JA .
,
KB JB
. JB , KB .
.
, JC . KC
, . , J , KC .

. ,
, , .
. 2 ,

S
& 1
.
J
C
&

K
:
R

J A = BC + B C ;

S
J

K
R

& 1

S
J

KA = C;

J B = A + C;
KB = A + C ;
JC = A B + A B;
K C = B.

. 12.
Y
,
. 12
Y ,
, , . .
011,
.
,
.
&

K
R

1. (
) (. 12) ,
:
()! 010?
()! 011?
(21)! 001?
2. (). (
) , . 12.
3. (. 12) 100. ( ) ,
:
(1) 3 ?
() 12 ?
() 39 ?
() 128 ?
4. ().
. 12, J K , , ?
5. (0 1) . 12: JA =; KA =; J =; K =;
J =; K =, :
(676) 010;
(267) 110;
(8) 111.
6. (. 12) k .
, = = = 0.
, :
() k = 4? (5) k = 19? () k = 631?

55
7.
JK-,
110, 010, 011, 001, 000, 100, 101, 111, 110, .
110. , 2. :
1) ,
(0, 1, ) JA , KA , J , K , J , K ,
(
):
() 000; () 001; () 010; () 011;
() 100; (132) 101; () 110; (64) 111;
2) :
(255) JA =;
() J =;
(.) J =;
(599) K =;
(.) K =;
(8) K =;
3) (). 101.
( ) ,
Y ?
4) 100. ( ) , :
() 3 ?
(215) 24 ?
() 191 ?
() 640 ?
5) x. n
111. x,

(7) n = 9; () n = 90;
() n = 900.

5.8.

. 13 . Y
. S
.
, .
C

S
J

A S B S C S D S E
J
J
J
J

K
R

K
R

K
R

K
R

K
R

. 13
. 13
, . . , ,
. 10010. .
.
, ,
: = 0. D
, .
: 01001.
, 10100, . .

: 10010.
, 10010
: 10010, 01001, 10100, 01010, 00101.
JA
KA, , . .
(
).
11001, JA

, KA .
01100, 00110,
00011, 00001, 00000, .
. 13 JA,
KA. ,
,
JA KA,
KA JA (. 14).

S
J

A S B S C S D S E
J
J
J
J

K
R

K
R

K
R

K
R

K
R

. 14
.
Y . 00000.

, JA
, KA
.
10000.
11000, 11100, 11110,
11111, 01111, 00111, 00011, 00001, 00000.
, , 10 .
[43, . 197].
, [59, . 54]
.

(. 13) 01111.

?
2. (). (. 13) : A = C = D = 1; = = 0.
? ().
?
3. (. 13) 10001.
( ) :
() ?
() ?
4. ( ) (. 13) 14 , :
(56) 00001 ?
() 11001 ?
() 11110 ?
() 11111 ? (50) 00000 ?
() 01010 ?
5. ( ) (. 13) ,
:
(278) 01100 ? () 00010 ? () 10001 ?
6. ( ) (. 14) 6 ,
:
(289) 11001 ?
() 01110 ?
() 00001 ?
7. (). (. 14)
: A = C = D = 1; = = 0.

? (23). 120 ?
1. ().

56

5.9.

, . ,
.
, .

.
,

.
P Q . , :
1) P = Q = 0, ;
2) P = 0, Q = 1, ;
3) P = 1, Q = 0,
;
4) P = Q = 1 .

, 5.7.

P Q , ,
(. 3).
P = Q = 0,
3

. ,
P Q E JA KA


0
0 0 0 0 1

1
0 0 1 0 1

. ,
2
0 1 0 0 1
000 001 3
0 1 1 1 0

JA KA 0 1.
4
1 0 0 1 0

P = 0, Q = 1,
5
1 0 1 0 1

. 010
6
1 1 0
, = 0, 7
1 1 1
,
. KA ,
JA . 011 : JA =1, KA= 0,
= 1, ,
.
P = 1, Q = 0, . , = 0
(: JA = 1, KA = 0),
= 1 (: JA = 0, KA = 1).
,
P = Q = 1
.
. 3 :
J A = Q E + PE ;

&1

&

S
J

&1

&

K
R

K A = Q E + P E.

A S B S C S D S
J
J
J
J
E
C
C
C
C
K
R

K
R

K
R

K
R

. 15
. 15.
.
Y

. 15 P = Q = 0. ( )
, :
() 10111 ? (221) 00111 ? () 10000 ?
2. . 15 P = 1, Q = 0. ( )
, :
() 10110 ?
(983) 01101 ? () 00110 ?
3. . 15 P = 1, Q = 0. ( )
, :
() 11010 ?
() 00001 ? (7) 10000 ?
4. . 15 ,
P = Q = 1 . .
00100. ( )
, :
() 3 ?
() 1 ?
(2) 4 ?
() 2 ?
5. . 15 P Q. X, Y, Z :
1) X = 1, Y = 0, Z = 0, ;
2) X = 0, Y = 1, Z = 0, ;
3) X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 1, ;
4) ,
. . 000, 011, 101, 110, 111, .
JA KA,
X, Y, Z, .
().
?
(). ( ),
JA = 1.
(). ( ),
KA = 1.
JA KA,
. ( ) X, Y, Z, , :
() JA ?
() JA ?
() KA ?
(59) KA ?
( X,Y,Z,):
(.) JA; (.) KA.
1.

5.10.

.
, . .
, , ,

. , - .
, , . () . ,
x, , y, . ,

57

, , .

. , , [7; 39]:
q(t ) = f [q (t 1), x (t )],

(1)

t (t = 0, 1, 2, ),
, , , ;
q(t) (. . ), t;
q(t1) ;
x(t) t.
, ,
:

y (t) = [q (t 1), x (t)].

(2)

, (1) (2) , , , . .
q(t) y (t) .
.
n-
(n = 1, 2, 3, ) n n
. 2 .

X, N 2n :
X = {x1, x2, x3, , xN},
(3)
xi i- (i = 1, 2, 3, , N).
,
,

. m- ,

Y, M 2m :
Y = {y1, y2, y3, , yM},
(4)
yj j- (j = 1, 2, 3, , M).
Q,
k
K 2 , k :
Q = {q1, q2, q3,, qK},
q - ( = 1, 2, 3, , K).
,

= {X, Y, Q, q(t), y(t)},


(5)
X ;
Y ;
Q ;
q(t) ;
y (t) .
X, Y, Q ,
, , .
.

1.
18 ( 10010).
(636). ( )
?
(982). |Q|, Q
.
(). |Y|, Y .
(331). |Q| 9- .
2. (004). 800 . ,
.

3. (3). . 45 (
101101). .
( 45)?
4. (725). ,
:
1) = N (3), (4)?
2) (1) (2) . , q(t) = y(t)?
3) Y?
4) Q c
?
5) X=Y (3), (4)?
6) , ?
7) ,
t + 1 q1 q2 ?
5. (87). 18 ( ).

.
?

5.11.
, (5),
(1) (2). (2).
,
.
[6; 7; 18; 43; 56].
. 16, :
t . t n- n (3);
Q , k-
;
q k- ,
Q;
yt . t
m- (4).

xt

qt 1

yt

16


Q. , Q,
m yt.
, yt,
, Q, xt, n- .
a b c (.17).

58
Q, ,
: 0 1.


a
y
S
X1
SM 1
J
.
C
X1
P
P
K
1
R
b
X1
S
S
X2
Q
X2,
J
J
C
C
Q
X2
( K
K
R
R
C
).
Y

. 17


b. .
(
Y) : Q = 0, . . .
= 011011, b = 000111. -

X1 = X2 = 1, , = 0, y = 1.
P = 1 (P ), Q
. X1 = X2 = 1, Q = 1, = 1, y = 0, P = 1.
X1 = 0, X2 = 1, Q = 1, = 0, y = 1, P = 1 . .
(. 17) ,
y,
X1 X2, Q:

y = X 1 X 2Q + X 1 X 2Q + X 1 X 2Q + X 1 X 2Q =

= X 1 X 2 Q + X 1 X 2 Q + X 1 X 2Q + X 1 X 2 Q ,
. . y , ,
.

y(t) = [q (t 1)], . .
y(t)
.


, X1 = X2 = 1.
2. (081). ,
(. 17):
1) a b,
?
2) . 17?
3) . 17?
4) . 17 ,

y = . ?
5) R = 0 ( X1). ,
- ?
6) , J
K Q. ?

5.12.
,
, (5).
y(t).
y(t) :

y (t) = [q (t 1), x (t)],

A
B
C
D
E

f1
f2
f3

18

. 18. , . JK- Q (
).
x.
B, C, D, E,
, Q.
Q Y . x1. , , x1 Q. x2.
x1+ x2. Q.
x3,
Q | x1+ x2+ x3| (
32), | x1+ x2 + x3| + x4 . .

:

f1 = 1, q 18;
f2 = 1, 8 q 23;
f3 = 1, 12 q 27,

1. ()! (. 17) : Q = 0, X1 = X2 = 1.
(0 1) , , Q

q , Q.
, . , , .

1. (). (. 18)
10001. 0011.
( ) Q
, C ?
2. (). ,
(. 18):
1) (. 18)?
2) , - Q. ?
3) , f1, f2, f3 ?
4) ,
Q?
5) , Q , ?
6) ?

59

,
,

() .
VII ,

. ,
(16461716), 1666 . , [42, . 140].
( [9],
[35], [34]), m , , , .
,
. ,

() , ,
, , ,
,
.
. ,
,
.

( 370). ,

. ,
. ,
, ,
,
,
.
1.

1.1.
,
1 n,
.
factor,
.

n! = 1234(n 1) n.

n
,
n!. :
f = n!

n = 1, f = 1! = 1.
n = 2, f = 2! = 12 = 2.
n = 3, f = 3! = 123 = 6.
n = 4, f = 4! = 1234 = 24.
n = 5, f = 5! = 12345 = 120.
n = 6, f = 6! = 123456 = 720.
n = 7, f = 7! = 1237 = 5040.
n = 8, f = 8! = 12378 = 40320.
n = 9, f = 9! = 123789 = 362880.
n = 10, f = 10! = 123910 = 3628800 . .
, , , 100
n!,

, .
n! f = n! = (n 1)! n.
n = 1 : f = 1! = (1 1)!1 = 0!1 = 1!,
, 0! = 1.
.
,
, 0! = 0.
,
n. 0!
, .
.
1. :
1234456.

, 4 , :
1234456 = 46!

2. -

: 1234578910.
6. 6 , :
1234578910 =

10!
.
6

3. : 135678.

: 2 4. 2 4 , :
4.

135678 = 7!

N=

1 2 3 ... k + 1 2 3 ... (k 1)
.
1 2 3 ... (k 2)

1 2 3 ... (k 2)(k 1)k + 1 2 3 ... (k 2)(k 1)


.
1 2 3 ... (k 2)
123(k 2):
1 2 3 ... (k 2)[(k 1)k + (k 1)]
.
N=
1 2 3 ... (k 2)
:
N = (k 1)k + k 1 = k2 1.
5. :
2
+ (n 1)! (n 2)!
.
K = n!
(n 2)!2

N=

60


1 2 3 ... (n 2) 1 2 3 ... (n 2) .
, :
K = n4 2n3 + n2 + n 1.

:
1.

(796) 1234567;
(717) 1135678;
(72) 123k ;
(22) 134678910;
(8) 123(n 4)(n 3); (378) 156 2324;
(2.) 1223n;
()1236 1820;
(485) 123n(n + 1);
() 124678915;
() 123(n1)(n+1)n ; (31) 35678.
2.
:
1 2 3 ... n(n + 1)(n + 2)
()
;
(n + 1)(n + 2)
(n 2)! 2(n 1)!
;
(24)
3 2n
1 2 2 3 3 4 5 ... (k 1) k 2
(2)
;
6k

(257)

(123...k )2
;
[1 2 3 ... (k 1)] k 2

[123...(k 1)]2

;
1 2 3 ... (k 2) (k 1) 2
1 2 3 ... (k 1)(k + 1)
.
()
k +1
3. :
1 2 3 ... (k 1)(k + 1)
(5)
;
1 2 3 ... k (k + 1)
1 2 3 ... n
(57)
;
1 2 3 ... (n + 1)
1 2 3 ... k + 1 2 3 ... (k + 1)
;
(6)
1 2 3 ... k
1 2 3 ... (k 2)(k + 1)
()
;
1 2 3 ... (k 1)
(n 2)!+ (n 1)!+ n!
.
(833)
(n 1)!
4. n = 31:
3(n 1)!+4n!
n! (n 1)! (n + 1)! n
(2)
;
(982)
.
2(3 + 4n)(n 2)!
n!3
5. n = 2:
(5) f = (n3)!(n2)(n1)n.
(350) f = (n2)!(n1)n;
6. ().
n!?
7. ().
n! n > 3?
(878)

1.2.

-

n , m
, N
[12, . 250],
N = nm.

1 |A1| , 2 |A2|
n, |An| , n N ,
N = |A1| |A2| |An|.

= {1,2,3,4,5}.
n = 5 .
.
m = 4 . ,
54 = 20 ,
: 12, 13, 14, 15, 21, 23, 24, 25, 31, 32,
1.

34, 35, 41, 42, 43, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54.
, .
2. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
. .
. ?
, . .
n = 5. . , m = 5. nm = 55 = 25.
25 (
) .
3. 2. . ?
,
, .
, 555 = 125.
4. ?


0,1,2,3,4,5.
, , ,
, .
, , , .
.
566 = 180.
5. , ,
,
, : 23032, 55655, 10001 ..?
( ) 7
, . 8 , .
8 .

. .
, 372,
7, 3.
, 788 = 448
.

1. ().

10 .
.
, .
?
2. (2). 3, 4, 5, 6?
3. (). 3, 7, 9?

61
4. (). ,
0, 3, 7, 8, 9. ?
5. ()!
.
,
, ?
,
?
6. (5). 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
?
7. (927). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
, ?
8. (296). , 5?
9. (). (
, ,
, 39793; 68286)?
10. ().
7, .
84. ( ).
11. (). , ?
12. ()! , :
1,2,3,4,5;
2,5,7;
1?

1.3.
1 2. , 1 U 2.

, .
1 I 2 = .
|1 U 2 | = |1| + |2| ,
. . 1
|1| , 2 |2| ,
1, 2 |1| + |2| .
[12, . 250].
1. 6 4 . [9, . 21]?
1 , 2 , :
|1 U 2| = |1| + |2| = 6 + 4 = 10.
, 1 I 2 .
:
|1 U 2| = |1| + |2| |1 I 2|.
[35, . 140] , [56, . 32]
-. [42, . 140] .
2. :
1 = {1, 2, 4, 7, 9};
2 = { 1, 4, 5, 6, 8}.
1 U 2?
|1 U 2| = 5 + 5 2 = 8.


|1 U 2 U 3| = |1 U 2| + |3| |(1 U 2) I 3| = |1| +
+ |2| |1 I 2| + |3| |1 I 3 U 2 I 3| = |1| + |2|
|1 I 2| + |3| (|1 I 3| + |2 I 3| |1 I 2 I 3|) = |1| +
+ |2| + |3| |1 I 2| |1 I 3| |2 I 3| + |1 I 2 I 3|.
:
|1U2U3U4| = |1| + |2| + |3| + |4| |1I2|
|1I3| |1I4| |2I3| |2I4| |3I4| +
+ |1I2I3| + |1I2I4| + |1I3I4| + |2I3I4|
|1I2I3I4|.
n
|1U2UUn| = |1|+|2|++|n| (|1I2|+|1I3|+
+|n1In|)+(|1I2I3|+|1I2I4|+
+|n2In1In|)+(1)n1|1I2IIn|.
3. 100
28 , 30, 42,
8, 10,
5, 3 . [22, . 15]?
: |1| , ; |2| ; |3|
. |P1| = 28; |P2| = 30; |P3| = 42.
:
|1I2| = 8 ,
;
|1I3| = 10 ,
;
|2I3| = 5 ,
;
|1I2I3| = 3 , .
:
|1U2U3| = 28 + 30 + 42 8 10 5 + 3 = 80.
,
80 , , 20 .

1. (). 30
. 9 .
12 , 16. ?
2. (). 12
, 19 . ,
6 . 27 .
?
3. (). 33 11 . 4
. ,
8 . ?
4. (67). ,
:
1) |AUB| = |A| + |B|. , AIB ?
2) |AUB| < |A| +|B|. , AIB = ?
3) |AUB| = |AIB|. , |AUB| = |A| + |B|?
4) A = B. , |AIB| = B?
5) A B. , AIB = ?
6) A B. , |AUB| = |A|+ |B|?
7) A B. , |AUB| = |B|?

62

1.4.

. . 1 :
I

3
4
1 2 5 6 7 8

P1 = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6};
P2 = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8};
I = {1, 2, , 9}.

,
P1UP2
. 1
:
|P1UP2| = |P1I P2 | + |P1 I P2 | + | P1 I P2 | .
|P1 I P2|.
:

P2

|P1UP2| = |P1I P2 | + |P1IP2| + | P1 IP2| + |P1IP2| |P1IP2|. (1)

(. 1) ,
|P1 I P2 | + |P1IP2| = |P1|; | P1 IP2| + |P1IP2| = |P2|. (2)
(2) (1), :
|P1UP2| = |P1| + |P2| |P1IP2|.
I

,
P1
P



. P3



. 2
.

1. :
() P2 (. 1);

()

P1UP1I P2 (. 1);
() P1 I P2 (. 1).
2. . 2 :
() (1U2U3)II;
() 1I2U3;
() 1I P2 U P1 I3.
() P1 I P2 I P3 ;
3. (). (. 2)
1U2, 2 (
).
4. (). (. 2)
P2 I3, 2 ,
3 .
1.5.

.
= {1,2, , n }.

-
. .
.
. .
(!)?
. n, n , ,
.

.
n n .

. ,
n1 , n2
,
.
n1

n = n(n1)(n2) 321 = n!.

(3)

1. -

, ,
3, 5, 9?
n = 3, ,
3! = 123 = 6. :
359, 395, 539, 593, 953, 935.

2.

,
?
, ,
:
8! = 12345678 = 40320.

1. (2). , 3, 4, 5, 7, 9?
2. (). ,
. , a+b+c+d
: b+c+a+d c+a+d+b . .
?
3. (). - : , b, c, d,
1, 2, 3,
, , bcda132, abcd123, ..
?
4. (). - . b
- , 1, 2, 3,
, a,b,c,d
. : ab132dbac,
ba321adbc . . ?
5. (). 6- ,
(, , )?
6. (). 10- ,
731 05?
7. (). , n 3628800 . n.
8. ().
02, 30, 16, 04, 07, 18, 30, 17, 30, 09, 09, ,
, 01, 02, , 33
. . ,
. .
,
.


? ( , , 16!).
1.6.

. n1 ( ), n2 b, , nk
.

63

n-

, , . .
n = n 1 + n 2 + + n k.

a a b b b b c c c c x x x x.
n2

n1

n3

1.7.

nk

.
?
n n!,
n . n1! . n2! . .
& n =

(n1 + n2 + ... + nk ) !
n1! n2 ! ... nk !

n!
,
n1! n2 ! ... nk !

(4)

n , .
1.
, ?
n1 = 3, n2 = 1, n = 4.
& 4 =

4!
= 4.
3! 1!

, , , .
2. ,
?
5 . ,
, .
n = 5, n1 = 2, n2 = 2, n3 = 1.


&5 =

5!
= 30,
2! 2! 1!

, , , ,
. .
(4) k . , n = k,
n1 = n2 = = nk = 1, (4)
(3), . . (3)
(4).

8. ().
4152486813, ,
, ?

1. (). , 4
5?
2. (). , 1, 2, 3, 5, , , ?
3. ().
?
4. (). 3 , 4 , 2 ,
3 . ,
, 335 ?
5. (52). , .
,
?
6. (). , ,
?
7. (25). ,
?

. , n
. m, . .
?
,
,
.
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.

(5)

3, 135 136,
,
.
356 365,
,
,
.
3
(5)?
,
.
.
. ,
5 , 4. ,
: 654 = 120.
n , m,
n , n1
(
). n 2 m, n m + 1 .

Am
n = n(n 1)(n 2)(n m +1),
m
An , n
m .
(nm)!:
n(n 1)(n 2) ... (n m + 1) (n m)!
=
Am
n =
(n m)!
n(n 1)(n 2) ... (n m + 1)(n m)(n m 1) ... 3 2 1
=
.
(n m)!


1 n, ,
Am
n =

n!
.
(n m)!

(6)


n m .
1. ,
?

( , , ,
), ,
, . ,
N :
N = 9987 = 4536.

64

(6). n
, m (. . ). N ,
, . , N

N=

nm Anm11 ,

(7)

m- , ;
nm11 m- , .
(7)
n!
(n 1)!
n(n 1)! (n 1)!

.
=

N=
(n m)! [n 1 (m 1)]! (n m)! (n m)!
(n 1)!

, :
(n m)!
m
n

(n 1) (n 1)!
.
(8)
(n m)!
n = 10, m = 3, , (8)
(10 1) (10 1)! 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
N=
=
= 4536.
(10 4)!
1 2 3 4 5 6
2. , ?
1, 3, 5, 7, 9. ,
n = 5, m = 3. (6) :
5!
1 2 3 4 5
35 =
=
= 60.
(5 3)!
1 2
3. 12 .
, .

?
: 1, 2, 3, , 9, A, B, C. :
, 12 ( )? , ,
, , . n = 12, m = 4,
12!
12!
4
12
=
=
= 9101112 = 11880.
(12 4)! 8!
N=

1. (). , 0,1,2,3
?
2. (510).
, ? ( 10 :
, , , , , , , , , .)
3. ().
,
?

4. (427). 10 .
,
?
5. ()! , n m 210. n m.
6. (159)! , n
m 7920. n m.
7. (200). 10 ,
. ,
897?
8. (530). 10 ,
. , 789?
9. ().
11 . . ?
10. ()! .
.
24024 . ?
11. ()! , 900 k- , . k. , k- .
12. ()! 3024 k- ,
. k. , k- ?

1.8.
. , n
. , . . m,
.
?
, , ,
. n , n
, n . .

& nm = nnn n = nm,


(9)
& nm n m .
1. , 3, 7, 8, 9,
?

, , 4 . ,

4 .
4 . ,
& 44 = 4 4 4 4 = 4 4 = 256.
2.
,
1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8?

65


1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 .
.
&63 = 63 = 216.
3. : = {, , , , , }.
-
?
R :
R = & 62 + & 63 = 62 + 63 = 252.
4.
?
. n
, m .
n 1 ,
m- .
n
. , m-
:
= (n 1) nm 1.
(10)
C m = 5, n = 6,
= (6 1) 651 = 6480.



(. . 2.2 ). , , m c, m ||m.
, .
. , || = n,
& nm = ||m = nm.

1. (215). 10 ?
2. (328). ?
3. ().
?
4. (). 3
{, b, c, d, e, f}?
5. (). 10
b?
6. (221). 12
d?
7. ()! , 100 m- p- . m p.
8. (5). A = {, , , , }.
|A| m N1.
|A| m+1 N2.
, N2 N1 = 500. N1 N2.
9. (7). = {,,,,,}.
|A| 3,
() ?
10. (). A = {,,,,,}.
|A| 3,
?
11. A = {,,,,,,,}. |A| 4, :
() ()
?

(76) ?
() ,
?
(258) ?
(95) ?
12. (). ,
?
13. (). ,
?
14. (52). , ?

1.9.
. n
. -

, m (m n). ?
, m
, m n,
n = |A|. n m nm . n , . m ,
. , [12, . 250], ,
, , , . . , [56, . 22]
n r ; [12]
(n,r), ( nr ), r , . nm ,
, [2,11,23,24,28,35,42].
:
nm =

n!
.
(n m)!

, , .
. nm m!, n m:
nm =

Anm
n!
=
.
m! m!(n m)!

(11)

1. , ?
n = 6, m = 3, ,

63 =

6!
456
=
= 20.
3! 3! 1 2 3

2. (. 3) n
. ,
.
?
.
,
. ,

66

n!
n(n 1)(n 2)(n 3)
=
.
4!(n 4)!
24
n = 5 5 , n = 6 15 , n = 7 ( . 3) 35 . .

n4 =

3
6
5

. 3

. 4
3. m n
, n () ,
m (. 4).
:
) ,
( )?
) , ?
) , ?
, ,
n + m , n
m .
, .
(m + n)- .
, , . 4, 0110111010.
, ,
(m + n)- , n
m . (11) :
nn+ m = (n + m)! .
n! m!

, n = 4, m = 6 ( . 4)
210.
,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
6 2, 15. 6
.
156 = 90.
, , 210 90 = 120.
4. 30 ,
. .
n ( ).

n2

30.


n(n1) 60.

, , 9, 98 = 72 > 60. n = 8,
78 = 56 < 60. ,
30 , 9- ,
.

5. ,
( )?
.
. :
) , .
( , ), , 1 = 1;
) ,
. 2 = 7;
)
. .
,
. . -
, ,
,
,
.
62 = 15 . , 3 = 15;
)
. ,
: 53 = 10. , 4 = 10;
) .
: 1010101, , 5 = 1.
,
: = 1 +7 + 15 +10 + 1 = 34.
6. , :
1) ?
2) ?
. . ,
( ). 95 = 126 ( ).
.
, ( )
.
,
105 = 252.

1. (). 8- , ?
2. (). 9-
, 6 ?
3. (). 10-
, ,
?
4. (2). 8-
, ?
5. (). 66 , . .
6. (). 80 , . n
, n .

67
7. (). m n
, 11 , 462. m n, m < n, m 1.
8. ().

(. 5),
n
, m A
B, k

B ?
. 5
n = m = 4, k =2.
9. (). (. 6) n ,
b m .
b. (. 6
, n = 4, m = 3.) ,
n = 7, m = 5?

n2

n1

b
n3

. 6
. 7
10. (). n1 , n2
n3 (. 7).
.
n1
. ,
.
, n1 = 4, n2 = 5, n3 = 3.
(). , n1 = 5, n2 = 2, n3 = 1.
11. :
() 2 = 190;
() 2 = 91;
() 3 =120;
() 14
= 120.
12. ().
k=32514768

. .
k -
, .
,
- ?
13. (). 12

i, j, k, i, j, k = 1,2,3, , 12; i j; i k; j k.
.
.
?
14. (). 14 ,
.
, ?
15. (). ,
?
16. (). ,
?

17. n ,

.
.
, , . .
(52). n = 12?
().
n =15?
18. (). 9 5
, , .
?
19. (). 14 .
5 ,
.
?

1.10.

nm . .
(12)
1) nm = Cnn m .
, :
n!
nm =
;
m!(n m)!

n!
n!
.
=
(n m)![n (n m)]! (n m)! m!
, , (12)
. : 7, .

nn m =

n = 7, m = 3, 7 3 = 4

73 = 74 = 35.

nm = Cnm11 + Cnm1.
(13)
, :
(n 1)!
(n 1)!
+
nm11 + Cnm1 =
=
2)

(m 1)!(n m)! m!(n m 1)!


(n 1)!m
(n 1)!(n m)
=
+
=
(m 1)! m (n m)! m!(n m 1)!(n m)

(n 1)!
n!
( m + n m) =
= Cnm .
m!(n m)!
m!(n m)!
(13), , (13) .
n
3) n0 + Cn1 + Cn2 + Cn3 + ... + = Cni = 2 n.
(14)
=

i =0

(1 + ) n ni , i = 0,1,2,,n ( . [9; 22; 56]). ,


(1+ )n = n0 + C1n + n2 2 + n3 3 + ... + nn n =

Cni i . (15)

i =0


, , ( + b)n
(1048 1131) - (XV . .) (16421720).
, ( + b)n
n.

68

(15) = 1,
n

(1+1)n = 2n =

,
i
n

i =1

(14).
(14) .
n- . i n i (i = 0,1,2,,n). i = 0,
n- : n . n0 ,
n!
n!
Cn0 =
=
= 1.
0!(n 0)! 1 n!
i = 1,

1
n=

n ,

. i = 2 Cn2 , , n- ,
n . , :
0
1
2
n
= n + C n + C n + ... + n .
, n- .
,
, :
& n = 2n ,
=
2
(14).
(16)
4) n0 Cn1 + Cn2 ... + (1) n Cnn = 0.
(16)
(15), = 1.
5) n0 + n2 + n4 + ... + nn = n1 + n3 + n5 + ... + nn 1
n;
n0 + n2 + n4 + ... + nn 1 = n1 + n3 + n5 + ...nn n.

(16).
6) nm+1 = Cnm 1 + Cnm .
, (13) n n + 1.
7)

( ) + (C ) + (C )
0 2
n

1 2
n

2 2
n

+ ... +

( )

n 2
n

1. ().

= C2nn .
[22, . 40].

(14)
n = 10.
2. (). i
i ( ni ) (14) , n = 17.
3. (). , nm = 165 n m = 8.
m n.
4. (692). , nm = 1001; Cnm11 = 286.
Cnm1 .
5. ().
n1 + Cn3 + Cn5 + Cn7 + Cn9 + Cn11 ,
,
n0 + Cn2 + Cn4 + Cn6 + Cn8 + Cn10 + Cn12 = 2048.
6. (). n3 , 2 n = 65536.

1.11.
. = {1,2,,n}.

m ,

?
.
, = {, b, c, d}, 10 m = 2:
a
ab
ac
ad

bb
bc
bd

cc
cd

dd

. 4 :
, , , .
10 .
?
:
10 ;
5 , 3 ,
2 ( 10 );
6 4
. .
.
,
,
. (
), .
( ) .
.
( ),
. :
1 1 1 0
1 1
0
1
0 1 1 1 1


.
, 13
. :
1111001011111 ,
,
;
0001111111111 10 ,
;
0101111111110
.
.
,
13- ,
( ):
& 410 = 1310 = 13! = 286,
10 ! 3!

10.
n , m , :
& nm = Cnm+ m 1 = Cnn+m1 1 .
(17)
n + m 1 ,
, , ||.
& 10
4

69

. 30 ,
.
?
. 15, = 15, = 3. (17)
: = 136,
15 . .
15 , ,
. , ,
, , ,
, , ,
. :
= 172 = 136.

.
15 ?
2. : , , , .
(). 10 .
?
(). 15 .
, . ?
(). 16 , 4
5
.
. ?
() 14 ,

. ?
3. (). 20 . n1 ,
n2, n3, n4.
n1, n2, n3, n4?
4. ().
: ,
. ,
18 , ,
n1 , n2
n3 .
n1, n2, n3 ( n1 + n2 + n3 = 18)?
5. (). 10 . 6 . ,
6 , ?
6. (). 30
.
, ?
7. ().
45 .
,
7 ?
8. ().
.
10 . . , 10
,
, . .
?
1. ().

9. (400). 4 30 , 4 . ?
10. (). n
, 5 . , 1540
. n.

1.12.


, .
:
1) : n = n!;
n!
2) : & n =
,
n1! n2 ! ... nk !

n = n1 + n2 + + nk;
3) n m :
n!
;
(n m)!
4) n m c :
& nm = n m ;
5) n m :
n!
nm =
;
m!(n m)!
6) n m c :
& nm = Cnm+ m 1.

nm =


.

, .
, ,
.

1.
, :
() ;
() ;
(383)
;
()
.
2. (). :
1) nm =

2) m =

Pn
;
(n m)!

nm
Cnm

4) nm =

Pn
;
Pm (n m)!

5) nm =

Pm
;
Pn (n m)!

3. ().
1) nm = Cnm Pn ;

(r + k )!
.
r! k!
:
4) nm+ m 1 = C& nm Pn ;

nm = Cnm Pm ;

5) Pn = (n m)! Pn Cnm ;

3) Anm =

2)

Pm
;
(n m)!

3) Pn = (n m)! Anm ;

6)

rr+ k

6) Pn = n(n 1)!

70
4. (030). :

1)

nm =

2) C& nm =

Anm

4) C nm =

Anm+ m 1
;
Pm

5) C& nm =

Pm

3) Crk+ k =

(r + k )!
;
r! k!

5. ().

1)
2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

ni = Cni
t

i =0
n

i =n t

Anm+ m 1
;
Pn

:
t n;

Cni = 2n 1

n
i=
2
n 1
2

Pn

6) Pn = (n m)! Pm Cnm .

ni = 2n 1

n +1
i=
2
n

Anm

n;

n;

2.
2.1.

C ni = 2 n 1
n;
i =0
n
2
i
n 1
n;
n =2
i =0
n 1
n
2
Cni =
Cni
n +1
i =0
i=
2

n.

6. (). :
1)

n
2

ni = Cni

i =0

n
2
n m

15. (). :
1) n m
n m;
2) n m
n< m;
3) n m
n > m;
4) n m
, m > n;
5) n
n ;
6) n
, n< n1+ n2+ + nk,
ni (i = 1,2, , k) i-
.

4) Ann + m = n n + n m ;

n;

i=

n2n = n 2 n n ;

2) A& nn + m = n n ;

5)

3) Anm+ m 1 = Pm C& nm ;

6) A& nm+ m = n n + m m .

7. (182)! n m ,
n = 7, m = 0;
n = 7, m = 1;
n = m = 2.
8. (763)! n
m :
n = 5, m = 0;
n = 8, m =1;
m = n = 12.
9. ()! n m ,
n = 1, m = 0; n = m = 3; m = n = 0.
10. (275)! n
m , :
n = 1, m = 100? n = 100, m = 0?
n = m = 3?
11. (696)! n
,
n = 4? n = 1? n = 0?
12. (997)! n
, n = n1 + n2, ,
n1 = 3, n2 = 0? n1 = 0, n2 = 1?
n1 = 2, n2 = 3?
13. ()! n
m ,
n = m = 1?
n = 5, m = 0?
n = m = 2?
14. ()! n m ,
n = 12, m = 11?
n = m = 0?
n = 10, m = 8?

. , n
:
= {a1,2, , an}.

1 2 ,
:
1 U 2 = ;
1 I 2 = .
?
, , 1 2, .
N ,
N=

nA

A2

= Cn

,
|1| = 3, |A2 | = 7 :
N = 103 =

10!
= 120.
3! 7!

.

, ..
.
1,
2:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0001111111

1 = {0, 1, 2 };
2 = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.

,
. , 1011100111

1 = {1, 5, 6};
2 = {0, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9}.

10
:
N=

&10 =

10!
= 120.
3! 7!

71

:
N=

& n

n!
=
.
A1 ! A2 !

(18)

, (18)
|A1| |A2|. |A1| = |A2|, ,
(18),
. ,

0111001100 1000110011
:
1 = {0, 4, 5, 8, 9};
11 = {1, 2, 3, 6, 7};

2 = {1, 2, 3, 6, 7};
21 = {0, 4, 5, 8, 9}.

,
1 = 21 2 = 11 .
, (. . , , ). ,
,
, ,
N
N=

1 2
n .
2

(19)

,
n.
, |A1| |A2|
.
|A1| |A2|.
.
.
,
,
1,
2.
. ,
: = {, b, c, d}. . 1
.

1
abc
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1 = ; 2 = .

d
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

15 :
1 = ;
,

2 = .

.
1 :

1 = {d}; A2 = {a, b, c}.


1110
:
1 = {a, b, c}; 2 = {d}.
. . . 1
, 8 .
, n n , 2 . , N :
N = 2 n 1 .

, , , 2 n .
,
, (, ).
10 , 12
11 .
,
.
,
, .

(, , 9), ,
10, . 11 .
, , 13
12 . ( ),
111312 = 1716 .
,
.

.
, .
, .
.
, . , 243 = 24 .
. k
. 1
, 2 , , k k-. ,
t1 , t2 , ,
tk k- . ?
t1
, 1 2 t1 .
. ,
1 + 2 + + k ,
= (1 2 t1 + 1) (2 2 t2 + 1) (k 2 tk + 1).


t1 = t2 = = tk = 0 1 = 2 = = k = 1,

k

(20)

=2,

.

, |A | = 3; |A | = 4?
2. (). 12 .

, |A | = |A | ?
3. (282).
, || = 9?
4. : = {1, 2, 3}; = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}.
U ,
() |A | = 3; |A | = 5;
() |A | = |A | = 4.
(5) |A | = 2, |A | = 6;
1. (101).


. , ,

.
|A |.

(7) |A | = |A |;
(28) |A | = 1; |A | = 13.
6. , 2048 .
(). | A|.
:
() , | | = 4?
(300) , | | = 6?
() ,
?

5.
,
126
|A1|+|A2| = 14,
(576).

2.2.

. , n : = { , , , , }. k , , , , :
U U U = A; I A = ; i j; i, j = 1, 2, , k.
?
|A | |A |,
.
C
. .
Q :
1

A1
n

A2
n A1

Q = n

A1

Cn 2A 1 Cn 3 A 1 A 2 ...
A

nAkA11 A 2 ... A k 2 =

Ak 1 ! (n A1 ... Ak 1 )!

10!
= 2520.
3! 2! 5!

|A |, |A |,,|A |,
= U U U k-
: ,

, o k1. - k- , |A | , |A |
k1, |A |,
k- .
:
1

Q=

n!
A1 ! A2 ! ...

& n =

k !

, |A | |A |
,
. .
[10], ,
28
. :
|A | = |A | = |A | = |A | = 7,
|A | , i-
(i = 1, 2, 3, 4). Q (21):
i

(i,j = 1, 2,, k).

28!
.
(7 ! ) 4

A2
=
{8,9,,14};
A4 = {22,23,,28},

A3 = {15,16,,21};
:
A1 = {8,9,,14};
A3 = {15,16,,21};
1, 2, , 28

A2 = {1,2,,7};
A4 = {22,23,,28},


.
,
,
. , , (21),
.
,
. .
, 4! = 24 , . ,
28!
.
(7!) 4 4!

Q=

:

= {0, 1, 2};
A = {3, 4 }; A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.

,
,
n!
, Q=
=
,
k ! ( A !) k !
. :
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
|A | = |A | = |A | = = |A |.
2 0 1 2 2 0 0 2 2 1
2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

(21)

, = {1,2,3,,9}. , |A | = 2; |A | = 3; |A | = 4.
(21) : Q = 2! 93!! 4! = 1260.
(21) , . .
|A | = 3,
|A | = 2, |A | = 5.
- ,
,
:
1

Q=

1 = {1,2,,7};

n!
Q=
.
A1 ! A2 ! ... Ak !

? . :

n!
,
A1 ! ... Ak !

k-1

Q=

n |A | |A | |A | = |A |.
, |A | |A |,
1

2012200221 :
= {1, 5, 6}; A = {2, 9}; A = {0, 3, 4, 7, 8 }.
,
Q
10 :

(n A1 )!
n!
...
A1 !(n A1 )! A2 !(n A1 A2 )!
(n A1 ... Ak 2 )!

72

&

73

k S 2
. ||=37. - 2 ,
10 ,
4,
|A | = |A |= |A | = |A | = 4;
624 . ,
|A | = |A | = A | = 3;
|A | = 6;
|A | = 1.
0 624
|A | = 5;
, 1 . N , N
. -
, . , (21), , N = 380 ,
3! 4! 3010, . . S 3,
:
S S ,
S 1.
37!
Q=
.
, (3!) (4!) 5! 6! 1! 3! 4!

,
, . . = 5 = 625. n
1. (). = {a, b, c, d, e, f, k}.
m , = m .
-

: n , , |A | = 4, |A | = 2, |A | = 1?

m ,
2. (). : |A | = 2; |A | = 3; |A | = 4; |A | = 1;
m

m n- |A| = 10.
,

m .
, , ,
n ?
- ?
. 3. (20).
n :
, |A | = 1; |A | = 1; |A | = 4; |A | = 4. -

=
m m m m .
( )?

1
.

, 4. ().

100

.
, |A | = |A | = |A | =
.
= |A | = |A | = 1

?
0 99 , 1 .
5. (1). 4 10 100 :
,
= 2255,
2 , 3 100
:
m
= m = 2; m = m = 5. . ?

. 9.
6. (). .

v 1 . - v
v
, , , , , , . 25 , v 505 ..

,
. -
, 0 99 1 . 1, 2, , 8?
4

10

220

2.3.

v
v
. 8 , v
v
,
0 1
0 1
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4
, S
S
S
. v 1 , S
v 5 , v 25 U
v 125 . . 9
,
2. ,
( )?
, 220
. m
10.
v
v
v
v
m , m , m , m , , m i-
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4
(i = 1, 2, 3, 4). , S
S
S
S
.
U
= m m m m .
, m 2. . 8

{2,3,,10} . M
:
, 220 . = 126,
, . 8, - =
U . S 120 m = 2, m =.
3,
m
=
4,
m
= 5.
1. 1 .
1

4
9

74

m1 = 7, m2 = 8,
m3 = 9, m4 = 10 5040. 0
119 , 0 5039 , 1 .

1. (). (. 8),
4 , 5?
2. . 8 .
4- 5- . N ( 1 ).
(65). N.
(). .
(). , , 1009 :
S=; S1 =; S2 =; S3 =; S4 =, S , .
3. (). , 2, 3, 2, 5, 3.
( ) , . 9, 1 ?
4. (). v1 . 8 6- .
?
5. (). . 9 v1 .
, ?
6. (314). (. 9),
v2 80 , v1 160 ?
(). ,
?
7. . 8 1 . :
(825) ,
?
(806) ,
, 2 ?
2.4.

,
.

. ,


.

.

. [49],

. [51].

( ): n
, m
. ,
.
,
?
:
)
( );
) A, B, C, ;
) i,, Bi , Ci , ,
i = 1, 2, 3, , n. i = 1, i- ; i = 0, i- . ;
)
1 2 3 ... m = 1,

j (j = 1,2,,m) , , j-
,
;
)
. .

1. .
:
1- , 4-, 5-; 1-
2-; 2- 3-; 2- 5-,
, .
: , ,
, , .
:
1 = 1 + 4 + 5;
2 = 1 + 2;
3 = 2 + 3;
4 = 2 + 5;
5 = 2 + 3 + 4.
:
1 2 3 4 5 = (1 + 4 + 5)(1 + 2)(2 + 3) &
& (2 + 5)(2 + 3 + 4) = 1.
,
, , :
12345+12345+12345+12345=1.
,
, ,
. .
12345 = 1,
, ;
; ; ;
. .
2.
: ,
.
.
:
(1+2++5)(1+2)(2+3)(2+5)(1+2++5) =1.
, :
12345 + 12345 + 12345 +
+ 12345 + 12345 + 12345 +
+ 12345 + 12345 = 1.

75

3. 1
:
. .
:
(1+2++5)(1+2++5)(1+2++5)&
&(1+2++5)(1+2++5) = 1.
, 120
.
. , , , ,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5. .
5! = 120,
.
4. .
,
. 1-
2- , 4- 5-. ,
.
, .
.
?

:
(1+6)(12+45)(3+4+5)(1+2+3)&
&(1+2+3+4+5+6)= 1.
:
123456 + 123456 + 123456 +
+ 123456 + 123456 = 1,
,
.

1. (76)!

6
. :
.
4- 5-. ,
, .
? ,
?
2. (67). ,
. ,
,
. , ,
,
. ?
2.5.


.
,
.
, .
:
.
[10, . 20].

: , . -

: 1, 2, 3, 4;
: b1, b2, b3; : 1, 2, 3.
, 36 . , b1 3, b2 1, b3 2.
, , 1
b1 b3 2 3; 2
b1 b2 ;
3 b1 b2 1
3; 4
3. ?

. : 1 = 1,
1 ; ,
1 = 0. 2, 3, 4, 1,
2, 3, 1, 2, 3.
:

1(1+3)(2+3) + 2(1+2)(1+2+3) +
+3(1+2)(1+3) + 4(1+2 +3)3 = 1.
, :
112+113+132+133+211+212+
+213+221+222+223+311+313+321+
+323 +413+423+433 = 1.
17 , . , 113 ,
1, b1 3.
b1 3. 113, 213, 313
413. 221 121 (
b2 1), 132
( b3 2).
, 10 .

112+133+211+212+222+223+
+311+323+423+433 = 1.

2.6.

. Z={a1, a2,, an}.



, ,
. ,
n ,
.
.
Z = {a1}, ,
.
Z = {a1, a2}, , ,
21. .
Z = {a1, a2, a3}, 3! = 6 123; 132; 213; 312; 231;
321, 312 231.
[12, . 259; 35, . 142; 56, . 34] ,
N n
.

1
1
1
1
+ (1)1 + (1) 2 + (1)3 + ... +
3!
2!
1!
0!
n
1
1
+ (1) n = n! (1)i .
(22)
i!
n!
i =0
N = n! (1) 0

76

n = 4, (22) :
1
1
1
1
1

N = 4! (1) 0 + (1)1 + (1) 2 + (1)3 + (1) 4 =


4!
3!
2!
1!
0!

1 1 1

=24 1 1 + +
= 12 4 + 1 = 9.
2 6 24

N
[10, . 69]:
n

N=

(1)ini (n i)! .

i =0

(22) ,
, ,
. .
a1Z n Ai, i = 1, 2, , n, : a1Z i-
, Ai = 1,
Ai .
Z.

1 2 3 n=1,
(23)

1 = 2 + 3 + + n;
2 = B1 + B3 + B4 + + Bn;
3 = C1 + C2 + C4 + + Cn;
(24)

n = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + + Qn1.
, i n 1 ,
i (i = 1, 2, 3, , n).
C 1 ,
1Z n.
1Z , 1= 0,
2 = 3 == n= 0.
2 = 1, 2Z , ,
n. 2 = 1 ( 2 ) 2 .
3, 4,, n.
. ,
Z = {a, b, c, d}.
(24) 1 = 2 + 3 + 4. 1
, .
:
2 = B1 + B3 + B4;
3 = 1 + 2 + 4;
4 = D1 + D2 + D3.
:
(2+3+4)(1+3+4)(1+2+4)(D1+D2+D3) =1.
, :

.
:
dab, cdba, cadb, dcab, dcba, bcda, dabc, bdac, badc.

1. (). , .
2. (). ,
1,2,3,4,5,
1 , 2
, 3 , 4
5 ?
3. (412)!
= {}; = {,3}; = {,{}}.
4. (964).


. ,
.
?
5. (5). .
, , ,
. ?
6. (25). , 33
1,2,3,,33 .
, ,
33.
?
2.7. -

. . , ( )
. .
- ,

.
( [52, . 237]), ()
.

N = xnan + xn-1an-1 + + x1a1 =

xi ai ,

i =1

n , N; i (i = 1,2, ,n) 0 1; i ,
,
.
8421,
: 4 = 8, 3 = 4, 2 = 2, 1 = 1.
C1D2A3B4+C1D2B3A4+C1D3A2B4+C2D1A3B4 + C2D1A4B3 +

, +C2D3A4B1+C4D1A2B3 +C4D2A3B1 +C4D3A2B1 = 1.

2.

8421
0000, 1 0001,
, .
C1D2A3B4 = 1, 1 = D2 = A3 = B4 = 1. - 2 0010, 3 0011, , 9 1001. ,
, , d , , b . C1D2B3A4 = 1, :
, d , b , - ,
. .

77

8421
- . . 2. , .,
.
2
.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

8421
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001

2421
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

5211
0000
0001
0011
0101
0111
1000
1010
1100
1110
1111

6311
0000
0001
0011
0100
0101
0111
1000
1001
1011
1100

3321
0000
0001
0010
0011
0101
1010
1100
1101
1110
1111

51111
00000
00001
00011
00111
01111
10000
11000
11100
11110
11111

4311
0000
0001
0011
0100
0101
1010
1011
1100
1110
1111

.

.
,
,
.
2421 1101.
1101|2421 = 2 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 7|10,
. . 1101 2421 7
. , 7
2421:
0111|2421 = 0 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 7|10,
. 2 2421 1101
0111, , 7,
.
: 2 0010 1000;
3 0011 1001, 4 0100 1010, 5 1011 0101, 6 1100
0110. , ,
. , 2421 64
.
3321 , .
. 2. ,
, . 3 : 1000, 0100, 0011;
6 : 1011, 0111, 1100; 4
: 1001, 0101; 5 :
1010 0110. 3, 4,
5, 6, .
: 3 2 2 3 = 36.

,
,
. , ,
.
. 16
.
.
R :
R=

1610 =

16 !
= 8008.
10 ! 6 !

0
. 0
, 1, 2 . .
10! = 3628800. S
( ) :
16 !
10
S = 16
10 ! =
= 29059430400 2,9 1010
6!

1. (200)!

5211,
0011, 0111, 1100?
2. ()!
3321, 1010, 1100, 0111?
3. ()! 5211? 4311?
4. :
(441) 5211?
() 6311?
() 2421?
() 4311?
() 1215?
(73) 3321?
5. :
(1) 4311?
(22) 2481?
() 3321?
() 7421?
(777) 5211?
() 6311?
6. (9). 51111?
7. (260). , 51111
.
8. 51111 ,
:
()! 3,4,5,6?
()! 7, 8,9?
()! 0,1,2?
9. ().
51111?
10. (). 2 5
( )?
11. ().
3 9 ( )?
12. (73).
3 12 ( ),
?
13. (90). , 21
m n. m n,
, .
14. (291).
m n, N
k n. k, m, n, MN = 5;
n+m+k = 11.

2.8.

(17911872) . 1837 .

,
.
, ,
, , .
(
) ,
. :



. .

. 12 . , [40, . 299].
,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
.
,
, .

. ,
(
).
( , , , ).
, 16 . . n
, N
:
N = 21 + 22 + 23 + + 2n =

N
n

i =1

2 i.

i =0

N = 2i + 20 20 = (20 + 21 + 2 2 + + 2 n ) 1 =

2i 1.

(n +1)- , .
, 1000,
n + 1 . 2 , ,
N = (2 + 2 + + 2 + 1 1) 1= 2 2.
n = 4 N = 30. 26
, 33 .
:
, ,
.
. ,
- ,
, . . ,
. .
. ,
[40, . 299], 61,
, , ,
, , n = 5 62 .
, ,
12 . n = 12 8190 ,
.
i =0

n+1

n+1

,
:
() 4 ? () 6 ? ()10 ?
2. (). , 4
?
3. (322).
,
?
1.

78

4. (). , ,
?
5. (985). 60
60
, 5 ?
6. (). 30 , . ?
7. (7). , 6 . 100
. ?

2.9.


[11, . 299]:
1) , 0
(), ;
2) , .
1, ;
3) ,
. : 7, 11, 13,
17, 19 . .;
4) , . , 30 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30.
, ,
. . , [28, . 485] , . ,
, , ,
[28] ,
, ,
,
.

, .

(
[56, . 13]). ,
,
. :


, :
3 = 31 = 113 = 111113 =
.
. [11, . 302].
, N
? :

. .
p
. = pt, t ,
. , p t.
, p > t, p
. t,
, , t.

p t p. p pt = a, . . p , , .
.
,
, ,
2

, , .
1. ,
, ,
139. :

11 < 139 < 12.


, 139 2, 3, 5, 7, 11
.
139 , , .

2. = 361.

361 = 19,

, 361 ,
361 = 1919.
,
1 n? ,
, .
,
.
. (
(276 194 . ) .
, ,
, , .
[47]).
,
n = 70. 70 :

1
11
21
31
41
51
61

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
1 , . 2.
. , :
4, 6, 8, 10, , 70. (
) 3. . , : 6, 9, 12, 15, ., 69.
3 5 .
, 5: 10, 15, 20, 25, , 70.
, 7: 14, 21,
28, 35, , 70. ,
,

n . -

n = 70, 11 (11> 70 ), :
, 11, 13, 17, 19, , .
, 19
: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47,

53, 59, 61, 67.


?
, , ,
, , .
,
.

79

1. (1). , 10.
2. :
(31) = 35; (3) = 231; () = 170.
3. ( ) ,
() = 28;
() = 250;
(562) = 539.
4. (865)! , : 900; 10011; 911121.
5. (). ,
:
1) , ,
?
2) ?
3) 5?
4)
?
5)
?
6) 210 1?
7) ,
?
6. (). 20
2 ?
7. (303). ,
.
8. (927). 15
6 ?
9. (106). , b = 1. b
, .
10. (). 10!
?
11. (965).
15! ? ()!
2? 3?
12. 16! . (370)!
.

2.10.
N >1. , ,
N.
, , , 10 : 1, 2, 5, 10;
12 : 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12; ,
,
.
N,
. N =1400.
:

1400 = 23527 = 222557.


1400
{2, 2, 2, 5, 5, 7},
(, ).
1400 ,
2 , 5
7 . 6
,
( 2.1).
. 2
( , , ),
5 , 7 .

80
, 432
, ,
(1400) = 432 = 24,
(1400) [10, . 94] 1400.
, 24 : 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, 20, 25, 28, 35, 40,

50, 56, 70, 100, 140, 175, 200, 280, 350, 700, 1400.
,
, ,
2.1.
(20), t1 = t2 = = tk = 0.

1. :
(200) 2625;
() 360;
() 512;
() 375;
(225) 392;
() 23?
2. ( )
:
(1) 8;
(594) 14;
() 25;
(76) 99;
() 12;
(63) 50.
3. ( ) ,
20, :
(2) 100;
() 300;
() 99;
(92) 256;
() 40;
(7) 70.

2.11.
- ,
-.
:
1) -. 1
;
2)
-. 2 ;
3)
-. 3.
1, 2 3.
- 1, 2, 3, , .
. , ,

= n3 =
,

= 1 + 2 + 3 .

5
7

. 10

n (n 1) (n 2)
.
6
(25)


. ,
-, . 8-1-2 2-3-4
(. 10). -, ,

1 = .

.
,
-.
8-4-7 . 10.

3-4.
4 , -


2, 3, 4, 5 -.
, 4 . - ,

2 = ( 4).

3 (25):

3 = 1 2 .

(25) , 3
.
-
.
: - , : - . -
, ,
. ,

, , - . .
,
.

2 .

n3 4

(. 5 1.9).
, .
, .
3 .

n2 4 . ,

, . , 3 , -,

3 =

n3 4 + 2 n2 4 = ( 6)( 5)( 4) + ( 5)( 4) =


6

( 5) ( 4)
=
.
6
,

.
(25) 1,
2 3:
1 + 2 + 3 = + ( 4) +

( 5) ( 4)
=
6

3 3 2 + 2 ( 2) ( 1)
=
= 3 = .
6
6
,
1, 2 3.
=

, 10-, :
(28) 1;
(75) 2 ;
(13) 3.
2. (). , 165 , -,
.
.
1.

81
3. (). , 800 , -,
.
,
-
?
4. (96). , 210 , -,
.
(, ),
-?

2.12.

4; 1 + 3;

. , , . ,
2+3+1 2+1+3 . ().
4.
4 : 4 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.

.
. , ,
. 4 :

4=1+1+1+1
0 0 0
4
0 0 1
3+1
0 1 0
2+2
0 1 1
2+1+1
1 0 0
1+3
1 0 1
1+2+1
1 1 0
1+1+2
1 1 1
1+1+1+1
, , 010.
4 .
2. 4 .
2.
. ,
010 4
4 = 2 + 2.
100.
1 + 1 + 1 + 1. , 1, 1 + 1 + 1 = 3.
101 . 4
: 4 = 1 + 2 + 31 . .
2 = 8 .
4
, ,
4 ( 000).
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4-
.
, 5
24 = 16 .
, -


. ,
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. , , ,
.
1 .
2 : 2 1 + 1.
3 : 3; 1 + 2; 1 + 1 + 1.
4 :

2 1 .

2 + 2; 1 + 1 + 2; 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.

. , ,
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5:
5

14
23

113
122

1112

11111

5. 5, 14 23,
1 + 4 2 + 3 . 14
4 13 22. 14
.
, . , 5 : 5; 1 + 4; 2 + 3; 1 + 1 + 3;
1 + 2 + 2; 1 + 1 + 1 + 2; 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.
7 15 :
7 16 115
1114
11113 111112 1111111
25 124
1123
11122
34 133 1222
223
, 5,
.
8 22 :
8 17 116 1115 11114 111113 1111112 11111111
26 125 1124 11123 111122
27 134 1133 11222
44 224 1223
233 2222

5 ,
:
() (, 1 + 2 + 2)?
(4) 2 (, 2 + 3)?
(81) 3?
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1.

82
2. 8 ,
:
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:
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9. :
() , ;
() , ;
() , ;
() .

2.13.


000000 999999,
.
,
( )
( ). , 430016
, 4 + 3 + 0 = 0 + 1 + 6,
487220 ,
4 + 8 + 7 2 + 2 + 0.
.

0 27. i
,
i, i = 0, 1, 2, , 27.
(000)
, . , 0 = 1. 27 ,
, 27. 999.
, , : 001,
010 100. , 1 = 3. , 26 = 3,
, 26: 998, 989, 899.
6 , 2: 002, 020, 200, 011, 101, 110.
, 2 = 6. , 25 = 6,
6 , 2:

997, 979, 799, 889, 898, 988.


, j = 27 j, j = 0, 1, 2, , 13. 14 0,
1, 2, , 13. 0, 1, 2 .
11 ,
. , .
.
3.
003. 3 ,
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, .
111.
003 : 003, 030, 300. 012 6 : 012, 021,102,
201,120, 210. :
003 3;

012 6;

111 1,

,
, , ,
. , :
3 = 3 + 6 + 1 = 10, 24 = 10.
4. 4 = 15 (23 = 15),


004 3;

013 6;

022 3;

5 = 22 = 21, :

112 3.

005 3; 014 6; 023 6; 113 3; 122 3.


006 3; 015 6; 024 6;
033 3; 114 3; 123 6; 222 1.
7 = 20 = 36, 007 3; 016 6; 025 6;
034 6; 115 3; 124 6; 133 3; 223 3.
, :
8 = 19 = 45; 9 = 18 = 55, 10 = 17 = 63,
11 = 16 = 69, 12 = 15 = 73, 13 = 14 = 75.
, i , ,
i. .
. ,
,
000000.
, 9,

6 = 21 = 28,


( ):
001001;
001010;
001100;

010001; 100001;
010010; 100010;
010100; 100100.
2, 100, ..
,
i, i2 .
,
2
2
= 02 + 12 + 22 + ... + 27
= 2( 02 + 12 + 22 + ... + 13
),

0, 1, 2, , 13:
= 2(1 + 9 + 36 + 100 + 225 + 441 + 784 + 1296 + 2025 +

+ 3025 + 3969 + 4761 + 5329 + 5625) = 227626 = 55252.


, 55252
.

1. (). , , , ,
.
?
2. , ,
: () 8? () 10? (57) 12?
3. 4- ,
, :
() 6?
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83

2.14.

1. (). n .
,
210 ,
. n.
2. (2). n .
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n = 9?
3. m ,
. , n ,
, k ,
.
) (513). ( ) m = 3, n = 4, k = 5,
,
(, , )?
) ().
m = 3, n = 4, k = 5,
?
4. 1,2,3,4,5 ,
,
. (6).
, ? (382).
, ?
5. (827). , 59049 n- , 3, 7, 8.
n, .
6. (). 2,3,5,7,8,9 256
n- ,
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7. (203). ,
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k 136 .
k.
9. ().
, 256 ?
10. (). n . 512 . n.
11. (). P, Q, R
418 . P, Q, R, |P| >| Q| > |R| > 1.
12. ().
(1 + 2 + + n)(b1 + b2 + + bm)(1 + 2 + + 10)

, 1190 , .
m n, m < n, m > 1.
13. (). 33
n- , n 2
. n.
14. (). n .
2046
. n.
15. (). 3 = 364.
16. (). ( 9)! = 40320.

17. (). n .
286
- . n .
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n- , m
. , n = 2m. n.
19. (). ,
?
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):
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2
4 6
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7
( 5 )
11

n!(m n 3)!
() C nm C 3m n
.
m!
29. (). n . . 300
. n.
30. (256). 15 .
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06 + 16 + 62 + 36 + 64 + 56 + 66 .

84
33. (55). P = {a, b, c, d, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}.
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43. (578)! 20 15 . ?
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44. ().
?
45. ().
,
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46. n :
() n(n+1)(n+2) = 990;
() (n1)! = 120;
(950) 1245 n = 240;
() (n+1)! = 120;
() (n2)(n1)n = 720;
() (n8)! = 120.
47. :

1 2 3 ... (k 2)(k + 1)
;
1 2 3 ... (k 1)
(k 2)!+(k 1)!+ k!
()
;
(k 2)!
1 2 3 ... k + 1 2 3 ... ( 1)
()
;
1 2 3 ... (k 1)
(n 2)! 2 (n 1)!
(85)
;
3 2n
3 (n 1)!+ 4 n!
()
;
2(3 + 4n) (n 2)!

) ()
)
)
)
)

(2)

()

[1 2 3 ... (n 2)]2

1 2 3 ... (n 3) (n 2) 2
(n + 2) ! ;
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(n + 1) (n + 2)

3k!+4(k + 1)!
.
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48. (). ,
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a b c t, k , ?
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56. ()! n n! ? .
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n! (
).
58. (). ?
59. (). ,
1000?
60. (00). n, n! 100.
61. (38). (. . 4),
n = 4, m = 5?
62. (520).
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85
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n! 990.
69. (85). .
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70. ().
(2 , 2 , )
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76. (866). :
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
12 + 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 .
77. (8)! , .

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D, E. ,
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B , , D , , D,
B, D . , , . ?
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78. (289). n .

(
).
n = 12,
.
79. (460).
10, 15 20 .
30 [10, . 228]?
80. (1).
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?
81. (542). 20
,
20 ?
82. (55).
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83. (6). 256 . , ?
84. ()! : 55|6 = 50|x. 55 . x , 50.
55|6 = 11|x.
85. (). 19|x = 23. 23 . x
, 19.
86. (). : 1010|x=101|y=10|z,
x, y, z ,
. x, y, z.
87. (). , 0
2 ,
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201220, 211101 ..?
88. (229). f, , -, .
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.
89. f 9 1, 2, , 9.
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86
91. (). , ,
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98. (79). .

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10!, 15! 20!)
101. (). .
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1
)?
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2, 3, 4, 5, 6
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4, 5, 7, 9,
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106. (). , 0, 6, 7, 8, 9,

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87

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( , [56, . 56]),
.
. 1.

2
4

5
7

. 1
. 2
. 3

, . E
, (. 1):

V = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7};
E = {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4}, {1,7}, {2,5}, {2,6}, {2,7},
{3, 4}, {3, 6}, {4, 5}, {4, 6}, {5,7}},
E V, , vV w V.

1.2. .

,
, .
().
, ,
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;

[5; 37]). ,
.
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. 2, 1
, 2 , 2 3 .

[12; 35]. . 3.

1. ().
3 1

2
4

. 4.
1 2

44

. 4
2. (39). . 4.
3. (). . 4.
4. (). :
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?
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?
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?

88

1.3. . .

G ,
.
G G [16].
, : V V E E [16; 56], V E
G; V E
G. ,
.
. 1. 1.
: {1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{1,7}. ,
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). , . 6.
3

4
6

4
7

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. 6
. 7
G .
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,
G. G
( ).
G n .
-
G. n + 1 G. , . 1
, . 5.
,
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. . 1, 2, 3, 4. , 5.
.
,
K = {{1,5}, {2,5}, {3,5}, {4,5}} . {1,5}
, {4,5} . ,
i- ,
{i,5} . ,
{i,5} (i = 1, 2, 3, 4).
0000, 0001,,1111, , 16 . , 0000
,
5. 0101 , ,
{2,5} {4,5} n. .
N1 = 2 ,

.
N1 2n+1 ,
.

:
n
n+1
2n+1
N2 = 2 2

=2


:
n
n+1
n+2
3n+3
. .

N3 = 2 2

=2

G
, .
. V E
G. G
G, V = V E E [16, . 15, 89].

.
G . , .
, , [38, . 13; 32, . 14]. (. 1)
{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4}, {1,7}, {2,7}, {5,7}.
(. 7).
:
V = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} = V;
E = {{2,5}, {2,6}, {3,4}, {3,6}, {4.5}, {4,6}} E.
,


,

. 2k k- , k .
.
,
. , [12, . 102] : G ,
G.
,
. , , :
V = {1, 2, 3, 4};

E = {{1, 2}, {2, 4}, {3, 4}, {1, 3}}.

1.
V = {2, 3, 4};

E = {{2, 4}, {3, 4}},

(1)

[12] .
, :
V = {2, 3, 4}; E = {3, 4};
V = {2, 3, 4}; E = {2, 4};
V = {2, 3, 4}; E = .
, [12]



,
.
[54, . 115] .
[32, . 15] .
-
. :
E , .
E ,
V , - [29, . 3].
[12, . 104] :
( ) .
,
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.

1. ,
G (.1)
: (51) 4; (452) 1, 5, 6.
2. (384).
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89
3. , : (5) . 5? () . 7?
4. (87). , 7 , 8 ?
5. (). 5 .
2 . , 7
. ?
6. : (853)
. 1? (54) . 5? (575) . 7?
7. (006). :
1)
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2) -, 7 ,
. 7?
3) -?
4) - G . 6 G?
5) , G G
n ,
G n ?
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G c n , G n ?
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: (008) ? ()
? (90) ?
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1.4. . .

vV wV, V
G, ,
. . 7 3 4, 3 6, 4 6 .
, [12, . 102]. . 7
{3,4} {3,6}, {4,5} {2,5} .
,
. . 7 {3,4}
3. 4.
(v) , v,
v. , 3
(. 7) 2, 4 3.
. , ,
2.
, 1, . . 6 5.
.

(, ). . ,
, . 7, :
(1) + (2) + + (7) = 0 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 0 = 12,

, .
,
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.

[3; 38].
,
, . 1: 3, 5, 6, 7,
4 ( ).

, . , . 2
: 1, 2, 3, 4, . 7
: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.

, (. 1):
1) 1 2;
3) 3 4;
5)1 7;
7) 6 7;
4) 3 5;
6) 2 7;
8) 2 1.
2) 1 5;
2. (2). , (. 1):
1) {1, 4} {2, 5};
4) {1, 7} {2, 7};
2) {3, 4} {4, 5};
5) {2, 6} {5, 7};
3) {4, 6} {2, 6};
6) {2, 6} {2, 5}.
3. (3). ,
{2, 6} (.7).
4. (). , (. 4).
5. ()!
20. (
).
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6.
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, 2 ,
2 . .
,
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:
(30)
(61)
()
1. ().

1) 0 1 1 0 2 3 2
1) 1 1 3 4 5 7 6
1) 1 0 1 4 5 6 7
2) 1 1 1 0 1 3 3
2) 2 2 0 1 0 1 7
2) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3
3) 2 1 3 3 4 4 4
3) 6 9 9 4 1 3 2
3) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
4) 0 0 1 1 0 1 5
4) 5 6 7 3 3 4 5
4) 2 2 2 1 2 2 2
5) 2 3 3 2 1 3 3
5) 2 6 7 3 3 3 0
5) 0 7 0 7 1 0 7
6) 4 2 1 0 7 3 0
6) 3 0 0 3 0 0 3
6) 2 3 5 6 7 4 2
7) 2 5 5 1 1 1 0
7) 0 0 1 1 0 1 7
7) 3 4 5 4 3 2 1
8. (332). , , , , , (. 4)?
9. (813). ,
:
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90

1.5. . .

,
:
(1) = (2) = = (n),

n ; (i) i- ( i = 1, 2, , n).
. 8.
1

1
2

3 3

1
2

1
3

. 8
. 9
n, , n . , :
K =

n
.
2

,
.
. 9.
n1,
n ,
n 1 .
, K :
K =

n (n 1)
.
2

.
,
,
n .
n 2 :
K = C 2n =

n(n 1)
n!
=
.
2!(n 2)!
2

, .
. ,
, .
,
.
. G , ; G
, G,
, , . .
U = ;
I = .
{V, } G
, V G.
. 10 1
2
2
3
3
1
4
5 G. . 11 -

5

. 10
. 11
.
, -, ,
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4

1. (). ,
n = 7 = 6?
2. (.). n
, 19 .
3. (1). ,
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.
7. (7). , 12 , 54 .
?
8. (3)! 20 . 66 . ? ?
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10. (802). ,
91 .
11. ().
5. 35. .
12. ()! G, 28 ,
G. , 55
. G?
G G?

1.6.

G1={V1,1} G2={V2,2} G = G1UG2 = {V, }, V = V1UV2; = 1U .


,
, . 12. , V1 = V2
1 2, G = G1UG2 = G2 (. 13). V1 = V2
1= 2, G = G1 U G2 = G1 = G2 [16, . 93; 35, . 172].
2

=
5

2
3

4 3

=
4 3

2
4

. 12
. 13
G1 G2
G = {V,}, V=V1IV2; =1I2 (. 14). , G = G1IG2 = , V1IV2 = ,

, (. 15).
V1IV2 , 1I2= , G = G1IG2
-, V1IV2
(. 16) [35, . 172].

91
1

I
4

3
2

=
6

. 14

5 2

. 15
2

4
3

3
4

5
4

. 16
, V1 = V2 1 2, G = G1I G2 = G1.
V1 = V2 1 = 2, G = G1IG2 = G1 = G2.

G1, G2 G3 :
G1 = {V1, 1}, V1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}; 1 = {{1, 2},

{1, 3}, {1, 4},{2, 3}, {2, 6}, {3, 5}, {3, 6}, {5, 6}};
G2 = {V2, 2}, V2 = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}; 2 = {{1,4},
{2,3}, {3,5}, {3,6}, {5,6}, {5,7},{5,8}, {6,7}, {6,8}};
G3 = {V3, 3}, V3 = {3,4,5,6,7,8,9}; 3 = {{3,5},
{3, 6}, {3, 8}, {4, 6}, {5, 6}, {5, 7}, {6, 7}, {7, 8}, {7, 9},
{8, 9}}.
1. :
(264) G = G1 U G2 I G3;
() G = G1 U G2 ;
(2) G = G1 U G2 U G3; () G = (G1UG2) I G3;
(71) G = G1IG2;
(3) G = G1 I (G2 U G3).
2. :
() G = G1 U G1 I G2;
(1) G = G2 U G1 I G2 U G1 I G2 I G3;
() G = G1 I G2 U G1 I G2 U G2 I G3.

1.7.

( isos , , , morphe , ) () , [34, 47]. .


G1 G2
. [57].
vi vj, G1,
,
G2, vi vj , G1, , G2 ( i, j = 1, 2, , n, n ), .
3

4
2
6
2
4
,

1
5 1
7 . .
6
7
3
5
G2
G1

. 17
.
, . 17?
, ,
, . . ,
. 1 G1 2, 3, 6, 7. 1 G2

6, 2, 7, 3. 2 G1
1, 3, 4, 7. 2 G2 . .

,
, [3]. ( ), .

. 18
.
, . 18 :
. .
, . 19.
, b ,
, . 1 3 , . , . (. 19,) ,
. 20. , .
1

. 19
. 20
G1 G2
0, 1,
2 . . ,
. , ,
( ). ,
, ,
. n!
, n . (

[57].)
n! ,
,
1

8
7

. 21
. , . 21 , ,
,
2, 3.
8! , ,
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92

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6) {{2,3}, {5,6}};
3) {{1,2}, {2,3}, {5,6}};
7) {{1,2}, {2,5}, {3,4}};
4) {{1,6}, {2,3}, {3,4}};
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Q1 = {1,2,5,6; 1,4,3,6};
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2.7.

(-: commisvoyageur)
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2
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1,2,3,4,1
1,4,3,2,1

1,3,2,4,1
1,4,2,3,1

: 1,2,4,3,1;
1,2,3,4,1; 1,3,2,4,1.
3
, ,
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, .
:
1,2,4,3,1: 120 + 180 + 110 + 70 = 480;
1,2,3,4,1: 120 + 100 + 110 + 140 = 470;
1,3,2,4,1: 70 + 100 + 180 + 140 = 490.
, 1,2,3,4,1.

, : , , , , , , , ,
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2.8.

V G
V1 V2 , V=V1UV2 V1IV2 = .

G
V1 c - V2, .

1
2
3
. 23.
4

. 23

V = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7},
V1 ={1,2,3},
V2 = {4,5,6,7}.


, V1
V2.
k , k = |V1| |V2|.
V1 |V2|. V2 |V1|.
,
G1 G2.
: n1 = |V1|; n2 = |V2|. K1 K2,
G1 G2, :
n (n 1)
n (n 1)
K1 = Cn21 = 1 1
K 2 = Cn22 = 2 2
;
.
2
2

100

K :
2
2
= 1 + 2 = n1 + n2 (n1 + n2 ) .
2
1
2
3

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6
4
5
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1. (2).
, |V1| = 4; |V2| = 7?
2. (6). ,
143 . |V1| |V2|, |V1| >1 |V2| >1.
3. (675).
V1 6, V2 8. ?
4. (1). |V1| = 18, |V2|= 10,
18.
.
5. (594). 49 .
|V1| |V2|, |V1| 1 |V2| 1.
6. (713). 119
. |V1| |V2| , ,
|V2| > 15, |V1| > 1.
7. (027). |V1|=7, |V2|=10.
,
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4
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n = 2? n = 3? n = 4? n = 5? n = 6?
6
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9. (C).

31
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11. (). (. 26).


12. ().
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1

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4

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1

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5

2
3

2
2

1
3

6
5

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13. ().
(. 26).
14. (). ,
(. 26).
15. (5). , |V1| = 3; |V2| = 4; |V3| = 5, V1 , V2 V3
.
16. (). 52
. |V1|, |V2|, |V3| , |V1| < |V3| < |V2|;
|V1||V3| = 10; |V1| + |V3| = 7.

2.9.

() . 2.1 , G
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,
( ),
. i-j, i, j
(i, j = 1, 2, 3, , ; i j),
. ,


. i j
.

.
d(G) .
, 8 (. 26) :
12 = 14 = 15 = 16 = 23 = 34 = 36 = 45 = 1;
13 = 24 = 25 = 35 = 46 = 5 6 = 26 = 2,
, d(G) = 2.
,
4 (. 26):
12 = 14 = 25 = 35 = 36 = 46 = 1;
15 = 16 = 23 = 24 = 34 = 5 6 = 2;
13 = 26 = 45 = 3.
3
, d(G) = 3.
,
.
r(v) v v.

101

, 8 . 25
r(8) = 3.
r(G) G. 3 (. 19):
r(1) = 4, r(2) = 3, r(3) = 2, r(4) = 3, r(5) = 2, r(6) = 4.
2, ,
r(G) = 2.
r(v) = r(G), v
G. 3 . 19 3 5.

1. :
() . 23.
(72) 8 . 26;
2. (982). (. 22).
3. (635). 2, 3, 6, 7,
(. 22).
4. (). (. 23).

3.
3.1.
, ,
[16, 32, 51]. . 1, ,
. 2 ,
{1,3} {2,4} .
1

. 1
. 3
. 2
, ,
.
. 2. ,
.
, , ,
. , . 1,
: , , ,
(), .
.
.
.
, . 3 ,
, .

1. (). (.4).
2. (). (. 4).

7
8
5
6
. 4
()! 1? 3?
4? (. 4).
(). (. 4).
(25). (. 4).
2

3.

4.
5.

3.2.
n G,
r q .
n + q = r + 2.
(1)
. 1752 .


. r = 0 ,
. ,
, r . z. ,
, n (1) . z ,
(1) - .
z - (n+1)-
(. . ) , (1) . , , .
. 3 , ,
, . . n = 3, q = 6, r = 7.
, : 3 + 6 = 7 + 2.
3
4
2
1

:
n + q = r + k + 1,
(2)
5
7
8
6
k . 5
.
. 5. , , , . . n = 8, q = 5, r = 9, k = 3.
(2): 8 + 5 = 9 + 3 + 1.

1. (). 30 20
. ?
2. (). 20 19
. ?
3. (). 10 20
. ?
4. (). 18 ,
. ?
5. ().
14 . ?
6. (). 20
. ?
7. (). ,
17 , .

3.3.
(. homois ,
morphe , )
, ,
, ,
. . ,
.
,
, , , , , , , -

102

( ) : ,
, ;
,
. . , , , , .
: ,
.
.
, . V
.
v V w V, .
, t. . .

. , - ,
. ,

, .
1
2
1
2
1
2

5
5

. 6, 3
4
6
4
3
4
3

. 6
, . , {1,3}.
, {3,5}.
,
, [35, . 165]. , . 7 8
. ,

{1, 5} {2, 4} . 7,
{1, 6} . 8.
, .
1

2
3
5

.7

4
5

. 8

. 9

(, [32, . 36]).
,
- 2, .
, , ,

,
. , . 7
3, .
, {1,3} {3,4}
{1,4}, ,
. 9. 3 4
( 5 4) . 8, ,
. 9.
, : ,
.


:
1.

() ;
() . 10;
(8) . 11.
3

2
1

. 10 . 11

. 13

. 12

. 14

2. (). ,
(. 12),
.
3. (). (. 15), , . 12.
4. (). (. 15), , . 13.

. 15
5. (). (. 15), ,
, . 13.
6. (576). (. 15), , . 14.
7. (). :
1) ,
?
2)
, n > 3, n ?
3)
, n > 2, n ?
4) ?
5) ,
?
6) ?
7)
?

3.4. -
(1908 1988)
, 1958 . .
14-
.
[42, . 295].
(1896 1980) , 1966 . .
, . ,
,
, (
,
). :
?
n = 1,2,3,4 . n = 5, ,
. G5.

103

n = 2,3,4,5,6
G3,3 (. . 24 2), . .
G3,3 .
, .
G5 G3,3 -:
, , G5 G3,3 [16, 32, 51, 56].
,
, -

6
G3,3 n5
G5.
,

. , ,
. 16, 1 2, ; 1 3, 7 8,

( 86 = 28 ). G5,
,
. , ,
. 16, .
. 17.
1

4
6

. 16

3. (). ,
. , :
1) , ,
?
2) n n+2 ,
n ?
3) n n+2 , n
?
4) , ,
?
5) ?
6) 6-
, ?
7) 5-
, ?
4. (). ,
. , :
1) 50 , ?
2) G ,
G ?
3) , ?
4) , , , , ?
5) 2,

?
6) 6
3, ?
7) 5
4, ?

. 17

(. 18). G5. 1 2, ; 1 3, 4 6,
,
. 19. G5 .
1

4
5

. 18
. 19
, , (. 18) .
[32].

3.5.


G G*,
:
1) G*;
2) - G*
G G*,
, G*.
. (. 20),
( ).
G*.
a, b, c, d. G*. 5
. {4,5} G*
. d {1,2}.
{a, d } ( . 20 ). b d {2,4},
c b d {b, d } . .
2

1. (121). 12 .
G5?
2. (). G 10 .

- G3,3?

d
4

6
b
7

. 20

. 21

104
. 21 ,
. 20.
n, r, q , G;
n*, r*, q* , G*.
, [51, . 92]:
n* = q,
r* = r, q* = n.

1. (64). , . 17, , ,
?
2. ()! ,
, , . 12?
3. (7). , . 15,
, ?
4. , . 15,
, :
() 3; () ;
() 2;
(962) ;
() 1;
(83) ;
(454) .

3.6.


. . 22 , f .
.
A
C
B


F
D
f (. 23). K
A
E
1 8.
K
A
. 22
. , m.

b, c, d, e. a, b, c, d, e, m ,
,
, ,
a m, . ( ) .
. {1,2}
(. 23) (. 22).
{a,b} (. 23).
, a b A .
.
, . 24. a m.
a
a
C
A
2

c
1

b
5

E
6

m
. 23

B
c
K
d

m C
. 24

,
, .

[26].

1. ,
. 25. :
(361)! ,
;
()
,
.
f
D
A
A

f
C
D
B
B
A

C
A
. 25
. 26
2. , . 26, .
:
() ,
;
(3) , .

3.7.
1857 .
(18211895), 1870 . -
[47, . 677].
, ,
. , ,
[51, . 57]. . 27 . 1,2,3,4, 5,6,7,8,9, 10,11.

.
1. n 1 ,
n .
2. n k , k
.
3.
.
4. , .
[35; 41; 51].
,
, , ,
.
.
, . ( ), . . G, G, . , , ,
. 28. {1,4} {3,4}.
, . 29. {1,2}
{3,4}, (. 30), . .

105
6

1
2

3
4

11

10
5

. 27
. 28
. 29
. 30
z, ,
, ,
. n
, m , k ,
z = m n + k,
, , .
k = 1, ,
z = m n + 1.
, , . 28, :
m = 5; n = 4; z = 5 4 + 1 = 2.

3.8.
, . , . , , . -
, .

,
. .
. Q

G, . ,
|Q| = z,
. . .
:
. , ,
,
, .
,
. 31. :
) 1,2,3,1 {1,3};
) 1,2,5,1 {2,5};
) 2,3,4,2 {2,3};
) 1,2,4,5,1 {1,2}.
(. 32).
{1,3}, , . 33.
{2,3}, {2,5} {1,2} (. 34, 35, 36).

2
1
5

4
5

. 35

4
5

. 36

. 37

. 34
2

4
1

. 33

2
1

. 32

3
5

. 31

. 38

. 37
(. 31). . 34, 35, 36 38. .

1. (1). , . 16.
2. (). 18 .
?
3. (). ,
. 17?
4. (). 25 . 4
. ?
5. (). 20 40 .
,
?
6. (7). 20 .
?
7. (). - 38 .
, ?
8. ().
, 20 , 15
?
9. (70). ,
. , :
1) ?
2) ?
3)
?
4)
?
5)
?
6)
?
7)
?
8) , ,
?

3.9.
n ,
. ,
n ? (1821 1895).

m = nn 2,
m
(,


). n = 2, .
, . n = 3 (. 39). n = 4
16 (. 40) . .

1
1
1
[57, . 34] 3
, 2
3
2
2
3

n
. 39


( 1, 2, , n2), 1, 2, , n2 , {1, 2, , n}.

106
1
3

4
2

2
4

2
4

10

2 1

4 3

11

12

14

13

15

16

. 40
, . 41.
: 2, 4, 7. ( ), .
2. , , : 1.
2
1
3
1, 4, 7.
1 (
4
6
5
). 5
7

. 41
1. 4, 5,7. 4. 3
.
5 7. 5 6
.
3. ,
. .
: 1 5 3 6 3.

3.10.
,
()
.
K = 1 4 5 5 7 5 4 7.
, ,
10 : 1,2,3,,10.
1
2
3
. 42.
. ,
6
4
5

, .
7
9
8
,
10
:
. 42
W = {2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10}.

,
, :
K = (1, 4, 5, 5, 7, 5, 4, 7).
, ,
.
. ( ),
K
W:
1) 1K
, , . .
2W. , . {1,2}.

1 K, W
2. 1 K
, ,
W. :
K1 = (4, 5, 5, 7, 5, 4, 7);
W1 = {1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10};
2) 4K1 1W1 : {1,4}. 4 K1
, W1 1. 4
W1 , K1 ( 4
). :
K2 = (5, 5, 7, 5, 4, 7);
W2 = {3, 6, 8, 9, 10};
3) 5K2 3W2.
{3, 5}. :
K3 = (5, 7, 5, 4, 7,);
W3 = {6, 8, 9, 10};
4) 5K3 6W3. :
W4 = {8, 9, 10};
K4 = (7, 5, 4, 7);
5) 7 K4 8 W4.
W5 = {9,10};
K5 = (5, 4, 7);
6) 5K5 9W5.
{5,9}. 5 K5 , W5. :
K6 = (4, 7); W6 = {5, 10};
7) 4K6 5W6.
{4,5}. 4 W6.
K7 = (7);
W7 = {4,10};
8) 7K7 4W7
{4,7}.
9) 7 K7 ,
W7,
4 10.
{7,10}.
.
. 43.
n ,

2
1
3
, n 2 .
5
4
6
7
9
8
n n 2 10
nn2,
. 43
. .
(. 43) ,
, .
,

- (. 5.2
).

,
,
.

1. (). . 40 , , . 41.
2. (. 40): (464)! 1,2,3,4;
(445)! 5,6,7,8;
()! 9,10,11,12;
(613)! 13,14,15,16.
3. (). (. 44).
4. (161). (. 45).

107
5.
, :
(6) (1,1,1,2,2); () (1,1,1,1,2).
(2) (1,2,3,4);
1
3

1
6

5
7

4
7

6
5
8

1
2
3

5
6

7
10 8

. 45
. 46
. 44
6. :
(1,5,5,5,6,6);
(904) (1,4,3,3,3,5);
()
() (2,2,2,2,3,4,5);
() (6,6,6,1,1,4).
(1). (. 46).
7. (
), :
() (2,6,3,4,3,6,2,3); (53) (1,4,11,1,1,4,2,2,11);
(314) (4,4,2,5,5,3,6);
() (1,4,1,4,6,6,6,6).
8. ,
, :
() (2,1,5,1,4,7,8);
(88) (5,6,5,4,3,4,8);
(327) (3,5,6,4,7,7);
() (2,6,5,2,3,4,4).
9. ,
, :
(41) (5,8,6,6,3,5,3,3);
() (2,3,1,4,4,1,2,6,6);
() (2,2,2,1,3,1,9,9); () (2,2,1,1,6,6,1,7,7).
10. (411). :
1)
?
2) ,
(1,1,1,1) (4,4,4,4)?
3) , ,
?
4) , ,
, ?
5) , ,
?
6) ,
?
7) ?
8) ,
?

3.11.
G

,
. , (. 31) {2,3}, {2,4}, {3,4}, {1,5}, {2,5},
(. 47). ,

{{2,3}, {2,4}, {3,4}, {1,5}, {2,5}}


(3)
.
,
. ,
(3) ,

{{2,4}, {3,4}, {1,5}, {2,5}}.
(4)
2
(4)
- ,
4
1
3
. ,
. 5
?
, - ,
. 47
, -

, - ,
. ,
, .

1
3
,
5
2

4
2
1
3
. . 48,
7
6
4
5

, . . 48

. ,
2.3,
, :
1 2;
4 5;
1 6 3;
2 6 3;
3 7 4;
3 7 5;
1 6 7 4;
1 6 7 5;
2 6 7 4;
2 6 7 5,
1, 2, , 7
.
(. 48):
a1 {1,4};
a3 {4,5}; a4 {2,3};
2 {1,2};
a5 {3,5}; a6 {2,4}; a7 {2,5}.
, :
1) {{1,2}, {1,4}} (. 49);
2) {{2,3}, {3,5}} (. 50);
3) {{1,4}, {4,5}, {2,4}} (. 51);
4) {{1,2}, {4,5}, {2,4}} (. 52);
5) {{2,3}, {4,5}, {2,5}} (. 53);
6) {{3,5}, {4,5}, {2,5}} (. 54);
7) {{1,4}, {2,3}, {2,5}, {2,4}} (. 55);
8) {{1,4}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {3,5}} (. 56);
9) {{1,2}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {2,3}} (. 57);
10) {{1,2}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {3,5}} (. 58).
[51, 12, 16].

. 53
1

. 52

. 56

. 55

. 51

. 50

. 54

. 49
1

. 57

. 58

1. ()! ,
, , . 28?
, 3 ?
2. ()! , . 59,
, ? ?
?
3. (). n- ?
4. ()! (. 60) , ? ? ?
5. (). 15 . . ?
3

6
1

2
1

5
4

. 59

7
5

. 60

4
6

. 61

108
6. ().
:
1) ?
2) ?
3) ?
4) , , ?
5)
?
6) ,
?
7)
?
7. ().
. 61.

3.12. .


,
.
,
, . . ,
,
?
, ,
[32; 51; 56].
,
.
1879 .,
. 100
, . ,
[38, . 155] : , , 39,
. . : , 52 , 4- [51, . 105]. [42, . 88] : ,
,
, ?

. [16, . 159] : . , .
, ,
. ,
- . ,
.
, V1
, V2 .

.
n
n. , n 1 .


, Cn2 ,
. , n 1
.
.
G, + 1 [51].
,
4
1
2
3
, , 5
. ,
9
6
8
7
. 62
. 62 8.
.
, . .
.
. [12; 32; 38; 51; 57].

1. ().
, . 4.
2. (). (. 15 ), 3 ( ).
3. (350).
40 ?
4. ().
, 22 22 .
5. ().
, 35 35 ?
6. (899). 6 15 (
). .
7. ().
, 28 , 8.
?

4.
4.1. . .

V .
Z (v,w),
v,w V. (v,w) , .
. vV, wV.
, , .
V F ( ), V
F V 2.
, . 1 :
V = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
F = {(1,2), (1,3), (2,3), (2,4), (3,4), (4,2), (4,4), (4,5) }.
. 1 .
.
, ,
[51].
, .
, , . 1 2,
, ,
2 3, .

109

. , ,
4
,
1
3
,
. 1
. . 3
, ,
2
5
. 1.

1
3

.
4
. 4. . 2
. 5.
.
.
2

1 2
1 0 1
2 0 0
3 0 0
4 0 1
5 0 0

3
1
1
0
0
0

4
0
1
1
1
0

5
0
0
0
1
0

3
1
2
3
4

1
0
1
0
1

2
0
0
1
0

3
0
3
0
0

4
2
0
2
0

. 3
. 4
. 5
, . , , [38, . 73].

3. . 6 ,

. :
() ;
() , ;
() , ;
() , .

4.2.

,
,
.

.
.
[56, . 77] : . [12, . 118]
:
: id(v) od(v).
, . 4, :
(2) = 1;
(2) = 4;
(1) = 2; (1) = 2;
(3) = 3; (3) = 3;
(4) = 4;
(4) = 1.
n , K :
n

1
2
3
4

1
0
1
1
0

2
1
1
0
0

3
1
0
0
0

4
0
0
0
2

1
2
3
4

1
0
0
1
0

2
1
0
0
1

1
1
2
3
4

1
0
1
0
0

4
1
0
0
0

1
2
3
4

1
0
1
0
0

2
1
0
0
0

4
0
0
0
0

1
2
3
4

1
0
1
0
0

3
0
0
0
1

2
0
0
1
0

3
0
0
0
0

4
0
0
2
0

1
2
3
4

1
0
0
0
0

2
3
2
0
0
1

2
0
0
0
0

3
0
1
0
1

4
1
0
0
0

1
2
3
4

1
1
0
0
0

. 6

2
1
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
0

3
1
0
2
0

4
0
2
0
0

4
3
0
1
2
0

4
0
0
1
0

1
2
3
4

1
0
0
1
1

2
1
0
0
0

K = i =1

4
0
1
1
0

1. (). ,
:
1) ,
, ?
2) - , . 1?
3)
?
4)
, ?
5) D . ,
D1. D D1?
6) D ,
. .
D1. , D D1
?
7) , ,
?
2. (). ,
. 4?

i =1

(1)

, (. 4)
:
K=

3
0
1
0
0

(i) + (i)

2 +1+ 3 + 4 + 2 + 4 + 3 +1
= 10.
2

:
, . .
n
n
(i) = (i).
i=1
i=1
, (1) :
n
n
K = (i) K = (i).
i=1
i=1
n , i-
i- .
i- i- (i = 1, 2, , n).

1. (). . 1.
2. (). . 2.
3. . 6 .
(. . ):
() , ;
() , ;
() 1 2 , ;
() 1 2 , .

110

4.3. , ,

,
, ,
,
. , 1,3,2,4
(. 1) ,
3 2 .
(. 1): 1,2,3,4,2;
1,3,4,2,4,5; 1,3,4,2,3,4 .
. v2 v1,
, v1 v2.
,
. ,
(. 2.1 ).
.

.
2
1

2
7

3
4

1
5

. 8
. 7
, , , 2.3
, : . ,
1 7 . 7. 1 : (1,2), (1,4) (1,5). ,
1, .
2, 4, 5.
( ) : 1,2,3;
1,2,7; 1,4,2; 1,4,5; 1,5,3. 1,2,7
. .
:

1,2,7; 1,2,3,7; 1,4,2,7; 1,5,3,7; 1,4,2,3,7; 1,4,5,3,7;


1,5,3,4,2,7; 1,5,3,6,2,7; 1,4,5,3,6,2,7.
, , , 1 . : 1,2; 1,4; 1,5.
: 1,2,3; 1,2,7; 1,4,2; 1,4,5; 1,5,3. :
1,2,3,4; 1,2,3,6; 1,2,3,7; 1,2,7,6; 1,4,2,3; 1,4,2,7; 1,4,5,3;
1,5,3,4; 1,5,3,6; 1,5,3,7 . .


: 1,2,3,6,1; 1,2,7,6,1; 1,5,3,6,1. :

1,2,3,7,6,1; 1,4,2,3,6,1; 1,4,2,7,6,1; 1,4,5,3,6,1; 1,5,3,7,6,1.

: 1,4,2,3,7,6,1; 1,4,5,3,7,6,1. : 1,5,3,4,2,7,6,1.


11 .

1. . 8 ,
. 1, 6.
(1). ,
1 6?
(392)! ,
? ? ?
?

2. (303).
. 8,
1?
3. (424). , (. 8).
1 1.
4. (). (. 8), 2 2?
(76). ,
? ? ? ?
(237).
, 2.

4.4. .

n ,
, vi vj ( i, j = 1, 2,,n). , . 9.
49 :
(1,1), (1,2), (2,1), (1,3), (3,1) . .
.
, (1,1) 1,2,4,1 (
1,2,3,6,7,4,1). 2 1
2,4,1 2,3,6,7,4,1. 3
2 : 3,6,2,
3,6,7,5,2, 3,6,7,4,5,2, 3,6,7,4,1,2 . .
, [35, . 173; 56, . 79].
,
.
, ( ).

, .
2

1
5

. 9

5
6

. 10
. 11
.
,
, . ( [56, . 79].)
, , . 10.
, ,
1,4,5,3,5,2,4,3,2,1 1,4,3,2,4,5,3,5,2,1 .
2

4
5

6
5

2
5

6
5

5
5

1
3

1
5

4
5 6

2
3
5

5
7
5

8
5

9
5
8
5

7
5

2
5

. 12

8
5

7
4
5

1
5

2 3
5

7
5

5
5

2
1 5

3
5

5
5

3
2
5

3
45
5
5 8
5 57
6
6

3
4
5
5

111

: ,
:
) ;
) , ;
) ,
;
)
.
. 11 , :

(1) (1) = 1;
(2) (2) = 1;
(3) = (3) = 2;
(4) = (4) = 2;
(5) = (5) = 2;
(6) = (6) = 2,
, .
: 1,5,3,2,5,4,6,3,4,6,1,2.

(). (. 12).
(362). (. 12).
(13). (. 12).
(). . 12.
5. (455). (. 12).
6. (6). (. 12).
7. (137). :
1)
?
2) , ?
3) ,
?
4) , ?
5) , ?
6) , 2
?
7) ,
?
8. (338)!
19. .
.
1.
2.
3.
4.

4.5.

,
.
[12; 51; 57]. ( [12, . 120] .)

: ,
.
[57, . 162] : , .
n (n ).
:
n , S :
2

S =2

n ( n 1)
2 2

n > 1.

(2)

(2), - n
. .
, 2 .

- , ,
, . ,
. ,
n Cn2-
, (2).

. 13. . 14
,
. 13 (2,3) (3,4).
3

3
2

. 13
. 14
(2) ,
n. ,
n = 2, S = 2; n = 3, S = 8; n = 4, S = 64;
n = 5, S = 1024, . .
.
1. n ,
,
, [3, . 66].
. 13 , 2, 4, 5 .
, ,
: 1,2,5,1;
1,4,5,1; 3,4,5,3 .
2. , [3].
. 13 14
2,3,4,5,1,2; 2,5,1,4,3,2.
3.
[51, . 134].
4. .
, 4
2.

1. (51). , (1,2), (1,3), (2,3) ?


2. (32). , 10 36 , , 36 ?
3. (). . 14,
,
1.
4. ().
.

112
5. (55). :
1) ,
?
2) , , ?
3) . 14?
4) ,
?
5) ?
6) ,
, ?
7) , 66 ?

1, 2,, m . L,
m :

,
1

, ,

).
m

, L,
, W, m . W L. ( [51, . 148]

.)

(. 15) ,

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

L = ( 1, 2, 3),
=
{1,
2};
M
=
{1,
2,
3};
M3 = {2, 4, 5}.
1
2
. 15 ,


1,
2
3.
1, 2, 3 : 1 1,
2 2, 4 3. W1 = {1, 2, 4}.
. 15 , :
W2 = {1, 2, 5}; W3 = {1, 3, 4}; W4 = {2, 3, 4}.
, 1
M1
. ,
2
1 1, 1 2, 2 3, M2
3
, , , 4
M3
.
{3, 4, 5},
5
,
. 15
1.

4.7.

L,
. : L ? : ?
, ,
L , . ,
1935 . [51]. , , . .
, . ,
. 15. ( ) 1,
2, 3 A, B, C , . . :
A = {1, 2};

B = {1, 2, 3};

C = {2, 4, 5}.

+ ) (B
1

+ B2 + B3) (C2 + C4 + C5) = 1.

, :

4.6.

L=(

, A2 = 0, ; B1 = 1, 1B , B1 = 0, ,
5,
, 5
, 5 = 0, .
. 15 : 1 + 2 = 1, 1, 2.
: B1 + B2 + B3; 2 + 4 + 5.
.

: A1 = 1, 1A, A1 = 0 ,
; A2 = 1, 2A

A1B2C4 + A1B2C5 + A1B3C2 + A1B3C4 + A1B3C5 + A2B1C4 +


+ A2B1C5 + A2B3C4 + A2B3C5 = 1.
, , A, B, C , . , L = (A, B, C) 9 :
{1,2,4}, {1,2,5}, {1,3,2}, {1,3,4}, {1,3,5}, {2,1,4}, {2,1,5},
{2,3,4}, {2,3,5}. ,
, . . ,
{1,2,4} {2,1,4}, ,
: {1,2,4}
1 , 2 B 4
. {2, 1, 4} :
2 , 1
B 4 .


, .
, , ,
. ,
:
V1 V2 G(V1,V2)

V1 V2, ,
[51, . 145].
, ,

( , ).
V1 , V2 ,
V1. ,
,
.
,
.

1. ().
= {1,2,3,4,5}, [51]:
1) ({1}, {2,3}, {1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4,5});
2) ({1,2}, {2,3}, {4,5}, {4,5});
3) ({1,3}, {2,3}, {1,2}, {3});
4) ({1,3,4}, {1,4,5}, {2,3,5}, {2,4,5});
5) ({1,3}, {1,4}, {1,3}, {1,3,4}.
2. ().
. ( , .)

113
3. ()! ,
, .
: , , , ,
. ,
? ,
?
4. (). , .

?
5.
:
() ?
() ?
6. (3). , .
?
7. 6 :
() ?
() ?

4.8.

,
,
, ,
, , [35, . 249; 54]. , , .
. ,
, .
. , . 16. 1
, 8 .
.
.
2

2
1

1
1 5

. 16

. 18

1
4

. 20

. 17

8
4

7
5 1

5
2

. 19

8
4

2
6

5 7

3
6

2
6

4 1
4
5

5 3

5
9

2
5

3
6

6 1
5
4

7
8
3

2
6

. 21

N = n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 + n5 + n6,


: , . . .

(3)

,
. (3) ni ( i = 1, 2, , 6):
N = 2 + 4 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 2 = 12.

, 12.

.
, . , (. 16)
(3,8), (5,7), (5,8) (6,7),
, 2+7+1+2=12.
, 12, .
, 12
. [19; 35; 51; 54; 62].

1
7

, ,
. ,
, . 16.
1. 1,2,3,8. . 1,2,3,8. (2,3) (3,8) .
. , . 17. ,
n1 = 2, , 1,2,3,8.
2. 1,2,5,8 (. 17). 4 (n2 = 4). 4 (1,2), (2,5), (5,8).

, . 18.
3. 1,4,5,8 (. 18)
, . . n3 = 2. (4,5), , . 19.
4. 1,6,5,8 (. 19)
, . . n4 = 1. (5,8) , . 20.
5. 1,6,5,7,8.
, . . n5 = 1.
6. (. 21).
, . . n6 = 2.
, N c, . 16, :

1. (1)!
: 1,2,3,7; 1,4,6,7; 1,3,6,7 (. 22).
2. ()!
(. 22), :
) 1 , 3 ;
) 1 , 6 .
3. (983). (. 22), 1 , 7 .

114
4. (2)!
(. 23), :
) 1, 4;
) 1, 6;
5. (285). (. 23), 1 ,
7 .
1

2
3

2
12

4
9

4
3
7
4 9 4
1 3

8
7

1
9

6
8

. 22
. 23
6. (6). :
1) ,
, ?
2) ,


?
3) , ?
4) ,
?
5) , , ?
6) ,

(. 16)?
7. (87). (. 24), 1 , 8 .

4.9. .



,
, ,
.
.
aRb, a,bA = {1,2,3,4,5,6},
R b.

, b. , . 2 ,
2 1. 3 , 3 1 . . , . 25.
3

2
4
1

3
7

3 7

. 24

5
4

3
5

5
1

. 25

,
Rb, , b , . .
b. .
{,
, , } .

: 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 .
,
. (. 26) .
, . , 3 .
. 3 4 . ,
, .
1

. 27
. 28
. 26
.
. , b, c, d. b , d
. , d ,
b [3, . 76].
.

R = {(a,b), (b,a), (a,c), (c,a), (b,d), (d,b), (c,d), (d,c)}.

. 27.
, . . , ,
. ,
.
. , ( , .).
. , ,
,
, . [16, . 15], [62, . 437]. ,
, . 28 (
). , .
,
. , 4,3,2 (4,2).
.
Rb, ,b{1,2,3,4,5}, R
. . 28.

, ,
.
. -

115

.
. ,
. 100

. . , b b ,
, [16, . 16 18].
,
,
. .
, [6, . 16 26]
, .

1.
{, , , , }
.
:
() ;
(76) , .
2. {1,2,4,7,9,10,11,15,18} . .
(382). ?
(967). ?
(004)! . .
(395)! . .
3. (283). ,
. , :
1) 1
?
2) ,
, ?
3) , ?
4)
, ,


?
5) ,
?
6) ,
, ?
7) , , ?
4. (8). , . 3?
5. ()! . 8. 4 6?
3 6?
6. ()! ,
. 10? . 11?
7. ()! , , ,
. .
, ,
, , , .
-

? ,
?

4.10. ?

.
, ,
. , .
. [57 . 14]
:
Gn = 2

n ( n 1)
2 ,

Gn .
. ,
= 3, 8 (. 29). 4 : , , , .
.
,
, , , ,
, , .
1

2 3

2 3

1
3

2 3

2 3

2 3

2 3

2 3

. 29

. ,
, .
.
, , , ,
, . , [57] , , , , .

. , ,
. .
,
[57, . 145]
u ( x) = x + x 3 + x 4 + 4 x 5 + 8 x 6 + 37 x 7 + 184 x 8 + ... ,
( ) ,
,
, . , .
-


. ( ). ,
,
, ,
.

116


. . : .
. 10 15 , 6 8 .
. ,
,
. ( ):
,
; , .

.
70 % .
.
, .
, .

IBM- , ,
.
20

1.
1.1.
P, = {0,2,3,7,8};
= {1,3,6,7,9}; = {0,1,4,7,8,9}; I = {0,1,2,,9}.
1. (). P = I U I B U I C.
2. (). P = B I C U I C U I B.
3. (830). = B I U A I U A I B .
4. (977). = B I U A I C U A I B.
5. (039). = B I C U I C U I B.
6. (). = B I C U A I U A I B.
7. (332). = B I U I U A I B .
8. (). = B I U A I C U I B .
9. (). = B I C U I C U A I B.
10. (). = B I C U A I U I B.
11. (256). = B I U A I U I B.
12. (154). = B I U A I C U A I B.
13. (537). = B I C U I C U A I B.
14. (296). = B I C U I B U A I B .
15. (). = B I U I B U A I .
16. (). = B I U A I C U A I B .
17. (372). = A I B U B I C U A I B .

18. (87).
19. ().
20. ().

= B I U B I C U I C.
= A I C U I U B I .
= B I C U B I U A I B.

1.2. -

21 40 ( ) . ,
P, :
= {0, 3, 4, 9};
= {0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9};
= {1, 3, 4, 7};
I = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
21. (280). P = A I B U I B U A I C U B I C.
22. (81). P = I B U I C U A I B U B I C.
23. (). P = A I C U I U B I C U I B .
24. (). P = B I U A I B U I C U I B.
25. (). P = A I B U B I C U I B U I C.
26. (5). P = A I B U A I C U B I C U I C.
27. (236). P = A I U A I B U B I U A I C.
28. (). P = A I C U B I C U I B U B I C.
29. (88). P = A I U I C U B I C U I B .
30. (39). P = A I B U A I C U B I C U I C.
31. (). P = B I U I B U I U I B .
32. (7). P = I U A I B U B I C U I B .
33. (). P = B I U B I C U I B U I C.
34. (). P = A I B U I B U B I C U I C.
35. (). P = I C U I B U B I C U A I B .
36. (). P = A I C U A I B U B I C U I B .
37. (). P = B I U I B U B I C U I C.
38. (569). P = A I U I C U A I B U B I C.
39. (). P = A I C U I U B I C U I B .
40. (). P = B I U I B U I C U A I .

1.3.

,
A B C D I ; .
.
41. (561). I I D U B I I D U A I B .
42. (). B I I D U I I D U I B .
43. (). A I B U I U A I C U B I .
44. (). A I U B I D U I C I D .
45. (773). A I B I U I D U B I C I D .
46. (3). A I C I D U B I I D U B I C I D .
47. (). I B U B I U I D .
48. (). B I D U A I U I D .
49. (685). A I B I U B I C I D U I D .
50. (). I B I C U B I U I .
51. (557). A I C I D U B I C I D U B I .
52. (). A I D U B I I D U B I C I D .
53. (). A I C U I D U B I I D .

117
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

(268). A I B I U A I D U I B .
(). I B U B I C I D U I D .
(599). B I I D U B I C U I B .
(120). B I D U I B I D U B I D .
(). B I C U B I D U I D .
(). A I B U B I C U B I .
(). B I D U B I C U C I D .

2.
2.1.
, .
61. (). B + B + B D .
62. (). + + D .
63. (591). B + B + B D .
64. (92). A B + C D + A B .
65. (). B + B C + B D .
66. (). P Q + R + P Q R S .
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.

(45). P Q R S + Q R + P Q R .
(6). X Y Z + Z + X Y .
(7). X Y + X Y Z+ Z .
(). + + D E .
(119). + D + A D .
(). A C D + C D + A B C D =
(). P Q R + Q R + S T .
(). P Q R + P Q T + P.

75. (). P Q R + P R + R T .
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.

(). P + P Q + P Q R + P T .
(). S T U + Q S T U + S T U V .
(). E + B E + C E F + F .
(). D E + D F + D + E F .
(). + B + C F + .

2.2.

,
.
81. (). B + + .
82. (). A B C + A B C .
83. (). + + D .
84. (35). A B C + A B D .

85. (). A B C + A B D + D.
86. (662).

A C D + B C + B D.

87. (513).

+ A C D + E.

88. (904).

B C D + B C D + A E.

89. (35).

A C E + A D E + B.

90. (26).

+ B D + A D.

91. (457).

A B C + B C D.

92. (). A C E + A C D + B C D .
93. (589).

BD+B C E+

94. (). A D + B D + A C E .
95. (961).

B C E + B C D + D.

+ A B E + B C E.
97. (). B C D + B C D + E.
96. (562).

98. (). A D + B C + A E .

99. (). B C + B E + F.
100. (). P Q + R S+ P Q S .

2.3.

,
.
101. (1). ( A + B )( C + D )( B + ).
102. (). ( A + B + C )( + B + D ) .
103. (7). ( B + )( + B + )( D + E ).
104. (5). ( A + B + + D )( + B + C + D ).
105. (2). ( + B )( B + C )( + D + E ).
106. (). ( P + Q + R )( P + Q + S )( Q + S ).
107. (6). ( P + Q + S )( Q + R + S )( P + R ).
108. (). ( A + B + D )( B + + D ) E.
109. (). ( A + B + )( + D + E )( B + ).
110. (8). ( P + Q + R )( Q + S )( P + Q ).
111. (). ( P + Q + R + S )( P + Q + R + S )( P + Q ).
112. (). ( X + Y + Z )( Y + Z )( X + Y ).
113. (). ( A + B + )( B + + D )( C + D + E ).
114. (). ( A + )( + D + E )( B + + ).
115. (). ( A + B + )( B + + D ) E F .
116. (). ( + C + D )( B + D + E )( A + + ).
117. (). ( A + B )( B + )( B + + D ) E F .
118. (). ( B + + D )( A + B + D )( + F ).
119. (). ( P + Q + R + S )( Q + R + S + )( P + Q ).
120. (). ( + B + )( B + + D ) F.
2.4.

,
, .
.
121. (). f = A BC + D. 131. (2). f = A B +A BD .
122. (). f =BD + A B C.
132. (). f = D + A C D .
123. (). f = D + C D .
133. (85). f = D + C D .
124. (1). f = B D + A D.
134. (93). f = A D + A D.
125. (). f = + A B D. 135. (). f = + .
126. (5). f = BD + .
136. (). f = A B+ .
127. (). f = + A BD.

137. (). f = D + .

129. (). f = A B+ B D.

139. (). f = A C + .

128. (7). f = A B + A D.
130. (40). f = D + A C D .

138. (78). f = B D + A B D.
140. (). f = A B C + A B .

118

2.5.

, , , .
141. (). (1,3,6,10,12,15). 151. (5). (0,7,8,11,13,14).
142. (11). (1,5,6,10,12, 15). 152. (). (0,1,7,11,13,14).
143. (). (1,6,9,10,12,15). 153. (7). (0,2,7,11,13,14).
144. (8). (0,3,6,9,10,13).
154. (). (3,4,7,8,13,14).
145. (5). (0,6,7,9,10,12).
155. (). (3,4,8,11,13,14).
156. (). (2,3,4,8,13,14).
146. (5). (2,9,10,12,15).
147. (). (0,5,6,9,11,12). 157. (114). (1,2,4,7,8,15).
148. (767). (0,3,5,6,11,12).
149. (537). (0,3,5,9,10,14).
150. (). (0,3,5,9,14,15).

158. (356). (2,4,8,9,15).


159. (). (1,2,6,8,11,13).
160. (). (1,6,8,11,13,14).

2.6.

, .
.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.

(655). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 13, 15).


(). f = (4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 3, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15).
(8). f = (0, 1, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15).
(454). f = (3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
(733). f = (0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15).
(). f = (0, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14).
(965). f = (2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14).
(). f = (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15).
(432). f = (2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15).
(39). f = (0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 15).
(359). f = (2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15).
(). f = (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13).
(). f = (3, 4, 7, 8, 14, 15).
(). f = (1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15).
(924). f = (0, 1, 3, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15).
(). f = (3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15).

2.7.


,
.
,
, .
181. (20). f = (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15).
182. (). f = (0, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15).
183. (). f = (1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15).
184. (). f = (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15).
185. (63). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15).
186. (). f = (1, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15).
187. (). f = (2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15).
188. (). f = (0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15).
189. (). f = (3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).
190. (93). f = (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14).
191. (396). f = (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15).
192. (75). f = (3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 15).

193.
194.
195.
196.
197.
198.
199.
200.

(). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15).


(93). f = (0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13).
(). f = (0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12).
(56). f = (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14).
(36). f = (1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15).
(). f = (1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15).
(5). f = (0, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15).
(). f = (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15).

2.8.


,
.
.
201. (). f = (1, 3, 7, 11, 13, 15).
202. (). f = (4, 5, 8, 9, 12).
203. (26). f = (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 13, 14).
204. (). f = (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10).
205. (). f = (6, 7, 10, 15).
206. (). f = (0, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15).
207.
208.
209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
215.
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.

(864). f = (0, 1, 6, 10, 13, 14).


(9). f = (0, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15).
(). f = (0, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 15).
(5). f = (3, 15).
(120). f = (2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15).
(79). f = (1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12).
(470). f = (5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13).
(). f = (0,2,4,8,9,11,12,14).
(). f = (2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 14).
(). f = (0, 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14).
(20). f = (0, 1, 4).
(7). f = (0, 1, 8, 10, 14, 15).

2.9.


,
.
.
221.
222.
223.
224.
225.
226.
227.
228.
229.
230.
231.
232.
233.
234.
235.
236.
237.
238.
239.
240.

(550). f = (0, 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14).


(). f = (0, 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14).
(736). f = (0, 1, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14).
(). f = (5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14).
(232). f = (3, 6, 7, 8, 12).
(534). f = (1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 13, 14).
(53). f = (0, 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12).
(). f = (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13).
(). f = (1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10).
(855). f = (0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15).
(). f = (1, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15).
(). f = (0, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 14).
(). f = (1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 14).
(). f = (2, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14).
(). f = (0, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15).
(). f = (0, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15).
(1). f = (1, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14).
(22). f = (1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10).
(). f = (0, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12).
(). f = (1, 5, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15).

119

2.10.

, . .
,
, .
241. (9). f = (7, 9, 11, 14, 15), [0, 3, 4, 5].
242. (). f = (7, 10, 14, 15), [2, 3, 5, 6, 13].
243. (). f = (5, 10, 11, 13, 15), [3, 6, 7].
244. (). f = (3, 6, 7, 13, 15), [2, 5, 11].
245. (1). f = (3, 4, 9, 11), [5, 7, 10, 15].
246. (95). f = (1, 4, 7, 10, 15), [5, 13].
247. (67). f = (3, 7, 12, 15), [0, 4, 5, 6, 9].
248. (). f = (11, 13, 14, 15), [3, 5, 7, 10].
249. (). f = (0, 4, 15), [1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 12].
250. (). f = (4, 6, 10, 11), [0, 2, 7, 13, 15].
251. (). f = (3, 5, 7, 11), [2, 4, 6, 10, 14].
252. (15). f = (3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12), [0, 2, 9, 13].
253. (62). f = (1, 6, 7, 9, 11), [0, 5, 10, 13, 15].
254. (14). f = (0, 7, 11, 15), [1, 2, 4, 8, 12].
255.
256.
257.
258.
259.
260.

(351).
(64).
().
(479).
().
().

f = (1, 3, 12, 14), [5, 9, 10, 11, 15].


f = (5, 6, 7, 15), [3, 10, 11, 13, 14].
f = (1, 9, 14, 15), [3, 5, 6, 7].
f = (2, 13, 15), [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12].
f = (4, 7, 11, 14), [1, 3, 9, 10, 15].
f = (1, 2, 6, 7, 14), [3, 5, 10, 11, 13, 15].

2.11.


, .
. .
261. (78). f = (0,8,9,10,11,12,13,14), [1,2,7,15].
262. (). f = (0,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,13), [14,15].
263. (). f = (1,2,6,9,10,13,14,15), [7,11,12].
264. (). f = (2,5,8,13,14), [6,7,12,15].
265. (). f = (2,4,8,12), [3,5,6,14].
266. (2). f = (0,4,9,10,12,14), [3,7,8,15].
267.
268.
269.
270.
271.
272.
273.
274.
275.
276.
277.
278.
279.
280.

(213). f = (1,2,8,10,12,15), [0,4,6,9,11].


(). f = (3,7,8,9,11,13), [0,1,5,12,15].
(). f = (6,8,10,12,13), [0,1,2,5,7].
(). f = (1,2,4,7,8,9,10,12), [3,5,11,14,15].
(). f = (2,4,10,12,13), [0,3,11,14,15].
(). f = (2,3,4,9,10,12), [1,7,13,15].
(7). f = (6,9,10,11,13,14), [2,3,5,7,15].
(38). f = (1,2,6,9,10,13,14), [0,3,12,15].
(). f = (3,7,9,13), [1,2,11,15].
(273). f = (2,7,9,13,14), [1,4,5,6,8,10].
(). f = (0,2,4,8,14), [3,5,7,13,15].
(51). f = (3,6,9,13), [5,7,15].
(8). f = (0,4,10,12,15), [5,7,14].
(). f = (0,2,12,14), [1,5,7,9,10,13].

2.12.

281300 .
, -

. , -. .
281. (). f = (2,3,5,6,9,10,12,14,17,18,20,24,26).
282. (). f = (1,3,5,6,9,10,12,17,18,20,24,29).
283. (). f = (1,7,8,11,13,14,15,19,21,22,25,26,28).
284. (). f =(4,7,9,11,13,14,19,20,21,22,25,26,28,30).
285.
286.
287.
288.
289.
290.
291.
292.
293.
294.
295.
296.
297.
298.
299.
300.

(534). f = (6,7,11,13,14,15,19,21,22,25,26,27,28,29).
(). f = (1,3,5,6,9,10,12,16,17,18,20,24).
(09). f = (3,7,11,12,13,14,19,21,22,24,25,26,28,29).
(). f = (1,3,5,6,7,9,10,12,13,17,18,20,24).
(). f = (1,3,4,5,6,9,10,12,17,18,20,24,26,27).
(). f = (3,4,7,11,12,13,14,19,21,22,25,26,27,28).
(047). f = (3,7,10,11,13,14,15,19,21,22,25,26,28,29).
(2). f = (3,4,5,6,9,10,12,17,18,20,24,30).
(). f = (2,7,11,13,14,16,19,20,21,22,25,26,28).
(436). f = (2,3,5,6,8,9,10,12,16,17,18,20,24).
(). f = (2,3,5,6,9,10,12,13,17,18,20,22,24,27).
(70). f = (7,8,9,11,13,14,19,21,22,24,25,26,28,30).
(). f = (3,5,6,9,10,11,12,17,18,19,20,24).
(57). f = (5,7,11,13,14,17,19,21,22,24,25,26,27,28).
(). f = (7,10,11,13,14,18,19,21,22,23,25,26,28).
(). f = (3,4,5,6,9,10,12,17,18,20,24).

2.13.

301320 f1, f2, f3


, . . -.
.

.
.
301. (81). 1 2 7 3 2 5 5 2. 311. (). 5 6 6 5 1 4 0 0.
302. (). 0 5 7 0 0 5 7 6. 312. (). 6 7 6 7 5 4 1 3.
303. (). 1 2 1 1 5 4 3 1. 313. (). 1 2 4 5 5 2 1 0.
304. (). 0 1 3 5 7 4 1 3. 314. (). 1 1 6 6 7 7 1 1.
305. (). 2 5 6 2 5 6 7 1. 315. (). 5 4 3 3 4 5 3 4.
306. (). 6 7 6 5 1 0 2 1. 316. (64). 6 7 6 7 3 1 6 7.
307. (). 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 6. 317. (). 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 4.
308. (). 2 5 6 7 3 4 2 1. 318. (). 2 5 7 7 2 5 5 4.
309. (). 1 1 1 0 0 1 7 3. 319. (788). 6 2 2 5 4 1 3 2.
310. (). 1 0 0 2 2 2 3 3. 320. (). 0 2 3 1 4 7 6 5.
2.14.

X(A, B, C) . , .
321. (). X + + A C = B + C .
322. (39). X + A B + A C = B + A C .

323. (266).
324. (570).

X + + = + .
X + =

325. (). X

+ .
+ + + = + .

326. (). X + = + .
327. (). X + = + .

328. (). X + + = + + .
329. (). X + + = + + .
330. (589).

X + + = + + .

120
331. (). X + + = + .

332. (). X + + = + + .

3.
3.1.

,
( ) 334. (). X + + = + + .

A, B, C, D. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
335. (). X + + = + + .
. - .
336. (5). X + + = + .

337. (). X + + = + .
.
.
338. (). X + + = + .
381. (960). , ,
339. (). X + + = + .
, D .
382. (924). , A D ,
340. (). X + + = + + .
.
383. (658). , A ,
2.15.
, D .
384. (). , D ,
, ,
, .
385. (). , ,
. , D, .
386. (). , , D .
, D.
341. (6). [1, 2, 4, 3; 5]. 351. (). [5, 6, 4, 4; 5].
387. (). .
342. (7). [2, 2, 4, 4; 4]. 352. (7). [4, 7, 6, 5; 5].
388. ().
343. (). [4, 7, 5, 2; 6]. 353. (). [2, 2, 6, 3; 4].
.
344. (52). [3, 4, 2, 3; 3]. 354. (). [3, 4, 5, 6; 6].
389. (97).
345. (25). [1, 2, 1, 6; 5]. 355. (). [4, 5, 5, 6; 9].
.
346. (). [3, 4, 4, 5; 5]. 356. (739). [3, 4, 4, 5; 8].
390. (). , ,
347. (5). [2, 4, 3, 4;5]. 357. (). [4, 6, 6, 4; 5].
, D .
348. (8). [5, 6, 4, 6; 5]. 358. (). [5, 6, 7, 8; 12].
391. (). , A
349. (). [3, 3, 5, 4; 6]. 359. (). [4, 5, 4, 5; 14].
, .
350. (). [4, 3, 4, 6; 7]. 360. (). [5, 5, 4, 4; 13].
333. (). X + + = + +

2.16.

361380
, A, B, C, D. , D.

.
.
361. (). f = (4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15).
362. (). f = (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15).
363. (). f = (5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15).
364. (778). f = (1, 3, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
365. (). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11).
366. (592). f = (3, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15).
367. (). f = (2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15).
368. (). f = (1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15).
369. (). f = (1, 3, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15).
370. (8). f = (2, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14).
371. (). f = (2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15).
372. (). f = (1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15).
373. (). f = (0, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15).
374. (759). f = (2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13).
375. (). f = (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15).
376. (). f = (2, 3, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15).
377. (). f = (3, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15).
378. (368). f = (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15).
379. (). f = (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15).
380. (927).

f = (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

392. (). , , D .
393. (128). , ,
D, .
394. (616). , ,
D.
395. (435). , ,
, .
396. (). A, B, C,
.
397. (). ,
D.
398. (364). , D.
399. (43). , D , , .
400. (). .

3.2.


,
. ,
.
401.
402.
403.
404.
405.

(673). f = (0, 3, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15).


(). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 15).
(). f = (1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15).
(2). f = (0, 1, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15).
(). f = (0, 3, 5, 12, 15).

121
406.
407.
408.
409.
410.
411.
412.
413.
414.
415.
416.
417.
418.
419.
420.

().
().
().
(16).
().
().
().
().
(1).
().
().
().
().
(338).
(720).

f = (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15).


f = (1, 2, 7, 11, 12, 13).
f = (0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
f = (3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15).
f = (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14).
f = (0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15).
f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15).
f = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15).
f = (0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15).
f = (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 15).
f = (0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15).
f = (1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15).
f = (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15).
f = (1, 2, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14).
f = (1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15).

3.3.


,
. , .
421. (). f = (0, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11).
422. (2). f = (0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 12).
423. (5). f = (2, 5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 15).
424. ( ). f = (0, 2, 5, 6, 7).
425. (). f = (0, 2, 6).
426.
427.
428.
429.
430.
431.
432.
433.
434.
435.
436.
437.
438.
439.
440.

(345). f = (2, 3, 6, 9, 12).


(). f = (0, 1, 4, 13).
(). f = (2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 13).
(). f = (7, 10, 11, 14).
(). f = (8, 11, 13, 14).
(). f = (1, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13).
(). f = (3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10).
(). f = (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 11).
(). f = (1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14).
(). f = (0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, 14).
(835). f = (6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14).
(). f = (8, 9, 10, 13, 15).
(). f = (0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12).
(). f = (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13).
(29). f = (4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14).

3.4.


.
. 441 460 ,
() .

.
,
. .
441. (). (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15).
442. (). (3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15).
443. (). (0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15).
444. (61). (0, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).
445. (). (0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15).
446. (903). (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
447. (). (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13).

448.
449.
450.
451.
452.
453.
454.
455.
456.
457.
458.
459.
460.

(). (0, 1, 3, 4, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15).


(). (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14).
(). (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15).
(659). (1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
(). (0, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15).
(20). (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15).
(1). (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15).
(922). (0, 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15).
(153). (0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15).
(). (0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15).
(5). (0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15).
(6). (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
(7). (0, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13).

3.5.

n n + N , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,


14, 15 . , , . a b,
a , b
. .
461. (1). N = 1.
471. (). N = 11.
462. (982). N = 2.
472. (). N = 12.
463. (533). N = 3.
473. (). N = 13.
474. (). N = 14.
464. (). N = 4.
465. (5). N = 5.
475. (572). N = 15.
466. (). N = 6.
476. (). N = 16.
467. (7). N = 7.
477. (). N = 17.
468. (378). N = 8.
478. (92). N = 18.
479. (). N = 19.
469. (9). N = 9.
470. (). N = 10.
480. (). N = 20.
3.6. JK-


, , :

JK-.

JA = B ;
JB = + C;

KA = B;
KB = + ;

JC = + ;
JD = F ;

KC =A + B;
KD = ;

JE = D + F ; ;

K = D + F ;

JF = D + E ;

K F = D + E.

, .
, a.
, b. a b,
().
481. (730). 12.
491. (33). 2.
482. (181). 29.
492. (). 9.
483. (2). 16.
493. (). 30.
484. (063). 57.
494. (56). 56.
485. (). 18.
495. (). 20.
486. (). 27.
496. (). 41.
487. (). 36.
497. (2). 55.
488. (535). 10.
498. (). 2.
489. (). 21.
499. (). 35.
490. (8). 45.
500. (). 24.

122

3.7. JK-

JK-
. , ,
. a, b, c, d, a ; b
; c ; d
.

(
).
501. (). 0,3,7,4,2,5,6,1.
511. (). 0,4,5,6,7,1,2,3.
502. (2). 0,4,5,1,6,7,3,2.
512. (5). 0,1,2,3,7,6,5,4.
503. (5). 0,3,5,6,7,1,2,4.
513. (736). 0,1,3,2,6,7,5,4.
504. (994). 0,5,6,7,1,2,4,3.
514. (). 0,5,6,3,4,2,1,7.
505. (615). 0,1,7,6,5,3,2,4.
515. (). 0,6,5,7,4,3,1,2.
506. (36). 0,5,7,1,6,4,2,3.
516. (30). 0,5,7,1,2,3,6,4.
507. (557). 0,1,4,6,5,2,7,3.
517. (). 0,5,3,1,6,2,4,7.
508. (). 0,4,5,1,7,3,2,6.
518. (). 0,2,5,6,3,1,4,7.
509. (). 0,6,2,5,4,7,3,1.
519. (). 0,6,1,2,3,4,5,7.
510. (1). 0,4,5,7,1,2,3,6.
520. (11). 0,2,3,4,7,6,5,1.
4.
4.1.

n- ,
a k ( ),
n, a, k ?
521. (75). 5, 3, 2.
531. (). 6, 7, 3.
522. (). 6, 5, 4.
532. (). 5, 4, 4.
523. (7). 7, 9, 6.
533. (). 4, 4, 2.
524. (168). 8, 5, 6.
534. (). 7, 4, 5.
525. (60). 8, 1, 5.
535. (). 8, 3, 7.
526. (917). 4, 6, 0.
527. (). 5, 8, 3.
528. (). 6, 3, 5.
529. (99). 9, 2, 7.
530. (). 9, 4, 6.

536. (873).
537. ().
538. ().
539. ().
540. ().

9, 5, 8.
10, 4, 8.
11, 9, 9.
6, 6, 2.
7, 6, 4.

4.2.

541. (2). 3
,
?
542. (). k .
, 1140
. k.
543. (). .
,
, ,
.
?
544. (). ,
( )?

545. (521). , , 0 9
?
546. (). , ,
0, 8, 9 ?
547. (). , ?
548. (). , P, ,
84 ,
P?
549. ().
,
?
550. (). ,
?
551. (). ,
.
,
. ?
552. (304). ,
, ?
553. (). , -
5, 6, 7, 8 9?
554. (). , , ?
555. (65). ,
?
556. (23). . ,
5.
,
?
557. (). ,

?
558. (8). 12 .


. ,
.
559. (5).
,
,

, ,
?
560. (). ,
3, 5
9?

123

5.
5.1.

,
, ()
. .
, . ,
.
561. (). {{1,2}, {1,6}, {1,7}, {2,3}, {2,6}, {3,4},

{3,5}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}}.


562. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,7}, {3,4},
{4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
563. (3). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4}, {1,5}, {1,6},
{2,6}, {2,7}, {3,7}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}}.
564. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,8}, {3,4},
{4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8]}.
565. (). {{1,2}, {1,5}, {2,3}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{3,4}, {3,7}, {4,7}, {4,8}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
566. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {2,6},
{2,8}, {3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
567. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,7}, {3,4},
{3,7}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
568. ().{{1,2}, {1,7}, {2,3}, {2,7}, {3,4},
{3,6}, {3,7}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}}.
569. (). {{1,2}, {1,6}, {2,3}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{3,5}, {4,5}, {5,6}}.
570. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,5}, {2,3}, {2,6},
{3,7}, {4,7}, {4,7}, {5,6}, {6,7}}.
571. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {3,4},
{4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {6,8}, {7,8}}.
572. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,7}, {1,8}, {2,3},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {3,7}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
573. (702). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4},
{3,4}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
574. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,3}, {1,8}, {2,3},
{3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {5,7}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.
575. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {3,4},
{5,6}, {6,7}, {6,8}, {7,8}}.
576. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4},
{3,5}, {4,5}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {6,8}, {7,8}}.
577. (). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {2,8},
{3,5}, {4,5}, {4,5}, {5,6}, {5,6}, {6,7}, {6,8}, {7,8}}.
578. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {3,4},
{4,5}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}, {5,7}, {6,7}, {6,8}, {7,8}}.
579. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {3,4},
{4,5}, {5,6}, {5,8}, {6,7}, {6,8}, {7,8}}.
580. (58). {{1,2}, {1,8}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {3,4},
{4,6}, {5,6}, {5,7}, {6,7}, {7,8}}.

{3,6},
{2,3},
{3,7},
{2,7},
{2,7},
{3,6},
{3,5},
{3,4},
{3,4},
{3,7},
{2,7},

584. (). {{1,2}, {1,4}, {1,5},


{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}}.
585. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
586. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}}.
587. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3},
{3,5}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}}.
588. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
589. (). {{1,2}, {1,4}, {2,3},
{3,5}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
590. (). {{1,2}, {1,5}, {2,3},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}}.
591. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,5},
{3,4}, {3,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
592. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,4}, {3,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
593. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3},
{3,5}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
594. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
595. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
596. (). {{1,2}, {1,4}, {2,3},
{3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
597. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
598. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
599. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,5},
{3,5}, {3,6}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
600. (). {{1,2}, {1,4}, {2,3},
{3,6}, {4,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.

{2,3}, {2,4}, {2,6},


{1,5}, {2,3}, {2,6},
{2,3}, {2,4}, {2,5},
{2,4}, {2,5}, {3,4},
{2,3}, {2,6}, {3,4},
{2,4}, {2,5}, {3,4},
{2,4}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{2,3}, {2,4}, {2,6},
{2,4}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{2,4}, {2,6}, {3,4},
{1,5}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{2,3}, {2,5}, {3,4},
{2,4}, {2,5}, {3,4},
{2,3}, {2,4}, {2,5},
{1,5}, {2,3}, {2,6},
{2,4}, {2,5}, {3,4},
{2,5}, {2,6}, {3,5},

{2,7},
{3,4},
{4,5},
{3,4},
{3,4},
{3,6},
{4,5},
{4,5},

5.2.

, 1
6 . .
, .
, ;
; ; .
581. (). {{1,2}, {1,4}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {3,4},

{3,5}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}}.


582. (). {{1,2}, {1,3}, {1,5}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{3,4}, {3,5}, {4,6}, {5,6}}.
583. (). {{1,2}, {1,4}, {2,3}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {2,6},
{3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {5,6}}.

5.3.

.
, 3 4. 3 ,
4 . , 3 4.
, , 1 9.
601. (). (10, 10, 9, 9, 9, 7, 7, 8).
602. (2). (10, 6, 10, 2, 1, 8, 1, 2).
603. (). (2, 3, 10, 5, 5, 10, 7, 7).
604.
605.
606.
607.
608.
609.
610.
611.
612.
613.
614.
615.
616.
617.
618.
619.
620.

(344). (4, 4, 5, 5, 7, 4, 5, 9).


(). (2, 5, 10, 2, 10, 5, 10, 8).
(). (2, 7, 6, 5, 1, 2, 2, 9).
(). (2, 9, 9, 10, 5, 10, 8, 7).
(). (6, 3, 6, 5, 8, 7, 8, 9).
(). (9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 8, 8, 8).
(). (9, 9, 10, 10, 5, 6, 7, 8).
(). (3, 3, 6, 8, 7, 7, 7, 7).
(). (10, 10, 10, 5, 6, 9, 9, 9).
(371). (1, 1, 7, 10, 10, 8, 8, 9).
(). (2, 2, 9, 7, 7, 7, 9, 9).
(292). (2, 2, 5, 5, 7, 7, 9, 9).
(). (2, 2, 4, 9, 2, 2, 9, 9).
(). (2, 8, 9, 5, 8, 7, 6, 5).
(). (2, 3, 7, 8, 7, 7, 7, 7).
(727). (5, 5, 6, 7, 5, 6, 6, 7).
(). (6, 2, 6, 6, 6, 7, 6, 7).

124


1.

1.1.

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1.2.

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1.3.

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125


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2.1.

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126

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:
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600
6- 300 .

,
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5 . 1 2. : - . .
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127


.
.. . : - . . .
, 1997. 45 .
.. .
: - . . . , 1996. 68 .
.. / .. , .. . :
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2002. 70 .
2.5.

,
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. (, , , , .).
.
.. 1.
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: 1998. 191 .
. . 3.
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: 1998. 205 .
.. 4.
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: 1998. 118 .
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2000. 114 .
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1995. 76 .
..
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: - . -,
1999. 123 .
.. , .. .
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2.6.

.
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128

1. .. . . / .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
.: , 1963. 556 .
2. .. . / .. , .. . .: , 1983. 143 .
3. .. . .: , 1979. 143 .
4. .. . .: . , 1968. 408 .
5. .. :
, , . .: . .,
1989. 688 .
6. . / . , . . .: , 1986. 400 .
7. .. / .. , .. . .: . , 1963.
438 .
8. .. . / .. , .. , .. , .. . .: , 1987. 432 .
9. .. . . .: , 1976. 48 .
10. .. . .: , 1969.328 .
11. .. / .. , .. , .. , .. . .: ,
1977. 352 .
12. .. / .. , .. . .: , 1977. 368 .
13. .. . .: ,
1972. 288 .
14. .. . .: , 1962. 476 .
15. .. .
: . - . . , 1963. 426 .
16. .. . .:
, 1986. 311 .
17. .. / .. , .. , .. .: , 1991.
208 .
18. .. / ..
, .. , .. .. , .. . .: , 1977. 384 .
19. .. . . . .:
, 1981. 113 .
20. .. ,
. .: . , 1969. 168 .
21. .. / .. ,
.. , .. , .. . .: ,
1971. 79 .
22. .. / .. ,
.. , .. . .: , 1977. 80 .
23. .. . -: -, 1995. 616 .
24. . . .: , 1965. 267 .
25. .. /
.. , .. . .: , 1985. 160 .
26. . .
.: , 1962. 737 .
27. .. .
.: , 1988. 287 .
28. .. -. .:
, 1975. 720 .
29. .. . : . . -, 1996. 95 .
30. .. / .. , .. , .. .
.: , 1982. 381 .

31. .. , / .. , .. . .: , 2002. 256 .


32. .. .
: , 2000. 128 .
33. . .
.: , 1971. 320 .
34. .
. .: , 1985. 128 .
35. .. / .. , .. . .: - , 1992. 264 .
36. .. . .:
, 1981. 127 .
37. .. /
.. , .. . .: , 1995. 928 .

. . .: , 1965. 174 .
..
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40. / . . .. . .: . , 1977. 608 .
41. . . .: , 1980.376 .
42. .. . .: , 1989. 352 .
43. .. / .. , .. , .. .
: , 1976. 479 .
44. .
. .: , 1972. 310 .
45. . / . , .. . .: , 1971. 448 .
46. .. . : - . . . , 1994. 111.
47. . .: .
, 1985. 1600 .
48. .. . .: , 1970. 161 .
49. .. 0,1-.
.: , 1985. 191 .
50. .. . : - . . -,
1995. 107 .
51. . . .: , 1977.
207 .
52. . . : i, 1964. 382 .
53. . . .: , 1966. 375 .
54. . / ., . . .:
, 1966. 276 .
55. . . .:
, 1977. 261 .
56. . :
/ . , . . .:
, 1984. 240 .
57. . / . , . .
.: , 1977. 324 .
58. ..
. : - . . . , 1994. 125 .
59. .. . . .:
, 2000. 780 .
60. .. . :
- . . -, 1979. 228 .
61. . 1. : , 1975. 608 .
62. . 2. : , 1975. 620 .
38.
39.

129

49
57
51
56
58
49
52
57
57
57
51

10, 32
75
5
44

87
89
87
89
89
89
37, 76

57
57
59
7
57

98
108
101
101
101
87
90
90
87
88
88
98
102
103
99

99
91
94, 110
108

57

101,108
101
98
97
91
94, 110
109
97
97
36

25
5
103
99
99
106
104
27
28
27
55
62
114
100
- 5, 6
57
94
90
110
108

41

66
114


91
44
21
89

87

105
37, 76
2 5 26
37, 76
36
36

36
35
36
55
20, 23
94
5, 56
9
44
9
8
87

104
40
87
97
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20
5

31

93, 110
92
92
57
10
100
49

107
40
77
7
12
87
28
58

41
41
42
41
88
102
37, 76
28
45
88
89

90
29

56

130

90
49
44, 45
44
108
111
110
110
108
108
110
110
108
104
36

112
90
62
62
115
87
44, 45
101
101
88
88
88
102
5

39
90, 111
99
27
98
91
60
61
93, 110
87
87
88

45
101
70 72
107
63
64
107
94
87
108
25
55

55
36

14

39
110
110
94, 110
55
113
52
89
89
109
88
112
65, 67
68
41
29
89, 109
109
109
94
113
12
13
18
- 14
14
102
22
- 21
- 31
20
30
51
55

11
43
114
112
113
JK 53
RS 49
50
111

97

59
105
40
40
39
41

42
39,43
39
57
57

114

35

108

95
95
93, 110
93
100
93, 110
110
93
97
36
110
93
97
105

88
- 14
31
89
105
108

14
21
44

97
97
97, 110
97, 110
100

20
5
20
- 48
- 21
49
21, 49
20
21
8

44