Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

2.29. ) '2=21=900; ) yV = (l +r+JN1 = 1600; ) N = A -J'1=400.

2.30. . . 10.
2.31.
?, = x-Ak. () . 11. ,

42. 2/.
2.33. = 6/2, ax\/nbx;2o.
2.34. , , px<(h(u/c) x
tg9. 115
: Apxx(hu>/c)tg!-Bnh/X)sin 9. Axzzd=X/sin 9. AxApxx2nh.
2.35. , , ^'-
( ) Ay<d/2,
d . ,
- Ap'y^2h/d.
,
, Ap'y<sipBi, p = 2nhjX, Q^zzX/d, X ,
. . <2//^.
,
, ',
.
2.36. = 0,5 , 2-2 0,1/.
2.37. &vx,l 106 /; , =2,2-106 /. - ^

2.38. Axxhl/mAxo\ -3 !
2.39. 22/12 = \5 . = 1/2 .
2.40. Av/vxi2h/y/2ml2K = 1,2-10-*. = //2.
2.41. ^&-\02/12. = 1/2.
2.42. <x = Apyjp = hlsJ2md1 = 1,3 . . .
2.43. AxKhllj2md2eU =8 .
2.44. ;: = 3 , //2 10"8.
2.45. 5/
8/4 =F5/, d?.
F=dE/dlx4h2jml3 = 2EUBH/l. , = 1/2 .
2.46. vxAv,
:
= + U=h2 /22 + 2 /2.
d?/dx: = 0 : ?. /2.
2.47. v&Av, :
d?CB/dr = 0 r&h2jmbtt.e2 = Q,5 10~8 ECBza
14/22 = \3,,6.
2.48. ,
:
2(2 /2m-5*2e2 lr) + b*e2 /2rh2 /mr2 -^-le2 /2,
^2/2 .
r&4h2/7^2 = 0,3 ~8 ; = G/4J
52*/2=-83 . -79 .
2.49. 1/(:/:) = 2-103.

2.50. + ' + 2/, b ,


' ,
( ), .
, = /2. Alb) b~y/2hl/mvx 10 .
2.51. U ,
*?(, t) = \\i(x)f(t).
, :
116
^(),
. : /(/)~( i@n/),
= /-
2.52. .
,
.
2.53. U=0,
*(, t) = ty(x)/(/)
>(, t) = Ae-^'-kx\ m = Ejh, k=pjh.
2.54. *?(, , z, /) = <|/(.x, , z )/(/)

:
/+1/=0, =?/;
: /(/) = ~""'.
: ty(x, , z) = X(x)- Y(y)-Z(z). \|/
E=EX + Ey + Ez. X, Y, Z

X: + BmEJh2)X=0.
: X(x) = e\p(ikxx), = ^/2~/h. , Y(y)
Z(z). :
4>(x,y,z, t) = Ae^"-k'\
, k = ^/kx + ky+kz =^/2mE/h=pfh, k = p/A.
2.55. ?/=0, \\/ = ex )
= ^/2 /h. , >0.
2.56. - *(-, t)=Ae^kx~wt\
:
m = mv2 /2h = a>'+(mvo/2h)Bv' + v0).

ko mvo/h, @0 = mVo/2h.
'- ( -).
2.57. 0<<1:
117

.
v|/@) = 0 i|/(/) = 0, = , sinkt=0 !=, =1, 2, ... (
= 0 , i|/ = 0, . .
. ,
\|/- ).
,
?.
j
: ji)/2(.x)dx=l.


. (*)
>|/ = sinfcc+Scosta-; (|/ = ' + ~'.
2.58. a) E=h2k2/2m; ) E=n2h2(N-\Jjlml2.
\2 (cos(nnx/l), =1, 3, 5, ...,
2.59. (*)^ j^^^ = 2i 4, 6, ...
2.60. a) m = 5n2h2/212AE; ) = ( )()
2.61. ? (. 2.57) dE/E=2dn/n.
dN=(ljnh)y/m/2EdE.
2.62. ) ?=22/^/3; ) =(|2-1)2/!2/2/2.

2.63. w=- sin2( W=-+ 0,61.


/JVl)32
2.64. /=2 ()
2.65. :
:
\\i(x, )~ $,1)-,2),
=0 j = 0 .
&, :
\\i(a, y) = 0, ki=nln/a, , = 1,2
|/(, fc) = 0, k2 = n2n/b, 2 = 1,2
\J/(jc, J-') fc2 = Ar2 + /t|
+=(22/2)(2/2+1/*2).
,4 . :
2.66. w=(I/3-v)

2.67. ?=2, 5, 8 10 n2h2/2ml2.


2.68. E=n2h2
118
2.69J nt 2
(ijz-). (d/Zi, )
dN = dnidn2- \ + \ = 2, 1=1/, 2 = 2/,
^ 2.
fc- .
, . .
. '/4 ,
fc, 2 (
, ijz-).
(),
k + dk 1/4 ,
, k2 = 2mE/h2, : dN (abm\2ith2S)dE.
2.70. , 2.65.
?, = (22 /2)(2 + 22/ 2 + 23/2),
, 2, 3 , .
2.71. a) E=(n2h2/2ml2)(nl + n22 + n23), AE34 = n2h2/ml2.
) 2 + \ + 1=\4. ,
, : 1, 2 3.
, ,
, . . .
2.72. dN = (abcm3l2/s/2n2h3)s/EdE- -

2.69.
2.73. ,
:
;( + 8)-(-8)= J Bm/h2)(E-U)^dx.
-s
U |5|>0 .
v|/i( + 0) = \)/;(-0).
2.74. ) :
ij/',4fc2i|/,=0'
:
v|/i (x) = asin(kx + a), \\i2(x) = be~*x~irce*x
. (J/^O^O ,
= . ijz- , = 0. ,
= 1 tgfc/= fc/x,
sin kl=J~h2 /2ml2 Uokl.
(. 12),
.
, .
, tgfc/<0, . .
119
12
(
) , (
) ,

) - kl=Bn 1)/2, /2*/0 =


= B 1J22/8
2.75. ) , , ,
sm(/v/imU0 //i) = v/2/2 !^/mUa / = /4 ( , ,
) /2*/0 = 9/1622/,
) di|/2/dx = 0, i^oosinfct, = /2 = 21/3 ( 13),
) > w,

bja <i/i
, wa + iv,= l,
) = v|/2(/), ^ = = /4/
)=14,9%
, < U,

,
, ,

,
2.77. ) /2*/0<2,06/2/ 2,06h2/m<l2Uo<l2Mi2/m
2.78.
<0, (|/1=(), = /2(?/0-)//,
\\i v|/' = 0 = /
tga = A7*> tg(kl+a)= /,

sin a = hk I y/2mU0, sin(W + a)= /


,
kl= 2 arcsm (hk j^fbnU^),
(*)
120
= 1, 2, , arcsm
( 0 /2) arcsm
,
ku^c yj2mVojh

(*) ( 14, 1,
2 =1,
2, 3)
i*, , -S ,

Uo fcMaKC ( /
) ( 14),

,

2.79. ) =1 (*)

E=Uoj2 fc/=7t/2, /2 ,/ = 22/4,


) (*) 14 , ,
, , kl = n, 2, , ( 1), arcsm
hk = yj2mU0
/2UQ = {n-lJn2ti2/2m, = 2, 3,

= 4
2.80. ?!=2/2/182
2.81. U(x) = 2(a.2h2lm)x2, ?=/2/
2.82. U(x)=-ah2lmx, ?=-22/2
2.83. ) ?=//2, ) ?=3/2
2.84. = (+112)
2.85. ) 0=(</^)) ^
) 2 = (.12^'2
2.86. = + 1 / >, 15
2.87. xlBep = 0, x2Bep=v/^/a 15
> = 2//2
2.88. ) =!//2?, )
2.89. ) = 1/,
) Wo=
^ = J = J j, ( )
100
2.90.
>0 ,

X
121
, ,
\|/@) = 0. ,
? = B' + 3/2), ' = 0, 1, 2, ...
,
(' = 0) .
2.91. ) \jf = X(x) Y(y)Z,z).

Z, + + = -
, .
:
)
, 2< ">
.
,, , 3 \.
2 ( 3 -- n ni + X,
0 ~. 1
2, 3
2.92. >0 (.
. 2.9) :
.
i|/@) = 0 , ~~-
w(x) = \|'|/* = 4a sin2 fc.r.

>()
= (./4), X, B/).
2.93. >0 (. . 2.10)

^)/h.
^- , = 0. , 1 (.v)cv e >".
=!/2. ,~0,1 .
2.94. ) :
122
. 16
X
,-
^- , 2=0- i|/ >|/' = 0
1+61=62. * b1=i(x/k)b2.
^ :
) EUo/2, fc = K
w ( ^ 0) = ! (|/ f = 22 A - sin 2kx),
'() . 16.
2.95. :
exp( \^), kl
- Ua)/h.
,.
v|/ v|/' = 0
R D

D=\-R=4kik2/(k1+k2J.
2.96. Wi(x)=lb/9a21(\~3/ism2kix), w2{x)=lbjqa\, , kl =yJ8/3mUa/h. . . 17.
2.97. ) R\ 4^/E/Uq. / E<scU0,
R ;
) R*(UO/4EJ.
2.98. ) :
<0,
= J2mEjh,
,
, i|/3 ,
123
.

3 4
D=
=1
J 2. .V1 (. U0sm2k0l
4E(E+U0
6) DmO,95.
2.99. D=l , sinkol(). kol=nit,
E=n2h2n2l2ml2-UQ.
UK' il hc.iuc .iu i.i .[.ii i.vii.)(nj\ / -
kot=nn 2(, X . ,

,
, , .
?=!4 ( = 2).
2.100. /?=1?), R
D, . |sinfco'l=I- kol=Bn+ 1)/2, = 0, 1, 2,...,
X .
2.101. ) 2.98, .
, kQ = ^/2m,EU0)/h:
E-^U0 Z) = (l +m/21*70/22) '
) ?>=1 ?=(2/2/2/2)2+?/0=,5 16 , = 1 2
= 0 E=UQ /)<1, ).
2.102. )
> Uo (. 2.98) 0<</:
,
-/! ( 2.98, ) 0 ix:
a,
=r.
sh2 /
0 / "
!8 shx/=(e'd-e-'")/2;
124
16/c2X2
6) Z><Kl x/:l. shx/=e"'/2 Dx-^ ~2*' =
) D~0,2T, /)~10~47.
2.103. ) . . 18;

) \\i = ae*x~\-be "*, = ^/2(' E)/h,


w@) v|/v|/*(O)_ (l+
v|/ i|/' = /

2.104.
2.105. Z)exp[-Gt//A)v/2m/t/0(t/0-?)].
3.1. . , A 2v|/ = A (/)v|/).
3.2. ) B x2)cosx 4xsinx; (I x2)cosx sinx;
) B + 4jc + x2je*; A +3 + 2)*
3.3. ) ^=4; ) = \; ) ^ = -2.
3.4. a) i|/ = Cea*, . = 2/, = 0, 1, 2, ...;
) i|/ = Csin(v/Xx), ^ = (//J, =1, 2,...
3.6. ) /4(+ C)-(S+C)i = *i, + + *^, +;
) (\-,)=- + -=,, ++*, +.
3.8. *, ^2+ = *, i2+ + *B, 2+ = 0, * i,2+ = *B, ,+, + ,*, ,+=0.
3.9. ) = \ ,
, 2 = 2 = .
: 2-2 = 2.
3.12. . , , .
3.13. ) i|/
= |/ = v|/;
, /5Si|/ =/L5i|/ */?, + = 0;
) i|/ , . ,

AB^ = BA^ = BA<if = ABty, .. /4i|/' = /4i|/', i|/' = .Bi|/' , v|/ v|/', , ,
. ',
, , '.
v|/' = 2?i|/. i|/' = Si|/, Sv|/ = Sv|/, . . v|/
.
3.14. )/(
)
125
) f,y, z)e\p(ikxx).
fcv=/v//%, v = x, , , / .
3.15. , ^
. . ,
(
,
, , ).
3.16. i|/ , .

|;*dK
=*. .
3.17. )
= r2 yh h) *Tdx= 2^* ^*dx3.19. ,
\^XAm2)dV=\B^2{A*<i/*i)dV=lA*<i/*i{B<i/2)dV=^2B*(A*ri

, ** = **
3.20. , ,
, 2 = ".
3.23. ) L2i|/ = Lzi|/ <i/ = A exp(iLz(p/A). , i|/((p) = i|/(cp + 27r), , Lz mh, = 0. +1,
2,... = \1^/2. :
) Ll = m2h2, = 0, 1, 2,...
, Lz, . .
i|/m = (l /,2 )e"F"p Lz L2.
Lz, = 0,
( , Lz= \m\h).
3.25. a) Hf?I*2dV=-iA*f*2|g"+f*2(iftfl*f/^)dv=f*2L**Td<p.
^*^2|o = 0, <i/* v|/2
;
) /?,2=/(*2-4.>'2)A

:
* * - ^21 v|/ f = v|/2 (* -*) v|/ = 2 ? * v|/ .
3.26. ?22=??2+???2+?22)<1
Lx, Ly, Lz ,
, , L2.
3.29. a) \Lx,pl+ = *Lx,Px+px+px*Lx,px+ = 0, *??,+ = <).
126
3.30.
+?2/2, , ,

. ?2 h2Vl,v ,
*?2, + = *?2, Kr+ + *?2, ?2/2mr2+ = 0.
3.31. ) *?, Ly'\ = LxLy-LyLx = (ypz-zpy)(zpx-xpz)-{zpx-xpz){ypz~zpy) =
= [z,pz](xpy-ypx)=-ih(xpy-ypx) = ihLz.
3.32. a) [?2, 4] = [?2, 4] + [?2, 4] + [42, 4],
*?2, 4] = 0;
[?2, 4]=4[4, 4]+[4, 4]4=-iM44+44);
[42, 4]=4[4, 4] + [4, 4]4=i^D4+4Lzj.
*?2, 4+ = 0- , Ly 43.33. r = rQ=const = -(2/2|/-^ )Vl,v = {\j2\irl)L2.
//i(; = (l/2|xro)?2v|/ = ?'v|/. L2
h2l(l+\), ?=2/(/+1)/2..
3.34. )
Ji|/*/)i|/dK=ji|//4 *i(;*dK. <> = <(/4*>, , -.
) (A2y = \^*A2^dV=\^*A{A<lf)dV=\{A$){A*<lf*)dV=\\A\\!\2dV.
3.36. , Hx xH=\ihlm)px,

xi|///i|/* xi|/*//i|/ = 0, //i|/* = Ei|/* Hty = E\\i.
, , , .
3.37. ) 2 = 8/3/.
(Ky = ^K^dx= -(h2 /2m)^\\i"d
) 2 = 30//5, (Ky = 5h2jml2.
3.38. 2 = <^2/;
3.39. ) <> = 0; ) (pxy hk. ,

, , .
3.40. ) i^ () = ,/2/7sin^x//); <(AxJ > = <2>-<>2 =
= A-6/2+/2/12; <(^J> = <^2>=(//J. (2/6-1)
2/2^^.
) 2 = ^/2/; <(J> = 1/42; <(^J) = 22.
2/4.
.
,
3.41. A2 = 4/3n; <L2> = 4A2/3.
3.42. 2 = \/; <(J> = <(2> <>2 = 2/3 1/2',
L2J> = <L2> = ^2.
3.43. , ihLx = \_Ly, 4+,
?2|/ = ?|/ 4 ,
:
127

(L, = LJ) Ly.
3.44. <L2> = fi|/L2i|/dfl = 2/;2, dfi = sin9d9dcp.
3.45. , , z , <L2 > = <L? > + <L2 > + <L2 > = 3 <L2 >
Lz
3.46. <\/1= Ai\\/l , = /l-,i|/-,

*#2,
Ji|/*i|/2dF=0. , i|/j >|/2 .
3.48. ) i|/ (x) = ^ctv|/)c () i|/*(x)

'
, ,
= 1. , , = j i)/f\Jdx;
5+|),|2=
i|/(x):
, |<"t|2
.
3.49. .
-
i|/(x)
tyn I) :
x, i)//I = v/2/Vsi()
) 2 = 8/3/. w, =2 = 256/272 = 0,96;
) 2 = 30//5; wB = c2 = 240(l cosrarJ/(mtN, .. wn
(=1, 3, 5, ...); w/I = 960/(mrN; 1, =0,9986,
3
3.50. ) : = 2/^/.
() L)
(|/() = A/%/2:)""<|>:
1 , 1 / 1 , 1 _,
/4 &( = -=(\ cos2) = I 1 '" 2l
3 /3\ 2 2

22

, Lz = 0, +2tt 2. :
w=2/3, ' + 2 = '_2 = '/) Lz = 0, h- '0 = 2/3, w+.1=w_1 = 1/6128
3.51. i(/n(x) = v'2//sin(nnx//)
:
- '"" v n2n2-k2l
,22_7,2;2 '
2 4nln2 fcos2(Ar//2), ,
k = 'Cl:' ~~(n2n2-k2l2J X (sin2 (kill), .
3.52. !| .1 .
3.53.
:
((/n(x)
:
, ^0 .
*F(x, 0) 2 = 30//5.
= ?/=(2/2/2)2, =1,3, 5, ...
3.54. , /,
:
( = \,+11\2, = 0, 1, +2, ...
() ()

(. 3.50).
, , ,

/ = //.
3.55. ) , <(/)> = ^<V*Ax?dV,
(- A4>dV+ \>* VdV+ \>*dV.
] 8t J 8t
ffVjdt=-( ffV*jdt = (\jn)HyV*,
<^> = - \(H4'*)A4>dV+ [v* 4>dV-~ \'V*AHyVdV.
dt h) J Si n J

J*F*//^4/dK
129
dt "
, dA/dt = dA/dt + (i/fi)(HA /
3.57. , .
3.60. Lx ,
d-i.
dt *
2 Lx (. 3.29),
, , . .
3.61. ? = ? ,
dA/dt O,

dt dt dt
"///= (i/) *,
i
at h

, AHXV = HA > = ? dA/dt = O.


3.62. ,
'
H=p2/2m+U = K+U, . ,
, pz, Lx, Ly, Lz L2 (. 3.29
3.30), , U.
) dH/dt = O G = 0. ;
) 8H/dt = 0. , , L.;
) dH/dt = O. U(r) Lx, L, Lz L2
( , :
9 ). , Lx, Lr Lz, L2\
) dH/dt^O. , Lz.
3.63. ) <> = - <*, A+4>dV=0, .. <^> = const;
) ,
\|/ (): ^) = *\1 ^ = .
* (, t) (^1 = ^),

?( = (*)(-) = ;,(/)^(-4
= ?/, c'n(t) = cn@)exp( j).
,
t. . . >(, ). ,
-(, r) = |c-;(f)|2 = |c;@)|2=-const.
3.64. : z>z', ', > + . : /', 9> &,

> + .
3.65. ^(, /) = vP(-r, f)=fvP(r, /).
F * :

2 = \, = h ..
.
,= +1) ,
(/>= 1) .
3.66. Lx, Ly, ,
( ,
,
). , .
, * L2+ = * L2+ + * ?*+ + * L2+ * =
= * 4+ 4+ 4 * 4+ ="' *^' 4 = ^ ( Ly Lz),
* ?2+ = 0, . . L2.
3.67. PYlm(, )=,(-, + ) = 0/(-)"< + "> = (-1)'-'0/()-(-1)'
"" = (-1); /(, ). /> = (-1)'. , (, )
(1)'-
/, /3.68. ,

, lv

/(*,)='(-*1)=|(-*.)=(-1).(*.)=(-1I''*(*.)-

3.69. ,
.
2 (2 2
,
, * + = 0.
3.70. * t + x
.
/(/) ; dW/dt ,
( i^SvP/Sr = //vP); d2x?/dt2
, (d^f/dt) . .
3.71. , dP/dt= (i/) * + = 0, , f=const.
3.72. L
1 0, . . .
.
,
.
3.73. , ,
/,
1. .
3.74. (.
3.62, ).
3.75. = ,2/2)*212 + ,2/)(1)+
.
131
3.76. ) |/=?\)>

= + 2/22+, , (. ).
=
L2Y+ YUR = YER.
, L2Y=ti2l,l+1) Y,
( + 21 (I +1 )/2 2 -/) R = ER.
.
;
) L2Y=XY, L2 A2Vl.9, Y
=0(&) () 9 .
in2, ()'
'/2 m-, (<) = *.
, = 0, 1, 2,... ,
3.77. | Ylm\2
/ ,
, 9: | Y |2 = iw/dO;
) /4; ) ^/lJj&n.
3.78. )
% = sin(A:r+T().
\j/ () = 0 , = 0. , ^ () = (/) sin .
() = 0 = , =1,2, ...,
Irnrl
,2,
1 sinkr
J x|/24w2dr= J;

) d(r2\J/2)/dr=0 = /2 - /2, >= J v);24jcr2dr=1/2


\|/2 2\|/2 . 19.
3.79.
<r>=
3.80. ) C.14)
, ()
k2 = 2mE/ti2.
R0(r), :
= /0 ' ^, ,
. 19
, (r)= R'0(r) = (A/r2)(krcoskr sinkr),
- ;
132
) /J,(ro) = 0 \gkro = kro.
. fcro = 4,5.
Elpl0ti2/mr2, = 2Eu
3.81. )
():
%1 = Asm(kr+a),
() ,
= 0 . ,
sinkr ~

Hi ! //0 lg^c0 --,.,


sin 0= Jb2j2mrlUkr0.
, 2.74,
;
) n2h2/Sm<rlU0<9n2h2/Sm;
) : sin&ro = C ^/3/4) kr0,
= 2, E=2n2ti2j9mro. 8(r2^i2)/dr = 0 = 0/4; 34%.