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- ,

. .

. . , 2009
, 2009

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......

1. . .....

2. . ....

3. .. ...

4. . ..

5. , . ..

6. 2 2 .........................

11

7. 2 n m 2 ...

15

.. 19
. 21
... 23

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1. .
,
, .
- ,
, .

, -

, ,
, .

,
, .

, , -

, .
, .

:
1.

2.

3.

, , -

, (
).
.
4.

, .

, -

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.
, A, B, , A1 , A2 ,K, Am ,
A, B1 , B2 ,K, Bn , B.

, A m ,

B n , m n .

c11 c12
c
c
C = 21 22
...
...

cm1 cm2

... c1n
... c2n
,
... ...

... cmn

cij (i = 1,2,..., m; j = 1,2,..., n ) A


( B) Ai B j -

C .

1.1. , ,
. .
, , ,
,
, .
.
. 1, 2, 3, 4 5
, 5 : A1, A2 , A3, A4 , A5 , B1, B2 , B3, B4 , B5 .
, 5 5 ,
, ,
( 2.1.1):
,

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1.1
B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

A1

A2
A3

3
4

4
5

5
6

6
7

7
.
8

A4

A5

10

1.1 ,
2

3
C = 4
5

3 4 5

4 5 6

5 6 7

8 .

6 7 8

7 8 9 10

2. .
m n
c11 c12
c
c
C = 21 22
...
...

cm1 cm2

... c1n
... c2n
.
... ...

... cmn

A Ai ,
i - C. A ,
B ,
, A min cij .
1 jn

, , A
, min cij .
1 jn

= max min cij


1im 1 jn

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, A, min cij , .
1 jn

, A , , , , .
B,
, A , .
B B j , A j - .
B , A ,

, B max cij .
1im

, B ,
max cij .
1im

= min max cij


1im 1 jn

, B, max cij , .
1im

, B , A , .

, -

, .

2.1.

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C = 10

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2 1

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4 3 10 .

4 1 2

. , .
, .

3

10

10

2
4
4
4

1 4 1

3 10 3
.

1 2 2
3 10


= max {1, 3, -2} = 3 .

= min {10, 4, 3,10} = 3 .

3.

, -

,
= max min cij = min max cij = .
1im 1 jn

1im 1 jn

V ==
.
1. 2.1.
3, .. .
2. 2.1.
A2 , B3 .

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ci

0 0

, Ai
0

B j .
0

,
V = = max cij = min ci j = .
1im

1 jm 0

, ci

=V .

0 0

ci

0 0

3. .2.1. c23 . 3 , , .

4.

4.1.
2

3
C =
2
5

0 1

2
.
0

. 2.1.,
2

2
5

0 1 1

2 2

0 2

1
4

5 1
5


= max {-1, 2, -2,1} = 2 .

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= min {5, 4, 5} = 4 .

1. 4.1.
, , . A2 .
B2 .
2. < .
5. , .
, , ,
.

.

, .
,
ci

j ,

0 0

A, -

. , B, , A
Ai ,
0

, i0 . A ci

0 0

A, B , j0 .
, , A, , , ,

A1, A2 , ... , Am . B
B1, B2 , ... , Bn .
,

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, ,

A1, A2 , ... , Am .

A,
A1 K Am

p1 K pm

SA =

, A1, A2 , ... , Am ,
p1, K, pm ,

. p1, K, pm
p1 + p2 + K + pm = 1 .

B -

.
. , 1, 0.

, , -

, , .

, .

V -

, -

, .

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1928
, , , , ,
, .
,
1. .
2. V .
3. ,
,
.
6. 2 x 2
2 x 2
c11

C =

c21

c12
c22


A1

SA =

p1

A2
p2

A. 3 A , V, B
.
B ,
, ..
.
, p1, p2 , V

c11 p1 + c21 p2 = V ,

c12 p1 + c22 p2 = V ,

p2 = 1,
p1 +
,

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c22 c21
p =
,
1 c11 + c22 c12 c21

c11 c12
p2 = c + c c c ,
11
22
12
21

c
11 22
12 21
V =
c11 + c22 c12 c21 .


B1

SB =

q1

B2
q2

B. q1, q2 , V
c11q1 + c12q2 = V ,

c21q1 + c22q2 = V ,

q1 + q2 = 1,


c22 c12
q =
,
1
c
c
+

11
22 c12 c21

c11 c21
q2 = c + c c c ,
11
22
12
21

V = c11c22 c12c21 .
c11 + c22 c12 c21

"
- ".

6.1. : .
. , : " " . , : "
" , ,
. , , . ,
, , , , . ,

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, 2 . ,
, 2 .
.
. A 2 : A1 , A2 . 2 : B1 , B2 .
,
.
1.

A1 B1 ( , ).

( 0,5), .
. ( 0,5), . . c11 = 1 0,5 + 1 0,5 = 1 .
2.

A1 B2 ( , ).

, ,
2 . ,
. , 2 .
c12 = 2 0,5 + ( 2 ) 0,5 = 0 .
3.

A2 B1 ( , ).

, , 1 .
, .
c21 = 1 0,5 + ( 1) 0,5 = 0 .

4.

A2 B2 ( , ).

, , 2 .
, . c22 = 2 0,5 + ( 1) 0,5 = 0,5 .
,
c11

C =

c21

c12 1 0
,
=
c22 0 0,5

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:
= max min cij = 0 ,
1i2 1 j2

= min max cij = 0,5 .


1i 2 1 j2

, , . ,
:

c22 c21
0,5 1
p =
1 c11 + c22 c12 c21 = 1,5 = 3 ,

c11 c12
1 2
p2 = c + c c c = 1,5 = 3 ,
11
22
12
21

c11c22 c12c21

0,5 1
V = c11 + c22 c12 c21 = 1,5 = 3 .
, A
A1 A2
SA = 1 2 .

3 3

c22 c12
0,5 1
q =
1 c11 + c22 c12 c21 = 1,5 = 3 ,

c11 c21
q =
= 1 = 2,
2 c11 + c22 c12 c21 1,5 3
B1
SB = 1

B2
2 .
3

, , .
, V = 1/3.
, = 0 .


, . ,

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1/3 , = 0,5 .
V = 1/3 ,

, , , A .
7. 2 n m 2
2 n
a
C = 11
a 21

a12
a22

K a1n
,
K a2 n

(1; 0) Oxy l, . Bi

(i = 1,2,..., n )

(bi ) :

y = a1i + ( a2i a1i ) x ,

(0; a1i ) (0; a2i ) l.


A1 , l A2 .
y

l
b2

b3

bi

b1
N bn
b3

M
a2i

bi
a1i

b2
bn
b1

p2

O ( A1 )

M
V
p2

p1
1 ( A2 ) x

O ( A1 )

p1
1 ( A2 ) x


A1

SA =

p1

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A2
,
p2
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, Bi ,

a1i p1 + a 2i p2 = a1i (1 p2 ) + a 2i p 2 ,

bi x = p 2 .
b1MNb3 , , .
N, ,
. N V, p2
A1 .
""
, N ( N
, ).
Bi B j . , , ,
, p1, p2 , V
a p + a p = V ,
2i 2
1i 1
a1 j p1 + a2 j p2 = V ,

p2 = 1.
p1 +

q1 , q2
0 K Bi K B j K 0

S B =

0
K
q
K
q
K
0
i
j


a1i qi + a1 j (1 qi ) = V ; (q j = 1 qi ) .

. N ,
= 0 = 1 .
.
,

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m 2 . ,
, , , .
7.1.
1 5 9 3
.
C =
6
3
2
7

.
.
bi , -

y
9

l
b3

b1 NM b3 , -

N,

5 b2
N

b4
3
1

4/7

O ( A1 )

(b1) :

3/7
x0

3
2

y0

b1

1 ( A2 ) x

y = 1 + 5x

x 0 = 4 / 7,

(b2 ) :

y = 5 2x .

N:

y0 = 27 / 7 , -


A1
SA = 3

A2
4

V = 27/7. N b1 b2 ,
B1 B2 .
q1 q2 , , ,
, -
, , A1 :
q1 + 5(1 q1 ) = V = 27 / 7 q1 = 2 / 7, q2 = 1 q1 = 5 / 7 .
,

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A2
B2 B3
A
B
; S B = 1
. S A = 1
4 / 7 3/ 7
2/ 7 5/ 7 0

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B4
; V = 27 / 7 .
0

7.2.
11 2

9 6
C =
.
6 8

0
10

.
.
, B

y
11

a1

9 a2
6

N M

a3

10

, ai , -

Ai ,
a1 PNMa 4 , .

y0

a4
B1
O


1
B2
1

x0
2/5

3/5

N ( x0 , y0 ) , x

(a2 ) :

y = 9 3x ( a3 ) : y = 6 + 2 x .

, x0 = 0,6; V = 7,2 ,
B2
.
0,4 0,6
B1

SB =

V = 7,2 .
A2 A3 . p2 p3 :
9 p2 + 6(1 p2 ) = 36 / 5 :

p 2 = 2 / 5 ; p3 = 1 p 2 = 3 / 5 .

A1
. S A =
0

2/ 5 3/5

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A2

A3

A4
B2
B
; S B = 1
; V = 36 / 5 .
0
2
/
5
3
/
5

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1. ?
2. ?
3. m n ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11. ?
12. ?
13. ?
14. ?
15. ?
16. 2 2 ?
17. 2 n ?
18. m 2 ?

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19

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1.

,
8

2.

,
0

3.

5 3 4

3 5 4

,
0

1
4

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:
1. .. : , , .
- .: , 2004.
2. .., .. . .: , 2005.
3. .., ..
: . .: -, 2002.
4. . . .: , 2004.
:
5. .., .., .. . . .: -, 2006.
6. .. . .: , 2004.
7. .. . . .: -, 2001.
8. .. . .
.: , 2006.
9. .. . .: , 2007.

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