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,

2010

517
16273
83

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. . .
, .. 88 / ..; . . - . . . . , 2010. 119 .
ISBN 978-5-8397-0725-5


. .
.
, 010100.62 , 010101.65 ( , ),
.
LATEX.
.: 9 .

ISBN 978-5-8397-0725-5

. . . , 2010

1.

2.

13

3.

17

4.

21

5.

29

6.
33
7.

35

8.

43

9.

48

10.

56

11.

63

12.

73

13.

77

14.

84

88


, ,
. [6],
. , , , , . ,
. ,
- ,
, .
. .

.
, .
, . ,
. ,
, .
. . -
, , .
.
. . , , .
,
.

1.

L ,

1) L ()
;
2) x L kxk,
, ,
:
1. kxk 0; kxk = 0 x = 0;
2. kxk = || kxk x L ;
3. kx + yk kxk + kyk x, y L.
.
1. lpn , 1 p < .
n x = (x1 , ..., xn ), n 1.

kxk =

n
X

! p1
|xk |p

k=1

, p = 2 Rn .
n
2. l
. ,
, n .

kxk = max |xk |.
1kn

1.

3. lp x = (x1 , x2 , ...) (xk R), 


 p1
P

|xk |p
< , 1 p <
k=1

kxk =

! p1
|xk |p

k=1

4. l ( m)
x = (x1 , x2 , ...), sup |xk | <
k

kxk = sup |xk |.


k

5. x = (x1 , x2 , ...)
kxk = sup |xk |.
k

c.
6. c0 . x = (x1 , x2 , ...), . .
. ( ), .
7. C[a, b] [a, b]
kxk = max |x(t)|.
t[a,b]

.
8. C k [a, b] k [a, b]

k
X
kxk =
max |x(i) (t)|.
i=0

t[a,b]

9. M [a, b] [a, b]
kxk = sup |x(t)|.
t[a,b]

fp [a, b], 1 p < [a, b] 10. L

b
p1
Z
kxk = |x(t)|p dt .
a

11. x, [a, b],



Z
|x(t)|p dt

[a,b]

. 1 p < .
, ,
. , .

p1
Z

kxk = |x(t)|p dt .
[a,b]

Lp [a, b]
fp [a, b] . , L
, .
12. L [a, b]. , , ,
. x L [a, b] ( )

vrai sup |x(t)| := inf ( {t [a, b] : |x(t)| > } = 0) .
t[a,b]

,
.
L [a, b]
kxk = vrai sup |x(t)|.
t[a,b]

,
- . lpn ,
fp [a, b].
C[a, b] L
k k1 k k2 , L, , a, b > 0,
akxk1 kxk2 bkxk1 x L.
1.1. , X ,
.
,
akxklqn kxklpn bkxklqn .
a = a(p, q, n) b = b(p, q, n).

1.

X
Y ( X , Y ),
1) X Y ;
2) > 0, x X

kxkY kxkX .
.
1.2. ,
1) l1 , lp , lq , l ;
2) C[a, b] , L [a, b] , Lq [a, b] , Lp [a, b] , L1 [a, b];
q > p.
.
: (. (2.2) (3.3)).
1.1. [a, b]
kxk = |x(a)| + |x0 (a)| + |x00 (a)|?
. , .
, . ,
kxk = 0.
|x(a)| = |x0 (a)| = |x00 (a)| = 0.

(1.1)

, x(t) = 0. , x(t) = (t a)3 (1.1). , 1.3 .


1.2.
kxk = |x3 | ?
. , . , = 2, x = 1. kxk = 23 = 8, kxk = 2 1 = 2.

2
p 1.3. p
|x1 | +
|x2 | ?
kxk =
. ( ),
. , .
x =  ( 41 , 0), y = (0, 14 ). kxk = kyk = 41 . ,
x + y = 14 , 14 kx + yk = 1. kx + yk kxk + kyk.
. ,
( )
kx + yk c(kxk + kyk). , lpn
0 < p < 1 .

1.3.
[a, b]
1) kxk = min |x(t)| + |x(a)|;
t[a,b]

2) kxk = max |x0 (t)|;


3) kxk =

t[a,b]
Rb 0

|x (t)|dt;

4) kxk = max |x0 (t)| + |x(a)|.


t[a,b]

5) kxk = max |x0 (t)| + |x(a) x(b)|.


t[a,b]

C . x1 , x2 , ... L. , x L, kxn x kL 0 n .
.
1 1
1
1.4. x(n) = ( , , ..., , 0, 0...) |n n{z n}
n

l1 ?
. , {x(n) } x l1 .
{x(n) } x .
(n)
(n)
xi = n1 , n i, xi 0 n (i- ). , x = (0, 0, 0, ...). ,
kx

(n)

x kl1 =

n
X
1
i=1

= 1.

, {x(n) } l1 .
1.5. xn (t) = tn sin(1 t) + t2 C[0, 1]?
. ,
x C[0, 1]. C[0, 1] , {xn } x . , xn (t) t2
t [0, 1]. x (t) = t2 .
, x . = xn x . (0) = (1) = 0
(t) > 0 t (0, 1),
[0, 1]. ,
.

0 (t) = ntn1 sin(1 t) tn cos(1 t).

10

1.
t
t cos(1 t )
n=
.
sin(1 t )

(0, 1). , ,
[0, +). ,
kxn x kC[0,1] =

(t )n+1 cos(1 t )
.
n

t (0, 1), kxn x kC[0,1]


C[0, 1].

1
n

1.6. xn (t) = sin nt L1 [0, 1]?


. , kxn kL1 [0,1] 0 n .
Z1
kxn kL1 [0,1] =

t
1
sin dt = n(1 cos ).
n
n

1 cos t
1
lim n(1 cos ) = lim
= lim sin t = 0.
n
t0
t0
n
t
, ,
sin t. , .
1.4. , {xn }
C[a, b], Lp [a, b].
1.5. {xn } X
1) x(n) = (e1 , e2 , ..., en , 0, 0, ...), X = l3 ;
n
3n
2) xn (t) = 3t 3t , X = C[0, 1], X = L2 [0, 1];
t
3) xn (t) = (
e n + sin t, X = C[0, 1], X = L4 [0, 1];
tn , t [0, 1)
4) xn (t) =
, X = L2 [0, 1].
et , t [1, 0]
(
t, t
, X = L2 [0, 1].
5) xn (t) =
t
e n +sin t , t

11

, (). .
{xn } L ( ), , > 0 N = N (),
kxk xm kL < k, m > N .
,
. . .
, . , , .
1.7. x(n) = (1, 1, ..., 1, 0, 0...) | {z }
n

lp , p 1?

. kx(n) x(n+1) klp = 1, , {x(n) } , , lp .


1.8. x(n) = (1, 21 , 31 , ..., n1 , 0, 0...) l1 ?
. , ,
x x(n+1) ,
(n)

kx(n) x(n+1) kl1 =

1
0.
n+1

, ( ). , kx(n) x(m) kl1 0 n , m .


m=n + 1. m=2n,
kx(n) x(2n) kl1 =

1
1
1
1
1
+
+ ... +
n
= .
n+1 n+2
2n
2n 2

, ,
.
,
, .
L , . , , ( fp [a, b]), .
L

12

1.

1.6. L . , L0 , L0 .
1.7. , c, c0 .
: 1.6 , c0 c l .

2.

L . f , L R, .
f , ,
l1 , l2 L
f (l1 + l2 ) = f (l1 ) + f (l2 ),
, l L
f (l) = f (l).
kerf = {x L : f (x) = 0} f .
f x0 L,
> 0 > 0, x , kx x0 kL <
|f (x) f (x0 )| < .
, , .
f x0 L,
{xn }, x0 , f (xn ) f (x0 ).
L,
L.
.
2.1. ,
- x0 L, L.
2.2. , , .
2.3. f . ,
|f (x)| ckxk, f .
13

14

2.
.

2.1. , f , C[2, 2]
Z2
f (x) = x(2) + tx(t)dt,
2

.
. ( ), . , .
( 2.1),
. {xn } , kxn kC[2,2] 0.
f (0) = 0, , f (xn ) 0. :
2

Z2
Z
|f (xn )| |xn (2)| + |t||xn (t)|dt kxn kC[2,2] + |t|dt kxn kC[2,2] .
2

:
b

Z
Zb


g(x)dx |g(x)|dx.
(2.1)




a

C[a, b], , |x(t)| kxkC[a,b] t [a, b].


,
|f (xn )| 5kxn kC[2,2] .
kxn kC[2,2] 0, f (xn ) 0.
f .
2.2. f , l3 ,
f (x) = x1 4x2 .
, .
. .
|f (x)| ckxkl3 , :


! p1
! 1q


X
X
X


ai b i
|ai |p

|bi |q ,
(2.2)



i=1

i=1

i=1

15

+ 1q = 1; p, q 1.
p = 3, q = 32 , a1 = x1 , a2 = x2 , b1 = 1, b2 = 4, ai = bi = 0, i 3,

1
p

3
2

|f (x)| = |x1 4x2 | |1| + | 4|

3
2

 23

|x1 |3 + |x2 |3

 13

9 3 kxkl3 .

.
. .
f ()
{x l3 : xi = 0, i 3}. (. 2.2).
2.3. f (x) =

xi , -

i=1

l2 , ,

P
xi < . f .
i=1

1
1
x(n) = ( , ..., , 0, 0...). , kx(n) x kl2 = n1 ,
|n {z n}
n

x = (0, 0, ...). , f (x(n) ) = 1 9 0.


, ,
.
2.3,
, . , .
f L , c > 0,
x L
|f (x)| ckxkL .
, f .
.
2.4. , .
2.5. , f (x) = x0 (0), C[1, 1]
.

16

2.

2.6. , ,
, .
, . .
L , L0 L. L0 , x0
/ L0 ,
L = lin(x0 , L0 ). , L0 1. , L
n- , (n 1)- .
2.7. , kerf . f .
2.8. f1 , f2 , L. , kerf1 = kerf2 , f1 = f2 .
L0 L. L1 = L0 + x . x
/ L0 . ,
,
() - x L. , L = R3 , , .
2.9. , M = {x L : f (x) = c, c 6= 0}
.
2.1. M L
, M M = {x L : f (x) = 1},
f , f .
, -
, L,
L.
2.10. , , .
2.11. , , .
2.12. , .
2.13. f ,
L. , f
, {x L : f (x) < c} {x L : f (x) > c}
L.

3.


f , L. f (.
2.4), M ,
|f (x)| M kxk.

(3.1)

M , (3.1), kf k.
,
|f (x)| kf kkxk.
(3.2)
.
3.1. ,
kf k = sup
x6=0

|f (x)|
.
kxk

3.2. ,
kf k = sup |f (x)| = sup |f (x)|.
kxk1

kxk=1

3.3. , ,
1) kf k 0, kf k = 0 f = 0;
2) kf k = ||kf k;
3) kf + gk kf k + kgk.
.
3.1. f (x) = x(1) 2x(2), C[0, 2].
17

18

3.

. C[a, b],
|f (x)| |x(1)| + 2|x(2)| 3kxkC[0,2] .
kf k , kf k 3.
|f (x)|
, , kf k kxk
C[0,2]
x 6= 0.
|x(1) 2x(2)|
kf k
.
max |x(t)|
t[0,2]

x , max |x(t)| = 1 x(1) = 1,


t[0,2]

x(2) = 1. .
(1, 1) (2, 1) , ,
y = 1, y = 1. kf k 3
kf k = 3.
3.2. f (x) = 2x1 3x3 ,
l4 .
. (.(2.2)),


4
3

|f (x)| 2 + 3


4
3

4
3

4
3

 34

|x1 |4 + |x2 |4

 41

c kxkl4 .

 34

c = 2 + 3
.
, kf k c.
, x l4 (x 6= 0)
(x)|
kf k |fkxk
(. (3.2)). x
b , |fkbx(bkxl)| = c.
l4
4
, (2.2) ,
bi = |ai |p1 sgn ai . p = 34 , q = 4, a1 = 2, a3 = 3, ai = 0, i 6= 1, 3
1

2 3 , i = 1;
1
x
bi = 3 3 , i = 3;

0,
,
4
3

4
3

f (b
x) = 2 + 3 , kb
xkl4 =
kf k = c.

4
3

2 +3

4
3

 14

|f (b
x)|
kb
xkl4

3.3. f (x) =

= c.
R

[1,1]

L3 [1, 1].

tx(t)dt, -

19

. :
p1

Z
|

[a,b]

y(t)x(t)dt|

1q


|y(t)| dt

[a,b]

|x(t)|q dt .

(3.3)

[a,b]

p1 + 1q = 1; p, q 1.
p = 23 , q = 3, y(t) = t,
23

|f (x)|

3
2

31
Z


|t| dt

[1,1]

|x(t)|3 dt .

[1,1]

2
, kf k 45 3 . , , (3.3) ,

R
1
3
x(t) = |y(t)|p1 sgn y(t). x
b(t) = |t| 2 sgn t. f (b
x) =
|t| 2 dt = 45 ,
[1,1]

! 13
kb
xkL3 [1,1] =

|t| 2 dt

4
5

 23

. kf k

|f (b
x)|
kb
xk

4
5

 23

[1,1]

kf k =

4
5

 32

3.4. f (x) =

R1

tx(t)dt,

C[1, 1].
. , 2.1, kf k kxkC[1,1] . kf k 1.
x
b ,
|f (b
x)|
kb
xkC[1,1] = 1.
. , .
x
b(t) = sgn(t) f M [1, 1],
|f (b
x)|
kbxkM [1,1] = 1. x
b , , C[1, 1].
.
xn , xn (t) x
b(t) t [1, 1].
xn x
b(t) = sgn(t)
.

1, n t 1;
xn (t) = nt, n1 t n1 ;

1, 1 t 1 .
n

20

3.

f (xn ). , txn (t) .

Zn
Z1
1

f (xn ) = 2 nt2 dt + tdt = 1 2 .


3n
0

1
n

kxn kC[1,1] = 1,
kf k

|f (xn )|
1
= 1 2.
kxn k
3n

n , kf k 1. , kf k = 1.
x
b ,
|f (b
x)|
kf k = kbxk .
.
3.1. f , L.
kf k =

1
;
inf kxk

(3.4)

xLf

Lf = {x L : f (x) = 1}.
, , Lf d .
kf k = d1 .
, , (3.4).
3.5. f (x) = 3x1 4x2 ,
2
l
.
. 3x1 4x2 = 1. , r ,
.
, .
2 = max(|x1 |, |x2 |), B[0, r]
Lf . , kxkl
, .
2r.
(r, r). , 3r + 4r = 1
d = 71 . kf k = 7.

4.



,
.
, .
lpn , 1 p .
4.1. f , lpn ,
1 p . a lqn ,
f (x) =

n
X

ai x i

(4.1)

i=1

kf k = kaklqn ,

1
p

1
q

(4.2)

= 1.

4.1
, 3.2.
4.2. f ,
lp , 1 p < . a lq ,
f (x) =

ai x i

i=1

kf k = kaklq ,

1
p

1
q

= 1.
21

(4.3)

22

4.

[5] [6].
, . , 4.2 , ,
, .
(4.1) (4.3).
f , lpn . e1 , ..., en .
n
n
P
P
x =
xi ei . f f (x) =
f (xi )ei .
i=1

i=1

ai = f (xi ), (4.1).
f , lp ,
1 p < ek = (0, 0, ..., 0, 1, 0, 0, ...). ,
| {z }
k1

P
x lp x =
xi ei . ,
i=1



 p1

 p1
n


P
P
P
x
xi ei
|xi |p . x lp ,
|xi |p
=

i=1

i=n+1

lp

i=1

 p1

P
, , ,
|xi |p
.
i=n+1

n


P
P

xi ei .

0,
,
,
x
=
x
e
x

,
i i

i=1

lp

, f (x) =

i=1

f (ei )xi .

i=1

f ( !).




!
n
n
n





X
X
X





f (ei )xi f x
xi ei kf k x
xi ei .
f (x)





i=1

i=1

i=1

lp

f , . n , (4.3).
, 4.2 p = .
, l .
4.1. , ,
c0 ,

X
f (x) =
ai x i
i=1

kf k = kakl1 .
, c0 l , c0 , .

23

4.3. f ,
Lp [a, b], 1 < p < . f
Z
f (x) =

(t)x(t)dt,
[a,b]

Lq [a, b]
kf k = kkLq [a,b] ,

1
p

1
q

= 1.

4.3 , , [5].
, C[a, b], Rb
. , f (x) = (t)x(t)dt, a

, C[a, b]. , f (x) = x(a) . f (x) = x(a)


? , ,
g ,
Zb
g(t)x(t)dt.

f (x) =
a

x C[a, b],
x
b(t) = (t a)2 g(t). f (b
x) = x
b(a) = 0, ,
b
R
f (b
x) = (t a)2 g 2 (t)dt > 0. . ,
a

f .
.
,
. (. [5]).
. ,
[a, b], ,
C, ,
[a, b]
a = t0 < t1 < t2 < ... < tn = b,

n
X
k=1

|(tk ) (tk1 )| C.

24

4.

( )
n
X
b
|(tk ) (tk1 )|.
Vf [] := sup
k=1


[a, b].
.
, [a, b], x
.
a = t0 < t1 < t2 < ... < tn = b.
[ti1 , ti ) i ,
n
X

x(i )[(ti ) (ti1 )].

(4.4)

i=1

max(ti ti1 ) 0 (4.4)


[a, b] i , x

Zb
x(t)d(t).
a

, (t) = t,
.

x. , x .
1. 1 , 2 [a, b], , ,

Zb
Zb
x(t)d1 (t) = x(t)d2 (t).
a

2. = 1 + 2 ,
Zb

Zb
x(t)d(t) =

Zb
x(t)d1 (t) +

x(t)d2 (t).
a

25

3. , -- i (i + 0) (i 0) = hi ,
Zb
x(t)d(t) =

x(i )hi .

4. ,
Zb

Zb
x(t)d(t) =

x(t)0 (t)dt.

C[a, b].
4.4 (. ). f
C[a, b]
Zb
x(t)d(t),

f (x) =
a

, (a) = 0
(a, b].

kf k = Vab [].
, . f (x) = x(a) .
,
(
1, a < t b;
(t) =
0, t = a.
(4.4) x(1 ), a 1 < t1 .
max(ti ti1 ) 0, t1 a. , x
Rb
, , , x(1 ) x(a) x(a) = x(t)d(t).
a

.
1. Vab [] = 0 (x) = c.
2. ,
Vab [] = ||Vab [].

26

4.
3. 1 , 2 ,
Vab [1 + 2 ] Vab [1 ] + Vab [2 ].
4. a < c < b,
Vac [] + Vcb [] = Vab [].
5. [a, b],
Vab [] = |(a) (b)|.

6. ,
P (i + 0) (i 0) = hi , i
b
, Va [] = |hi |.
i

7. [a, b],
Vab [] =

Zb

|0 (t)|dt.

8. v(x) = Vax [f ] .
.
,
.
4.2. f ,
Rb
Rb
C[a, b], f (x) = x(t)(t)dt, [a, b]. , kf k = |(t)|dt.
a

4.3. f ,
n
P
C[a, b], f (x) =
i x(ti ), ti [a, b]. ,
kf k =

n
P

i=1

|i |.

i=1

C 1 [a, b].
4.5. f C 1 [a, b]
Zb
f (x) = x(a) +

x0 (t)d(t),

, , 4.1.

27

,
. .
4.1. f : C[1, 1] R,
Z1
f (x) = tx(t)dt,
1

.
. ,
Z1
f (x) =


t2 1

.
x(t)d
2
2


(t) =

t2
2

1
2

4.1.
1
kf k = V1
[].

, 7. , . [0, 1]
, . , ,
1
0
V1
[] = V1
[] + V01 [] = |(1) (0)| + |(1) (0)| = 1.

, kf k = 1.
4.2. f , C[1, 1]
Z1
f (x) = x(0) + tx(t)dt.
1

. f f1 (x) = x(0)
R1
R1
f2 (x) = tx(t)dt. fi (x) = x(t)di (t), 1 (t) = 0 1 t < 0
1

1
2

1 (t) = 1 0 t 1, 2 (t) = ( t2 12 ).

Z1
f (x) = x(t)d(t);
1

28

4.

= 1 + 2 . ,
1
4.1. kf k = V1
[].

1
1
1
V1
[] V1
[1 ] + V1
[2 ].
1
6 , V1
[1 ] = 1. 1
2 4.1. V1 [] 2. ,
,
1
V1
[] |(1) (0 )| + |(0 ) (0)| + |(0) (1)|.

, (1) = 0, (0) = 21 , (1) = 1, lim0 (0 ) = 12 ,


lim0 |(0 ) (0)| = 21 .
1
1
, V1
[] 2. , V1
[] = 2 kf k = 2.

.
4.6. H .
f H a H ,
f (x) = (a, x),

x H,

kf k = kak.
, L2 [a, b] l2 . 4.6 4.2 4.3,
l2 L2 [a, b]
(x, y) =

xi yi

i=1

Z
(x, y) =

x(t)y(t)dt.
[a,b]

5.


, .
L . , L, L L . L
. f1 , f2 f (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x).
f1 f1
f (x) = f1 (x).
, L . ,
f1 , f2 . f = f1 + f2 . , f . f1
f2 ,
f (x + y) = f1 (x + y) + f2 (x + y) =
= f1 (x) + f1 (y) + f2 (x) + f2 (y) =
= (f1 (x) + f2 (x)) + (f1 (y) + f2 (y)) = f (x) + f (y).
, f . (.
2.4),
. kf k kf1 k + kf2 k , , f . , , f1 +f2
. f1 .
. ,
kf k = sup
x6=0

|f (x)|
.
kxk

kf k f L .
(. 3.3), L .
29

30

5.

.
5.1. L .
, L , L.
, , ( )
.
,
, - .
is

5.1. , (lpn ) = lqn ,

1
p

1
q

= 1, 1 p, q .

is

. (lpn ) = lqn ,
- , lpn , lqn .
4.1, ,
f (lpn )
f (x) =

n
X

ai x i .

(5.1)

i=1

, a lqn f ,
(5.1), . , f (lpn )
a lqn . , 4.1, kf k = kaklqn . ,
. ,
lpn lqn .
5.1. ,
is

(lp ) = lq ,

1
p

1
q

= 1 1 p < .

5.2. ,
is

c0 = l1 ,
5.3. L . L ,
L .

31

5.4. ,
(l ) 6= l1 .
. 5.3.
5.5. ,
is

(Lp [a, b]) = Lq [a, b],

1
p

1
q

= 1 1 p < .

V 0 [a, b] [a, b], a (a, b].


V 0 [a, b]
kgkV 0 [a,b] := Vab [g].
, (. 4 13 ).
5.6. ,
is

(C[a, b]) = V 0 [a, b].


L = L , .
5.7. .
.
, , L . L
,
L = (L ) .
5.1.
L L .
. f (x), L. , f , x L.
f (x), x L , f L . f (x)
Fx , L . ,
Fx (f ) = f (x).
,
f (x), (f, x), f x.

32

5.

, Fx . ,
Fx (f1 + f2 ) = (f1 + f2 )(x) = Fx (f1 ) + Fx (f2 )

|Fx (f )| kxk kf k.
, kFx k kxk.
(. 7.1), , kFx k = kxk.
, x L
Fx L ,
kFx k = kxk

Fx1 +x2 (f ) = f (x1 + x2 ) = Fx1 (f ) + Fx2 (f );


Fx (f ) = Fx (f ).
5.1 .
, L L L .
L = L , L .
5.8. , lp , 1 < p < .
5.9. , Lp [a, b], 1 < p < .
5.10. , C[a, b] .
5.11. R
Z1
f (x) =
0

L3 [0, 1]?

x(t)
dt
t

6.

|f (x)|
.
x6=0 kxkL
.
{fn } f L ,
x L
kf k = sup

fn (x) f (x).
, ,
.
|fn (x) f (x)| kfn f k kxk.
.
6.1. , fn (x) = xn
, l2 .
. fn (x) = (x, en ), , 4.6
, kfn k = ken k = 1. , x l2 ,

P
x2n < , , , xn 0. , fn
n=1

, .
6.1. , C[0, 1]

Z2
1
fn (x) =
x(t) cos ntdt

33

34

6.

, .
. fn , 4.2, , x .
6.1. L .
, L, L
, , L .
L .
{fn } L f L ,
F (fn ) F (f ) F L . , ,
L ( L ).
L
(, L).
{fn } f , fn (x) f (x) x L.
,
.
, .
6.2. ,
.
6.3. C 1 [1, 1]

  


1
1
n
x
x
.
fn (x) =
2
n
n
, fn fn (x) f (x),
f (x) = x0 (0).

7.


L , L0 . L0 f0 .
f f0 ,
f (x) = f0 (x)
x L0 .
.

7.1 (). f0 , L0 , L0 L. f0 f
L , ,
kf0 kL0 = kf kL .
.
2.1, f0 (x) = 1 L0 , kf10 k . f0 L, L,
.

.
7.1. L0 l12 ,


L0 = x l12 : x1 + x2 = 0 .
L0 f0 (x) = x1 2x2 .
f0 , .
35

36

7.
. f0 . :
|x1 2x2 |
3
= .
2
x1 +x2 =0 |x1 | + |x2 |

kf0 kL0 = sup

4.1 , f
f (x) = a1 x1 + a2 x2

kf kl12 = max(|a1 |, |a2 |).


f f0 ,
(
a1 x1 + a2 x2 = x1 2x2
x1 + x2 = 0.
, (a1 a2 )x1 = 3x1 . x1 R,
a1 a2 = 3.
, kf kL = kf0 kL0 ,
3
a1 , a2 : max(|a1 |, |a2 |) =
2 . ,
max(|a1 |, |a1 3|) = 23 . y = max(|a1 |, |a1 3|), ,
a1 = 23 . ,
3
3
f (x) = x1 + x2 .
2
2
, , f0 .
2
7.2. L0 l



2
L0 = x l
: x1 = x2 .

f0 (x) = x1 + 3x2 .
f0 .
. . f0 , 3.1.
Af0 = {x L0 : x1 + 3x2 = 1}

1 1
M = 4 , 4 . Af0 0 41 , kf0 k = 4. ( )
Af = {x L : f (x) = 1} , M 14 . ,
.
.

37

2
14 . , l
.
2
, l ,


1
1
2
B[0, ] = x l : max(|x1 |, |x2 |) =
.
4
4
2
, , l
. , M
B[0, 41 ]. , ,
M x1 = 41 x2 = 14 (
).




1
1
a1 x 1
+ a2 x 2
= 0, a1 , a2 0.
4
4

-
4
(a1 x1 + a2 x2 ) = 1.
a1 + a2
,
f (x) =

4
(a1 x1 + a2 x2 ),
a1 + a2

a1 , a2 0 a21 + a22 6= 0, .
, ( 7.1), , ( 7.2),
. , , l22 , l22 .
7.3. L0 l13



2
L0 = x l
: x1 = t, x2 = 2t, x3 = 3t .

f0 (x) = 2x1 + 3x2 x3 .


f0 .
. f0 .
kf0 k = sup
t

|2t + 6t 3t|
5
= .
|t| + |2t| + 3t 6

f
f (x) = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 .

38

7.

f f0 ,
:

a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 = 2x1 + 3x2 x3

x1 = t
x2 = 2t

x3 = 3t

max (|a |, |a |, |a |) = 5 .
1
2
3
6
a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 = 5. ,
:
5
max (|5 2a2 3a3 |, |a2 |, |a3 |) = .
6
, 56 , 65 . -. |52a2 3a3 | 56 ,
35
5
5
25
6 2a2 + 3a3 6 . , a2 6 a3 6 , , 2a2 + 3a3 25
6 . ,
a1 = a2 = a3 = 65 .
.
7.1. , x0
L,
f L,
kf k = 1

f (x0 ) = kx0 k.
. L0 = lin{x0 }
f0 (tx0 ) = tkx0 k, L0 .
7.2. x1 , x2 L, x1 6= x2 . , f L , f (x1 ) 6= f (x2 ).
7.3. e1 , ..., ek L. , L ,
f1 , ..., fk , fn (xi ) = ni .
, x0 P
:
(x0 , P ) = inf kx0 pk.
pP

b (), x0
b d
7.4. L
/ L,
b ,
x0 L.
f L , :
b
1) f (x) = 0 x L;
2) f (x0 ) = 1;
3) kf k = d1 .


. L0
f0 : L0 R, :

39

b x0 )
lin(L,

f0 (b
l + tx0 ) = t.
, , .
7.5. ,

b = max
(x0 , L)


f (x0 )

: f L , f |Lb = 0 .
kf k

7.4.
7.6. ,
(x0 , kerg) =

|g(x0 )|
;
kgk

g .
. , 2.8, f , b = kerg , g.
L
7.7. ,
(x0 , Mg ) =

|g(x0 ) c|
;
kgk

Mg = {m L : g(m) = c} g L .
. m
e Mg , g(m)
e = c. ,
(x0 , Mg ) = (x0 m,
e kerg).
7.6.
, , x0 P L,
. , p P
x0 ,
kx0 p k = (x0 , P ).
. . {pn }
P ,
lim kx0 pn k = (x0 , P ).

n0

40

7.

, .
, P = kerf , p (
)
p = x0

f (x0 )
m,
f (m)

(7.1)

m L, kmk = 1 f (m) = kf k.
0)

, f (p ) = f (x0 ) ff(x
(m) f (m) = 0, p kerf .
,
|f (x0 )|
|f (x0 )|
kmk =
= (x0 , P ).
kp x0 k =
f (m)
kf k
m , kmk = 1 f (m) = kf k,
.
mn , kmn k = 1 f (mn ) kf k.
pn = x0

f (x0 )
mn .
f (mn )

(7.2)

P , P = {x L : f (x) = c},
x0 ( (7.1)).
p = x0

f (x0 ) c
m,
f (m)

(7.3)

m L, kmk = 1 f (m) = kf k.
7.4. C[1, 1] R1
x0 (t) = t2 f (x) = t2 x(t)dt. 1

.
. 7.6,
(x0 , kerf ) =

f (x0 ) =

R1
1

|f (x0 )|
.
kf k

t4 dt = 25 , .

. ( 4.1) ,
R1
kf k = t2 dt = 32 . , (x0 , kerf ) = 35 .
1

41

p . (7.1), m C[1, 1],


kmk = 1 f (m) = kf k. ,
(. ). kf k , m, . m(t) = 1,
p (t) = t2 35 .
7.5. C[1, 1] R1
x0 (t) = t f (x) = tx(t)dt. 1

.
. ,
R1
2
. f (x0 ) = 3 kf k = |t|dt = 1, (x0 , kerf ) = 32 .
1

, m,
1 f (m) = kf k. ,
t (0, 1), m(t ) < 1. m ,
T

> 0 , m(t) < 1 t (t , t + ) (0, 1). ,


R1
1 m(t) 1, f (m) =
tm(t)dt < 1.
1

, kf k = 1. , m(t) = 1
t (0, 1). , m(t) = 1
t (1, 0). , ,
. , , m ,
.
. R1
f (x) = tx(t)dt , C[a, b], 1

M [a, b]. m(t)


b
= sgnt :
kmk
b M [a,b] = 1 f (m)
b = kf k = 1. m
b ,
(. 3.4). m
b ,
. mn

1,
n t 1;
mn (t) = nt,
n1 t n1 ;

1, 0 t 1 .
n
pn (7.2).
2
 mn (t).
pn (t) = t
3 1 3n1 2

42

7.

7.6. x0 = (1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 4) P = {x l16 : 2x1 + x2 3x6 = 6},


.
. f (x) = 2x1 +x2 3x6 l16 .
6 ,
4.1 , kf k = kakl
6
a = (2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 3). l ,
6 = max(2, 1, | 3|) = 3. 7.7,
kakl
(x0 , P ) =

|f (x0 ) 6| |2 1 2 4 3 6|
=
= 6.
kf k
3

.
m l16 , kmkl16 = 1 f (m) = kf k = 3. , m = (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) .
(7.3).
p = (1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 4)

18
(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) = (1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 2).
3

8.

L L1 .
, L L1 , A,
A(x + y) = Ax + Ay.
.
x L, A ,
A D(A). A
J(A) = {y L1 : y = Ax, x D(A)}.
x0 DA , kxn x0 kL 0
, kAxn Ax0 kL1 0. ,
x D(A).
, L L1 , ,
C,
kAxkL1 CkxkL
x L.
.
A : L L1 , .
8.1.
.
( , ).
43

44

8.

8.2. ,
, .
8.3. , ,
.
8.4. , ,
.
8.5. ,
.
8.6. , , .
8.7. L, L1 , A , L L1 . , x1 , x2 , ..., xn L , Ax1 , Ax2 , ..., Axn .
8.8. L . A , L. ,
, .
.
8.1. , A,
C[1, 2]
Z2
Ax(s) =

st2 x(t)dt,

.
. A . , . :
Z2
|Ax(s)|
1

Z2
|st2 x(t)|dt |s|( t2 dt)kxkC[1,2] = 3|s|kxkC[1,2] .
1

, C[-1,2],
. s [1, 2],
kAxkC[1,2] 6kxkC[1,2] .
, A , , .

45

8.9. , ,
C[a, b]
Zb
Ax(s) =

K(s, t)x(t)dt,

(8.1)

.
K(s, t) .
K(s, t) A.
. ,
kAxkC[a,b] M kxkC[a,b] ;
M = max

Rb

asb a

(8.2).

|K(s, t)|dt. K(s, t) -

, M < .
, (8.1) . ,
.
8.2. , A,
L1 [2, 3]
Z3
sin(ts)x(t)dt,

Ax(s) =
2

.
. A . , . L1 [2, 3],

Z3
Z3 Z3
kAxkL1 [2,3] = |Ax(s)|ds |sin(ts)||x(t)|dt ds.
2

, .

Z3 Z3
kAxkL1 [3,2] | sin(ts)|ds |x(t)|dt.
2

| sin(ts)| 1, 5.

kAxkL1 [2,3] 5kxkL1 [2,3] .
c A .

46

8.

8.10. (8.1) . , L1 [a, b], .


. ,
kAxkL1 [a,b] ckxkL1 [a,b] ;
c = max

Rb

|K(s, t)|ds.

t[a,b] a

8.11. , (8.1),
f1 [a, b] C[a, b], , L
.
8.3. (8.1) L2 [a, b]
L2 [a, b]. , , Q = [a, b] [a, b]
vZ
u
u
N := t |K(s, t)|2 dsdt < .
Q

. A
:

kAxk2L2 [a,b]


2

Z b Z b


= K(s, t)x(t)dt ds


a
a

Zb Zb
Zb
|K(s, t)|2 dt |x(t)|2 dt ds = N 2 kxk2L2 [a,b] .
a

8.4. A, lp lq ,
p1 + 1q = 1 1 < p < .

a11 a12 . . .
a21 a22 . . .
..
.. . . .
.
.
,
K := (

|aik |q |) q < ,

i=1 k=1

A .


. y = Ax, yi =

47

aik xk .

k=1

(2.2) ,

X
i=1

q

! pq

X

X
X
X
X


p
|x
|

a
x
|yi |q =
|aik |q .

k
ik k


i=1

k=1

i=1

k=1

k=1

lp ,
kAxklq K kxklp .

(8.3)

A .
8.12. , ,
C 1 [a, b] C[a, b], .
8.13. , ,
C[a, b] C[a, b], .
[a, b] .

9.



A , L L1 . A , c, x L
kAxkL1 ckxkL .
c, , A kAk.
9.1. , , L L1 ,

kAxkL1
kAk = sup kAxkL1 = sup kAxkL1 = sup
.
x6=0 kxkL
kxkL 1
kxkL =1
9.2. H , A , H. ,
kAk = sup

|(Ax, y)|
;
kxkkyk

x, y H x 6= 0, y 6= 0.
9.3. L, L1 , A , L L1 .
) kxk1 = kAxkL1 ;
) kxk2 = kxkL + kAxkL1 L ? L
?
9.1. A : C[2, 1] C[2, 1],
Ax(t) = x(0)t + x(1)t2 .
48

49

. C[a, b] ,
|x(0)| kxk, |x(1)| kxk.
|Ax(t)| |x(0)||t| + |x(1)|t2 6kxk.
t, kAxk 6kxk kAk 6.
,
x
b C[2, 1] ,
kAb
xkC[1,2]
= 6.
kb
xkC[1,2]
, x
b(t) 1 .
kAxkC[1,2]
9.1, kAk kxkC[1,2] x C[1, 2]. kAk 6.
, kAk = 6.
9.2. A : C[1, 3] L2 [1, 3],
Z3
Ax(t) = t x(s)ds.
1

. L2 [1, 3] ,
2


Z3 Z3


2

kAxkL2 [1,3] = t x(s)ds dt.


1

, , |x(s)| kxkC[1,3] .

3
Z
kAxk2L2 [1,3] |t 4|2 dt kxk2C[1,3] .
1

,
r
kAxkL2 [1,3] 8
q
, kAk 8 73 .

q
kAb
xkL2 [1,3]
7
kb
xkC[1,3] = 8
3.

7
kxkC[1,3] .
3

x
b(t) 1. Ab
x(t) = 4t kAb
xkL2 [1,3]
q
kb
xkC[1,3] = 1, kAk = 8 73 .

x
b

q
= 8 73 .

50

9.

9.3. A, l13 l13



A(x) = (2x1 , 2x1 4x2 , x1 + x2 3x3 ).
. l13 ,
kAxkl13 = |2x1 | + |2x1 4x2 | + |x1 + x2 3x3 |.
,
kAxkl13 5|x1 | + 5|x2 | + 3|x3 | 5kxkl13 .
, kAk 5.
x
b = (0, 1, 0), kAb
xkl13 = 5 kb
xkl13 = 1. kAk
kAk 5. kAk = 5.
, x
b = (1, 0, 0).

kAb
xk
kb
xk ,

9.4. , A, l1m l1n ,



kAk = max

1km

n
X

|ajk |.

j=1

. n = 1, A ,
(4.2) p = 1.
.
kAk max

1km

n
X

|ajk |,

j=1

k0 ,
n
X
j=1

|ajk0 | = max

1km

n
X

|ajk |.

j=1

( 9.3),
. ,
x
b
Pn
x
bk0 = 1, x
bi = 0, i 6= k0 , kAb
xkl1n = max
xkl1m = 1.
j=1 |ajk | kb
1km

m
l

9.4. A,
n
l
.

51

. A , A

a11 a12 . . . a1m


a21 a22 . . . a2m
.
.
.. . . . ..
..
.
.
an1 an2 . . . anm
y = Ax,
yj =

m
X

ajk xk

(j = 1, 2, ..., n).

k=1
n
l
,

n = max |yj | max


kAxkl

m
X

|ajk ||xk |

k=1


kAk max
j

m
X

max
j

m
X

!
m.
|ajk | kxkl

k=1

|ajk | = L.

k=1

j0 ,
m
X

|aj0 k | = max
j

k=1

m
X

|ajk |.

k=1

x
b = (b
x1 , x
b2 , ..., x
bm ),
x
bk = sign aj0 k

(k = 1, 2, ..., m).

m = 1
kb
xkl

n
kAb
xkl

m

m
m
X

X
X


= max
ajk x
bk |
aj0 k x
bk | =
|aj0 k | = L.
j

k=1

k=1


kAk

k=1

kAb
xk L
= ,
kb
xk
1

kAk = L.
3
3
9.5. A, l
l

Ax = (x1 2x2 + x3 , x1 4x3 , x1 + x2 3x3 ).

52

9.

3
l

9.6. , A,
3
l
,
Ax = (x1 2x1 + x3 , x1 + x2 , x1 + x2 + 4x3 ).

9.7. , A, C[a, b]
C[a, b]
Zb
Ax(s) =

K(s, t)x(t)dt,

(9.1)


Zb
kAk = max

|K(s, t)|dt;

asb
a

K(s, t) .
. (8.2).
Zb
kAk max |K(s, t)|dt,
asb

, K(s, t)
s0 [a, b] ,
Zb

Zb
|K(s0 , t)|dt = max

|K(s, t)|dt.

asb


Zb
f (x) =

K(s0 , t)x(t)dt
a

,
kAk kf k.
kf k C[a, b] (. 4.2).

53

9.5. , , (9.1), L1 [a, b] L1 [a, b],


Zb
kAk = max |K(s, t)|ds.
atb

K(s, t) s t.
. ,
Zb
kAk max

|K(s, t)|ds = C.

atb
a

. K(s, t) Rb
, |K(s, t)|ds . a

t0 [a, b] ,
Zb
|K(s, t0 )|ds.

C=
a

K(s, t) . > 0 > 0, |K(s0 , t0 ) K(s, t)| <


|s0 s| < , |t0 t| < . = [t1 , t2 ] [a, b],
1
t0 . x
b(t) = t2 t
,
1
t , x
b(t) = 0 .
Zb
kAb
xkL1 =

1
|Ab
x(s)|ds =
t2 t1

Zb Zt2
| K(s, t)dt|ds.
a

t1

L1 = L1 [a, b]. ,
Zt2
Zt2
Zt2
| K(s, t)dt| | K(s, t0 )dt| |K(s, t0 ) K(s, t)|dt.
t1

t1

t1

|t0 t| < t [t1 , t2 ], |K(s, t0 ) K(s, t)| < .


Zt2
|K(s, t0 ) K(s, t)|dt < (t2 t1 ).
t1

54

9.

,
kAb
xkL1

t2 t1

Zb Zt2
| K(s, t0 )dt|ds (b a).
a

t1

t0 ,
kAb
xkL1 C (b a).
,
kAb
xkL1 C.
, kb
xkL1 = 1. ,
kAk

kAb
xkL1
C
kb
xkL1

kAk = C.
9.6. A l2n l2n
{aij }, aij = aji . ,
kAk = max |i |;
i=1,...,n

i A.
. A , , A,
Aei = i ei

i = 1, 2, ..., n.

y = Ax. x = x1 e1 + ... + xn en , Ax = 1 x1 e1 + ... + n xn en


kyk2 l2n = kAxk2 l2n = |1 x1 |2 + ... + |n xn |2 .

kAxk2l2 ( max |i |)2 kxk2l2 .


i=1,...,n

. max |i | = |i0 |.
i=1,...,n

x
b = ei0 .

||Ab
xkl2 = |i0 |.

kb
xkl2 = 1,

kAb
xkl2
= |i0 |.
kb
xkl2
, kAk = max |i |.
kAk

i=1,...,n


9.8. A l2n l2n . ,
q
kAk =
max |i |;
i=1,...,n

i A> A.

55

10.



A B ,
X Y .
A + B C, x X
y = Ax + Bx Y.
, Cx = Ax + Bx. T
C D(A) D(B).
, C . ,
kCk = sup
x6=0

kAxkY
kBxkY
kCxkY
sup
+ sup
= kAk + kBk,
kxkX
x6=0 kxkX
x6=0 kxkX

C .
k A A k ,
x kAx. (kA)x = kAx,
, kk Ak = |k| kAk.
, . A , Y Z, B , X Y . AB A
B F , x X
z Z, , z = A(Bx). , F X Y
F (x) = A(Bx).
10.1. , kABk kAk kBk. A B, kABk < kAk kBk.
L(X, Y ) , X X Y . L(X, Y )
(
, ).
, Y = R, L(X, Y ) = X .
56

57

10.1. Y , L(X, Y )
.
., , [6].
L(X, Y ) .
, {An } ( )
A,
kAn Ak 0.
kAn x AxkY 0, x X, .

kAn x AxkY kAn Ak kxkX ,
. , , .
10.1. ,
1

Zt+ n
x( )d,

An x(t) = n
t

C[0, 1], ,
.
t+ n1

. x(t) = n

x(t)d ,

t
1

Zt+ n
|An x(t) x(t)| n

|x( ) x(t)|d

sup |x( ) x(t)|.


[t,t+ n1 ]

, x [0,1]. ,
. > 0 t1 , t2 [0, 1]
> 0 , |t1 t2 | < , |x(t1 ) x(t2 )| < .
[t, t + n1 ], |t | n1 . n0 , n10 < . |t | n1 n10 <
n n0 . ,
|An x(t) x(t)|

sup |x( ) x(t)|


[t,t+ n1 ]

n n0 . t [0, 1], kAn x xkC[0,1]


n n0 . , {An }
.

58

S 10.
, . xn (t) = tn1 .
1

Zt+ n
|An xn (t) xn (t)| = |n

1
n1 d tn1 | = |(t + )n tn tn1 |.
n

, kxn kC[0,1] = max tn1 = 1,


t[0,1]

kAn Ik

kAn xn xn kC[0,1]
1
|An xn (1) xn (1)| = |(1 + )n 2|.
kxn kC[0,1]
n

lim (1 + n1 )n = e, kAn Ik . ,
n
, .
.
.
10.2 (). {An } , X Y , x,
kAn xkY Mx ,
,
M , n N
kAn k M.
.
10.3. {An }, X
Y ,
A, ,
1) {kAn k} ;
2) An x Ax x X .
10.3,
, . , (, , ,
) .
,
.

59

[a, b]
(n)

(n)

(n)

t1 < t2 < < t1 .

(10.1)

x C[0, 1]

Ln x(t) =

n
X

(n)
x(tk )

Y t t(n)
k
(n)

i6=k

k=1

(n)

ti tk

Ln x
x C[a, b]? ,
Ln , C[a, b] C[a, b].
x C[a, b]
kLn x xkC[a,b] 0,
kLn xk Mx , .
,
kLn k M.
, . . ,
ln n
kLn k > .
8
. , .
10.4 (). (10.1) x, Ln x ,
kLn x xkC[a,b] 9 0.

(10.2)

(n)

, {ti , i = 1, , n},
[1, 1], 1
Ln x x(t) = 1+25t
2 , kLn x xkC[1,1] 9 0.
10.2 ( ). ,
Zb
x(t)dt
a

a tn1 < < tnn b.

n
X
k=1

Ank x(tnk );

(10.3)

60

S 10.

, , (10.3)
,

b

Z
n
X


n
n
x(t)dt
A
x(t
)
k
k 0,



k=1
a

,
n
P
1) sup
|Ank | M ;
n

k=1

2) .
10.3. ,
, .
. sn ,
. , :
1
sn (x)(t) =
2

Z2
0

sin((2n + 1) t
2 )
x( )
d.
sin t
2


| sin t| t,

(0 t 2)

2
sin s s,


0s
,
2

,
ksn k

1
ln n.
8

10.4. An -
C[a, b] n . {An }
( ).
10.2.
{An }, l1
An x = (x1 , , xn , 0, 0, ).
. , l1 {An } .
,

X
kAn x xkl1
|xi |.
i=n+1


x l1 ,

|xi | .

i=1

61
|xi |

i=n+1

. , {An } .
, . ,
, en+1 = (0, , 0, 1, 0, ). , An en+1 = 0.
| {z }
n

kAn en+1 en+1 kl1 = ken+1 kl1 = 1.



kAn Ik

kAn en+1 en+1 kl1


= 1,
ken+1kl1

, .
10.3. An :
C[0, 1] L2 [0, 1] ,
An
An x(t) = (tn sin t)x(t).
. Ax(t) = (sin t)x(t), C[0, 1]
L2 [0, 1]. L2 [0, 1],

Z1

k(An A)xkL2 [0,1] =

21
|tn x(t)|2 dt .

, |x(t)| kxkC[0,1] .

Z1

21
|tn x(t)|2 dt

1
kxkC[0,1] .
2n + 1

1
kAn Ak 2n+1
.
{An } A . .
, A.

10.4. , {An }, C[0, 1]


An x(t) = (tn (1 t) + e
.

n1
n

)x(t),

62

S 10.

. ,
Ax(t) = e x(t).
,
k(An A)xkC[0,1] = max |(tn (1 t) + e

n1
n

e)x(t)|.

t[0,1]

.
k(An A)xkC[0,1] (max |tn (1 t)| + |e e

n1
n

t[0,1]

. tn =
kAn Ak

|)kxkC[0,1] .

n
n+1 .

n1
nn
n ).
+
(e

e
(n + 1)n+1

, lim (e e

n1
n

)=0

n
nn
1
1
lim
= lim
lim 1
= 0.
n (n + 1)n+1
n (n + 1) n
(n + 1)

n
1
, lim 1 (n+1) = e1 . ,
n

kAn Ak 0,
An
A.
10.5. An
(
e1 , k = n;
An ek =
0, k =
6 n.

l2 .
10.6. C[0, 1]

1
An x(t) = x(t1+ n ).
, An L(C[0, 1], C[0, 1]) {An } . I ?
10.7. , {An }
A L(Y, Z), Bn B L(X, Y ), kAn Bn ABk 0.
10.8. An Bn ,
A B . ,
kAn Bn (x) AB(x)k 0 x X.
An L(X, X), Bn L(X, X).

11.


A, X Y , D(A)
, Im(A) .
, y Im(A)
Ax = y

(11.1)

.
A , y Im(A)
x D(A), Ax = y.
, , A
A1 .
,
A1 Ax = x
x D(A)
AA1 y = y
y Im(A).
IE , E E,
IE (x) = x x E. X = D(A) Y = Im(A), : AA1 = IY
A1 A = IX . ( )
X = Y .
AA1 = A1 A = IX .
.
C L(Y, X) A, AC = IY .
, F L(Y, X) A,
F A = IX . A Ar1 ,
1
1
A1
l . , AAr = IY Al A = IX .
11.1. , A ,
Ax = y .
63

64

11.

A ,
Ax = y .
. , (11.1)
, .
, (11.1) , . , , .
11.2. , A A ,
A1 .
A , , A
. A . , , A
.
11.1. A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2] A
Zt
x( )d.

Ax(t) =
0

, A , A1
.
. , A .
Zt
kAxkC[0,2] max

|x( )|d 2 kxkC[0,2] ,

t[0,2]
0

kAk 2. , A .
A .
. , A ,
. Im(A)
A1 y(t) = y 0 (t).
, A1 .
, A1 . yn (t) = sinnnt . , {yn }
A. A1

65

, A1 yn (t) = cos nt. kyn kC[0,2] n1 ,


yn y (t) = 0. A1 ,
kA1 yn A1 y kC[0,2] n .

kA1 yn A1 y kC[0,2] = k cos ntkC[0,2] 9 0.


, , A ,
.
, .
11.1. A, X Y ,

kAxkY mkxkX , m > 0


x X. A1
1
kA1 k .
m
11.2. X , A L(X, X)
kAk < 1. I A ,

1

(I A)

Ak

k=0

k(I A)1 k

1
.
1 kAk


. . (
) .
11.3. X, Y A
, - X Y .
A1 : Y X .
.
11.2. , A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]
Z1
Ax(t) = x(t) +

es+t x(s)ds

, A1 .

66

11.
. A C[0, 1]
Z1
kAk 1 + max

es+t ds = 1 + (e 1) e.

t[0,1]
0

C[0, 1] , ,
11.3, A,
, y C[0, 1]
Z1

Ax(t) = x(t) + et

es x(s)ds = y(t)

(11.2)

.
R1
c = es x(s)ds, (11.2) ,
0


x(t) = y(t) c et .

(11.3)

(11.3) et [0, 1]:


Z1

Z1

e x(t)dt =
0

c =

R1

e2 1
.
e y(t)dt c
2
t

et x(t)dt,


c

e2 + 1
2

Z1


=

et y(t)dt.

c (11.3),
2
x(t) = y(t) 2
e +1

Z1

et+s y(s)ds A1 y(t).

kA k 1 +
1

,
2
e2 + 1 e(e 1).

11.3. A : C[a, b] C[a, b]


Z1
Ax(t) = x(t)

(t)(s)x(s)ds;
0

67

, C[a, b] , . ,
Z1
(t)(t))dt 6=

1
.

, A

A1 y(t) = y(t) +
1

Z1
(t)(s)y(s)ds.
0

11.3. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],


Zt
Ax(t) = x(s)ds + x(t).
0

, A , A1 .
.
Zt
Ax(t) = x(t) +

x(s)ds = y(t),
0

y C[0, 1].
g(t) =

Rt

x(s)ds. , g(0) = 0 g -

, g 0 (t) = x(t).
x(t) = y(t) g(t),
g 0 (t) = y(t) g(t).
g 0 (t) + g(t) = 0. g(t) = c et .
. g(t) = c(t)et .
g(t) .
c0 (t) = et y(t).
,
Zt
c(t) =
0

es y(s)ds + .

68

11.
g(0) = 0, c(0) = = 0. ,
Zt
g(t) =

est y(s)ds

x(t) = A1 y(t) = y(t)

Zt

est y(s)ds.

A1 .
kA1 ykC[0,1] (1 + max

Zt

t[0,1]

est ds)kykC[0,1] = (2 e1 )kykC[0,1] ,

kA1 k 2 e1 .
11.4. A : C[a, b] C[a, b]
Zt
Ax(t) = x(t)

(t)(s)x(s)ds,

6= 0;

, C[a, b] , . , A
A1 .
11.4. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],
Ax(t) = x00 (t) + x(t),

[0, 1] x , x(0) = 0, x0 (0) = 0. , A , A1 .
.
x00 (t) + x(t) = y(t)
x(0) = x0 (0) = 0 y C[0, 1].
, ( ) .
.
x00 (t) + x(t) = 0.

69

x(t) = c1 sin t+c2 cos t.


.
x(t) = c1 (t) sin t + c2 (t) cos t.
, c1 , c2
(
c01 (t) sin t + c02 (t) cos t = 0
c01 (t) cos t c02 (t) sin t = y(t).

0
c2 (t) = y(t) sin t.

c01 (t)

y(t) cos t,

Zt
c1 (t) =

y(s) cos sds + 1


0

Zt
c2 (t) =

y(s) sin sds + 2 .


0

x(0) = c2 (0) = 0, 2 = 0. , x0 (0) = c1 (0) = 0,


1 = 0.
Zt
x(t) =

sin(t s)y(s)ds = A1 y(t).

, Ax = y
y C[0, 1]. ,
kA1 k max

Zt
| sin(t s)|ds 1.

t[0,1]
0

11.5. , A 11.4 .
11.6. C 1 [0, 1]
L = {x C 1 [0, 1] : x(0) = 0} A : L C[0, 1],
Ax(t) = x0 (t) + 2x(t).
, A , A1 .

70

11.

11.7. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],


Ax(t) = x000 (t) + x00 (t).

,
x(0) = x0 (0) = x00 (0) = 0. A1 .
11.8. B : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],
Z1
Bx(t) = ets x(s)ds.
0

1) , kBk < 1.
 2 k1
k
B.
2) , B = 1e2
3) A = B + I , A

(1)k B k

k=0

( 11.2).
4) A1 .
11.5. , A : l2 l2 .
A1 .
Ax = (x1 + x2 , x1 x2 , x3 , x4 , ...).

. kAxkl2 2kxkl2 , A L(l2 , l2 ). , l2


, A ( ),
Ax = y y l2 .
(x1 + x2 , x1 x2 , x3 , x4 , ...) = (y1 , y2 , y3 , ...).
, x1 + x2 = y1 ; x1 x2 = y2 ; xi = yi , i = 3, 4, .... ,
Ax = y


y

y
y
+
y
1
2
1
2
,
, y3 , y4 , ... .
x = A1 y =
2
2
A1 . l2 ,
kA

yk2l2

y1 + y2 2
y1 y2 2
y12 y22
2
=(
) +(
) + y3 + ...
+
+ y32 + ... kyk2l2 .
2
2
2
2

71

, kA1 k 1. , e3 = (0, 0, 1, 0, 0...),


A1 e3 = e3
kA1 e3 kl2
1
kA k
= 1.
ke3 kl2
, kA1 k = 1.
11.9. l2 A, B, x = (x1 , x2 , ...) l2 Ax = (0, x1 , x2 , ...), Bx = (x2 , x3 , ...).
1
1
1
A1 , B 1 , A1
?
r , Al , Br , Bl
11.10. l22 A
. A1 .
11.11. l2 A,
x = (x1 , x2 , ...) l2 Ax = (x1 , 2 x2 , ...), n R.
{n } A1 ?
?
11.12. , A : l1 l1 ,
Ax = (c1 x1 + c2 x2 , d1 x1 + d2 x2 , x3 , x4 , ...)
A1 .
11.13. E C 1 [0, 1], . ,
A : E C[0, 1]:
a) Ax(t) = x0 (t) + 4x(t);
) Ax(t) = x0 (t) 2tx(t);
) Ax(t) = (t + 1)x0 (t) x(t);
) Ax(t) = (t2 + 1)x0 (t) 2tx(t).
A1 .
11.14. C[0, 1] A B,

Ax(t) = (t + 1)x(t),

Bx(t) = x(t2 ).

(AB)1 (BA)1 ?
11.15. E ,
A, A1 L(E, E) k = kAk kA1 k A.
Ax = y, y 6= 0. x .

72

11.

, kxxk
kxk
:
kx xk
kAx yk
1 kAx yk

k
.
k kyk
kxk
kyk
. ,
kAx Axk kAk kx xk

kA1 yk kxk
=
.
kA k
kyk
kyk
1

(
A A1 ).

12.


X, Y , A , X Y . g Y .
g y = Ax. f (x). ,
f (x) = g(Ax).

(12.1)

, f X . g Y
f X , , Y X .
A A .
,
A (g) = f.
(12.2)
(12.1) (12.2)
g(Ax) = (A g)(x).
, x X g Y , A , Y X .
.
12.1. , A : L2 [0, 1]
L2 [0, 1],
Zt
Ax(t) = x(s)ds.
0

. g, L2 [0, 1],

Z1
g(x) = a(s)x(s)ds.
0

73

74

12.

a L2 [0, 1] g, ,
Z1
g(x) = g(s)x(s)ds.
0

Z1
g(Ax) =

g(s)
0

Zs

x( )d ds.
0

Z1 Z1
g(Ax) = g(s)ds x( )d.

f (x) =

R1

f ( )x( )d f (x) = g(Ax),

R1

f (t) =

g(s)ds. , f

= A g.

A y(t) =

R1

y( )d .

12.2. , A : l1 l1 ,

Ax = (x1 x2 , x1 + x2 , x3 , x4 , ...).
. g l1
g(x) =

gi xi .

i=1

g(Ax) = g1 (x1 x2 )+g2 (x1 +x2 )+g3 x3 +... = (g1 +g2 )x1 +(g1 +g2 )x2 +
g3 x3 + .... f (x) = g(Ax) , f1 = g1 + g2 , f2 = g1 + g2 ,

P
fi = gi i 3. , f (x) =
fi xi . f = A g,

i=1

A : l l A y = (y1 + y2 , y1 + y2 , y3 , y4 , ...).
12.1. A : l1 l1 ,

P
(Ax)i =
aij xj . A A .
j=1

:
1) (A + B) = A + B ;
2)(AB) = B A ;
3) (A1 ) = (A )1 ( (A1 ).

75

12.1. X, Y A
, X Y . A , Y X ,
kA k = kAk.
, , , ,
.
A ,
H. A A,
x, y H
(Ax, y) = (x, A y).

(12.3)

,
.
A ,
A = A .
12.3. , A : L2 [0, 1]
L2 [0, 1],
Z1
Ax(t) = sin(t2 s)x(s)ds.
0

A ?
. L2 [0, 1] , (12.3).
(Ax, y).
Z1
(Ax, y) =

Z1 Z1
Ax(t)y(t)dt = ( sin(t2 s)x(s)ds)y(t)dt.

,
Z1 Z1
(Ax, y) = ( sin(t2 s)y(t)dt)x(s)ds = (x, A y).
0

A y(s) =

R1

sin(t2 s)y(t)dt. A

L2 [0, 1] = L2 [0, 1] (. 8.3.)


A A , R1

A . A y(t) = sin(s2 t)y(s)ds , , A A .

76

12.

12.2. , A : L2 [0, 1]
L2 [0, 1],
1) Ax(t) = tx(t);
R1 2
2) Ax(t) = t x(s)ds;
0

3) Ax(t) =

R1

t3 sx(s)ds.

, kA k = kAk.
12.3. A , n- Rn . , A = A| .
12.4. , A : l1 l1 ,

1) Ax = (x2 , x1 , x3 , x4 ...);
2) Ax = (1 x1 , 2 x2 , ...), |n | 1;
3) Ax = (0, 0, x1 , x2 , ...);
4) Ax = (x1 2x3 , x2 + 4x3 , x3 , x4 , ...).
12.5. , A : L2 [a, b] L2 [a, b],

Z1
Ax(t) = sin(ts)x(s)ds,
0

12.6.
A : L2 [a, b] L2 [a, b],

Zb
Ax(t) =

K(s, t)x(s)ds.
a

A ?

13.


, .
. , , ,
. -, .
, . M L ,
. ,
.
. A, X Y ,
( ), X Y .
.
13.1. , A, B ,
A + B ; , R.
13.2. , A : X Y Y , A .
13.3. , .
,
.
13.4. , l2
.
77

78

13.

13.5. , .
13.6. , A , B , AB BA .
13.7. , .
.
13.1. {An } ,
,
A, A .
13.2. A L(X, Y ), Y . A , A .
13.3. A .
, ,
c () . .
13.4. (). M C[a, b] , ,

1) , C ,
|m(t)| C
t [a, b] m M ;
2) , > 0
> 0, |m(t1 ) m(t2 )| < t1 , t2 [a, b] , |t1 t2 | <
m M .

C[a, b].
13.8. M C[a, b] , km0 k K m M . ,
M .
lp , p 1.

79

13.5. M lp , p 1
,
lim

n
X

|mk |p

k=1

m M ,
> 0 N = N (), n > N
m = (m1 , m2 , ...) M

|mk |p < .

k=1

,
Lp [a, b], p 1 13.2.
.
13.1. , A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2]
,
Z2
Ax(t) = ets x(s)ds.
0

. M C[0, 1]. ,
A(M ) M A, .
.
A(M ):

Z2
kAmkC[0,2] max ets ds kmkC[0,2] .
t[0,2]

, R2
, . max ets ds 2e4 ,
t[0,2] 0

M , , kmkC[0,2] c m M . ,
kAmkC[0,2] 2ce4 , A(M ).
A(M ),
y(t) = Am(t).
Z2
|y(t1 ) y(t2 )|
0

|et1 s et2 s ||m(s)|ds.

80

13.

,
(t1 ) (t2 ) = 0 ()(t1 t2 ), (t1 , t2 ).

|et1 s et2 s | = s es |t1 t2 | 2e4 |t1 t2 |.



|y(t1 ) y(t2 )| 4e4 c|t1 t2 |.
A(M ),
> 0 = 4e4 c , |t1 t2 | <
|y(t1 ) y(t2 )| . , .
A(M ), , A.
. ,
13.8.
13.9. , A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],

Z1
tsx(s)ds,
Ax(t) =
0

.
13.10. , A : C[a, b] C[a, b]
,
Zb
Ax(t) = K(s, t)x(s)ds,
a

K(s, t) s t.
. K(s, t).
13.11. , A : C[1, 1] C[1, 1]
,
Zt
Ax(t) = sx(s)ds.
1

13.12.

A : C[2, 2] C[2, 2], Ax(t) = x(2)t + x(0)t2 .

13.2. , A : L3 [0, 2] L3 [0, 2],

Z2
Ax(t) = sin(ts)x(s)ds,
0

81

. M L3 [0, 2], kmkL3


c.
3

Z2 Z2
kAmk3L3 = | sin(ts)m(s)ds |dt.
0

L3 = L3 [0, 2].
,
2
13
23 2
Z
Z2
Z
3
2
| sin(ts)m(s)ds| | sin(ts)| 2 ds |m(s)|3 ds (2) 3 kmkL3 .
0

,
kAmkL3 2 c,
, A(M ) .
, A(M ) . ,
Z2
|s cos s hm(s)|ds.

|Am(t + h) Am(t)|
0

, 13.1, . ,
Z2
|m(s)|ds.

|Am(t + h) Am(t)| 2|h|


0

,
2

|Am(t + h) Am(t)| (2) 3 +1 |h|kmkL3 (2) 3 c|h|.


,
2
31
Z
|Am(t + h) Am(t)|3 dt c |h|(2)2 .
0

, > 0 =
|h| <
2
13
Z
|Am(t + h) Am(t)|3 dt .

c(2)2

82

13.

13.13. , A : L2 [a, b] L2 [a, b],

Zb
Ax(t) = K(s, t)x(s)ds,
a

Rb Rb

|K(s, t)|2 dsdt < .

a a

.
Zb
An x(t) =

Kn (s, t)x(s)ds.
a

Kn (s, t)

Rb Rb

|K(s, t) Kn (s, t)|2 dsdt 0.

a a

, kAn Ak 0, 13.1.
13.3. , A : l4 l4 ,

 x x
3
2
Ax = x1 , , , ... .
2 3
. l4 ( 13.5). M l4 , kmkl4 c.
kAmkl4 =



X
m k 4

k

! 14
kmkl4 c.

k=1

A(M ) . .

! 41
! 14
! 14


X
X
X
4
1
mk
=
c
;
|(Am)k |4

k
k4
k=n+1

k=n+1


P

k=n+1

 41

, kmkl4 =
|mk |
c, |mk | c k.
k=1
  14
P 1
,
, ,
k4
k=1
! 14

P 1
. n0 ,
< c .
k4
k=n0 +1

|(Am)k |4

83

 14
< n > n0 .

k=n+1

A(M ), , A.
13.14. A(x) = (1 x1 , 2 x2 , ...), l2 . {n }, A ?
13.4. Ax(t) = x0 (t),
, C 1 [0, 1] C[0, 1].
. , A .
C 1 [0, 1]
tn+1
, n N }.
M = {xn : xn (t) =
n+1
, A . ,
, A(M ) . , > 0 > 0,
t1 , t2 [0, 1] , |t1 t2 | < , , |tn1 tn2 | <
n. = 12 e1 , t1 = 1, t2 = 1 n1 . n0 ,
1
1 n
1
1
1
n0 < . |t1 t2 | = n < n > n0 . |1 (1 n ) | < 2 e .
n , 1 e1 21 e1 .
, A .
13.15. , A : C 2 [0, 1] C[0, 1],
Ax(t) = x0 (t), .
13.16. , A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],
Ax(t) = tx(t), .
13.17. , A : l2 l2 ,
Ax = (x1 , 0, x3 , 0, ...),
.

14.


.

Ax x = y,

(14.1)

A , X, .
(14.1) : y, , ,
y?
(14.1)
(A I)x = y.

(14.2)

(14.2) y X.
,
R = R (A) = (A I)1 . , R (A) A, , R (A)
, . A (A).
. A, ,
(A I)x = 0. R (A) .
, R (A)
, X (, , ).
.
14.1. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],

Ax(t) = tx(t).
84

85

. (
). , (t )x(t) = 0
. x(t0 ) 6= 0 t0 [0, 1].
x , - t0 , x(t) 6= 0
t [t0 , t0 + ] [0, 1], . ,
(t )x(t) = 0 x(t) 0. ,
A .
.
((t )x(t) = y(t).
R (y) = x(t) =

y(t)
.
t


/ [0, 1], R , C[0, 1].
,


1
1
.
,
kR k max
|| |1 |
A [0, 1] : (A) = [0, 1].
, R , [0, 1].
, R C[0, 1],
|y(t)|
, max |t|
< .
t[0,1]


T
1
1

n(t

)
t

+
[0, 1];

n  Tn

yn (t) = 1
t + n1 , 1 [0, 1];

T

1
t 0, n1
[0, 1].
, yn C[0, 1] kyn kC[0,1] = 1. , kR (yn )kC[0,1] = n
kR k n.
14.2. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],
Ax(t) = x(0)t.
. ,
x(0)t x(t) = 0. = 0, x(0) = 0. , = 0 .
. 6= 0, x(t) = x(0)
t
x(t) = at. ,
a = 0. , 6= 0
Ax = x.
A ( 6= 0).
x(0)t x(t) = y(t). t = 0,

86

14.

y(t)
y(0)
x(0) = y(0)
. R (y) = x(t) = 2 t. A , y C[0, 1]. ,
1
+ |12 | .
kR k ||
, (A) = {0}.

14.1. A : E E,
1) E = C[1, 2], Ax(t) = t2 x(0) + tx(2);
2) E = l1 , Ax = (x1 , 3x1 + x2 , x4 , x3 , x5 , x6 , ...);
R1
3) E = C[1, 1], Ax(t) = e1+t x(s)ds;
1

4) E = C[0, 1], Ax(t) =

Rt

sx(s)ds.

.
14.1. A , X.
1) ;
2) A [kAk, kAk].
A , .
14.2. A , .
1) = 0 ;
2) 6= 0, ;
3) ;
4) , = 0.

14.3.

A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1],

Zt
Ax(t) =

x(s)ds.
0

. A ( ). . 6= 0.
Zt
x(s)ds = x(t).
0

87

, x . ,
x(t) = x0 (t).
1

x(t) = ce t .
x(0) = 0, c = 0 x(t) 0. , A
. 14.2 ( 1), (A) = {0}.
, :
= 0?
Rt
x(s)ds = 0. ,
0

x(t) = 0. , = 0 .
, ,
11.3.
1
1
R (y)(t) = y(t) 2

Zt

e (ts) y(s)ds.

, ,
.

.

I
1. f .
,
f : C[2, 2] R;

f (x) = x(0)

R2

t x(t)dt.

2. , f , :
Z1
f : L2 [0, 1] R;

t x(t)dt.

f (x) =
0

3. , f ,
f : l3 R;

f (x) = (2 )x1 + 3x2 3x3 .

4. f : C[1, 1] R
R1
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
1

, f ,

f (x) = x(0)

R1

x(t)dt.

5. x f .
:
R1
f : C[1, 1] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt; x (t) = t.
1

6. L0 l12 . L0
f0 . ,
f0 l12 , :
88



L0 = x l12 :


x1 2x2 = 0 ,

89

f0 (x) = 3x1 2x2 .

3
7. L0 l
. L0 3
, f
f0 . , l
f0 kf k = kf0 k:


3
L0 = x l
:

3
L = l
,


x1 = t, x2 = 2t, x3 = t ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 .

8. A,
R1 ts
) A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1];
Ax(t) = e x(s)ds;

0
1 2 3
3
3

) A : l l ;
A = 0 1 2.
1 2 2

9.

fn : L2 [0, 1] R. , ,
,
R1 t
fn (x) = n x(t)dt.
0

10. A,
A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]; Ax(t) = tx(t) + x(0).
II
1. f .
,
f : C[2, 1] R;

f (x) = 3x(2) + x(0) 5x

1
2

2. , f , :
f : L3 [0, 1] R;

f (x) =

R1

t x(t)dt.

3. , f ,
f : l4 R;

f (x) = (4 + )x1 (2 )x2 + 3x4 .

4. f : C[0, 2] R R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,

90

.
f (x) = x(1) + 2x(2) +

R2

x(t)dt.

5. x f .
:
R1
f : C[0, 1] R;
f (x) = x(0) x(t)dt; x (t) = t2 .
0

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
2
,
L = l


2
:
L0 = x l


x1 + 2x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 + 4x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x1 = 2t, x2 = t, x3 = t ,

f0 (x) = x1 x2 .

8. A,
R2

f : M [1, 2] M [1, 2];


Ax(t) = x(0)t + x(t)dt;
1

11 2 8
3
3
A = 2 2 10 .
) f : l2 l2 ;
8 10 5

9.

fn : C[0, 1] R. , , R1 t
, fn (x) = e n x(t)dt.
)

10. ,
A : C[1, 0] C[1, 0]; Ax(t) = t2 x(t) 2x(1).
III
1. . ,
f : C[1, 3] R;

f (x) = x(0) +

R3

t2 x(t)dt.

2. , , :


f : L4 [0, 1] R;

f (x) =

R1

91

t2 x(t)dt.

3. , ,
f : l2 R;

f (x) = 6x2 x3 + (2 + )x4 .

4. f : C[2, 1] R
R1
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,
f (x) = x(2) 2x(0) + x(1).
5. x f .
:
f : l2 R;
f (x) = x1 2x2 + 3x3 ; x = (1, 0, 1, 0, 0, ...).
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


x1 3x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x1 x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 + x3 .

8. ,
R1

f : L1 [1, 1] L1 [1, 1];


Ax(t) = t s x(s)ds;

1
17 8 4
3
3
) f : l2 l2 ;
A = 8 17 4.
4 4 11

9.

fn : L1 [0, 1] R. , ,
R1 t2
, An (x) = e n x(t)dt.
)

92

.
10. ,
A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]; Ax(t) = tx(1) t2 x(0).
IV

1. . ,
f : C[3, 1] R;

f (x) = 2x

1
2

R1

t4 x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R2
f : L2 [1, 2] R;
f (x) = t3 x(t)dt.
1

3. , ,
f : l1 R;

f (x) = x1 5x2 + (6 )x3 7x4 .

4. f : C[2, 3] R
R3
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,

f (x) = x(1) +

R3

t x(t)dt.

5. x f .
:
f : l1 R;
f (x) = x1 2x2 + 3x3 ; x = (2, 1, 1, 0, 0, ...).
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


L0 = x l12 :


x1 + 4x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 4x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,


3
L0 = x l
:


x1 2x3 ,

f0 (x) = x1 2x3 .

8. ,
)

f : C[2, 3] C[0, 3];

Ax(t) = t x(0) + t2 x(1);

93

f : l13 l13 ;

17 6 15
A = 8 3 4 .
0 4 9

R. , ,

9.
fn : L2 [0, 1]
,
R1
fn (x) = (cos nt + t) x(t)dt.
0

10. ,
A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2]; Ax(t) = sin tx(0) + cos tx(1).
V
1. . ,
f : C[0, ] R;

f (x) = 2x

sin t x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R2
f : L3 [1, 2] R;
f (x) = t3 x(t)dt.
1

3. , ,
f : l R;

f (x) = 2x1 + 3x2 (8 )x5 .

4. f : C[3, 1] R
R1
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
3

, f ,

f (x) = x(0) +

R1

t2 x(t)dt.

5. x f .
:
f : l R;

f (x) = x1 2x2 + 3x3 ; x = (1, 0, 2, 0, 0, ...).

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:

94

.

2
L0 = x l
:

2
L = l
,


x1 5x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 3x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,



L0 = x l13 : x1 = t, x2 = 0, x3 = 2t ,

f0 (x) = x1 x2 +x3 .

8. ,
Rt

f : L2 [1, 2] L2 [1, 2];


Ax(t) = s2 x(s)ds;
0

8 0 3
3
3

0 1 5.
) f : l l ;
A=
1 1 4
9. fn : l2 R.
, , ,
fn (x) = xn+1 xn+2 .
)

10. ,
A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2]; Ax(t) = tx(2) t3 x(0).
VI
1. . ,
f : C[2, 1] R;

f (x) = 2x(0)

R1

|t| x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R2
f : L4 [1, 2] R;
f (x) = |t| x(t)dt.
1

3. , ,
f : l2 R;

f (x) = x1 + 3x2 + (5 + )x6 .

4. f : C[1, 1] R
R1
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
1

, f ,

R1
f (x) = x(1) x(0) +
t 21 x(t)dt.
1

95

5. x f .
:
R1
f : L2 [2, 1] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt; x (t) 1.
2

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


4x1 2x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 5x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


x1 x2 + x3 ,


L0 = x l13 :

f0 (x) = x1 x2 .

8. ,
)

f1 [3, 1] C[3, 1];


A:L

Ax(t) =

R1

t2 es x(s)ds;

A : l2 l1 ;

Ax = (x1 , x1 + x2 , x3 , 0, 0...).

9. fn : l1 R.
, , ,
x3
fn (x) = ( n+1
n ) x1 n .
10. ,
A : C[0, 3] C[0, 3]; Ax(t) = (t2 1)x(0) + x(1).
VII
1. . ,
f : C[0, 1] R;

f (x) =

n
P
i=0

i
n

2. , f : L2 [1, 2] R ,
:

96

.
f (x) =

R2

|t 1| x(t)dt.

3. , ,
f : l3 R;

f (x) = 2x1 x2 + 6x4 .

4. f : C[0, 3] R
R3
f (x) = 3x(t)dg(t). 0

, f ,

f (x) = x(1)4x(2)+5x(3).

5. X x X
f , X.
:
R1
f : L3 [2, 1] R;
f (x) = x(t)dt; x (t) = |t|.
2

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


L0 = x l22 :


4x1 2x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 5x2 x1 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,
2
L = l1 ,



3
L0 = x l
: 2x1 = x3 , f0 (x) = 2x1 .
L0 = x l12 : 5x1 + x2 = 0 ,
f (x) = x1 x2 .

8. ,
R3
f1 [2, 3] C[2, 3];
) A : L
Ax(t) = (t + 1)s x(s)ds;
2

A : l l ;

Ax = (x1 , x2 + x3 , x1 , 0, 0...).

9. fn : C[0, 1] R.
,
 , ,
1
fn (x) = x n .
10. ,
A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2]; Ax(t) = et x(0) + x(1).

97

VIII
1. . ,
f : C[3, 2] R;

f (x) = 4x(1) 5x(2) + e x(1).

2. , , :
R3 t
f : L3 [1, 3] R;
f (x) = e x(t)dt.
1

3. , ,
f : l R;

f (x) = (2 )x2 4x3 x4 .

4. f : C[2, 2] R
R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,
R2 t
f (x) = x(1) e x(t)dt.
2

5. x f .
:
f : C[0, 3] R;

f (x) = x(0) 2x(1) + 3x(2); x (t) = t2 + 5t.

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


L0 = x l12 :


3x1 9x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 4x1 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,



3
L0 = x l
: x1 = 2t, x2 = 2t, x3 = t ,

f0 (x) = x1 + 3x3 .

8. ,
)

A : M [2, 3] M [2, 3];

Ax(t) = x(1)t 2x(3) +

R3
2

t2 (s + 1) x(s)ds;

98

.
)

A : l3 l1 ;

Ax = (x1 , x2 x3 , x4 , 0, 0, ...).

9.

fn : M [0, 1] R. , , ,
fn (x) = 2x

1
n

+ x(0).

10. ,
A : C[1, 0] C[1, 0]; Ax(t) = tx(t) + x(0).
IX
1. . ,
f : C[0, 3] R;

f (x) =

R3

t et x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R3
f : L5 [1, 3] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt.
1

3. , ,
f : l1 R;

f (x) = (4 )x1 ( + 1)x2 3x5 .

4. f : C[0, ] R R
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,
R
f (x) = 2x(2) + sin t x(t)dt.
0

5. x f .
:
R1
f : C[3, 1] R;
f (x) = x(0) + t3 x(t)dt; x (t) = t + 2.
3

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
2
L = l
,


2
L0 = x l
:


4x1 x2 = 0 ,

f (x) = 2x2 .

99

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x1 = 3t, x2 = t, x3 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 3x1 3x2 .

8. ,
)
)

A : L2 [3, 1] L2 [3, 1];

1 0
3
3
A = 0 1
A : l2 l2 ;
1 2

R1
Ax(t) = t s x(s)ds;
3

2
1.
3

9. fn : l2 R.
, , ,
fn (x) = 1

1
n

xn + 2 +

3
n

xn+1 .

10. ,
A : C[1, 2] C[1, 2]; Ax(t) =

R2

t sx(s)ds.

X
1. . ,
f : C[0, 4] R;

f (x) =

R4

|t 2| t x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R1 t
f : L2 [0, 1] R;
f (x) = 2 x(t)dt.
0

3. , ,
f : l3 R;

f (x) = 2x1 + x2 (3 )x4 .

4. f : C[1, 2] R
R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
1

, f ,
R2
f (x) = x(1) x(2) + |t| x(t)dt.
1

100

5. x f .
:
f : l33 R;
f (x) = x1 + 2x2 4x3 ; x (t) = (1, 1, 3).
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
2
,
L = l


2
:
L0 = x l


3x1 + 8x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 4x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,



L0 = x l13 : x1 + 2x3 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 4x1 .

8. ,
R3
A : C[2, 3] C[2, 3];
Ax(t) = t2 s x(s)ds.

2
1 3 1
3
3

) A : l2 l2 ;
A = 3 0 1.
3 3 1
9. fn : l3 R.
, , ,
)

fn (x) = 2x1 x3 + 1

1
n

xn .

10. ,
A : C[1, 0] C[1, 0]; Ax(t) =

R0

t2 sx(s)ds.

XI
1. . ,
f : C[2, 3] R;

f (x) = 3x(2) x(0) +

R3

(t + 1)3 x(t)dt.

2. , , .:


f : L2 [0, 2] R;

f (x) =

R2

101

sin t x(t)dt.

3. , ,
f : l4 R;

f (x) = (1 )x1 + x2 3x3 .

4. f : C[0, 2] R R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,
R2
f (x) = x(t)dt + x(1) 2x(0).
0

5. x f .
:
4
R;
f (x) = x1 x4 ; x = (1, 2, 0, 3).
f : l
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:

L0 = x l22 :

L = l22 ,


x1 + x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 4x1 x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:

3
L0 = x l
:

3
L = l
,


2x1 x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x3 .

8. ,
A : M [1, 2] M [1,
Ax(t) =x(0)t + x(1)t2 ;
2];
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

) A : l24 l24 ;
A=
1 1 1 1.
1 1 1 1

9.

fn : C[0, 1] R. , , ,
R1 n
fn (x) = t x(t)dt.
)

10. ,

102

.
A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2]; Ax(t) =

R2

et sx(s)ds.

XII
1. . ,
f : C[1, 1] R;

f (x) = 4x(1) + 6x(0) +

R1

x(t)dt.

2. :
R2 2
f : L2 [0, 2] R;
f (x) = cos t x(t)dt.
0

3. , ,
f : l3 R;

f (x) = x1 2x2 + (5 2)x3 .

4. f : C[1, 3] R
R3
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
1

, f ,

R3
1
f (x) = 2x 2 + x(1) + |t| x(t)dt.
1

5. x f .
:
f : L2 [1, 3] R
R3 2
f (x) = (t 1) x(t)dt; x (t) = et
1

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


x1 5x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,
f0 (x) = 2x1 x3 .

L0

3
x l
:


x1 = 2t, x2 = t, x3 = 3t ,

103

8. ,
R1

Ax(t) = |t| x(s)ds;


2
x2 x3 x4
) A : l1 l1 ;
Ax = x1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ... .

9.

fn : L2 [0, 1] R. , ,
,
R1
fn (x) = (tn + sin t) x(t)dt.
)

f3 [2, 1] C[2, 1];


A:L

10. ,
A : C[1, 3] C[1, 3]; Ax(t) =

R3
1

s2
t x(s)ds.

XIII.
1. . ,
f : C[1, 2] R;

f (x) = 2x(2) x(1) +

R2

et x(t)dt.

2. :
R1
f : L4 [0, 1] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt.
0

3. , ,
f : l1 R;

f (x) = (2 )x1 + (3 + 6)x2 4x3 .

4. f : C[2, 2] R
R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,
R2
f (x) = x(1) + (t + 1) x(t)dt.
2

5. x f .
:
R2
f : M [1, 2] R
f (x) = t x(t)dt + x(1); x (t) = sgn t
1

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,

104

f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


L0 = x l12 :


3x2 x1 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 + 5x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,



3
L0 = x l
: x1 = 0, x2 = 2t, x3 = 4t ,

f0 (x) = 2x3 x1 .

8. ,
)

A : L2 [1, 2] L1 [1, 2];

A : l l ;

R2

Ax(t) = t sgn s x(s)ds;


 1
x2 x3 x4
A = x1 , 2 , 22 , 23 , ... .

9.

An : L2 [0, 1] L2 [0, 1]. , ,


,
R1 n
An x(t) = t(s + 1) x(s)ds.
0

10. ,
A : C[2, 2] C[2, 2]; Ax(t) =

R2

|t| sx(s)ds.

XIV
1. . ,
f : C[1, 3] R;

f (x) = 4x(1) x(2) +

R3

t x(t)dt.

2. :
R1 2
f : L6 [0, 1] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt.
0

3. , ,
f : l R;

f (x) = 2x1 + 3x2 (5 + )x4 .

105

4. f : C[1, 2] R
R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
1

, f ,
R2
f (x) = x(1) + (t + t2 ) x(t)dt.
1

5. x f .
:
R2 t
f : M [2, 2] R;
f (x) = e x(t)dt; x (t) = sgn t + t2 .
2

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


x1 = x2 ,


L0 = x l12 :

f0 (x) = x1 x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
,
L = l


x2 2x3 = 0 ,


3
:
L0 = x l

f0 (x) = x1 .

8. ,
R1

Ax(t) = (t + 1)s2 x(s)ds.


 1
x2 x3 x4
Ax = x1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ... .

A : L3 [1, 1] L3 [1, 1];

A : l2 l2 ;

9.
An : C[1, 1]

C[1, 1]. , ,
R1
, An (x) = t(sn 1) x(t)dt.
1

10. ,
A : C[, ] C[, ]; Ax(t) =

sin t cos sds.

XV.
1. . ,

106

.
f : C[2, 2] R;

f (x) = x(1)

R2

|t| x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R1
f : L2 [0, 1] R;
f (x) = e2t x(t)dt.
0

3. , ,
f : l3 R;

f (x) = (4 + )x1 5x2 + 6x3 .

4. f : C[0, 2] R R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,
R2
f (x) = 2x(1) (1 + et ) x(t)dt.
0

5. x f .
:
f (x) = x1 3x2 + x4 ; x (t) = (1, 0, 1, 0).

f : l24 R;

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
2
L = l
,


2
L0 = x l
:


2x1 = x2 ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 + x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,



L0 = x l13 : x1 = 2t, x2 = 0, x3 = 2t ,

f0 (x) = 2x2 x3 .

8. ,
)

A : C[4, 1] C[4, 1];

A : l2 l1 ;

R1

Ax(t) = t x(0) + x(s)ds.


4

x2 x3 x4
Ax = x1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ... .

9. An : l l .
, , ,

107

k = 1;
en ,
An ek = en1 , k = 3;

0,
k 6= 1, 3.
10. ,
R2
A : C[0, 2] C[0, 2]; Ax(t) = (t 1)(s + 1)x(s)ds.
0

XVI
1. . ,
f : C[3, 3] R;

f (x) = 4x(3) x(0) +

R3

|t + 1| x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R1
f : L3 [1, 1] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt.
1

3. , ,
f : l2 R;

f (x) = (2 + )x1 + (3 6)x2 3x4 .

4. f : C[1, 1] R
R1
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
1

, f ,
R1
f (x) = 3x(0) + (t(t 1)) x(t)dt.
1

5. x f .
:
f : c0 R;
f (x) = x1 x3 + x5 x7 + ...; x = (2, 2, 0, 0...).
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
2
L = l
,


2
L0 = x l
:


3x1 = 4x2 ,

f0 (x) = 4x1 + 8x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f

108

f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x1 = 3t, x2 = t, x3 = t ,

f0 (x) = 4x2 .

8. ,
Ax(t) =
(x(2) x(1))t + 2x(1) x(2);
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0

) A : l24 l24 ;
A=
0 1 0 0.
1 0 0 0
9. An : l2 l2 . ,
, ,

en1 , k = 1;
An ek = en+1 , k = 3;

0,
k 6= 1, 3.
10. ,
)

A : C[1, 2] C[1, 2];

A : l2 l2 ; Ax = (x1 x3 , x2 x3 , x3 x3 , x4 , x5 , ...).
XVII
1. . ,
f : C[0, 2] R;

f (x) = 2x(0) 4x(1)

R2

|t 1| x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R1
f : L4 [1, 2] R;
f (x) = t2 x(t)dt.
2

3. , ,
f : l1 R;

f (x) = (5 + )x1 + (10 )x2 11x4 .

4. f : C[3, 1] R
R1
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
3

, f ,
f (x) = 2x(2) 4x(1) + 5x(1).
5. x f .
:


f : M [1, 4] R;

f (x) =

R4

109

(t 1) x(t)dt + x(0); x (t) = et .

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


2x1 x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 4x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x1 + 3x2 2x3 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 .

8. ,
) A : C[1, 2] C[1, 2];
Ax = P2 (x), P2 (x)
, 1, 0, 2, P2 (x)(ti ) = x(ti ), t1 = 1;
t2 = 0, t3 = 2;
) A : l l ;
Ax = (x1 x2 , x2 x3 , ..., xn xn1 , ...).
9. An :
, , ,
An = B n , B : l1 l1 ; Bx = (x2 , x1 , 0, 0, ...).

l1 l1 .

10. ,
A : l3 l3 ; Ax = (x1 + 2x2 , x3 2x1 , x5 , x4 , x6 , x7 , x8 , ...).
XVIII
1. . ,
f : C[2, 2] R;

f (x) =

R2

t(t 1)(t + 1) x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R1
f : L6 [2, 1] R;
f (x) = |t| x(t)dt.
2

3. , ,
f : l R;

f (x) = 5x1 10x2 (4 + )x8 .

110

4. f : C[, ] R
R
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).

, f ,
R
f (x) = x(0) + sin t x(t)dt.

5. X x X
f , X.
:
R4 t
f : L2 [1, 4] R;
f (x) = (e + 1) x(t)dt; x (t) = sgn (t 2)3 .
1

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


4x1 5x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 + 2x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


2x1 x3 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x2 x3 .

8. ,
)

A : L2 [0, 2] L2 [0, 2];

Ax(t) =

R2

sign (t 1) x(s)ds;

A : l1 l ;

Ax = (x1 x2 , x2 x3 , ..., xn xn1 , ...)

9. An : l l .
, , ,

An : l l = B n , B : l l ; Bx = x1 , x32 , x323 , 0, 0, ... .
10. ,
A : l1 l1 ; Ax = (x1 x2 , x2 x3 , x3 x4 , ...).
XIX
1. . ,

111

R2
f (x) = (sin t + cos t) x(t)dt.

f : C[0, 2] R;

2. , , :
R3
f : L2 [2, 3] R;
f (x) = (t 1)2 x(t)dt.
2

3. , ,
f : l3 R;

f (x) = x1 (1 )x2 + 4x4 .

4. f : C[0, 5] R R5
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,
f : C[0, 5] R;
f (x) = x(0) x(1) + 3x(2) 5x(4).
5. x f .
:
f : l R;
f (x) = 4x1 x2 + 6x3 x4 ; x = (2, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, ...).
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


L0 = x l12 :


3x1 + 4x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 6x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,
f0 (x) = x1 + x3 .

L0

3
x l
:


x1 = 4t, x2 = t, x3 = 3t ,

8. ,
) A : M [0, 3] M [0, 3];
Ax(t) = x(3) + et x(0);
) A : l l ;
Ax = (x1 x1 , x2 x1 , x3 x1 , ..., xn x1 , ...).
9. An :
, , ,

l1 l1 .

112

.
An = B n , B :


Bx = x1 , x22 , x223 , 0, 0, ... .

l1 l1 ;

10. ,
A : l1 l1 ; Ax = (x1 , 0, x3 , 0, x5 , 0, ...).
XX
1. . ,
f : C[3, 0] R;

f (x) = 2x(0) +

R0

t3 x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R2
f : L4 [2, 2] R;
f (x) = (t 1)3 x(t)dt.
2

3. , ,
f : l1 R;

f (x) = (2 + )x1 x2 + (8 2)x3 .

4. f : C[2, 3] R
R3
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,
R3
f (x) = 3x(1) t x(t)dt.
2

5. x f .
:

f : l1 R;
f (x) = x1 + x22 + x33 + ...; x (t) = 1, 221 , 232 , 243 , ... .
6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l12 ,


L0 = x l12 :


x1 x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:




3
3
L = l
, L0 = x l
: x1 = 0, x2 = 0, x3 = 5t ,

113

f0 (x) = x1 2x2 +3x3 .

8. ,
R2 2 2
) A : L1 [1, 2] L1 [1, 2];
Ax(t) = t s x(s)ds;
1

l23

)
A :

Ox1 ,x2 .

l23 ;

9. An : l1 l1 . , ,
,

en , k = 1;
An ek = e2 , k = 2;

0, k 6= 1, 2.
10. ,
A : l1 l1 ; Ax = (x1 , x1 + x2 , x1 + x2 + x3 , ...).
XXI.
1. . ,
f : C[2, 1] R;

f (x) =

R1

(t2 1) x(t)dt.

2. , , :
R
f : L3 [, ] R;
f (x) = (sin t cos t) x(t)dt.

3. , ,
f : l R;

f (x) = (21 7)x1 x2 + (10 + )x4 .

4. f : C[2, 2] R
R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,
R2
f (x) = x(0) 4x(1) + (1 + t) x(t)dt.
2

5. x f .
:
R4
f : C[3, 4] R;
f (x) = (t + 2) x(t)dt; x (t) = |t|.
3

114

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:

2
L0 = x l
:

2
L = l
,


3x1 x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 3x1 x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x1 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 4x1 + 5x2 6x3 .

8. ,
)
)

A : C[2, 3] C[2, 3];


Ax(t) = tx(2) + t2 x(0) + t3 x(3);
A 30 .
A : l22 l22 ;

9.

An : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]. , ,


,
R1
n
An = B , B : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]; Bx(t) = ts x(s)ds.
0

10. ,
A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]; Ax(t) =

Rt

sx(s)ds.

XXII
1. . ,
f : C[3, 3] R;

f (x) =

R3

t x(t)dt x(0) + x(1).

2. , , :
R2
f : L2 [3, 2] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt.
3

3. , ,
f : l4 R;

f (x) = ( + 1)x1 + 2x2 x3 .

115

4. f : C[2, 3] R
R3
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
2

, f ,
R3
f (x) = 2x(0) + (t 3) x(t)dt.
2

5. x f .
:
R2
f : M [3, 2] R; f (x) = x(0)x(1)+ tx(t)dt; x (t) = sgn (t(t1)).
3

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
2
,
L = l


x1 4x2 = 0 ,


2
:
L0 = x l

f0 (x) = 2x1 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,


L0 = x l13 :


x2 + x3 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 3x2 .

8. ,
R2

A : L2 [2, 2] L1 [2, 2];


Ax(t) = (t + 1)2 x(s)ds;

2
2 2 1
3
3

2 1 2 .
) A : l2 l2 ;
A=
1 2 2

9.

An : M [1, 1] M [1, 1]. , , ,


)

An :

M [1, 1] M [1, 1];

An x(t) = tn x(0) + et x(1).

10. ,
A : C[1, 2] C[1, 2]; Ax(t) =

Rt
1

s tx(s)ds.

116

.
XXIII

1. . ,
f : C[0, 2] R;

f (x) =

R2
(sin 2t cos t + cos 2t sin t) x(t)dt x(0).
0

2. , , :
R0
sin2 t x(t)dt.
f : L2 [2, 0] R;
f (x) =
2

3. , ,
f : l5 R;

f (x) = (2 + )x1 x2 x3 .

4. f : C[0, 2] R
R2
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,
R2
f (x) = 2x() (sin t + cos t) x(t)dt.
0

5. x f .
.:
R0
R1
f : C[1, 1] R;
f (x) = x(t)dt x(t)dt; x (t) = et + 2.
1

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L ,
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


x1 + 5x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 4x2 .

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, , f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
3
L = l
,


3
L0 = x l
:


x1 + 4x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = x1 + x2 x3 .

8. ,
) A : M [2, 1] M [2, 1];
Ax(t) = x(2) t + x(1) (t2 + 1);
) A : l2 l1 ;
Ax = (x1 , 2x2 , 3x3 , 0, 0, ...).


9. An :
, , ,

117

l1 l1 .

An x = (xn , xn+1 , ...).


10. ,
A : C[1, 2] C[1, 2]; Ax(t) =

Rt

s2 tx(s)ds.

XXIV
1. . ,
f : C[0, 5] R;

f (x) =

R5

|t 2| x(t)dt 2x(1).

2. , , :
R1 4
f : L3 [5, 1] R;
f (x) = t x(t)dt.
5

3. , ,
f : l1 R;

f (x) = (9 + )x1 2x2 + (20 2)x5 .

4. f : C[0, 7] R
R7
f (x) = x(t)dg(t).
0

, f ,
f (x) = 2x(0) x(1) + 3x(6) 4x(5).
5. x f .
:

P
xk
f : l R;
f (x) =
; x = (1, 1, 1, ...).
2k
k=1

6. L0 L. L0
f0 . ,
f0 L
:
L = l22 ,


L0 = x l22 :


2x1 + 3x2 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 x2 .

118

7. L0 L. L0 f0 . , L, f
f0 kf k = kf0 k:
L = l13 ,



L0 = x l13 : x1 5x2 = 0, x1 x2 x3 = 0 ,

f0 (x) = 2x1 x3 .

8. ,
R2 2
) A : L1 [1, 2] L1 [1, 2];
Ax(t) = (t + 1) x(s)ds;
1 
xn
x2 x3
) A : l3 l3 ;
Ax = x1 , e1 , e2 , ..., en1 , ... .

9.

An : C[0, 1] C[0, 1]. , ,


,

An x(t) = x n1 (tn + sin t).
10. ,
A : C[1, 2] C[1, 2]; Ax(t) =

Rt
1

t (s + 1)x(s)ds.


[1] .., .., ... . : , 1978.
[2] .., .., ...
. : ., 1990.
[3] .., ...
. .: , 1977.
[4] .., ... . .: , 1979.
[5] ..,... . .: , 1976.
[6] .., ... . .:
, 1965.
[7] ... . .: -
, 1977.
[8] ... . .: , 1980.
[9] .., .., ...
. .: , 1984.

119





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, . .

25.03.1009. 6084/16.
. . Times New Roman.
. . . 5. .-. . 5.
120 .

-
-
. . . .
150000, , . , 14.
.

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