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. ..


..................3

1. .................................................5
1.1 . ...5
1.2 . .7

2. ............11
2.2. must....................................................................................12
2.3. may might........................................................................14
2.4. should ought.................................................................18
2.5. will would........................................................................20
2.6. can could........................................................................22
2.7. need....................................................................................24

3. .....26
3.1. ...27
3.2. ....28
3.3. ...32
3.4. ........34

...................................................................................................36
.....................................37



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1.1

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1960
,
, , ,
.
1969 .. ,
5



( ),
,
, ..

, .

(1969) :
(hypothetical(suppositional) modality),

;
(verbal modality). ,

;
(unreal modality)

, ;
(negative modality)

.[20: .
245]
1980 , , -,
, -, ,

, -, ,
:
1.

(, , );
(, ,
, );
2. -

;
6

3.

),

(,

, , ;
(1996) :
(. Modalite, . Modus )

,
.

. [18: . 124]
,
.. (1996): (. modality)

(

),

, , ,
.. [23: . 277]
..
. , -
,
. ,
: ,
.

. [13: . 23]
1.2.

..

: .
7

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, .

( ).

.
;
- .
.

(,

() . -
,
,
, , , , ,

.
:

;
- ;

;
.
8

, ,
, ,
,

; (, : , ;
: must, can); (, :
, ; : perhaps, likely); .
-
.

Subjunctive II, : If
you had come in time, we should have been able to catch the train.
..
, ,
, ()
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,

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,
.
- .
. [5: . 36]
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9

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.

10


,
.

2.
,

, .
(,
); ,
. ,
(, , ),
.
.

, .
, ,
.
, ,
.

-.
(Defective Verbs), .. ,
. s 3-
:
-
, 3-
.
must, should - ought, will-would, can-could, may-might,
need

11

, ,
. ,
can may ,
, must, should, might, ,
, , ,
, , perhaps, possibly, probably,
certainly.

.

( ), ,
.
.
2.1. must.
must , ,
. must
, (
) ,
,
.
Your father must be nearly eighty now.
, , .
You must be hungry after your long walk.
, , .
We must have taken a wrong turning.
12

, , .
must , , ..
.
. must
: evidently, apparently, certainly, most likely, probably.
must :
1.

Indefinite Infinitive ,

. Must
, ,
. must
:
He must know her address.

, (),
.

He must be in the
Library now.

, (),
.

must Continuous Infinitive,


, :
Where is he? - He must be walking
in the garden

? - ,

, .

must
,
(to be, to think ..)
2.

Perfect Infinitive ,

. must

,
, . Must
13

, ,
- :
They must have forgotten

, (,

to send us a copy of the

telegram with their letter.

The cases must have been

damaged during the unloading

(),

of the vessel.

.
.. , ,
, must . ,
, (), . ,
(), : The
weather will probably change (is likely to change) to-morrow, The lecture will
probably be interesting (is likely to be interesting).[16.224]
, must
.
,
, .
, , , . ,
, : He probably doesnt
know about it, He probably didnt see her.

evidently.
Evidently, she did not know my address.
2.2.

may - might.

14

, ,
may.
, , . may
,
.
It may rain tomorrow.
, , .
I may be away from home tomorrow.
, , .
may ,
:
1.

Indefinite Infinitive ,

. may

, ,
. may c

() :
He may not know her address. , (),
.
He may come to Moscow in the summer. , ,
.
may Continuous Infinitive,
, :
Where is he?- He may be walking

?-,
15

in the garden.

may
:
He may not know her address. , (),
.
You may not find him there.

(),

2.

Perfect Infinitive may

-
( ) .
May , ,
. may Perfect Infinitive
() :
He may have left Moscow.

, (),

.
He may have lost your

, (),

home- address.

,
may
()
( )
( ),
, , ,
.

16

, may
, ;
may
.
.. might ,
,
:
1.

Indefinite Infinitive,

may Indefinite Infinitive:


He said that she might know

, ,

their address.

, .

2.

Perfect Infinitive,

may Perfect Infinitive:


He said that she might have lost

their address.

, , .

.. might ,
might

-,
( , ).
I don`t know how long the silence lasted. It might have been for half and
hour.
might c
, .
Had she been fourteen instead of twenty-four, she might have been changed by
then (but she was twenty-four, conservative by nature and upbringing).
17

might

.
might , ,
( ), .
might ,
,
() ,
( ),
(),
( ) , , .
2.3.

should ought.

should ought ,
.

.
, should
, , ,
.
It should be about five now.
, , . [8. 241]
should
. .. , should

, ,

must.

18

ought

, , .
Ought

.
should ought


( ),
.
, should ought .
If he started at nine he ought to be (should be) here by four.
,
.
They left at nine, so they ought to (should) have arrived by now.
, ,
.
The author is a well-known expert, so his book ought to be (should be) reliable.
, ,
, .
That should (ought to) please you.
, ( ) .
should ought
, ,
, ( ),
:

19

It ought not to be very hard to find a man who is prepared to come and talk
German to me for an hour. ,
.. ,

ought

, ,

must.

ought:
He/you ought to know it (=he is/ you are supposed to know it).
You ought to be ashamed of yourself.
2.4.

will - would.


will - would. will ,
, . will
, to suppose
, to expect .
will ,
( )
.
This will be the book you`re looking for.
, , , .
That will be the postman, I expect.
, , .
will ,

20

; ,
Present Perfect, ..
, :
The reader will have noticed that some words were given as examples both of
substantives and adjectives. , ,
would
, ,
( ), , .. ( ),
Past Indefinite.
She would be about fifty when she died.
, , , .
That happened a long time ago. I would be about twenty at that time.
. , ,
.
will would
,
( will
) ( will
would ),
.
will ( would)

- :

21

And she was completely demoralized she would be the silly creature!
, ,
would ;
,
, , , :
Hearne smiledThen Myles wouldnt have heard him last night.
Would his name be Ben Rowe, do you remember?
, ,

:
But we hope that you will have gathered from the review of your book in this
mornings Whirlpool that our scientific staff has been quick to seize even remoter
implications of your discovery.
, :
I dont think you will have met him
You know you will have heard how I left that man..

(),
( )
.
2.5.

can - could.

can could
( )
22

,
(
few, little, only, hardly, scarcely ..). can
, .
can
- . can
, :
You can`t really love me, or you wouldnt hesitate. ,

can
,
( ) :
You can`t have tried. , (,
, ).
, can
:
What on earth can he be doing? ?
can ( )

, , ,
, (
) ,
( ):

23

But the war can`t last forever. ,


( ).
He can`t have been a real gardener, can he? ,
( ).
can

.
could ,
,
can; could
, ( ) (
), ( ).
She is married. Married!..But to whom? To an English lawyer. But she
could not love him? , (
).
It was a little gold watch that could not have cost more than ten pounds
(
).
could

() , ,

( ) ( )
.
2.6.

need.

24

need ,

, ( )
, ( )
( ).
It needn`t take you very long.
( ).
need ,
, (
).
need
,
, (
),
.

25

3.
(1969)

[20: .
238].

..

: ,
.
,
,
. -
.
,
, .

,
.
,
;
, , ,
.

, , .
-,
- Yes No. Yes No ,
- ( )
.
.. ,
. ..
26

,
, , ..
, ,

,
. ,
: ,
, ..
, ,


.
3.1. .

:
certainly
of course
no doubt
surely
apparently
assuredly
undoubtedly

indeed
evidently
naturally
obviously
really
actually

perhaps
maybe
probably
possibly

happily unhappily
luckily unluckily
fortunately unfortunately



:
1) , ;
2) , ;

27

3) ,
.

,

.
3.2 .

, , ,
.

. (, of course,
certainly, no doubt, perhaps ..) [2: . 201]. :
- Pickering: He taught you to speak. I couldnt have done that.
- Liza: Of course.
- : , .
- : .
,

. : , ,
(.); , , ? (.).
, , .

,
,
.
, ,
.
28

,
,
.

, ly,

,
. ., :

()

( ), (. .).
:
1.

, ,
: , , , ,
, , . : , , .
, , .
:
, , .
2.

(,

, , ): , , , , , , . : , ,
,

, , ,
. , ,
. , ,
.

29

,
, .
, ,
; ,

,
.
, ,
. , ,
, (), -
.
, ,
, , , ,
, .
(sure, perhaps), (surely,
naturally, really) (maybe, to be sure).
:
-

,
maybe,

perhaps,

probably;
-

fortunately, unfortunately, luckily, unluckily, happily, unhappily;


-

, : really;

: course, sure, surely, to be sure, sure enough, evidently,


obviously, no doubt, naturally, really.
:
1. Perhaps, youre right. , .
30

2. Unfortunately, the weather was bad. , .


3. I really dont know whats to be done. ,

.
4. Maybe Mary is ill. , .
5. No doubt he will come later. , , .
6. Of course I understand it. , .


:
1) -, :
Can I borrow your pen? Of course. - ? .
2) : , ,
;
3) ,

.:

( ). - , ,
( - ). , ,
( - ).
,
. ,
,
. :

, (
, , , );

, (, );

, (-,
, , ..). [6: .56]

31

,
, -
" "
(, , , , , ,
,

..),

, (, , ,
, , , -, , ,
, , , (), , , ,
, , , , , -, .).

( , ).
(
, , , .).
, ,
.

: , , ;
, ,
, .
3.3. .

.
,
,
. , ,
, , ,
, . ,
32

,
.
P r o b a b l y , they were right to keep him.
They were p r o b a b l y right to keep him.
They were right to keep him, p r o b a b l y .
, ,
,
, , ,
, , , , ,

.



.

(
):
Some lingering irritability appeared to find a resting place in Mr. Winkle`s
bosom, occasioned possibly by the temporary abstraction of his coat. (. )
,
(perhaps, maybe, possibly)
.
.
, : most probably.

33

3.4. .

,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, , ,
, .

.
, , perhaps, maybe ; possibly ;
probably , .
.. ,
, , ,
,
. ,
.
, , .
perhaps,
maybe, possibly, probably
.
,
.
,

34

. ,
.
, ,

.

.
, ..; ,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
, , .
, perhaps, maybe, probably, possibly ,
, ..
, .

35

.
must, should, ought, will/would, can/could,
may/might, need.
, , ..
.
,
, ,
.
perhaps,
maybe, probably, possibly.
.
.
.
, .
, ,
. ,
:
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
perhaps, maybe, probably, possibly .

36


1.

.., .. . .1973

2.

.. . (A Grammar of

Present-day English) . 1986


3. .., .., . .
. .1956
4. .., ..
. .1998
5. .., ..
. (A Grammar of Present-day English/ Practical Course).1999
6. M.1996
7. ..
8. .. ( )
9. . . : .
. . - . . . . .: .
, 1983.
10. . . Modern English Grammar: . .: . ,
1976.
11. .., .., ..
: ./ .: . , 1981.
12. .. :

, 1971.
13.

37

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