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" -1"
2004

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" -1"
2004
536.24
31.312.06
75

,

..

75

.., .., ..
:
.: " -1", 2004. 172 .

. ,
, , -

.
, .
,

.

. ,


.

,
, , , .
536.24
31.312.06
ISBN 5-94275-123-4

.. , .. ,
.. , 2004
" -1", 2004



. .
. .

15.04.2004
60 84/16. Times. .
: 10,0 . . .; 10,0 .-. .
400 . . 279
" -1",
107076, , ., 4
-

392000, , , 106, . 14


: " ", " ", " ", " ", " ", " " .
()
(), , , , , ,
.

, , . , , . , , , .

(, , ) ,
. - -, - .
-- , ,
.
: , , . .
, , .
1 6 , 7 10 .. .

T ,
t ,
T(0, ); T ,
T(R, ); T ,
T0 ,
Tc ,
T* ,
= (T T0) , K
= T/T0
, y, z
,
2R ,
d, D ,
L, l, ,
f , 2

F , 2
u ,

q , /2
ql , /
Q ,
k , /(2)
kL , /()
, /()
, /3
() , /(3)
p , , /2
G , /, , 3/
V , 3, , 3/
m ,
, /
, 2/
, 2/
, /()
/(2)
E , /2

n

. ,
. , , .

, , .
() , , .
, .
,
, .

, ,
.
, , , - .
, .

. , , , .
1.

, ( ),
.
. . , , ,
, .

,
,

.
,
, , .
, . ,
.

, ,

. , . . (, ,
, ..), , ,
.
1.1. ,
,
,
( , , ,
). .
T = f ( x, y, z ) , , T = f ( x, y, z , ) .
( ) ( ) , -, - , , (. 1.1).
.
,
. ,
.

ds

2R2

dz

2R1

. 1.1.

T1 > T2

T1
T1
0

T2

r
T2
T1

T2
x

.
1.2.
,

:
, ;
- - - - - - ,

, , . (.
1.2).
(. 1.1) , :

+R

+R

+R

3
1
2
1
T =
dx
dy
T ( x, y , z , ) dz ,
2 R1 2 R2 2 R3 R R R
1


T =

1
R 2 2 L

+ R1

+L

rdr d T (r , , z, ) dz .

1.2. .

. , .
gradT =

dT
,
dn

n .
-
:

(grad T ) S =

^
dT
dT
cos (n s ) =
.
dn
ds

, , . q ( ) (. 1.3).
. 1.3, , q1 = q2 = q3 = q4 = q5
.
. 1.3, ,
q1 = q5 > q2 = q6 > q3 = q4,
.

q1

1 > 2

q2

1
q1

q2

q3

2
n

q3

q6

q4
q5

q5

q4
1 > 2

)
)
. 1.3. , , :
: q1 = q2 = q3 = q4 = q5;
: q1 = q5 > q2 = q6 > q3 = q4
: . .
.

Q (), F (2) ():
q = Q / (F ), /(2 ) /2 .
. . 1807 . , : q =

dT
.
dn

, . . n, :

+ q =

dT
dn

q =

dT
.
dn

n, :

q =

dT
dn

q =

dT
.
dn

, , , , ..

dQ =

dT
dF d = q dF d .
dn

,
.
.
.
1.3.
, , .
. 1.4.

Q (), F (2),
(), , n ():
. 1.4.
Q0,
F,
, ,
1

dQ
dT
dF d
dn

, /2 (/) /().

:
0,050,5; 0,06 0,6; 0,02..2; 2400,
/().
:
1. . .
2. : ,
. .

3. . , .
4. , .
5. .
6. , .
7. 0,23 /() .
, , .
8. .
, .
9. (, .) , (, .) .
10.
,
.
1.4.

1. qn (. 1.5), , :
^
^
dT
dT
;
cos( nx ) =
q x = qn cos ( nx ) =
dn
dx

^
^
dT
dT
cos(ny ) =
;
q y = qn cos (ny ) =
dn
dy

^
^
dT
dT
cos (nz ) =
.
q z = qn cos(nz ) =
dn
dz

2. M , , d,

T T

n
qn

qy
T

d2

dy
dx

T + T
y

qx

z
x

. 1.5.

q1 = qx1 dy dz d + qy1 dx dz d + qz1 dx dy d,


qx1 x d
dy dz, ; qy1 y dx dz, ; qz1 z
dx dy, .
, d ,
:
q2 = qx2 dy dz d + qy2 dx dz d + qz2 dx dy d,
qx2 x d
dy dz, ; qy2 y dx dz, ; qz2 z
dx dy, .
3.
dQw
dV d

=W ,

dQw , dV = dx d dz d.
W

dQw = W dV d .

4. = f (n, ),
d =

d ;

d n =

dn .
n

5. = f (x, y, z, ),

d x = x dx ;
x

y
r
d y =
dy ;
y

d z = z dz ;
z

d = d .

6.
:
d = ( 2 1 )

d = (1 2 ) ,

2, 1 .
1.5.

,
,
. , .. T = f ( x, y, z, ) ,
.
, .
, (. 1.6).
, ,
. ,
, .
dV

V
dy

dz
dx

+y + z

1 dx

1
0

+x

a)

. 1.6. V
1 2:
;

x, y, z

dV = = dxdydz

( q x1 dydz + q y1 dxdz + q z1 dx y ) d + WdVd =
= (q x 2 dydz + q y 2 dxdz + q z 2 dxdy ) d + (c) dVdT .

(1.1)

(1.1), 1, , , 2, .
W dV d (W)
( W) , ,
W = 0. (c) dV dT
( ).
,
: , d, ,
d.

(c) dVdT = (q x1 q x 2 ) dydz + (q y1 q y 2 ) dxdz +


+ (q z1 q z 2 ) dxdy ] d + WdVd .

q1 q2 , . : q2 ,
q1 . (. . 1.4) q1 q2 = dq.

(c) dVdT = dq x dydz dq y dxdz dq z dxdy d + WdVd .


q y
q

q
(c)dVdT = x dxdydz
dydxdz z dzdydx d + WdVd .
y
z
x

dV
q y q z
q

(c) dVdT = x
d + Wd .
y
z
x

2T
x

=
=

.
x
x
x 2
q x

2T 2T 2T
(c) dT = 2 + 2 + 2 d + Wd .
z
y
x

= a
(c)

, 2/.
2T 2T 2T
W
dT = a 2 + 2 + 2 d +
d .
(c)
y
z
x

(1.2)

, , . (1.2) dT = dT =

T
d .


T
=a

2T 2T 2T

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

W
+
(c) .

(1.3)

(1.3) .
:
2T 2T 2T W
+
+
+ =0.
x 2 y 2 z 2

(1.4)

, W , :
2T 2T 2T
+
+
= 0.
x 2 y 2 z 2

(1.5)

(1.3), (1.4) (1.5) ,


, , .
:
T
=a

2T 2T

x 2 + y 2

T
2T
=a 2 ;

2T W
+ = 0;
x 2

2T
= 0.
x 2

(1.6)

(1.4) (1.6)
, , , , ( ),
.

x = r cos , y = r sin (. 1.1), z, r
. ,
2T 1 T 1 2T 2T W
T
+
.
+
+
= a 2 +
r r r 2 2 z 2 (c)

(1.7)

(1.7) . :
T
=a

2T 1 T 2T 1 T W
2T 1 T

;
+
+
=
0
;
+
= 0 . (1.8)
+
r 2 r r r 2 r r
r 2 r r

(1.7) (1.8) ,
( ) , , (, ).
:
T
=a

2T 2 T

r 2 + r r .

(1.9)

, ,
, . - ,
, .
,
,
, . dT
dT = dT + dT .
(1.10)
. 1.6 1
2 ds = dx + dy + dz. d,

dT = dTs .

dT
=
= dTx+ dTy + dTz dT (1.10)
dT = dT + dTx + dTy + dTz =

T
T
T
T
d +
dx +
dy +
dz =

x
y
z

T dx T dy T dz T
= d
+
+
+
.
d x d y d z

dV =

dn
.
d

dx
= x , dV
d

x.
T
T
T
T
dT = d
+ x
+ y
+ z
.
x
y
z

(1.11)

(1.11) (1.2)
T
T
T
T
+ x
+ y
+ z
=a

x
y
z

2T 2T 2T W

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + (c) . (1.12)

(1.12) . .
1.6.

, , (. 1.7). 1 F ( = 0);
2 F ( = ).
, .

d 2T
=0
dx 2
T

. 1.7.
:
1

F ( = 0);
2

F ( = )
T = C1x + C2 ;

dT
dx

T1

T2
x

T1 = C1 0 + C2 ; T2 = C1 + C2 .
T T
, T = T1 1 2 x .

= 1 .

q =

R =

dT

F (T1 T2 )
.
= (T1 T2 ) , Q = qF = F (T1 T2 ) =
dx

, . , , .
q = Q / F.
1.7.


(. 1.8):

d 2T 1 dT
+
= 0;
dr 2 r dr
T

T1
L
T2

dU 1
+ U =0;
dr r

dU
dr
= .
r
U

( r = r2)

r2

U=

dT
;
dr

. 1.8.
:
1


( r = r1);
2

-

r1

U=

T = T1

C1
; T = C1 ln r + C2 .
r

T1 T2
r
ln ;
r
r1
ln 2
r1

q =

dT
T T 1
= 1 2 ;
r
dr
ln 2 r
r1

Q = q 2 rL =

L (T1 T2 )
;
1
r2
ln
2 r1

Q=

R =

1
2

ln

L (T1 T2 ) L (T1 T2 )
=
,
1
d2
R
ln
2 d1

d2

d1

( , , ).

qL = Q / L.
2.

2.1.
(
) ( )
(. 2.1).
, L, (+Q), "" , L, (Q); . L , "" .
"" .
, , "". "" , .

(+ Q ) =

L (T1 T3 )
;
r3
1
ln
2 r1

( Q ) =

L (T1 T3)
,
r3
1
ln
2 r1

r3
r1
T3 = T1+ Q
.
2 L
ln

T3

r3

T3

r3

. 2.1.
T2
T2
K
r
2
r2
T1
T1
r1
r1
+Q
Q
:
K

, K T3 T3 . "" ,
"" , . "" T0 T0 ,
K

TK = T3 + T3 T0 = T1 + T1

2.2.

r r
Q
ln 3 1 .
2 L r1 r3

, , .
, . (. 2.2) ,

(+ Q ) =

L (TK T0 )
,
h
1
ln
2
r1

( Q ) =

L (T0 TK )
,
1
r
ln
2
h

K
TK = T0 +

Q
h
Q
r
ln .
ln ; TK = T0 +
2 L
r
2 L
h

TK TK , :
TK = T0 +

T( x , y ) = T0 +

Q
ln
2 L

x 2 + (h + y )2
x 2 + (h y )2

Q
r
ln ,
2 L
r

2R
(Q)
T0

h
r

T0

L >> 2R

TK
y
h

K
m

(+Q)

TK

n
2R
y

. 2.2. :
L R; h ;
; 0

, ,
T0 Q. , , , , .

L T( x , y ) T0

Q=
1
2

ln

x 2 + (h + y )2

x 2 + (h y )2

L [Tm T0 ]
.
1
h
ln 2 1
2 R

, n (x = 0; y = h + R),
Tn = T0 +

Q
h

ln 1 + 2 .
2 L
R

, . .
2.3.

,
. , . (. 2.3 2.4) (x = y).
:
1) ;
2) ,
x y;
3)
:

1
y

T = f (x, y)

T1

T0

T3
x

+x

. 2.3.
- . 2.4.

Qik =

F (Ti Tk ) ,

i ; k .
, , :

Qik =

yL (Ti Tk ) ;
x

Qik =

xL (Ti Tk ) ;
y


Qik = L (Ti Tk ) .

(2.1)

.
1.

0,

2, 3, 4. Q10 = Q02 + Q03 + Q04 . (2.1)


L (T1 T0 ) = L (T0 T2 ) + L (T0 T3 ) + L (T0 T4 ) ,

T0 =

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
4

2. 1 2 0, 0 3 4.
: Q10 + Q20 = Q03 + Q04 ,
L (T1 T0 ) + L (T2 T0 ) = L (T0 T3 ) + L (T0 T4 ) ,

T0 =

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
4

3. 1, 2, 3, 4 0 (
). : Q10 + Q20 + Q30 + Q40 = 0 ,

L (T1 T0 ) + L (T2 T0 ) + L (T3 T0 ) + L (T4 T0 ) = 0 ,


T0 =

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
4

, , , . :

P =

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
T0 = 0 .
4

(2.2)

:
1. , .
2. , ,
, .
3. , , .
4. , .
5.
, .
, . 2.5.
(2.1) (2.2).
:
1) , ;
2) L >> 7x = 7y;
3) , b, ,
;
4) , b, , , .. ;
5) . 2.1.
323

3 y

3 x
E

, L

723
7 y

723

e
a

323

7 x

)
. 2.5. () ()

2.1.
a
T0, K

T0, K

T0, K

523

100

523

523

423

523

25

523

423

13

498

523

410

498

523

410

498

517

410

493

517

410

493

0,5

514

408

493

514

, b :
Q1 = Qb + Qc = L (723 493) + L (723 514) = 439L .


, d :
Q2 = Qa + Qb + Qc = L (408 323) +
+ L (493 323) + L (514 323) = 446L.

Q1 Q2

Q = 0,5 (Q1 + Q2) =


= 442,5L, ). Q = 8Q = 3540L , .
2.4.

, . x1, x2, ..., xn,
x1 = A1 + B1 x1 + C1 x2 + K + D1 xn ,

x2 = A2 + B2 x1 + C2 x2 + K + D2 xn ,

( N ) LLLLLLLLLLLLLL

LLLLLLLLLLLLLL

x2 = An + Bn x1 + Cn x2 + K + Dn xn ,

B1 + C1 + K + D1 < 1,

B2 + C2 + K + D2 < 1,
(M ) KKKKKKKKK
KKKKKKKKK

B + C + K + D < 1.
n
n
n

x10, x20, , xn0 ( ), (N). x11, x21, , xn1 ( ).


(N). x12, x22, , xn2
( ). (N) ..
, :
1) , ,
, ;
2) (N) , .

:
1) ( );
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ,
, (N).
, . 2.5. a, b, c, :

Qa + Qba + Q323a + Q323a = 2Qba + 2Q323a = 0 ,

Qab + Qcb + Q323b + Q723b = 0 ,

Qbc + Qdc + Q323c + Q723c = 0 .

(2.1)

2L (Tb Ta ) + 2L (323 Ta ) = 0 ,

L (Ta Tb ) + L (Tc Tb ) + L (323 Tb ) + L (723 Tb ) = 0 ,


L (Tb Tc ) + L (Td Tc ) + L (323 Tc ) + L (723 Tc ) = 0 .

Td = Tc, L (Td = Tc ) = 0 (N):


Ta = 161,5 + 0,5Tb;
Tb = 261,5 + 0,25Ta + 0,25Tc;
Tc = 348,5 + 0,333Tb;

:
Ta0 = 523 K; Tb0 = 523 K; Tc0 = 523 K;

:
Ta1 = 161,5 + 0,5 523 = 423 ;
Tb1 = 261,5 + 0,25 523 + 0,25 523 = 522,5 ;
Tc1 = 348,5 + 0,333 523 = 522,5 ;

:
Ta2 = 161,5 + 0,5 522,5 = 424 ;
Tb2 = 261,5 + 0,25 423 + 0,25 522 = 498,5 ;
Tc2 = 348,5 + 0,333 522,5 = 523 .

, :

Ta6 = 407,5 ;

Tb6 = 491,5 ;

Tc6 = 512,5 ;

Ta7 = 406,5 ;

Tb7 = 491,5 ; Tc7 = 512,5 .

, b :

Q1 = Qb + Qc = L (723 491,5) + L (723 512,5) = 442L .


, d :
Q2 = Qa + Qb + Qc = L (406,5 323) +
+ L (491,5 323) + L (512,5 323) = 441,5L.

Q = 0,5 (Q1 + Q2) = 441,75L, .


Q = 8Q = 3534L, .
2.5.

, . ,
. , :
Qi = i L (T1 T2 ) ,

(2.3)

i , , ;
, /( ); L , ; 1 2 , .
, , .
,
dQi =

T T
dT
dT
L dS 1 2 ,
L dS =
T1 T2
dn
dn


Qi =

dT
1
dS
L (T1 T2 ) .
dn
T1 T2

(2.3), ,
:
i =

1
dT

dS .

T1 T2
dn

, , :
T = T1

T = T1

T1 T2
n;

T1 T2
n
ln ;
r
r1
ln 2
r1

dT
T T
= 1 2 ;
dn

dS = dn;

dT
T T 1
= 1 2 ;
r
dn
ln 2 n
r1

dS = n d.

,
h

h
1
= dn = ;

0
1
=
r
ln 2
r1

d =
0

(2.4)

2
.
r
ln 2
r1

(2.5)

,
.
. ,
.

(. 2.6), (2.4) (2.5).
, . 2.6 .
, Qi :
Qi =

Qi
,
Nm

(2.6)

Qi , ; Nm ,
.
; L
T1

r2 / r1 = 3

T2

h/=2

T2

2 r2

)
. 2.6.
() ()

, .
,
:
Ti =

T1 T 2
,
Nn

(2.7)

(T1 T2) ; Nn .
(2.7), , .. . , . ,
T
Qi =
L (S )i ,
n i

, L ; Qi , (2.6).
S
= f (n) = 1, Ti = const
n

Qi = L (T )i .

(2.8)

(2.7) (2.8) (2.6),

Qi =

Nm
L (T1 T2 ) .
Nn

(2.3) (2.9) :
:

(2.9)

N
i = m .
N n i

(2.10)

, . 2.6, (2.4)

Nm 8
= =2;
Nn 4

h
=2.

, . 2.6, (2.5)

N m 16
= = 5,33 ;
Nn
3

ln

r2
r1

= 5,7 .

, :
1) ;
2) (2.6);
3)

;
4) (2.10);
5) 1 2 ;
6) (2.9).
, . 2.7.
. Nm = 8; Nn = 8; (1 2) = 723 323 =
400 ; =

Nm 8
T T
723 323
= = 1, T = 1 2 =
= 50.
Nn 8
Nn
8

T, Tb T 1 2 :
Ta = T1 6,2T = 723 6,2 50 = 413 ;

Tb = T1 4,8T = 723 4,8 50 = 483 ;

Tc = T1 4,2T = 723 4,2 50 = 513 .

. 2.7.

; L

723

323

:
Nm = 8, Nn = 8,
(T1 T2) = 400

Q = L (T1 T2 ) = 1 L (723 323) = 440L , .


Q = 8Q = 3520L, .
2.6.
,
, .
. (.
2.8). :
2T 2T
+
=0
x 2 y 2

2 (T T2 ) 2 (T T2 )
l2
+
= 0.
(T1 T2 ) x 2
y 2

:
X =

x
;
l

Y=

y
;
l

T T2
.
T1 T2

(2.11)

2 2
+
=0.
X 2 Y 2

(2.12)

. 2.8. n

dS

11 22

,

;
L
, ,

dQ =

T
ds L
n

N =

dQ =

(T T2 )
l T T
ds L 1 2 .
n
l T1 T2

n
s
, S = ,
l
l

dQ =

dSL (T1 T2 ) ,
N


Q =
dS L (T1 T2 ) = L (T1 T2 ) ,
N


=
dS .
N

(2.13)


2U 2U
+
= 0,
x 2 x 2

, ,

dJ =

U
dS L .
n

,
2U 2U
+
= 0;
X 2 Y 2

J = L (U1 U 2 ) ,

(2.14)

,
U
=
dS ;
N

U=

U U2
.
U1 U 2

(2.15)

(N =
N; S = S; X = X; Y = Y)
Q = U, (2.13) (2.15) = , (2.12) (2.14),
:

= f ( X ,Y , C, D) ;

U = f ( X ,Y , E, M ) .

(2.11) (2.12) , 1 2

1 = f X 1 , Y1 , C , D = 1,

2 = f ( X 2 , Y2 , C , D ) = 0.

(2.16):
U1 = f ( X 1 , Y1, E , M ) = 1,

U 2 = f ( X 2 , Y2 , E , M ) = 0.

(C = E; D = M), , = U. = = .
,
, .
1) -,
(,

.
2.10),

.
, .
2) ,
( ) .
3) ,
() h .
= h / .
4) U1 ( ).
5) J, U ( )
(L ) =

J
.
(U1 U 2 )

6) J, U ( ) =

J
.
(L ) (U1 U 2 )

7)

-
1 2 : Q = = L (T1 T2 ) , .

()

2.7.

.
, , .
2.9.
Tf1 1,
Tf2 2. 1 2, d1, d2 d3.
1 2. W1, W2, W3.
Tf1

TW1

TW2

Tf1
1

1
TW1

2
TW2

2
L
TW3

d1
Tf2

TW3
d2
d2
d3

. 2.9. () () , -

Tf2



(. 2.9, ), L
(. 2.9, ) . . ,
, .

:
F (T f 1 TW 1 )

Q = 1F (T f 1 TW 1 ) =

R1

Q=

F (TW 1 TW 2 )
1
;
F (TW 1 TW 2 ) =
1
R1

Q=

F (TW 2 TW 3 )
2
F (TW 2 TW 3 ) =
;
R2
2

Q = 2 F (TW 3 T f 2 ) =

F (TW 3 T f 2 )
R 2

, ,
(Q, TW1, TW2, TW3).
Q=

F (T f 1 T f 2 )
R1 + R1 + R2 + R 2

, .

(2.16)

n,
Q=

F (T f 1 T f 2 )
n

R1 + Ri + R 2

= kF (T f 1 T f 2 ) =

(2.17)

k=

F (T f 1 T f 2 )

1
n

1
+ i +
1 1 i 2
1

, /(2 ),

(2.18)

. (), (2) () .

R =

1 1
1
=
+ i +
,
k 1 1 i 2

(2 )/,

(2.19)

, .

R =

1
, Ri = i

1 i

.
q = Q / F, /2.
, :

TW 1 = T f 1 k (T f 1 T f 2 ) R1 ,
TW 2 = T f 1 k (T f 1 T f 2 )( R1 + R1 ) ,
TW 3 = T f 1 k (T f 1 T f 2 )( R1 + R1 + R2 ) .

n, :
i

TWi = T f 1 k (T f 1 T f 2 ) ( R1 + Ri ) .

(2.20)

Q = 1d1L (T f 1 TW 1 ) =

Q=

Q=

R1

L (TW 1 TW 2 ) L (TW 1 TW 2 )
=
;
1
d2
R
1
ln
21 d1
L (TW 2 TW 3 ) L (TW 2 TW 3 )
=
;
d3
1
R
2
ln
2 2
d2

Q = 2 d 3 L (TW 3 T f 2 ) =

L (T f 1 TW 1 )

L (TW 3 T f 2 )
R 2

Q=

L (T f 1 T f 2 )
R1 + R1 + R2 + R 2

, .

(2.21)

n,

Q=

L (T f 1 T f 2 )
n

R1 + Ri1 + R 2

= kl L (T f 1 T f 2 ) =

L (T f 1 T f 2 )
1

(2.22)

kl

i =1

kl =

1
n

1
d
ln i +1 +
+
1d1 1 2 i
di
2 d n +1
1

, /( ),

(2.23)


. ()
, () ()
.

RL =

kL

1d1

2 i

ln

1
di +1
+
, ( )/
di
2 d n +1

(2.24)

, ,
.
R =

2 i

, Ri =

ln

d i +1

di

.
qL = Q / L, /.
n,
i

TWi = T f 1 k (T f 1 T f 2 ) ( R1 + Ri ) .
0

3.

(2.25)

3.1.

(2 R << L; h ) (W = const ) (. 3.1):
d 2T W
+ = 0,
dx 2

dT
W
W 2
= x + 1 , T =
x + 1 x + 2 .

2
dx


dT
= 0.

dx x = 0
T

T
T

T
r

0
2R

.
3.1.


1 = 0. : ,
, ,
:
T

= (T T )

x x = R

2 =

W 2
WR =
R + 2 T .

WR WR 2
+
+ T .
2


T = T +

2
WR 2 2 x
.
1 +
2 R R

q =

dT
= Wx ; q = WR .
dx

:
T = T +

T = 2 ;

WR
;

T T =

WR 2
.
2

3.2.

(2 R << L )
(W = const ) (. 3.2)
d 2T 1 dT W
+
+ = 0.
dr 2 r dr


u=

u=

dT
dr

du 1
W
+ u=

dr r

rdu + udr = d (ur ) =

W
rdr

dT
W
C
= r+ 1 .
dr
2
r
T
W

. 3.2.

- T

T
T
r

0
2R

dT

dr r = 0

= 0. 1 = 0 T =


dT
= (T T ) ,

dr r = R

WR 2

=
+ 2 T
2
4

WR

2 =

WR WR 2
+
+ T .
2
4


T = T +

: q =
:

WR 2
4

2 r 2
.
1 +
R R

WR
dT W
= r ; q =
.
2
2
dr

W 2
r + 2 .
4

T = 2 ;

T = T +

WR
;
2

T T =

WR 2
.
4

3.3.
, (. 3.3).
l (ux),
. , Tc.
l
(ux), .
, (u dx) :
dQ = udx (T T ) .

(3.1)

T0

F = ul
T c;
T (x)

0
Q

L >> l
u = 2L + 2
f = L

. 3.3. ( ):
Q = 0 ;
; 0 ;

, ()
dQ = Wfdx .
W =

u
(T T ) .
f


(3.1):
Q = F

l
1l
dx = u (T T ) dx ,
l 0
0

F = u, = T Tc :

dT
f.
Q =

dx x = 0

, T = f ( x) .
:
= 0e mx ,

Q = u 0e mx dx =
0

T
Q =
f = 0 me mx

x x = 0

u0
,
m

)x =0 f = fm0 .

dT d d
=
=
0e mx = 0 me mx .
dx dx dx

shm (l x)
f,
Q = 0 ( m )
ch (ml) x = 0

Q0 = mf0 th (ml) ,

dT d d hm (l x)
sh [m(l x)]
.
=
=
0
= 0 m
dx dx dx
ch (ml)
ch (ml)

.
3.4.

,
. .
,
( ), , (. 3.4, , ):
dQ + dQW = dQB

(dQB dQ ) + dQW = 0.

:
(q q ) dz dy + W dx dy dz = 0

dq
+ W = 0;
dx

d
dT

dx
dx

+ W = 0.


q =

dT
d
=
;
dx
dx

= (T ) dT ,

d d

+ W = 0;
dx dx

d 2
+ W = 0.
dx 2

.
W = 0

d 2
= 0, dx 2


1 2
x;

(T1 ) dT1 (T2 ) dT2


x.
(T ) dT = (T1 ) dT1

= 1

dV

dQ

dV
d

dQB

dy
dQW

dz

rA

r
L

d dV
dS

dV

rB
dS

dx
dQA

r1

dQW

dSB
dQB

dz

dr

r2

. 3.4. () (),
()
()
= + kT ,

( T + 0,5kT 2 ) = ( T1 + 0,5kT12 ) ( T1 + 0,5kT1 ) ( T2 + 0,5kT2 ) x .


2

q=

2
d
= 1
.
dx

(. 3.4, , ) ,
dS dz ( ),
, dS B dz :
dQ + dQW = dQ

(dQ dQ ) + dQW = 0.


(q r q r ) d dz + Wr d dr dz = 0,

q =

1 d

r dr

(q r ) + W = 0;

1 d

r dr

dT
r ) + W = 0.
dr

dT
d
=
, = (T ) dT
dr
dr
1 d d
r + W = 0.

r dr dr

, . W = 0
d 2 1 d
+
= 0,
dr 2 r dr


= 1

dT = 1dT1

1 2 r
ln
r2
r1
ln
r1

1dT1 2 dT2
r
ln .
r
r1
ln 2
r1

= be kT ,

e kT = e kT1

e kT1 e kT2
r
ln ;
r
r1
ln 2
r1

Q=

d
L (1 2 )
2 rL =
.
1 d2
dr
ln
2 d1

3.5.

G , , - , F, .

, . . 3.5.

1
r1
d

G
2

G
x

dx

r
r2

dr

. 3.5. ()
()
Q,
F ( ) dx (. 3.5, ),

dQ = WdV = WFdx ,

W , V, .
,
dQ = FGdT ,

G . ,

W = G

dT
.
dx

, ,

d 2T W d 2T G dT
+ =
+
= 0.
dx
dx 2 dx 2

P =

G
dT
du
, u=

+ Pu = 0,
dx

dx

T =

D Px
D
D
e
+ ; T1 = + ; T2 = e P + .
P
P
P

:
T = T1

T1 T2
dT
T T
1 e Px ; q ( x) =
= P 1 P2 e Px .
P
dx
1 e
1 e

:
Q = q () F = PF

T1 T2 p
e
1 e P

Q=

Q
+ P

,
P (
).
, -
( ) dr (. 3.5, ),
dQ = WdV = WFdr .
, dQ = cFGdT . ,
W = cG

G =

dT (c) dT
=
,
dr 2 rL dr

; .
2 rL

, ,

d 2T 1 dT W d 2T
c 1 dT
= 0.
+
+ = 2 + 1 +

2
r dr dr
2 L r dr
dr

P = 1 +

dT
1
c
du
+ P u = 0,
, u=

2 L
dr
r
dr

T = D

T1 = D

T2 = D

(P 1) r1( P 1)

+ ;

1
( P 1) + ;

1
( P 1) + .

(P 1) r1

(P 1) r2

T = T1

T1 T2
1
1
( P 1) ( P 1)

r1

Q (r ) =

r2

1
1

r ( P 1) r ( P 1) ,
1

1
dT
L (T1 T2 )( P 1)
.
2 rL =
P
1
dr
1 1
1 r

2 r1( P 1) r2( P 1)

Q (r2 ) =

2 L (T1 T2 )( P 1)
=
( P 1)
r2

1

r1

Q
r2

r1

( P 1)

.
, ,

P = 1

c
,
2 L

= 1,
2 L
, P = 0 d 2T
2 = 0.
dr

4.

4.1.

2
= 2 .

(4.1)

= f (, ) ,
. = U () V ().

= U ( ) V ( x) ,

2T
= U ( )V ( x ) .
x 2


V ( x ) U ( ) = V ( x ) U ( )

U ( ) V ( x )
=
= k 2 .
U ( ) V ( x )

. ,
k . (4.1)
:
U ( ) + k 2U ( ) = 0, V ( x ) + k 2V ( x ) = 0,
2

, ,
U ( ) = C1 e k

V ( x ) = C2e ikx + C3e + ikx .


e ikx = cos kx i sin kx ,

e + ikx = cos kx + i sin kx ,

V ( x ) = C4 cos kx + C5 sin kx .
= D cos (kx ) e k

+ B sin (kx ) e k

(4.2)
(4.1), D, B, k .

2 1 T

r 2 + r r

(4.3)

T = DJ 0 (kx ) e k

+ BJ1 (kx ) e k ,

(4.4)

J0(k)

;
J1(k) .


2 2 T

r 2 + r r ,

2
= (rT)
= 2 , .

4.2.

, 0 (. 4.1), = 0
. .

2
= 2 ;

(4.5)


= 0;

= 0

(4.6)



= (T ) , (4.7)

= R

( )=0 = .

(4.8)

(4.6) (4.8) , .
, D, B, k .
(4.5) (4.8) , = T
Tc.

2
= 2 ,

(4.9)


= 0,

x x = 0

(4.10)



= ,
x x = R

(4.11)

()=0 = 0 .

(4.12)

(4.9) (4.1),
= D cos (kx ) e k

+ B sin (kx ) e k .

(4.10) B = 0. ,
2

= D cos (kx ) e k .

(4.11)

tg =

, = kR; Bi =

Bi

: 1, 2, 3, , n.
,

x n 2

= Dn cos n e R .
R
n =1

D (4.12) .
= 0

Dn cos n R = 0 ,
x

n =1

D1 cos 1

x
x
x
+ D2 cos 2 + D3 cos 3 + K = 0 .
R
R
R

cos1

x
R

(R) (+R)
+R

D1

+ D3

+R

x
x

x
2
cos 1 R dx + D2 cos 2 R cos 1 R dx +
R
R
+R

+R

x
x
x
cos 3 R cos 1 R dx + K = 0 cos 1 R dx .
R
R


+R

D1

+R

x
x
2
cos 1 R dx = 0 cos 1 R dx ,
R
R

D1 = 0

2sin 1
.
1 + sin 1 cos 1

2, 3, , n, D2, D3, ..., Dn.


=

2
2 sin n

cos ( n ) e n Fo ,
=
0 n =1 n + sin n cos n

(4.13)

T T
x

; X = ; F = 2 , , (R
T0 T
R

). , (4.13) . =

T T
.
T T0


T
= 0
q =

R
x x = R

n =1

2 n sin 2 n
n

+ sin n cos n

e n F

n =1

= dX =

2sin 2 n

2n + n sin n cos n

e n F .

2
n =1 n J 0

2 J1 ( n )

( n ) +

J12

( n )]

2
r
J 0 n e n F .
R

(4.14)

n
J 0 ( ) 1
= ,
J1 ( ) Bi

q=

0
R

2 n J12 ( n )

n =1

Bi =

[J

2
0

( n ) + J12 ( n )]

e n F ,

T =

R2

(Tr ) dr .
0

R
,

( ), .
, . Bi
T . ,
. , , cos = 0; J 0 ( ) = 0 , (4.13)
(4.14) , ,

= ( 1)n +1
n =1

cos ( n X ) e n F ,

2
r

J 0 n e n F .
R
n =1 n J1 ( n )

. 4.2 4.5
Fo Bi.
4.3.

.
, (. 4.2).
:

xy = x y .

(4.15)

x 2R1,
; y 2R2, y.

2
1

2R2

2R1

. 4.2. ,

(4.15)
( , y , ) ( , ) ( y , )
=
.
0
0
0

(4.15)
( , y , ) ( , ) ( y , )
=
;
0
0
0
0

=0 = =0 y =0 ;
y =0

x = R1 = x = R1 y = 0 ;
y =0

x = R1 = x = R1 y = R2 ;
y = R2

x = 0 = x = 0 y = R2 .
y = R2

.
.
: rz = r z , z L = 2R2 (
) z; r d = 2R1 ( ) r.

.
xyz = x y z, x, y, z ,
.
. , ( , , , ),
: , . . (,
)

= f () f (y),

(4.16)

= (T Tc) ; = (Tc T) ,
( x, y ) =

( x, 0 ) (0, y ) ( x, R2 ) ( R1 , y )
=
,
(0, 0 )
( R1 , R2 )

(4.17)

(,
y)

;
(, 0) ; (y, 0)
; (0, 0) ; (, R2) R1; (R1, y) R2; (R1, R2)
.

T (x, y) = f () + f (y), T (, y) ,

T (, y) = T (, 0) + (0, y) T (0, 0) = (R1, y) + T (, R2) T (R1, R2).
(4.18)
(4.17) , , .. .
(4.18) ,
( ) , .. .
(0, 0 ) =

(0, R2 ) ( R1 , 0 )
,
( R1R1 )

(4.19)

""
0,24 < Bi < . ,
, .
, , , .
4.4.

(4.4) (4.13) ,

= An e n F ,
n =1

1
T T
=
, ctg = .
Bi
T0 T

Bi , ctg = 0 :
1 =

; 2 = 3 ; 3 = 5 K; 12 < 22 < 32 < K


2

, Fo > Fo

e 1 Fo >> e 2 Fo >> e 3 Fo .

, , Fo > Fo* , , .. 2

= A1 e 1 Fo ,
ln = 12 Fo + ln A1 = 12

a
+ const ,
R2

(4.20)

+ const ,

ln = m + const .

ln =

(4.21)
(4.22)

, , . m
. (4.22),
= m.

(4.23)

(4.23)
. , (4.20) :
2

R
1
. = =
;
2
1

2R

.. =

. =

1,31R.

; =

1
2

+
1,31R L

. =

, .

ln1

R
;

ln2

Bi =

1
2

+
+

2 R1 2 R2 2 R3



Bi ,

ln

R ;


( ).

1, 4.3.

0, .


= const
. m

1 2, 2 (. 4.3).

T1 T
T2 T
ln 1 ln 2
m=
=
.
2 1
2 1
ln

(4.24)

4.5.
(. 4.4) ( ) :

2 1

2 + ;

= 0;
= qc ; T = 0 ,

= 1 = 2 .

= b + k + An e n F .
n =1

qc = const

qc = const

; a

2R
a

2R

. 4.4.
1 < 2 < 3 < , , (F > F*), .

= b + k,

2
qc R
1 x
b = 0
;

2 ( + 2 ) 2 R

b = 0

k =

qc
;
R

qc R
1
q R
qc R

; b = 0 c
=
+ T0 .
2 ( + 2 ) 2 ( + 2 )
2 ( + 2 )

, (qc = const) , , .
. b k,
(. 4.5).
,
=

qc R
qR
1
1
= c
.

T0 b 2 ( + 2 ) 2 b T0 + 2

, ,
=

qc R
R
.
, =k
qc
2 (b b )

= b + k

tg = k

= b + k

. 4.5.
(q = const):
;
4.6.

:
, , . -


.
:
, , .
.
, : , , .
( ) , . ,

2
= 2 ,

(R, ) = T(),


= 0,

= 0

(0, ) = (),

(, 0) = 0.

() (),

= ln (T T ) 1,23

dT

= 2,47 2 + const .
T T
R

(4.25)

. , . (4.30) . (4.25)
d

= 2,47 2 ,
d
R

= ln (T T ) 1,23

. 4.6.

dT
,
T T

=
= () , (. 4.6).
,
(4.30) . -

.
( ). , ..
.

4.7.
,
(. 4.7).

F (Tc T ) d = cVdT , Fd = cVd ,
d
F
=
d = Pd .

c V

= De P : = 0

=
0
,
,
D
=
0
=
Tc

T0,
= 0 e-P.
P=

R
,

c, ,
T, V,

Tc

=
= Bi 2 ,
2
c R
c R
R

Bi =

FR
,
=
=
c V
V c R
c R

,
, 1, 2, 3;

Tc

4 7 -

; =

FR

F =

Tc

= e BiFo ,
0


.
0

,
=


.
0

,
: ;
, . , .
, . , Bi =

R
< 0,24.

4.8.

. , , .
, (), 0, ,
.

2
= 2 ,

=0 = ,

=0 = 0 ,

2
= 2 , = 0 = 0,

= 0 = 0 ,

(4.26)

= ( ); 0 = (0 ).
,
= 0

(4.26), =

.
4

, (4.26), .
q =

;
x

d
=
,
d x

q=

20

e .
4

(Z = 0)
q =

b =

20

c
=
0 = b 0 ,

b . , 0.
q() .
(),
. 0 ,
= ( ); 0 = ( 0).
:

Q = q ( ) d = 0 b ( ) d


Q=

0 ,

(4.27)

= .
, , . , .
() , . ,
. , ,
.
, ,
. , . , , (4.27).
4.9.

. . , , . ,
. , , .
. , , , , .

; a; (c; )
xmax
max
0, T*

T*

4.8. :
, = ( , *) ;

max = Tmax T*

( );

max
= Txmax T*
x

( )
4.8 .
,
. , , :

2
2
= 2 ; 0, = max cos ,

2
; =
.


x, = max cos ( kx ) e kx ,

k =

.
2

, .
. ,

max
x=L
= 0,01.
max

= max e kx . ( = L)
cos ( kx ) = 1, max
x
L=

4,6

= 4,6

q = = k 2max cos +
4
x

q = max cos + ,
4

= .

max
qmax
.
=


,
.
, .
. , , . , , .
.
,
0,5

Q=

q d = max

= c .
, .
. .
,
. .
(.
4.9), :
2

,
, = , 1 1

max = Tmax T1 .

, ,
. ,
-


kx
max
= max
.

1 e

T1

max

T2

0
k ( x )
max
= max
,
x
2 e

max
2

. 4.9.

, ,
0 ( ) = 1

1 2
.

:
0 () = 2

2 1

( ) = 2 + 1 2 ( ) .

, ,
. -
,
.
4.10.

. . . .
I - .
(. 4.10, ).

0 ( ) = 10

T10 T 20
x.

dT ( x )
q0 I = 0
= (T10 T 20 ) .
dx

x =0

II , , 00 (. 4.10, ).
T

III

II

, a

, a

T1max

T10

T10
T1min

T20

T20

)
. 4.10.
()
()


max k II x
II = 1II
e
,

, II .
a II;

max
max
= T1
T10 ; k II =
xII = TxII T0 ( x ); 1II

max k II x
II = T0 ( x ) + 1II
e
.


dT
max
qII = xII
= q0I + 1II
k II .
dx

x =0

III ,
, 00.
max k III ( x )
III = 2III
e
,

max
max
xIII = TxIII T0 ( x ); 2III
= T2
T20 ; k =

, III .
a III


max k III ( x )
III = T0 ( x ) + II
e

dT
max
qIII = xIII q0 I 2III
k III e k III .
dx x = 0

IV
.
( ), , - ( ).
, -,
,

(q )II = qII q0I = max


1x k II .
-
,

k III
(q )III = qIII q0I = max
.
2III k III e

- :
-.
II III . . -:
q = q01 + qII + qIII .

q01 , qII , qIII q


q =

max
max
( 10 T 20 ) + 1II
k II 2III
k III e k III .

, ,
max
, 10 max
1 20 T 2 .
q , .

Q = q ( ) d = 0 b ( ) d

Q=

0 ,

(4.27)

= .
, , . , .
() , . ,
. , ,
.
, ,
. , . , , (4.27).
4.9.

. . , , . ,
. , , .
. , , , , .

; a; (c; )
xmax
max
0, T*

T*

4.8. :

, = ( , *) ;

max = Tmax T*

( );

max
= Txmax T*
x

( )
4.8 .
,
. , , :

2
2
= 2 ; 0, = max cos ,

2
; =
.


x, = max cos ( kx ) e kx ,

k =

.
2

, .
. ,

max
x=L
= 0,01.
max

cos ( kx ) = 1, max
= max e kx . ( = L)
x
L=

4,6

= 4,6

q = = k 2max cos +

4
x

q = max cos + ,
4

= .

max
qmax
.
=

.
, .
. , , . , , .
.
,
0,5

Q=

q d = max

= c .
, .
. .
,
. .
(.
4.9), :
2

, = , 1 1
,

max = Tmax T1 .

, ,
. ,
-


kx
max
= max
.
1 e

T1

max

T2

max
x

max
2

k ( x )
= max
,
2 e

. 4.9.

.
, ,

0 ( ) = 1

1 2
.

:
0 () = 2

2 1

( ) = 2 + 1 2 ( ) .

, ,
. -
,
.
4.10.

. . . .
I - .
(. 4.10, ).

0 ( ) = 10

T10 T 20
x.

dT ( x )
q0 I = 0
= (T10 T 20 ) .
dx x = 0

II , , 00 (. 4.10, ).
T

III

II

, a

, a

T1max

T10

T10
T1min

T20

T20

)
. 4.10.
()
()


max k II x
II = 1II
e
,

, II .
a II;

max
max
= T1
T10 ; k II =
xII = TxII T0 ( x ); 1II

max k II x
II = T0 ( x ) + 1II
e
.


dT
max
= q0I + 1II
k II .
qII = xII
dx

x=0

III ,
, 00.
max k III ( x )
III = 2III
e
,

max
max
xIII = TxIII T0 ( x ); 2III
= T2
T20 ; k =

, III .
a III


max k III ( x )
III = T0 ( x ) + II
e

dT
max
qIII = xIII q0 I 2III
k III e k III .
dx x = 0

IV
.
( ), , - ( ).
, -,
,

(q )II = qII q0I = max


1x k II .
-
,

k III
(q )III = qIII q0I = max
.
2III k III e

- :
-.
II III . . -:
q = q01 + qII + qIII .

q01 , qII , qIII q


q =

max
max
( 10 T 20 ) + 1II
k II 2III
k III e k III .

, ,
max
, 10 max
1 20 T 2 .
q , .

5.
-

5.1.

,
, . , , . -

. .
.

. , , .
:
, , ,
:
dG =

i =

U
dF d
x

dG = idF d ,

U
; x

, , , , .

U
= 1, i = , ..
x

.
,
.
0 . . ,
( ).
5.2.

x , , dx, dV = Fdx, F
. ,
, ( ) ( ). , . , .. x. : dI1x = dI 2 x + dI e0 , dI1x = i1x F d ,
dV F d; dI 2 x = i2 x F d ,
dV F d; dI e0 = e 0 dVdU ,
dV d (
); dU d.

dI e 0 = dI1x dI 2 x

e 0 dVdU = (i1x i2 x ) Fd .

(5.1)

F i1x F
i2x dx.
. 2 , 1 , ,

(i1x i2 x ) = dix =

i
dx .
x


dU =

U
d .

(5.1)
e 0 Fdx

U
i
d = dxFd .

U
x
=
e 0

U
2U
=
.
e 0 x 2

= , e0

.

U
2U
= 2 .

(5.2)

(5.2)
.
( ),
.
U
= 0,

d 2U
= 0.
dx 2

(5.3)

(5.2) (5.3)
. , ,
, :
2U 1 U
U
,
= 2 +

r
r

d 2U 1 dU
+
= 0,
dr 2 r dr

(5.4)

r .
5.3.


(5.2) (5.3), (5.4)
(. . 2) . :
1) U;
2) ;

3) Q G;
4) q i;
5) ;
6) , 0 ;
7) ;
8) e;
9) , Bi =
Bi =

R
, ,

R
;

10) , F =
Fo =

R2

a
, ,
R2

1) 4)

U = U1

U1 U 2
x (0 x ) ;

G=

G=

F (U1 U 2 ) ;

F (U1 f U 2 f
n

1
+ i +
1 i =1 i 2
1

(5.5)

x (); i i- ; F ; U ; U1 U2 ; U1f (); U2f


();

i

i

i- ; 1 (); 2 ()
; i i- .
U1f U2f , .
5) 9) ( ) , 0 ; 0 x | R|,

2 sin n
U U
x n 2
=
cos n e R ,
U U 0 n =1 n + sin n cos n
R
2

U ( x) ; Uc () ; U0 (
); x , ;
; R ;

; ctg =

Bi

, Bi =

R
,

.

, - .
:

U = U1

U1 U 2 r
ln ,
r
r1
ln 2
r1

G=

G=

L (U1 U 2 )
,
1
d
ln 2
2 d1

L (U1 f U 2 f
n

d
1
+
ln i +1 +
1d1 i =1 2 i
d i 2 d (n +1)
1

(5.6)

(5.5) (5.6)
.
5.4.
, : dG = i dF d, i =

P
; x

; P ; x .
, , , :
P
2 P
=
,

x 2

M =

(5.7)

, e ; 0
e 0

.
, (5.7) :
d 2 P
= 0.
dx 2

, ,

2 P 1 P
P
,
= 2 +

r
r

d 2 P 1 dP
+
= 0.
dr 2 r dr

(5.8)

(5.8) . , :

P = P1

P1 P 2
x

(0 x ) ,

G=

G =

F ( P1 P 2 ) ,

F (P1 f P 2 f

1
+ i +
2
i =1 i

(5.9)

;
x

; P1 P2 ; i i- ; F ;
i

(
i- ), P1f P2f ()
();

i
i- ; 1 i


(); 2 () .
5.5.
, , :
W =f

P
,
x

dD = WdFd,

W ; f ; P .
, ,
,
P
2P
= 2 ,

; =

f
e

(5.10)

, e -

; .

P
d 2P
= 0. (5.10)
= 0.

dx 2

( )
P = P1

P1 P2
x;

D=

f
F (P1 P2 ) ;

F (P1 f P2 f )
D =
,
n
i
1
1
+ +
1 i =1 f i 2

(5.11)

P ; x
; P1 ; P2

; i i- ; F ; fi i- ; P1f
(); P2f ();
i
i- ; 1
fi

(); 2 () .
5.6.

,
, - . . .
.
,
j =

dU
+ ,
dx

(5.12)

; .
x , (dxF)
, .
F , , j1. (dxF) (Fj1).
F , (Fj2), j2 F .
(dxF) .
(Fj1) (Fj2) = 0, .. (j1 j2) = 0. j1 j2 dx,
. (j1 j2) = dj = 0.
,
dU

d
+ = 0
dx

d dU

+ = 0.

dx
dx

U=

d 2U
d

= 0.
2
dx
dx

G
= = .
G V


d 2U dU


=0
dx 2 dx

d 2U
dU
K
= 0.
2
dx
dx

K = ,
U = U1

U1 U 2 + Kx
e
1 ,
e + K 1

U ; U1 ; U2 ; K =

.

j =

dU
dP
f
.
dx
dx

(5.13)

,
. (5.12), (5.13)
f

d 2 U + P

=0
2
dx

(x), U = ( x)

U + P ( x) = ( x) .

f
P ( x) .

, , , , P (x).
5.7.

,
, ,
. ,
. :
j =

H =

dU
dT
H
,
dx
dx

(5.14)

U
.
T

. (5.14),

d 2U
d 2T
H
+
=0
dx 2
dx 2

d2
(U + HT ) = 0,
dx 2

x:

(U + HT ) = f ( x) ,
:
U = f ( x) HT ( x) .

, .
. , , .
" , , , ", " ". ", , ", "". , , . ,
.
.
6.

6.1.
, ,
. . :
2 1

= 2 +

(0, )
= 0,

4 4
( R, )
= 0 ,

100 100

(x, 0) = 0.

(6.1)

(6.2)

(6.3)

(6.4)

; ; = 1; 2
.

(6.3) , . , , (6.1) (6.4) .


,
. , ,
4

T
C0 c R
100 .
i =
T

. i ,
,
, ..
.

= ( 0 ) ( )

2n Fo

n =1

i 0, ,
, .. .
=

(c ) RTc

Tc T Tc + T0

T
T
2 arctg arctg 0 .
ln

Tc
Tc

T Tc + T Tc T0
4 C0 c
100
4

T
< 0,5, , (6.3), T4 << T4 . , , < 0,5T,
Tc

.

4

T
C0 c R
2


1
100
x 2 + z ( x ) e n Fo .
= 0 +
Fo

2 (2 + ) 2 n =1


,
4

T
C0 c R
100
2 Fo
= 0 +

(2n 1) x
(2n 1) + x
ierfc
+ ierfc

2 Fo
2 Fo
n =1

ierfc (0) = 0,564, ierfc (1) = 0,05, ierfc (2) = 0,001 ..


, , , ,
. ,
4

T
C0 0 R
1

100
= 0 +
.
2 Fo 0,564 + ierfc

Fo

,
, :
T 4 3,5 T
m

ln 1
= 12
Fo + const ,
1+ m
1 + m

ln (T )

3,5 T

1 + m

= 12

m
1+ m

Fo + const .

m = 2Ki 1 1 2 e Ki ,
1

1 = ,

2 1,31

, .

F F* ( ) T T* ; T T * .
, (F*, T* , T * ), . (
) .

, (6.3) .

T 4 T 4
( R, )
= C0 c + ( ) .

100 100

( ).
.
, ,

( R, )
= q1s + ( F s )(q2 + q3 ) ,

F ; s ; q1

q2

;
q3 .
(6.1) (6.4)
. -
. , ( ), :

T 4 T 4
C0 c + ( ) =
100 100

Tc 4 T 4

C
0



100 100

+ ( ) =
=
( )

= ( + )( ) = 0 (T ).

; ; 0 =
( + ) ( ).
.
,
T 4 T 4
C0 c
100 100
=
( )

, . (6.1) (6.4) .
6.2.

,
:
Tc 2 4 T 4

= C0


+ ( 2 ) .
= R
100 100

, ,
Tc 2 4 T 4

C
=

+ ( 1 ) .

0
= R
100 100

,
:

(6.5)

(6.6)


4
= Ki 1 + i (1 ) ;
=1

4
= Ki 1 + i ( c1 ) ,

=1
4

T
C0 c 2 R

R
T
100
=
; Ki =
; Bi =
; c1 = c1 .
Tc 2
2
Tc 2

(6.5),
Ki i.
, (6.6), 1 =

1
.
2

, ,
Ki; i; 1.
= , ,
(6.7) :


= Ki 1 A44 + i ( c1 A ) .
x x =1

i (3 i),

Ki Bi

3
4
+ c1 Ki A3 Bi .
= Ki A 1 + i (1 ) +
A A
x

,
Ki Bi
Bi
Bi
+ c1 Ki A3 Bi = 0, 1 + c1 A4 A = 0.
A A
Ki
Ki


3
4
= Ki A 1 + i (1 )
x x =1


*
4
= Ki 1 + i (1 ) ,
x x =1

(6.7)

Ki* = Ki A3, (6.7).


(6.7) (6.5),
.
7.

.
, ,
. ,
. , .
, , . , .
7.1.
, : ( ); , ( ).

.
, -
. , , .
, . .
,
. ( )
( ), .
.
,
,
.
.
, .
, , .
- .
.
, , . -

, ,
.
, . . ,
. , , , . ( ) ,
, . , ,
, , .
, ,
.
. - : .. [39, 40], .. [53], .. [32
36], .. [19, 20], .. [29], .. [46, 47], .. [65, 66],
..
[69],
..
[73],
.. [71] .
7.2.
(. 1.1) (z ), .
2T ( , , ) 2T ( , , )
T ( , , )
=
+

2
2

(7.1)

(, ):
T (0, , )
= 0;

T ( , 0, )
= 0;

(R, y, ) = T! .(y,) (x, R, ) = T (x, );

(x, y, 0) = T0.

(7.1)
2T ( x, , )

T ( x , y , )
2T ( x, y , )
2
=
1
=
+
2T ( x, , )

(7.2)

2T ( x, y , ) grad y g
2T ( x, y , )

(1 + ),
1
+

=
grad g
2
x 2

.
, [39]:



T ( x, y , ) = T (T T0 ) Dn cos n
R
=1
n2

a
R A2

m =1

y
e
B

Dm s m R

2
m

(7.3)

a
R 2

x y

2n
2T ( x, y , )
x

=

(
T
T
)
D
cos n

0
n
2
2
x
RA
RA
n =1
n2
e

a
R A2

m =1

y
e
B

Dm cos m R

2
m

(7.4)

a
R B2

2T ( x, y , )
x
=

(
T
T
)

0 Dn cos
n R
2
y

A
n =1
2n
e

a
R A2

2
Dm m2
RB
m =1

y
e
cos m
RB

2m

a
2
RB

(7.5)
.

(7.3) (7.5)
(. 7.1).
Fo,
. ,
( > ) (7.3) ,

y (i A , Bi B ) =

12B RA2
,
12A RB2

1 1 , , i = (R) / ; i = (R) / .
y
1,0

iA = 1
iB = 1

2RB

0,8

0
2RA

2RB

2RA

0,6

12B
12A

iA = 1
iB = 1,5

R A2
RB2

0,4

R A2
RB2

iA = 1
iB = 2

y
2RB

12B
12A
0,2

0
2RA

. 7.1. ,
(iA = 1; i = 1,5; i = 2):
y
y ;
, Fo, iA i
RA RB . RB RA, , ,
. ( RA = RB)
. ( ).
,
, :
T ( x, , )
2T ( x, , )
= 2
;

T (0, , )
= 0,

T ( R, , ) = T ( , ) ,

T ( x, , * ) = T * ( x, ) ,

(7.6)

> .
, (7.6), .
, (7.7) (7.10).
, , ,
, :

2
=2 2 ,
Fo
X

(7.7)

(0, Fo)
= 0,
X

(7.8)

(1, Fo) = (Fo),

(7.9)

(, , 0) = 0.

(7.10)

()

= ln [T ( R, y, ) T (0, y, )]
1,23

dT ( R, y, )
a
= 4,94 2 + const .
T ( R, y, ) T (0, y, )
R

(7.11)

(7.11)
. (7.11) .
. , , .
. , .. .

III,
IIIIV, VVI (. 7.2),
:

I II = ln (TII TI ) 1,23

dTII
a
= 4,94 2 + const ,
TII TI
R

III IV = ln (TIV TIII ) 1,23

V VI = ln (TVI TV ) 1,23

(7.12)

dTIV
a
= 4,94 2 + const , (7.13)
TIV TIII
R

dTVI
a
= 4,94 2 + const .
TVI TV
R

(7.14)

. 7.2.

:

VI

III
I

IV
II

2R

x
I (x = y = 0);
0
II (x = R; y = 0);
III (x = 0, y = 0,5 R);
IV (x = R; y = 0,5 R);
2R
V (x = 0; y = R);
VI (x = R, y = R)
, [39]:
2

T T
x 1n R 2
y 1m R 2

= D12 cos 1n e
cos 1m e
.
T T0
R
R

(7.15)

(7.15) (7.12) (7.14) Bi.


, -

. (7.7) (7.10) . , :

Fo + Fo,1 = 1, Fo + 4Fo 2 1+ Y , F0 1, Fo +

(7.16)

+ 4Fo M Ki 1 1,4 Fo ,

N , Fo + Fo = N , Fo + Fo 2 ( N +Y ; Fo + N Y , Fo +

+ 2 N X , Fo 4 N , Fo + 2Fo Ki 1 4N , Fo .

(7.17)

, ( ),
. . 7.3 (Fo) I, II, V, VI
.
III, VVI (7.12) (7.14).
, /Fo,
4,94.
Ki Bi .

1,0

VI

0,8

II

0,6
I

0,4

VVI

III

0,2

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

Fo

. 7.3. :
(Ki = 0,5; Bi = 0,5; 0 = 0,2): I, II, V, VI ;
III, VVI (7.12) (7.14)
(7.12) (7.14)
, . ,
, ,
, . -

.
, .
V VI
. , ,
.
7.3.


, , ,
- . : ; 4; .
. 7.4 . , 200 (4
) 180 ( ),
. ,

.
6
, ,
5

.
4

3
, ( )
2
, .

1
( ),
0,2 .

.
1

2
I III (. 7.2) ,
II, IV, V, VI 3
.
( )
. 7.4.

:
1 ;

2 ;
80100 .
3 ;
4 ; 5 ;
6
.
,
(III, IIIIV, VVI), , (7.12) (7.14) :

I II = ln (TII TI ) 1,23

dTII
,
TII TI

(7.18)

III IV = ln (TIV TIII ) 1,23

V VI = ln (TVI TV ) 1,23

dTIV
,
TIV TIII

dTVI
.
TVI TV

(7.19)

(7.20)

. 7.5 I, II, III,


IV, V, VI (2R = 90 ).
III, IIIIV, VVI,
(7.18) (7.20).
/ III, IIIIV, VVI

=

R2
,
4,94

(7.21)

R ,
; , ; /
, , .
t, C

100

VI

90
IIIIV

III

IV

80

II

VVI

V
III
2

70
I
60

50
40
30

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

. 7.5. (2R = 90 )
:
I, II, III, IV, V, VI ; III, IIIIV, VVI
(7.18) (7.20)
. 7.1 : ( 160 )
VVI, VVI. (

) . ( ), III, IIIIV, VVI, (7.18) (7.20), /


4,94 / R2 .
/
(7.21).
7.1.
(R= 0,043 ); (VVI)

, TVI, C

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160

61,5
70,0
75,0
80,0
84,0
87,5
91,0
94,0

ti =
TV, C
=
lnti
TVI TV
47,0
54,5
60,5
66,0
71,0
75,0
79,0
83,0

14,5
15,5
14,5
14,0
13,0
12,5
12,0
11,0

2,674
2,741
2,674
2,639
2,565
2,526
2,484
2,398

1/ti
0,069
0,064
0,069
0,071
0,077
0,089
0,083
0,091

=
= 0,5 [(ti )1
+
+ (ti+1)1]
0,067
0,067
0,070
0,074
0,080
0,083
0,087

(t) =
fi =
Fi =
= lnti
106, 2/
, = (t)i+1 = = Fi1 + 1,23Fi

(t)
fi
(t)i
1,23Fi
20
8,5
0,568
40
5,0
0,334 0,568 0,699 2,042
0,14
60
5,0
0,351 0,902 1,110 1,565
0,14
80
4,0
0,297 1,253 1,541 1,098
0,13
100
3,5
0,280 1,550 1,907 0,659
0,11
120
3,5
0,291 1,830 2,251 0,275
0,12
140
3,0
0,261 2,121 2,609 0,124
0,12
160
2,382 2,930 0,532
, ,
, ,
.
,

(2R = 90 ), = 6080
III, IIIIV, VVI ,
/ .
/
(7.21). ,
.

(2R =
90 ) :
III = 0,112 106, 2 /; IIIIV = 0,118 106, 2 /; VVI = 0,114 106, 2 /.
(2R = 90 ).
(2R = 40 ), (2R = 28 ), (2R = 50 ), .
V
VI .
,
.
7.4.


, ,
.

* =

0
0

(7.22)

, ; 0 .
, (. 7.6) = f (Bi)
: , ,
.
1 %.

1,0
0,8

5
4
3
2

0,6
0,4

0,2
0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

Bi

. 7.6.
Bi :
1 ; 2 ;
3 ; 4 ; 5 :
;

,
(7.22) max > 0,2.
, ,
.
.

** =

0
0

(7.23)

** = f (Bi) . 7.6, , 1 %
= 0,44; = 0,78 .
,
,
. , ,
.
7.5.




. ,
[59, 68, 76, 78].


, . 7.7.
1
. 7.7.
2
3
4
:
5
1 3
4
; 2
6
5
;
3
6
;
4
;
5 ; 6


2 6, 4.
() ( ) . 5
.

( )

. . 7.8
t t,
(2R = 0,05 ) , - , = 1700 /3.
. 7.9 t
t (2R = 0,05 ) ,
- , = 2000 /3.
,
( ),
,

= ln (t t ) 1,23

dt
t t

. 7.8.

- :
= 1700 / ; 2R = 0,05 ; (R = 0,024 ): t ;
t ; (7.24)
3

(7.24)

. 7.9.
- :
= 2000 /3; 2R = 0,05 ; (R = 0,023 ): t ;
t ; (7.24)
/
(7.21).
. 7.2 , Excel.
7.2.
= 1700 /3, (R= 0,024 ), t0 = 20

, TVI, C

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
100
0

ti =
TV, C
=
lnti
TVI TV

(ti)1

=
= 0,5 [(ti )1
+
+ (ti+1)1]
0,172
0,138
0,133
0,133
0,138
0,148
0,157
0,163
0,167

35
41,5
45,5
48
50
51,5
53
54,5
56

30
34,5
38
40,5
42,5
44,5
46,5
48,2
50

5
7
7,5
7,5
7,5
7
6,5
6,3
6

1,609
1,946
2,015
2,015
2,015
1,946
1,872
1,84
1,792

0,2
0,143
0,133
0,133
0,133
0,143
0,154
0,159
0,167

57,5

51,5

1,792

0,167

(t) =
fi =
Fi =
= lnti

, = (t)i+1 = = Fi1 + 1,23Fi

106,

(t)
fi
(t)i
1,23Fi 2/
100

6,5

1,115

0,6
6

0,71 0,6
1
7
0,47 0,7
300
2,5
0,333 1,667 2,05 0,035
8
0
0,38 0,7
400
2,0
0,266 2,000 2,46 0,445
1
3
2,78
0,37 0,7
500
1,5
0,207 2,266
0,772
7
7
5
3,04
0,38 0,7
600
1,5
0,222 2,473
1,095
2
4
8
3,31
0,49 0,8
700
1,5
0,255 2,695
1,443
5
5
0
3,62
0,40 0,8
800
1,5
0,245 2,950
1,788
9
2
2
3,93
0,40 0,8
900
1,5
0,251 3,191
2,138
0
7
3
100
4,23
0,39
1,5
3,442
2,442
0
4
3
. 7.8 . 7.2 , , 400 , , 400900 ,

(7.21),

= 0,393 106
2/.

[64]

3
6 2
= 1700 / 2 %, = 0,390 10 /.
. 7.9 , , 300 , ,
, (7.21),
300700
200

4,0

0,552

1,115

1,37

0,575

R2 (0,023) ( 2,45) ( 4,62)


2
=
= 0,58 10 6 /.
4,94
4,94
700 300

[64] = 2000 /3
5 % = 0,576 10 6 2/.


[59, 78]. . 7.10
t t
(2R = 0,04 ) = 1200 /3.
, ( ),
, (7.24). Excel.

.
7.10
,

(),
1600 , , 16002400
2

R 2 (0,018) ( 5,884) ( 7,463)


2
=
=
= 0,129 10 6 /.
4,94
4,94
2400 1600

= 0,78 = 2200
.
. 7.10 , (), 1800
, 18002800

R 2 (0,0195) ( 7,925) ( 9,572)


2
=
= 0,126 10 6 /.
=
4,94
4,94
2800 1800

[64] = 1220 /3 = 0,138 106 2/.


.
, , . , , , - .
8. -

8.1.

.
, .
:

2
= 2 ,

(8.1)

0, = max s ( ),

(8.2)

, 2/; max ( ), ; = 2 / z , 1; z , .
(8.1) (8.2) (8.3), ,
, = max cos ( kx) e kx ,

(8.3)

k = / 2 .

(8.3)

q, = = k 2 max cos +

q, = max cos + ,
4

, :
=

= ,

(8.4)

, /( ); , /(3 ).

max
qmax
, = B .

, .
, ()

= qmax / max .

(8.5)

,
, qmax
, max ,
=

max
q,

max

(8.6)

()

. () . , .
- ,
.
8.2.


, .
,
, (. 7.4)
( ), .
t
, .

1.
2

= 4,6 + 0,035t + 1,7 t 0,333 , / ,

t .


2

q = 4,6t + 0,035t 2 + 1,7 t1,333 , / ,

(8.7)

t = t t, 0 20 ; t , 15 +30 .
2.
= (5,18 + 0,041t1 ) , / ,

t1 , , +2 +20 ;
, 0,05 0,25 .
q
q = (5,18 + 0,041t1 ) t , /2 ,

t = t1 t2, 0 30 ; t2 .
3. :
2

= 4,6 + 0,035t + 1,5t 0,333 , / .

q = 4,6t + 0,035t 2 + 1,5t1,333 , /2 ,

(8.8)

t = t t, t , + 40 + 400 ;
t , 0 +30 .
4. ( )
( ):
2
= 4,6 + 0,035t + t 0,333 , / .
(. 7.4) (2R = 0,05 )
2

q = 4,6t + 0,035t 2 + t1,333 , / ,

(8.9)

t = t t; t , + 20
+ 200 ; t , + 20 + 120 .
8.3.

()
t0, ,
. t, t, , . qmax t
t . qmax
t
t .
(8.8) (8.9).

= 0,5 (t t0). z
, .. z = 2 z.
()
=

qmax

z*

(8.10)

, t t ,
a=

R*2
,
4,94

(8.11)

R* , ; ,
.

= ln (t t ) 1,23

dt
t t

(8.12)

= ln (t t ) 1,23

dt
t t

(8.13)

/ . ,

= a ().

(8.14)

- , , , .
, 7.5.
, t0 = 99 ,
t = 30 . R = 0,0135 . . 8.1 t t, (8.13)
(8.11)
30 . = 0,125 106 2/ (cp) . qmax

(8.8)

t =
t0 t =
= 99 30 = 69 . . 8.2.

8.2.

:
t0 = 99 , t = 30 , qm = 910 /2, = 0,125 106 2/

z* ,

t,
C

= 0,5( t0
t )

qmax
,

z*
3

= a (),

/( )

/( )
200

76,0

11,5

1786

0,223

400

66,0

16,5

1761

0,220

600

61,0

19,0

1872

0,233

800

57,0

21,0

1952

0,244

1000

54,0

22,5

2040

0,255

, ,
( ),
,
.

9.

9.1.


, .
2T ( x, y, z , ) 2T ( x, , z , ) 2T ( x, y, z , )
+
+

=
x 2
y 2
z 2

2T ( x, y, z, ) 2T ( x, , z, )

T ( x, , z , )
y 2

z
=
+ 2
1+ 2

x2

T ( x, , z , )
(
,
,
,

)
T
x


x 2
x 2

T ( x, , z, )
=

(9.1)
: (9.2), (9.3) (9.5) (9.6)
T ( y, z , )
T ( x, z, )
T ( x, , )
= 0;
= 0;
= 0,
x
y
z

(9.2)

T ( R, y, z , ) = T ( y , z , ),

(9.3)

T ( x, R, z , ) = T ( x, z, ) ,

(9.4)

T ( x, y, R, ) = T ( x, y , ) ,

(9.5)

T ( x, y , z ,0) = T0 .

(9.6)

(9.1)

2T ( x, y , z , )
T ( x , y , z , )
(
)
=

+
+
1
,

z
2

(9.7)

y =

grad y q
grad x q

(9.8)

y
x.
z =

grad z q
grad x q

(9.9)

z
x.
,
:

= 1 (1 0 )

D D D

n =1 m =1 k =1

x
y
z

cos
cos
cos
RA
RB
RC


ex 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 .
RA
RB
RC

(9.10)

(9.10), (9.8) (9.9). , BiA Bi RA R . R , RA,


, .
,
( RA = RB) . ( ).
, z . , , RA = RB = RC ,
BiA = Bi = Bi , .
, , z
.
,
:
( x, , z , )
2 ( x, , z , )
,
= 3

x 2
(0, , z , )
( x, 0, z , )
= 0;
= 0;
x
y

(9.11)

( x, , 0, )
= 0,
z

T ( R, y , z , ) = T ( y , z , ) ,
T ( x, y, z , * ) = T* ( x, y, z ) , > .

,
= ln [ T ( R, y, z , ) T (0, y, z , )]
1,23

dT ( R, y, z , )

= 7,41 2 + const.
T ( R, y, z , ) T (0, y, z , )
R

(9.12)

,
.
(9.12) -

.

. , , . .
, .. .
(9.12) Bi, .
III, IIII
(. 9.1),
I II = ln (TII TI ) 1,23

dTII

= 7,41 2 + const,
TII TI
R

I III = ln (TIII TI ) 1,23

dTIII
a
= 7,41 2 + const ,
TIII TI
R*

(9.13)

(9.14)

R*2 = 2 R 2 .
9.2.


(9.12) , .
, ,
, 80...100 . . , 5...6
.
, , , , , .
.
. 9.1 . I II, III (
) III IIII , . III IIII :

x
2RB

0
2RC
2RA

t, C

100

III

IIII

II
80
I
60

III
40

40

80

120

160

200

. 9.1. (2R = 90 )
:
I (x = 0; y = 0; z = 0);
II (x= R; y = 0; z = 0);
III (x = R; y = R; z = 0);
III IIII (9.15) (9.16)
I II = ln (TII TI ) 1, 23

dTII
;
TII TI

(9.15)

I III = ln (TIII TI ) 1, 23

dTIII
.
TIII TI

(9.16)

/ :
2
R
;
a=
7,41

2
R*
.
a=
7,41

(9.17)

, , :

III = 0,108 106 2/, IIII = 0,119 106 2/;

III = 0,110 106 2/, IIII = 0,120 106 2/.


, , ,
(9.12) , .
9.3.


,
(, ), .

. , ( )
, ,
. ,
,
. , , , .
. 9.2
(2R = 90 ): t. t..

t
=
31
.

t, C

100

3,0

90

3,2

t.

3,4

80

70

t.

60

3,6

t.

50

40

3,5

3,7

3,8

30

20

40

60

80

100

. 9.2. (2R = 90 ) :
t. ,
(9.18); t.
; t.
; (9.19)
. 9.2 t.,

t. = t +

(t. t ) 2
t. t

(9.18)

t. t. .
t. t., ,
= ln (t. t.) 1,23

dt.

t. t. .

(9.19)

. 9.2 .
/ 7,41 / R2,
. /
a =

R 2
.
7,41

(2R = 90 )
= 0,119 106 2/.
,
.
, .
9.4.

= ln t.- 1,73

d t ()

= 9,86 2 + const .
t.-
R

(9.20)

,
.
(9.20) .
.
, , . . -

, ..
.
(9.21) :
= ln .- 1,73

d (F)
.-

= 9 ,86F + const .

(9.21)

(9.21)
i, .
(2R
=160 ), ~ 100 ,
. ,
. , - . ,
. - .
,
.
. 9.3 (2R = 160 ) , .
t,

2,0

100
80
1

60

2,5

40

20
0

3,0

40

80

120

160

200

240

()

. 9.3. (2R = 160 ) :


1 ; 2 ;
(9.22)

= ln (t t ) 1,73

d t
(t t )

(9.22)

R2 = 0,108 106 2/.


9,86

, (9.20) .
10.

10.1.

,
,
.
1. , () "" , .
( , ) (
, ). ( ), ()
.
2. ,
, , - , , , .
3. ,
( ), .
, : , , , .
, [17, 78].
t t
t = t t.

.

, , ,
. t
: t, t t: t = t + t + t.
t -
,
.
(, , ),
, : , ,
.

() t - ,
. : . , . .
- , .
t ,
. ,
, t t.
t
t t: t = t + t.
t , (
). , , .
t t , .
. t , - t
.
, , () ( ).
t t. t t:
t = t + t. t, t = 0.
t :
, , , , (, , ), ,
, ,
.
t (
), , , ,
, .
t [59,
60, 76]. , , , , , , . , ,
, .
t
()
t

- ,
.


: h
,

4
( , ) .
t


u1, , , ,
q
2
, .
, 1 , . u2
,
h/2
.
3

tc
,0 . x

, .
t .
( , , , -
), , . , . ( ), , . t ( ).
, . ,
,
, , .
[17, 22, 24, 42, 50, 55, 56, 59, 68, 71, 76, 78] , . , , ,
. , .
10.2.

(), () h b. . 10.1
.

. 10.1. :
1 ; 2 (); 3 ; 4 ;
q ; b, h ;
t
,
0,2...0,8 . .
.
, , ,
. , , , , , ,
:
1) ,
, ; ( 6-15126880); , , ;
2) ;
3)
(), .
"" 1
3. () 1 3
, h / 2
[78].
, ,
, (. 10.1), t
[78]:
t = t t = (t t) = (t t) / ( 1),

(10.1)

t t () ; t .

[1 (1 + )] / [1 + (1 + )].
(10.2) :

(10.2)

= 1 + h / b; = 1 + 2h / b; = h / ; = h / ;
= 2 (1 + ) / ; = [1 + d / 2 (h + b)]2; = 1 d2 / 4hb;
; d .
, t = 100 . , d = 0,4 103 , h = b = 0,8 103 .
t = 200 , = 25 /(2 ). , : = 1 /( ), = 0,5 /( ).
: = 2; = 3; = 0,02; = 0,04; = 1,94; = 0,804; = 322. , (10.2) =
0,012. , (10.1), t
= (t t) / ( 1) = 1,18 . t = t t = 101,2 .
t = t / t = 0,012 = 1,2 %.
,
, (. 10.2), t,
[78]:
t = t () t () = ( ) b,

(10.3)

t () t () () ; ,
, ; b , /.
() [78]:
= (h + b)2 / 82 a,

(10.4)

a , 2/.
[78]:

( )
4
=
( ) +


4bh

2
d

d 2

(
bh
)

2 (b + h) + d

2
,

(10.5)

, /( ); d , ; b h
; () () , /(3 ).
(. 7.4)
, , b 0,025 /. -,
d = 0,4 103 , h = b = 0,8 103 . : a = 0,12 106 2/, a =
= 0,5 106 2/. ( ) ,
( ), : . = 0,5 /( ), . = 0,2 /(
).
, , :
(). = 1,12

106
/(3

),
(). =
6
3
6
3
= 1,6 10 /( ), () = 4,35 10 /( ).
(10.4):

= (h + b) / 8 a = 0,27 ;
2
2
= (h + b) / 8 a = 0,065

(10.5):
. = 0,71 ;
. = 0,23 .
t (10.3)
:
t = ( .) b = 0,011 ;
t = ( .) b = 0,004 .
t 20...80 , :
= t / t = 0,00028 = 0,028 %;
= t / t = 0,00007 = 0,007 %.
10.3.

()
[59]. , . ,
t, t.
t t, .. .
, , , ,
, .

, . 7.7. , , . , , , - .


. ,
[59, 68, 76, 78].
. 10.2 () ().
, (),
.
1, 2, 3 (. 10.2) , ,
: r1 = 0,2 ; r2 = 2,0 ; L1 = 0,4
;
L2 = 5 . r = r2 r1 =
= 1,8 , = L2 L1 = 4,6 .

,
[59]:
= / ; * = 2 / 1; = 100 *; = (cp)2 / (cp)1;
r = r / L1; = / L1,
(10.6)
, (); 2, 1 ; (cp)2, (cp)1
, /(3 ).
(-), () (, ) :
3
-: 1 = 23y/( ); (cp)1 = 4350 /( );
3
: 2 = 0,23 /( ); (cp)2 = 1780 /( );
3
, : 3 = 0,5...1,2 /( ); (cp)3 = 1600...1900 /( ).

r
3

L2

L1

r1

r2

. 10.2. () ,
:
r1 r2 ;
L1 L2 ;
1 (); 2 ;
3 ; h
. :
, ; ,
;
; .
,
, .

. ,
[59, 76]:
= 2 / (h2 + h3) + 7 103 / S ,

(10.7)

(), /( ); h2, h3 , ; , ;
; E
, /2; S () , 2.
(10.7)
, . 60 ,
() = 0,029 /(). (. 10.3) = 0,1 = 0,98
1 .
: h2 = 1

=
106
;
S
=
4

10

=
= 4 10 6 2; 2 = 0,23 /( ).
, ( .).
( ) :
h3 100 10 4 ; 3 0,8 /( ); E 70 /2 70 105 /2.

= 2 23 / (2 + 3) = 2 0,23 0,8 / (0,23 + 0,8) = 0,36 /( ).


, (10.7),
= 2 0,029 / (1,01 104) + (7 103) 1 0,36 / (70 105) (4 10 6) =
= 580 + 90 = 670 /(2 ).
, ,
,
. , , , .
() ()

2
10 /( ).
(10.6) :
= / = 670 / 10 = 67;

* = 2 / 1 = 0,23 / 23 = 0,01;

= 100 * = 1; = (cp)2 / (cp)1 = 1780 / 4350 = 0,4.


:
r = r / L1 = 1,8 / 0,4 = 4,5; = / L1 = 4,6 / 0,4 = 11,5.

m = 0,3 0,41 1,3 = 1.


t,
[59]:

t = (0,046 + 3,74 0,77) [(1,38 0,38) r 0,011 ];


t = (0,046 + 3,74 0,77) [(1,38 0,38) 0,011 ]. (10.8)


(, )
t, :

t = (0,046 + 3,74 / 25,5) [(1,38 1) / 4,5 0,011] =
= (0,046 + 0,147) [(0,38) / 4,5 0,011] = (0,193) [0,073] = 0,014 = 1,4 %;

t = (0,046 + 0,147) [(1,38 1) / 11,5 0,011] =


= (0,183) [(0,38 1) / 11,5 0,011] = (0,183) [0,022] = 0,0042 = 0,42 %.
r2 = 2,5 ; L2
= 8 ; r = 2,3 ; = 7,6 :
r = r / L1 = 2,3 / 0,4 = 5,8;

= / L1 = 7,6 / 0,4 = 19.

()

= 5 10 6 2.
, (10.7),

= 2 0,029 / (1,01 104 ) + (7 103) 1 0,36 / (70 105) (5 10 6) =


= 580 + 103 = 683 / (2 ).
: = / = 683 / 10 = 68.
t :

t = (0,046 + 0,145) [(1,38 1) / 5,8 0,011] =


= (0,191) [(0,38 1) / 5,8 0,011] = (0,191) [0,055] = 0,0104 = 1,04 %;

t = (0,046 + 0,145) [(1,38 1) / 19 0,011] =


= (0,191) [0,009] = 0,0017 = 0,17 %.

(10.8) : . ,
t. , , [59]:

= L1 {[(0,046 + 3,74 0,77)1 t. + 0,011 ] (1,38 0,38)1 }1/m.


, t. = 1 %,

= L1 / [(0,046 + 0,147)1 0,01 + 0,011] (1,38 1)1 =


= 0,4 / [(0,193)1 0,01 + 0,011] (2,63) =
= 0,4 / [0,063] (2,63) = 0,4 / 0,165 = 2,4 .
t. = 2 %,

= L1 / [(0,046 + 0,147)1 0,02 + 0,011] (1,38 1)1 =


= 0,4 / [(0,193)1 0,02 + 0,011] (2,63) =
= 0,4 / [0,115] (2,63) = 0,4 / 0,3 = 1,3 .
(10.8) t. , , , r ()
.
t .
, , .
[78]:

t = 1 b,

(10.9)

1 , ; b
(), /.
(, , , ) ,
, b 0,025 /.
1 [59]:

1 = 1 (L1)2 / a1,

(10.10)

1 ; a1 ( ), 2/.
( )
a1 = 1 / (cp)1 = 5,3 106 2/.

[59]:

1 = 10 (F r U + D W + 13,7 0,5 3,63);


1 = 10 (F U + D W + 13,7 0,5 3,63),

(10.11)

= 0,4; = 1; = 67; r = 4,5; = 11,5; F, U, D, W


:
F = 1,57 0,7 + 0,34 = 1,57 + 0,34 = 1,91;
U = 1,76 0,26 lg = 1,76 0 = 1,76;
D = 6,28 10 0,4 = 6,28 10 / 5,37 = 4,42;
W = (4,1 1,1 + 0,19) = (4,1 / 102 + 0,19) = 0,6.
, (10.11), :

1 = 10 (F r U + D W + 13,7 0,5 3,63) =


= 4 (1,91 4,51,76 + 4,42 10,6 + 13,7 670,5 3,63) =
= 4 (26,96 + 4,42 + 1,67 3,63) = 4 29,4 = 118;

1 = 10 (F U + D W + 13,7 0,5 3,63) =


= 4 (1,91 11,51,76 + 4,7 10,6 + 13,7 670,5 3,63) = 4 143 = 572.
1, (10.10),
:

1 = 1 (L1)2 / a1 = 118 (0,4)2 106 / 5,3 106 = 3,6 ;


1 = 1 (L1)2 / a1 = 572 (0,4)2 106 / 5,3 106 = 17,3 .


, , (10.9) :

t = 1 b = 3,6 0,025 = 0,09 ;


t = 1 b = 17,3 0,025 = 0,43 .


r2 = 2,5 ; L2
= 8 ; r = 2,3 ; = 7,6 , :
= 68; r = r / L1 = 2,3 / 0,4 = 5,8; = / L1 = 7,6 / 0,4 = 19.
1, 1, t, (10.9) (10.11) :

1 = 10 (F rU + D W + 13,7 0,5 3,63) =


= 4 (1,91 5,81,76 + 4,42 10,6 + 13,7 680,5 3,63) = 4 44,6 = 178,4;

1 = 1 (L1)2 / a1 = 178,4 (0,4)2 106 / 5,3 106 = 5,4 ;


t = 1 b = 5,4 0,025 = 0,13 ;

1 = 10 (F U + D W + 13,70,5 3,63) =
= 4 (1,91 191,76 + 4,42 10,6 + 13,7 680,5 3,63) = 4 342,6 = 1370.

1 = 1 (L1)2 / a1 = 1370 (0,4)2 106 / 5,3 106 = 41,4 .


t = 1 b = 41,4 0,025 = 1,03 .
, (. 7.8 7.9) t = t. max t. min = 60 20 = 40 , ,
t*
t*
=
t.
/
t
=
1,03
/
40
=
max
= 0,025 = 2,5 %.
(10.9) (10.11) : . , t. () t*. (%), , [59]:

= L1 [(0,1 1 1 D W 13,7 0,5 + 3,63) F1]1/U. (10.12)


,

t.
=

= 1 , , ,
b 0,025 /
1 = t. / b = 1 / 0,025 = 40 .

1 = 1 a1 / (L1)2 = 40 5,3 106 / (0,4)2 106 = 1325.


, (10.12),

= L1 [(0,1 1 1 D W 13,7 0,5 + 3,63) F1]1/U =


= 0,4 [(0,1 1325 0,41 4,42 10,215 13,7 67 0,5 + 3,63) 1,911]1/1,76 =
= 0,4 [(331 4,42 1,67 + 3,63) 0,52] 0,57 = 0,4 [(328) 0,52] 0,57 =
= 0,4 [170,6] 0,57 = 0,4 18,72 = 7,5 .
(10.9) (10.11) t. , . ,
1
, r 1 10 [59].
. , 300
10 ( K = 2, =
10) 40 %, , K = 10
= 1, 1 %.
(
) .
,
, .
.

t = [(t*)2 + (t)2 (t)2]0,5,

(10.13)

t , ,

t = 0,01 = 0,01 0,5 = 0,005.


(10.13) t "+" "" .

, (10.13):

t = [(t*)2 + (t)2 + (t)2]0,5 = [(0,025)2 + (0,005)2 + (0,014)2]0,5 =


= [(0,000625) + (0,000025) + (0,000196)]0,5 =
= [0,000846]0,5 = 0,029 = 2,9 %.

t = [(t*)2 + (t)2 (t)2]0,5 = [(0,025)2 + (0,005)2 (0,014)2]0,5 =

= [(0,000625) + (0,000025) (0,000196)]0,5 =


= [0,000454]0,5 = 0,021 = 2,1 %.
, , , t 0,2 t. .
10.4.


(, ,
) , ,
[30]. : 138 ; ; RS485 3 [30].
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. 138 (L) 50+ 750 , 0,1 , 0,25 %.
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, , , .
() .

420 , . 138

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138
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300 .
138
, , . RS485.
.
3
RS485 32 138, 101, 8, 1.
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1. .., .., .. . .: - ,
2000. 242 .
2. .. -
//

.1986.
4. . 756 760.
3. .., .. : 2 . .: , 1982. 671
c.
4. .. . .: , 1979.
5. .. , : . .: , 1990.
6. .., .., ..
. : - -, 1992. 172 .
7. .., .., .. . , 2000. 272 .
8. ..
// . . . 1980. 11. . 120.
9. .., ..
// . 1987. 4. . 7780.
10. B.C. . .: , 1971. 145 .
11. .. . , 1974. 144 .
12. .., .. , , 1965. 95 .
13. .., .., ..
// . I969. 4. . 795 798.
14. , . // : .
1981.

1.
. 149.
15. ..
. .: , 1977. . 168.
16. .., .. // . 1983. 6. . 1023 1024.
17. .., .., .. . .: - . 1976. 232 .
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19. .., .. // . 1980. .
39, 5. . 859.
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// . 1981. . 40, 4. . 717.
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24. .., .. . .: , 1970. 109 .
25. .. . .: , 1977. . 100.
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27. .. / .. , .. , .. //
. 1987. 2. . 96 102.
28. .. . .: , 1975. 227 .

29. .. . .: , 1954. 408 .


30. - .
, 2003 . 153 .
31. .., .. . .: , 1969. 142 .
32. .., .., ..
. // . 1981. . 3, 1. . 29 31.
33. .., .., .. // . 1982. . 4, 3. . 91.
34. .., .. // . 1981. .
40, 6. . 1046.
35. B.., ..
// . - . . 1979. 2. . 24.
36. .., .., .. // . 1982. 4. . 78.
37. ., . . .: , 1983. 256 .
38. , . // : -. 1978. 4. . 177 182.
39. .. . .: , 1967. 599 .
40. .. : . .: , 1978. 479 .
41. / . .. . .:
, 1973. 336 .
42. .. . : . . -. 1981. 111 c.
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.
45. .., .., .. - . .: , 1983. 192 .
46. .., .., .. -
// . 1982. . 4, 1. . 51 65.
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48. II-39. . .: , 1996.
49. .3., .. : . .
458753. /
50. .. . .: - . .:
1972. 170 .
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55. - . : / . . .. .. . .: , 1982. 512 .
56. / . . .. .. . .: ,
1975. . 2. 896 .
57. .., .. . .: , 1986.
58. / . . .. . .: , 2002.
59. .., .., .. . .: ,
1979. 64 .

60. .. -
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63. .. : .
: . 2002. 127 .
64. .. . .: ,
1969.
65. .. . .: , 1984.
66. ..
. // . I980. 3. . 125.
67. .. : . .
539264.
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71.

..

/
.. , .. . .: , 1972. 392 .
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.:
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1973.
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75. , . // :
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