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: .., 2010-2011.

.
0

: () - ,

, .
: ,
.
, . : A B.
: , , : , (
). A:

A.

: A, N, , . 0 .

1. , A
D.
I
A.
a1 . A - , A \ {a1 } ,
a2 .
A\{a1 , a2 } , a3 . A ,
{a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .},
D.

2. , .
I
, , A , ,
{a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .} (
an n). , A - , B
. A
. ,
B,
. B "" , , ,
.
1

3. ,
.
I
Ak .
:
(1)

(1)

(2)

(2)

(n)

(n)

A1 = {a1 , a2 , . . . , a(1)
n , . . .},
A2 = {a1 , a2 , . . . , a(2)
n , . . .},
...
An = {a1 , a2 , . . . , a(n)
n , . . .},
...
(1)

(2)

a1 , a1

(1)

a2 ,

3, , 4, ..,

F
S =
Ak
k=1
(1)

(2)

(1)

(3)

(2)

(1)

{a1 , a1 , a2 , a1 , a2 , a3 , . . .},
.

4. E - , D E, D ,
E\D . , E\D E .
I
D F E.
, 1, E\D . :
E = (E \ D) D = (E \ D \ F) (D F) (E \ D \ F) F = E \ D.
, .

5. , A B , , AB A.
I
, 1, A C.
A \ C = D,
A B = D (C B) D C = A.
, .

2

6. A - . B (, B A, A \ B ), A.
I
P = {pk }
k=1 A, C = A \ P. ,

P1 = {p2k1 }
k=1 , P2 = {p2k }k=1 , B = A \ P2 .

, .. P P1 , ,
B = A \ P2 = C P1 C P = A.

7. ( )
a R ,
: bn xn + bn1 xn1 + . . . + b1 x + b0 = 0,

bj Z. ,

A .
I
, , {Aj }
j=1 , . .
n = 2 C = A B, A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .}, B = {b1 , b2 , . . . , bn , . . .}.
i
Ci = {(ai , bj )}
, Ci , C =

Ci .

i=1

, (n1) . D = D1 . . .Dn1 .
, D .
D1 . . . Dn = D Dn ,
. ,
.
, An , , n.
, .
n. ,

S
An . A =
An , A .
n=1

: R ,
( ) .
: , , Qn (..
) .
3

: , [0; 1],
. c.

8. , ,
- [0; 1), (0; 1] (0; 1) .
I
:

x,
x 6= 1/n, n N,
f (x) =
1 , x = 1/n, n N.
n+1
f (x) [0, 1] [0, 1). .

- R, (0; +), [0; +), (; 0] (; 0) .
I
, (0, 1) .

(0, 1) R , 

. R (0; +) f (x) = ln x.
, f (x) = tg x
2
, .

9. [0; 1]
[0; 1][0; 1].
I
, [0, 1] .
, . , ( , , ).
[0, 1]. x [0, 1] \ Q, : x = 0, x1 x2 . . . xn . . . .
x
f (x) = M (y, z) [0, 1] [0, 1], y = 0, x1 x3 . . . x2n1 . . . ; z = 0, x2 x4 . . . x2n . . . .
y, z (
x). , y = 0, y1 y2 . . . ; z = z1 z2 . . . ,
M (y; z) ([0, 1] [0, 1]) \ (Q Q) ,
M x = 0, y1 z1 y2 z2 . . ., x [0, 1] \ Q.
4

10.
.
I
I , {rn }
, , r1 = 0 ( ).
R I, n:

Q = R \ I 3 rn 2n 2 I,

R 3 n 2 (2n + 1) 2 I.
. , .


: A B ,
B1 B : B1 A @A1 A : A1 B,
, A < B.

11. , :
-
.
I
M =

Mi , Mi = c, i N. , M

i=1

. , Mi [i1, i), i = 1, 2, . . . . M [0; +),


M .

- .
I
M =

M , M = c, I = c. :

x [0, 1],
n
o


M (x, y) y (0, 1) .
M [0, 1] [0, 1]. ,
, .
5

12. ( ) X , 2X
, X. , X ,
2X .
I
.. X 2X , 2X > X . ,
. , 2X X,
. x X (x) 2X , 2X (x)
, x X.
x X "", x (x) (.. x , ), "" . , ,
X, , " ,
, , "". ,
x X , .
B ""( "") X. B 2X ,
x0 X, .. B = (x0 ). x0 "" ""? ,
"". , x0 (x0 ) = B. , .. B
"", x0 " . , x0 "". , B, x0 B = (x0 ),
, , , x0 "". , x0 "
" , " "".
2X X.


1, x A,
: A (x) =
0, x
/ A.
A.
: [0; 1]
.

13. ,
[0; 1] .
I
, [0, 1], , , .
, .
,
[0, 1] R. , ..
[0, 1] R [0, 1] [0, 1].

6


[1] .. .
[2] .., .. .
[3] .. .
[4] .. .

/ nikitin@cs.msu.su