Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

, 2000.

41, 1

517.982+512.625.5



. .

: - X K, K = R, C . ,
- -. ,
-.
Y
X
f : 2X
0 20 , 20 X. 2X
,
G -. . 16.

[1, 2] - X, (. 1). -
[3].
[4]. C ,
() , ,
()
[58].
-
X , . [1, 2] - -
X 2X
, . . . , (. . 911, 2527),

.
13



X , 2X
,

A
-
 X

- X, 2X
, ,

:
X

X
,

X , 2X
,

14

- X , 2X
,

19
,

0
-.
- ( 28),
( . [912]).
8.1.18 8.1.20 [13]
X P d(x, y),
:
(UP1) d1 , d2 P, max(d1 , d2 ) P;
c 2000 . .

168

. .

(UP2) x, y X d P,
d(x, y) > 0.
d P
, . .
d(x, y) max(d(x, z), d(z, y)) x, y, z X.
X M (X, K)
K, X,
X .
M (X, K) [9, 10], M (X, K) K , K X (
).
- 29. 30 , -
- - . 29 31
- .
1. . X K, K R, C X
, -, X SX ( SX := 2X
0 2 )
(x, C), -, :
(N1) (x, C) = 0 x C;
(N2) C C 0 , (x, C) (x, C 0 );
(N3) (x, C) x X
C SX ;
(N4)S {C }
C := cl( C ) SX (x, C) = inf (x, C ), clX (A) =

cl(A) A X;
(N5) (a) (x + y, cl(C1 + C2 )) (x, C1 ) + (y, C2 ),
(b) (x, C1 ) (x, C2 )+ (C2 , C1 ) ( max
), (C2 , C1 ) := sup (x, C1 );
xC2

(N6) (x, C) = ||(x, C) K, 6= 0;


(N7) (x + y, y + C) = (x, C).
SX ,
(N8) (x, ) = (x, C) < x X C SX ,
X
2X
0 X, 2 G - (. .
).
(X, SX ) := X SX , , - (X, SX , ).
X. - X 2X
0 , (N1)(N4), (N5(b))
(N3). [1, 2] (K1)(K5) .
,
-, (x, C) = inf kx yk. C :=
yC
S 
cl C SX (N4) SX = 2X
0 ,


S
C = cl Int(C ) .

169


2. . (1) X, 2X
- ( -0
X
X
), 20 2 .
(2) (X, SX ) - ( -),
C SX
Cj 2X
0 , Int(Cj )
T
T
Cj+1 j N Cj = Int(Cj ) = C.
j

. C 2X
0 C SX . C =

Vn

(N1) 1, Vn := {x X : (x, C) < 1/n}, n N.


(K3) (N3) 1 Vn ,
, C G -. SX 3 C Cj =
cl(Vj ) = {x X : (x, C) 1/j}, , Vj = Int(Cj ) =: C j .
3. . 2 0
(x, C) (x, Cj ) 1/j x X.
. (N2), (N4) 1 0
(x, C) (x, Cj ) (Cj , C).
4. . (x, C) = sup (x, Cj ) x X.
j

5. . - X C SX
> 0 U 3 0 (U X) , 0 (x, C) (x, cl(C + U )) <
x X. , -
(N3) 1 .
. B X U (. (5.7.1) 5.7.1 [5]). , j N U 3 0 (U
X) , |(x + y, C) (x, C)| < 1/j x X y U , . .
cl(C + U ) Cj . , (x + y, cl(C + U )) (x, C) + (y, U ), (x + y, C)
(x + y, cl(C + U )) + , y U = U |(x + y, C) (x, C)| .
6. . L K-
- X. - X/L -.
. [x] x + L X/L ([x], [C]) = inf X (x + z, C), X - (X, SX ).
zL

: X X/L 1 (U ) X ,
T TU X/L (. 2.4.3 [13]).
1 ( Uj ) = ( 1 (Uj )) Uj X/L,
j

1 ([C]) SX [C] SX/L , , X


X/L , SX = 2X
0 SX = 2 X/L.
X/L ([x], [C]) = 0 , x cl(C + L), . . [x] [C].
C C 0 1 (SX/L ), X (x + z, C) X (x, C 0 ) z L,
, X/L ([x], [C]) X/L ([x], [C 0 ]). > 0 x X zx X , X/L ([x], [C]) + /3 X (x + zx , C) X/L ([x], [C]).
> 0 V , X V 3 0,
, |X (x, C) X (x + v, C)| < /3 v V x X,
|X/L ([x] + [v], [C]) X/L ([x], [C])| < , X/L ([x], [C])

170

. .

[x] X/L [C] SX/L .


inf X (x + z, C) = inf X (x + z, y + C) X ,

zL

y,zL

inf X (x + z, C) inf X (x + z, C 0 ) + inf X (C 0 , z + C)

zL

zL

yL

( max ) C, C 0 1 (SX ),
X/L ,
inf sup X (b, C + y) = sup inf X (b, C + y).

yL bC 0

bC 0 yL

,
X/L ([x] + [y], [y] + [C]) = inf X (x + y + z, y + C) = X/L ([x], [C])
zL

X/L ([x], [C]) = inf X (x + z, C) = inf ((x + z), C) = ||X/L ([x], [C])
zL

zL

x, y X, 0 6= K, L K- . .
7. . - (X, SX , )
(SX )2 DX (A, B) := D(A, B) := (A, B) + (B, A) ( max
).
8. . D : (SX )2 R ,
:
C +E)

(4) D(A+B,
D(A, C) + D(B, E) ( max );
:= cl(A + B).
(5) D(A, C) = ||D(A, C) 0 6= K, A+B
. A 6= B. A B x A \ B (x, B) > 0, , D(A, B) > 0. D(A, B) = D(B, A).
- (A, B) (A, C) + (C, B), D(A, B)
D(A, C) + D(C, B) ( max ). ,
C +E)

D(A+B,
=

(x + y, C +E)
+

sup
xA,yB

sup

(x + y, A+B)

xC,yE

sup (x, C) + sup (y, E) + sup (x, A) + sup (y, B),


xA

yB

xC

yE

. . (4). 6= 0
sup (x, C) + sup (y, A) = ||(sup (x, C) + sup (y, A)),
xA

xA

yC

yC

(5).

9. . X , 2X
, D .
.
(Ci : i N)

2X
0 , D . (Ci : i) , , , D(Ci , Cj ) 1/(min(i, j))2 .

Ci n := {x X : (x, Ci ) 1/n},

i, j, n N,

A2,m :=

[
\
j=1 i,ij

(Ci + Ui,j+m ),

171

Ui,j 3 0 5 ,
2
Ci + Ui,j Ci j , i, j, m N. ,
!

\
[
A2,n A2,m+n
clX
(Ci + Ui,j+n+m+1 ) clX (A2,n+m+1 )
j=1

i=j

n, m N.
X , x X
U3
T
x V 3 x , U clX (V ) V . A2,m 6= ,
m

(x : ) X
X. (x : ) ,
m N x A2,m ,

T
. ,
A2,m =: A1 2X
2,
clX (A2,m+1 ) A2,m , clX (A1 )

m=1

clX (A2,m )

m=2

A2,m = A1 .

m=1

i,n , Cj +U
j,m ) n2 + m2 + (min(i, j))2 , . .
, D(Ci +U
(Ci,n : i + n N) i + n , Ci,n :=
i,n n > 0, n N {0} =: N0 , Ci,0 := Ci , i N. lim D(Ci , A1 ) = 0.
Ci +U
i


X
10. . f : 2X
,
D

2
,
D

X
C 2 .
11. . f : X X ,
(1) (f (x), f (C)) a1 (x, C) + a2 (x, f (B)) + a2 (f (y), C) + a3 (f (x), B) +
a3 (y, f (C)) + a4 (f (y), B) + a4 (x, f (C)) + a5 (f (x), C) + a5 (y, f (B)), a1 +
2(a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 ) 1 x B, y C, B, C 2X
,

(2) D(f (B), f (C)) < k max(D(B, C); D(B, f (B)); D(C, f (C));
f (C));
 D(B,
X
D(C, f (B))) B 6= C, 0 < k < 1/2; f 2X

Y 2X
,

g(Y
)
=
inf
g(C),

g(C)
:=
D(C,
f
(C)).

C2X

f :
2X

2X

.
. (1) ,
D(f (B), f (C)) a1 D(B, C) + b2 D(B, f (B))
+ b3 D(C, f (C)) + b4 D(B, f (C)) + b5 D(C, f (B)),
b2 = b3 = a2 + a3 , b4 = b5 = a4 + a5 . [6]

T : X X X d.
T :
(a) d(T x, T y) < a1 d(x, y) + a2 d(x, T x) + a3 d(y, T y) + a4 d(x, T y) + a5 d(y, T x)
x, y X x 6= y,
(b) u X, f (u) = inf{f (x) : f (x) = d(x, T x),
5
P
x X}, ai 0, 0 <
ai 1.
i=1

T (b) :

172

. .
(a) 0 < k < 1/2 ,
d(T x, T y) < k max{d(x, y), d(x, T x), d(y, T y), d(x, T y), d(y, T x)}

x, y X x 6= y.
9 .
12. .
T
C 2X
.

C =: Z K-
06=K

X, Z C. , x C (Kx) C
X, U X r (0, )
, ((Kx) C) U 0 6= K || < r. x Z,
x Z K. C ,T
x+y Z
x, y Z. C , Z = n C n

n K, n 6= 0, lim n = 0. -
n

X/Z X, 2 Cj 2X
0 Cj C
T
T
X/Z
C + Z = (Cj + Z). 0 2 , {0} =
n (Cj + Z), 0 X/Z.
j

n,j

C 2X
y C, 0 (C y). 0 C,

Cj C, Cj Cj+1 j N,
T
Cj = C, Cj 2X
0 . X ,
j

Cj

Uj .
T
T
TT
n ( cl(Uj )) = ( n cl(Uj )) =: Y K- n

X, Y 2X
, Y C. , X ,
C 2X

y C K- Y X

, Y (C y) Y 2X
.
(x, C) (x + y, Y ) <

x X.



13. . X , 2X
, : A ,
- X .

X
X, 2X
,

X
,
2
,


X, 2X
,

,
.
.
X

X, - X , 6, .
. X . X , .
X Q

X , x :
A

(a) x = {x : x X , A}, x = (x), : X X


,
X ;
(b) C = {L : L X } X K- L

X , L 2X
A, sup (x , L ) < .

TX

T
S Q Ci, X,

(c) C =
C i , N, C i = cl( (
C ) X) Ci, 2X

0
i
A


A , : Ci, 6= X
i N , .
(x, C) x X C TX

-
(d) (x, C) = inf{sup(x , C0 ) : TX 3 ((

173

C0 ) X) C, C0 2X

A}.
12, (b), (N2), (N6), (N7) 5
(x, C) < C 6= A,
C = (C). X ,
(x, C) x X C TX . T
L = n C C TX lim n = 0,
n

0 6= n K, 12 L L := (L) K- X X . (x, L) =
sup (x , L ) X/L, (x , L ) X /L A.

(a)(d) X T 1

i (Int(Ci )) B , C 2X

0
i

A, N. C TX , (c), (d)
x C {i : i , i A} N ,
T 1 0

A. C i 2X
x
i (Ci ) C, C0 2X
0 ,

X
X
C 2X
. 20 TX 2 . TX
, , TX = 2X
.

(N1)(N8).
, X 2X

(N1) x C, x C , (x, C) = 0. ,
(x, C) = 0, 5 C0 , (x , C0 ) = 0
x C0 , , x C, C0 ,
(d). Q
Q
(N2) C := (
C )X B := (
B )X C B
A

A, sup (x , C ) sup (x , B ).

(N3) X.
(N4)
{C :
S
X

X
} 2 cl{ C } 2 

C : 2X
C = C
, , lim


S

2X , D A, cl
C 2X
(. 8).

(d) (N4).
(N5) K- .
(N6) sup (x , C0 ) = || sup (x , C0 ) 6= 0

(d).
(N7) sup (x + y , y + C0 ) = sup (x , C0 ).

X , : X X . (a)(d) (N7) (z, 1 (C ))

= (x , C ) z 1 (x ) C 2X
.
Q
14. . X =: X -



X , 2X
,

- - X, 2X

0 .
0
.

174

. .

. X , II.5.3 [7] X . 0 (x, C) = (x, C)/[1 + (x, C)],


(x, A) := {sup(0 (x, C) : C SX , A C = X }
X , A 2X , x X , 2X
X. , x X U B ,
B X . :
(E1) (x, U ) > 0 , x U ;
(E2) {U B : (x, U ) > 0} x X ;
(E3) (x, U ) x U ;
(E4) U (t, y) x(t, y) Ty = y + T0 eX Fy = y + F0 , U : T0 X B
x : T0 X X , y = lim x(t, y) = y + lim x(t, 0)
Fy

F0

y X , > 0 y X Uy0 B ,


\ [
U (t, y)
cl
Uy0 lim U (t, y) :=
Fy

(y, Uy0 )

EFy
X

> lim (x(t, y), U (t, y)) , e


Fy

tE

X ;

(E5) (a) (x, U ) > a > 0, U (a) B ,


(x, U (a)) a (y, U ) (x, U ) a y U (a),
(b) (x + y, X \ cl(X \ A1 + X \ A2 )) (x, A1 ) + (y, A2 ) ( max
);
(E6) (x, U ) = || (x, U )/[1 + (|| 1) (x, U )] 0 6= K;
(E7) (x, U ) = (x + z, U + z) x, z X U B ;
(E8) (x, X ) = 1.
(E6)(E8) (N6)(N8). - -. (E1)(E5) (N1)(N5) [1, 3, 15; 2, 3, 2],
[1, 3, 1; 2, 2, 3], .

14.1. . {C : A} 2Y0 , Y, 2Y0 , -
.


 > 0 x Y 1 , . . . , n A
n

S
S
, x,
Ci < x, cl
C + .
i=1

14.2. . Ty Fy , Ty = y + T0 eY Fy = y + F0 y Y ; U :
T0 Y (y, Y ) x : T0 Y Y , y = lim x(t, y) =
Fy

y + lim x(t, 0), Y, 2Y0 , - (y, C) 1
F0

(y, C) Y, 2Y0 , (Y ) Y , (y, Y )
y Y , Y , (y, C) y Y
C 2Y0 . (y, lim U (t, y)) lim (x(t, y), U (t, y))
Fy

Fy

y Y .
[2],
lim (x(t, y), U (t, y)) > a(y) Fy

a(y) Y . (y, Int(limFy U (t, y))) a(y) y Y .

175

(y, C) y Y
C 2Y0 a(y) 14.2.
14. B n
T
1
(Ui ), Ui Bi i = 1, . . . , n, : X
U =
i
i=1

X . X
(x, U ) = inf (x , U )/g(|v(U )|), |v| = card(v), v(U ) = {i : Ui =
6 Xi },
v(U )

g(w) = w R C, g(w) = pw p = || > 1


K K. (x, U ) X B
(E1)(E8) . 2.3.11 [13]
Ti - Ti - i 3, 5.
6.7.1 6.7.2 [5]
. , , . B B0
n
T
(Pi , ), X = pr-lim X, (Ui ) Ui = 1
U=
1
i ,
i

i=1

X, , , : X X, (
), , P, X, . 0 (x, C) = sup{(x, U ) : U B U C = }.
(E1)(E7) 0 (N1), (N2), (N4), (N5),
(N7). (E3) > 0 U X ,
0 (x+y, C) 0 (x, C) y U . 0 (y, C) < a(y) Ay X , y cl(Ay ) 0 (z, C) a(y) z Ay ,
a(y) > inf (a(y) 0 (y, C)) = > 0.
yX

z Ay Uz X , (z, z + Uz ) a(y)
(z + Uz ) C = . Fy , , Ay y. lim x(t, y) = y = y + lim x(t, 0),
Fy

F0

Fy = y + F0 y X. (E4), (E7) (N7) 0 Uy B , Uy limFy U (t, y) (y, Uy ) a(y)


y X. Uy C = , , 0 (y, C) a(y)
. , 0 (y, C) y X
0
C 2X
0 . -
0
0
35 X SX , (x, C) = (x, C)/[1 (x, C)]
-, (E6), (E8) (N6), (N8)
1.
15. . L K- K, F K- L, : L K,
. F - L ,
: {x
L : |(x) (x0 )|K < }, > 0, x0 L, F .
16. . K- L F - -.
. L K ,


 L U =
n
P
xL:
pi (x) < , > 0, i = 1, . . . , n, n N, pi (x) := |i (x)|, i F .
i=1

176

. .

F C
x L, ,
x = 0, y C F (y) 6= 0. coker()
L, 0
/ (C) (z)
/ (z + C) z L.
2.3.20

[13],

Q
L ,
K =: X, F , K = K .
F

X 2X
14 - X ,
- L L (x, C) := X (x, cl(C)),
cl(C) = clX (C) X C L, C 2L
.
X
Cj 2L
0 c Sj 20 ,
L
X
Sj L = Cj T
, ,
C 2 Cj 2L
0 Sj 20
T
X
,
Cj = C
Sj =: S 2 , S L = C, . . cl(C) = S.
jN

jN

17. . K X -
X 2X
.
. , X - X 2X
. X0 X , X X0
K. 6.107 [5] K-
M . pE (x) := inf{|a| :
0 6= a K, x aE}, E k k0 , M =
T

[M + B(X,
0, 1/n)] G -, M + B(X,
0, 1/n)
nN

, B(X,
y, r) := {x X : kx yk0 < r}. X ( )
K, . .
(ei : i N) , K X, . .
spK (ei : i N) X. K , e K,
e . .
e K,
X
e L, X
eL . ,
X
- X e , X
eL . , C 2X
X,

e
eL 2XeL , C1 2X

X
=
C,

X
1
1

.
(x) := (x, M1 ) X k kX ,
kkX X. X0 , X0 , X X0 ,
M 2X
, M 6= X X0 M k kX K-
X X0 . M1 := M {x X : kxkX 1}.
1 (0) = M1 (N1) clX (M1 ) = B := {x X : kxkX 1}
. M1 6= B, .
.
2X X 2X
, X. X1 = X Ke. - , X1 ,
X , kxkX := (x, Ke).
18.1. . W SX ,

aA+bB
W a, b K |a| 1, |b| 1, a + b = 1 A, B W .
18.2. . B0

177

X. 1 SX JX ( X
G -) JX = 2X
bo ( JX = 2b ).
E SX JX ,
B0 , B0 E aC E C E, a K, 0 < |a| 1.
18.3. . V SX ,
C JX r (0, +) , aC V 0 <
|a| r. A SX B SX , r (0, +)
, aA B |a| r, a K.

18.4. . E SX , aE +bE
2 := {aA+bB

E 0 6= a, 0 6= b K |a| + |b| 1, aE1 +bE


:A

E1 , B E2 } E1 E2 SX , aA+bB
:= clX {ax + by : x A, y B}.
18.5. . E SX ,
C0 SX
U C0 (SX , D) r (0, +) , C U
C E K || r.
19. . Xn , K, , Xn
Xn+1 n. X = str-indnN Xn - 2X
bo \ {} = .
. , (X, SX ) - D SX . R C 12.1.3 [5] [5, 12.111],
Xn X.
C0 , 18.5, V (, C0 ) := {A SX :
D(A, C0 ) < }. C0 (N2), (N6)
D(, C0 ) ||D(A, C0 ), , V (, C0 ) . A 2X
bo
6= C0 2X
bo , 0 Int(C0 ), A r (0, +) A C0 || r, , A V (, C0 )
K c 0 < || < R, R := /D(A, C0 ). V (, C0 )
2X
bo . .
20. . M
X. U C0 M =: B0 2M
0 (.
,

U
=
V
2M
18), V 3 C0 2X
0
0 .
M X C
/ U , V , C M
/ V.
. R C 12.1.2 [5]
[5, 12.111], ,
M X,
U M V
X , U = V M ; M x
/ U , V
, x
/ V . 18
20.
21. . B 2X
0 ,
(Cj : j) B
(tj : j) K lim tj = 0 U 18.5 m N ,
j

tj Cj V j > m.

178

. .

. 7.1.3 [5], , B X, B
, (bn ) B (tn ), 0, (tn bn )
0. tn = n K c 0 < || < 1
1/n. 18 21.
19. C0 X,
18.5, V (tn , C0 ) (SX , D)
, lim tn = 0, |tn | < 1 n. Xn 6= X,
n

20 Cn V (tn , C0 ) \ Xn n N. 12.1.4(a) [5] B X ,


k N , B Xk B Xk .
C0 2X
bo , C0 X, . . C0
0 6= K. , 2X
bo \ {} =
T.
, C0 18.5 U (tn , C0 ) C0 0 < || < 1,
n
S
U (t, E) :=
C, CV (t,E)

(Cn : n).
, T
W (SX , D) 2 C0 V ((tn )k(n) , C0 ) W V (||, 2 C0 ) 3 2 C0
n

0 < || < 1, 1 < k(n) N, tn Cn


/ V ((tn )k(n) , C0 ), 5, , C0 2X
0 Int(C0 ) 3 0,
2 C0 C0 X.
U 3 0 U +
Cn V (tj , C0 ) n j V (tj , C0 ) C1 , . . . , Cj1 , . . V (tj , C0 )
(Ci : i N). 21, , X
-.

22.
SX ,
T . X . Ci SX , C1 +C2 T
2 = (C1,n +C2,j ).
Ci =
Ci,n 2 Ci,n , C1 +C
n,j

nN

X
, SX = 2X
0 SX = 2
, . Ci Fi , , 2 F1 +F
2 . C1 +C
2 F1 +C
2
, C1 +C
(monotone cancellation) C1 F1 .
SX TX := SX {0}. ,
(0, {0}) := 0, (x, C) = ||(x, C) x X, K
C SX .
8.4.8 [5] [5, 8.203] (. [14, . 5]) X = (X M )M
K M
() : X Ke, = . 0 6= e X
K
R [0, ) R,
(A) :=
(dx) = (A Ke) (SX , D). AKe

Ce SKe C SX , C = 1 (Ce ),
C Ke = Ce , - - e Ke, e (x, Ce ) := (x, C),
1 Ke
x Ke, 2X
(2 ) 2X
0 SX
. X R
C, TX , X K
(A+C)
max((A), (C)) A, C TX ,
(C) = ||K (C) K. d(C) := (0, C) ,

179

. . d(A+C)
d(A) + d(C) ( max ),
d(C) = ||K d(C) K. d,
TX .
2(iii) 4 ( ) [15].
23.1. . - X Y X Y X SX Y SY0 , SY SY0 eY , eY
Y (N1) Y
C Y , C SY0 . f : X Y
, f (SX ) SY0 , G(f ) := {(x, C, f (x), f (C)) :
x X, C SX } X SX Y SY0 =: Z. f ,
f |(X, ) : (X, ) (Y, ) K- G(f ) Z , SX SY0 , ,
DX DY , X Y K.
23.2. . X SX .
23.3. . X SX ,
X , V X SX (0, C0 )
C0 2X
0 .
23.4. . f : (X SX ) (Y SY0 )
, f : (X {}) (Y {})
V 3 (0, B0 ) (Y SY0 )f (XSX ) cl(f 1 (V ))
(0, C0 ) (X SX ) C0 S X , f ((0, C0 )) = (0, B0 ).
24. . X SX ,
f : X SX Y SY , X ,
, X Y K.
. X SX . f
f 1 (aA + bB) = f 1 (A) + f 1 (B) A, B SY . V
Y SY , cl(f 1 (V )) X SX , cl(f 1 (C0 , ))
X C0 Y , , f .

X SX .
25. . (X, SX , X ) (Y, SY0 , Y ) - K, Y (. . 23).
f : X SX Y SY
.
. X {} X SX , , G(f ) Z Z, Z = X {} Y {}. 14.3.4
[5] , f |(X {}) . f |({0} SX ). (N7) Y
0 B0 B0 SY f 1 (B0 ) SX
Vi Y
i , C) 2n }, Vi+1 +V
i+1 Vi
Wi,n := {C SY : DY (B0 +V
i+1,n Wi,n , DY (B0 , B0 +V
i ) < 2i (
i N, n N, Wi+1,n +W
5). Ui,n cl(f 1 (Wi,n ))
{0} SX . f |(X {}) 2 1
1
i) =
f 1 ({0} 2Y0 ) {0} 2X
({0} 2Y ) {0} 2X
(B0 +V
0 f
, f
1
1
e

f (B0 )+f (Vi ). X X.


f |(X {})

180

. .

e {}, G(f) X
e {} Y {}.
f X
Y (f (x), f (C)) x X C SX , 3, 4 8 , f 1 (Wi,n )
.
14.4.4(a) [5] f : X {} Y1 {}
e
, Y1 {} = f(X {}), X,
e
Y1 . , X/N
Y1
, N {} = f1 ({0} {}) X {}. f1 (Wi,n )
= {E +N
: E Wi,n } f1 (Wi,n ) (X SX ) = f 1 (Wi,n ).
Wi,n +N
26. . f : X SX Y SY0 X , (X SX ) (Y SY0 )
- , Y .
(a) X , f .
(b) X Y , X , f .
. 24
25, 14.3.3 [5],
X Y .
27. . (X, SX ) (Y, SY ) - , X
, f : X SX Y SY ,
X {}, f (X SX ) = (Y SY ). f .
. f |(X {}). 14.4.1 [5] , A X Y . 25 , f . N = f 1 ({0} {}). N
X {} : X {} (X {})/N =: M ,
f : M SM Y SY , 1 (SM ) = SX .
M , , f , G(f1 ) . 25 f
, , f .
28. . - (X, SX ) ( (Y, SY )) x X ( y Y ) X (x, C) ( Y (y, C)) C SX ( C SY
). h : X Y ,

(S1) h ;
(S2) h(SX ) SY ;
(S3) Y (h(x), h(C)) X (x, C) x X C SX .
- h :
(S4) h .
- (M, SM )
M = M (X, K) - M (x, A) , F K h :
X F (. . h (S1)(S3)) H : M F , H|w(X) h w1 ,
w : X M (. . 1), X 1, {X (x, C) : x
e K := {|b|K : b K}, K .
X, C SX }

181

29. . (X, SX , X ) - ,
. 28. - M , ,
-.
. M (X, K) (. ), X. B M (X, K)
m
S
, A B A =
Aj
j=1

Aj , Aj = aj + Bj ,
k(j)
P
Bj = clM Cj , Cj =
rj,l J(Dj,l ). rj,l > 0 K = R
l=1

C, rj,l K := K \ {0} K, J(Dj,l )


,
j,l )]), w X
 Dj,l SX , J(Dj,l ) = cl(ac[w(D
n
n
P
P
M (X, K), ac(E) := x : x M (X, K), x =
bi xi , bi K,
|bi | 1, xi E,
i=1
i=1

n N E, aj M (X, K),
aj =

n(j)
P

tj,l bj,l , tj,l K, bj,l = w(zj,l ), zj,l X, n(j) N. ,

l=1

A B (. . x A U 3 x M ,
((U A) y) M y A), Bj 3 0
j = 1, . . . , n.
f -
X , . . f : M (X, K) B K, :
(A1) |f (x, A)| X (y, D) x = w(y), A = J(D), D SX , y X;
(A2) |f (x, E)| |f (x, C)| E C;
(A3) f (x, A) x M (X, K) A;

(A4) |f ((x, A)+(z,


E))| |f (x, A)| + |f (z, S)|, (x, A)+(z,
E) := (x +

z, A+E) A, E A+E B, x z M (X, K);


(A5) |f (x, A)| |f (x, E)|+sup |f (z, A)| ( max
zE

(A4), (A5) );
(A6) |f (bx, bA)| = |b| |f (x, A)| b K;
(A7) f (x, A z) = f (x + z, A) x z M (X, K).
(A2) |f (x1 x2 , J(E))| pE (y1 , y2 )
xi = w(yi ), yi X, pE (y1 , y2 ) := |X (y1 , E) X (y2 , E)|.


ac() = ,
 F

n
P
spK () = , spK E := x : x =
hi xi , xi E, hi K, n N .
i=1

, F x X f F
, f (y, A) = X (x, E), y = w(x), A = J(E), E SX .

f (y, A) = fE (y, A)

( n
)!
X
X
X


:= max 0,
qi X (xi , E)
tj,l (zj,l , E)
|rj,l |K (Dj,l , E)
,


i=1

j,l

j,l

(1)

182
y =

. .
n
P

qi yi , yi = w(xi ), xi X, n N.

i=1

g(y) :=

qi X (xi , E)

g(y) := X (w1 (y), E), M .


(A1), (A3). X (x, E) X (y, D) + X (D, E), (A5) (
max ). J(Dj,l ) b K bJ(Dj,l ) = J(bDj,l ) (1) (A6).
2 J(D2 ) (r1 +r2 )J(cl(D1 D2 )), (A4) , r1 J(D1 )+r
(|r1 | + |r2 |)
X (cl(D1 D2 ), E) |r1 |
X (D1 , E) + |r2 |
X (D2 , E) ( max
), (cl(D1 D2 ), E)
X (Di , E), |ri | > 0, Di SX . (A2), (A7) (1)
B.
M SM :
(y, A) :=

inf

EA,EB

(y, E),

(2)

(y, E) := sup |f (x, E)|

(3)

f F
X
M
X
y M E B, SM = 2M
0 SX = 20 , SM = 2 SX = 2 .
, (N1)(N8) B SM .
, (A2) (N2), (A4), (A5)
(N5), (A6)(N6), (A7)(N7). x A. j ,
x aj Bj , A aj Bj , (N2), (N7)P(x, A) (x aj , Bj ).
z = x aj z =
rj,l zl zl J(Dj,l ), rj,l K.
l

(A1), (A2), (A4), (A6) (x, A) = 0, X (x, D) = 0


x D, (A5)(N5).S A B clM A B (3), (N2), (A2)

(N4). |X (x1 , E) X (x2 , E)| =: pE (y1 y2 )


w(X), , M pE (z) M , yi = w(xi ).
2 A1 A2 Ai E i B E i = ai + ri J(Di ), Di SX , ri > 0
E 1 +E
R C, ri K , ai spK w(X). (N5)

|(y + s, A1 ) (z + s, A2 )| (y z, E 1 ) + (z y, E 2 ).

(4)

(A1)(A7) (3) pDi M ,


(y, E i ) pDi (y ai ) spK w(X), , (y, A)
y M A B, (N7)
a1 = a2 .
(A1), (A2), P
(A4), (A6)
E SX ,
P
|f (y, A)| |qi |X (xi , E)+ |tj,l |X (zj,l , E).
i

j,l

f F , |f (w(x), J(E))| = X (x, E) (A2) (w(x), J(E)) = X (x, E), ,


(w(x), J(E)) = X (x, E).

(5)

183

M M = prlim B(Xd , K) B(Xd , K), -

dP

Xd := X/Rd , Rd X , xRd y d(x, y) = 0, d P,


P X, ,
X = pr-lim Xd . spK Xd kyk := sup |g(y)|,
dP

gG

, B(Xd , K), G g : spK Xd K, . .


|g(v(x1 ), v(x2 ))| d(x1 , x2 ) xi Xd |g(z)| 1
z Xd , v : Xd spK Xd . d : X Xd
d :
M (X, K) B(Xd , K) ,
d
Rd , Cd 2X
d )1 (J(Cd )) = J((d )1 (Cd )) 2M
, B(Cd , K)
. (
B(Xd , K) M ((
d )1 (C
),
K)
G -
d
S
M (X, K). , B(Cd , K) , n J(Cd ) = B(Cd , K),
n

lim |n | = , , IntB(Cd ,K) (J(Cd )) 3 0 3.9.3 [13]


n

, v : Xd B(Xd , K) (. [9, 10]).


(, SM ) (, B) (N1), (N2),
(N5), (N6)(N8) . (2), (4) (N7) , |(y, C)
(z, C)| pD1 (y z) + pD2 (z y) C SM , y, z M , . . (y, C)
y M . , (y, A) 0,
y A, (y, A) = 0 (N2), (N7), (N8). y
/ A, E SX
fE F fE (y, A) 6= 0, (y, A) > 0, X M
(A7). y + z
/ z + A,
A0 = z + A 3 0 y + z
/ E. , - M (M, SM )
.
M
, h : (X, SX ) (Y, SY ), -,
H : M (X, K) M (Y, K). X (x, C) = Y (h(x), h(C)) F (M (X, K), B) F h1 (M (Y, K), BY )
M (X,K) (y, E) = M (Y,K) (H(y), H(E)) (M (X, K), SM ).
30. . - X K
K- N - (M (X, K), SM ) , X -
- X = M (X, K)/N .
. 6 - , - (M, SM ) 29, M (w(x), J(C)) = X (x, C) x X,
C SX . I : X X ,
IM : M X -
(. . 29). IM . 2.4.3
[13] IM , N = ker(IM ).
[16] 29 .
31. . U , -
X U , {HomM (X, Y ) : X, Y U }, (. . 28),
M . B, - (X, SX )

184

. .

K, {HomN (X, Y ) : X, Y B},


, N ( Nf ,
Bf - ).
, M Nf .

1. . . // . .. 1976. . 31, 5. . 191226.


2. . . - // . . . .. 1979. . 43,
2. . 442477.
3. . . - // . .. 1993.
. 48, 1. . 173174.
4. Attouch H., Lucchetti R., Wets R. J.-B. The topology of the -Hausdorff distance // Ann.
Mat. Pura Appl.. 1991. V. 160. P. 303320.
5. Narici L., Beckenstein E. Topological vector spaces. New York: Marcel-Dekker Inc., 1985.
6. Telci M., Tas K. Some fixed point theorems on an arbitrary metric space // Math. Balkanica
(N. S.). 1992. V. 6, N 3. P. 251255.
7. . . .: , 1971.
8. Wlodarczyk K. Existence and uniqueness of fixed points of compact maps in bounded domains of real and complex Banach spaces // Atti Sem. Mat. Fis. Univ. Modena.. 1993. V. 41.
P. 103107.
9. . . //
. .. 1994. . 49, 6. . 207208.
10. . . // . . ..
1995. . 1. . 979987.
11. . . //
. .. 1986. . 20, 1. . 8182.
12. . . // . .. 1964. . 63, 4.
. 582590.
13. . . .: , 1986.
14. Rooij A. C. M. van. Non-Archimedean functional analysis. New York: Marcel Dekker inc.,
1978.
15. Topsoe F. The naive approach to the Hahn Banach theorem // Comment. Math.. 1978.
V. 21. P. 315330.
16. ., . . .: , 1972.
27 1997 .
.

Оценить