Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 131

XLIX

1620 2011 .
:

2011

15.010
9
LIX
- :
: / . .
-. , 2011. 131 .

,
( 11-04-06805-_),
,
.


- . , .

. . , . .
. .
. . , . .
. . , . .
.. , . .
. . , . .
. .


, 2011





. .


. ,

,
.

, , , ,

,
, .
,


, .

.
,
.

. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

Die Welle (. . , 2008 .) :
, ,
.
. , ,
.
,
, .
- - ,
.
3

10

.

,
: , ,
, , .
,
,
. : die Ideologie,
die Autokratie, die Diktatur, die Monarchie, die Demokratie .

,
, ,
, .

( ,
, ,
). :
,
,
,
. ,
. ,
.

,

, .

,
, .
,
, , ,
,
, ,
,
.
,

.
. . , . . .


:
. .
, .

. . . . ,
. . . ,

, ,
, , ,
, ,
.

() .
(.. ).

, (


).
,


.
,
.

,
-
. ,
, ,
,

,
( , ,
, ).
.
,
,
5


.
, , , ,
. ,
.



.

,
.

,
.
,
.
. .
. . .

.
, ,
, ,
.
.

. .
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
,

.

,
, , ,
-
.
- . , . . . .



4
. .
. . . , .
()

,

.

,
.

,
.
,

:
,

,
.


,

,
,
.

,
.
.

.

,
- .
. . .



. .


.
,
.

, ..
, .


.

, ,
.
,
,
, .
,
,
, ,
.
,

.
,
, ,
.
.

,
,
,

.
. . , . . .
8



. .
-


,
.
,
,

,
.
,
,
,
, ,
.

, ,
.

(, , ), ,
, , ,
.
-, ,
: ,
.
,
.
()
, . .
, .
( )

.

, :
, , ,
,
, , ,
,
9

, .

.
,

.
,
,
,
, , ,
,
. . . , . .
,
.

,
, ,
.
-

, .
,
(der deutsche Michel) .
(Gretchen) ; ,
,

. . .
,
: (Lorelei),
.

, .
, ,

.


, ,
.
. . , . . . .

10


(
,
)
. .


,
. ,
, .
, , ,
.

, .
. ,
, ,
,
.. ,

. ,


.
, .

. ,

.
, -
.
.
, ,
.
.
. ,
.
, , .
,
. ,
.

, ,
11

,
. , ,

.
:
.
: , , , ..

.
,

,
,

,
- . ,
, ,
, ,
.

, .
- ,

.

. ,
,
,
.

.
, ,
,
,
.
,
, , ,

.
.
. . .

12



. .


, .

, ,

, ,
.
, (. . , . . , . .
, . . , . . , . . )
,
.
, , ,
,
,
,
,
.

()
( 74 )
, .
10 ,
, ,
.
,
, 84 %

.

, 50 %
.
, 77 %
. ,

13

, 86 %

, ..
.
,


,
.
______________________________
1. . . . :
. ., Academia, 2001.
2. . . . . -, , 2001.
. . , . . .


-

. .



.
.
, :
,
.
,
-
,
.

.

.
14

,
, .. ,
.

, ,
, ,

.
-

.
.
, .

, ..
. .
, ,

,
, .

.
-
.
: . . ,
, ,
, ,
, , ..
,
,
. ,
,
- .
.
. ,
, .
,
. ,
.

.
15

-
.
.
,
,
-
.

, -,
1.

.
,
.
.
,
, ,

.

.

,
, . ,
,

.
.
,
.
-.
. . .

16



. .

. . .


, , . . [1],
.
.
,

.

, .

, -
.
. , ,
,

.
,
,

- . ,

: Birds of a feather flock together, The chain is no stronger than its
weakest link, A hedge between keeps friendship green, Honesty is the best
policy, One black sheep will mar a whole flock, The rotten apple injures its
neighbours, One good turn deserves another .

, : Old friends and old
wine are best, Remember man and keep in mind, a faithful friend is hard to find,
A friend in need is a friend indeed, Prosperity makes friends, adversity tries
them . ,
, , :
Appearances are deceptive, The face is the index of the mind, All is not gold that
glitters, Judge not of men and things at first sight, A fair face may hide a foul
soul .
17

, ,
-
, : It is easy to be wise after the event, Everything
comes to him who knows how to wait, Nothing new under the sun .
,
[2],
, : You can't
make an omelet without breaking eggs.
,
,
, ,
,

. : It is
too late to lock the stable door when the horse is stolen; Distance lends
enchantment to the view; A creaking door hangs long on its hinges . .
,

, :
) ,
) ,
) ,
) ,
) ,
) ,
) ,
) ,
) ,
) . .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, , ,

.
______________________________
1. . . . . ., 1996.
2. . . .
( ., . . .): . , 2006.
- . . . . .
18



. . , . .


,
,
.

.

. ,
. , ,
.
, ,
? ,
,
.
1) ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
2)
(: ).
, , ,
, .
,
.
, , ,
. ,
,
,
, . ,

.
. . , . . .
19

TUNING


. .


,

.

.

,
,
. , ,


, ,

- .



( 3),
.
3
TUNING [2].
TUNING,
,
,
,
1987 . ,
(, , )
,
,
[1].
TUNING
, .
,

.
20

, ,
, .
TUNING ,
, ,
,
.
TUNING
, ,
,


[3].
TUNING,
,

.
,
,

,
, :
,
,

,

,
.
______________________________
1. :
// . . - . , . . . . .,
,
2009. 536 .
2.
-
, , 67 2005 . ., - , 2005.
52 .
3. .
. (Tuning Educational Structures in
Europe. Universities" Contribution to Bologna Process. An Introduction).
. // . . . . ,
. . , . . . ., , 2007. 160 .
. . , . . .
21



. .
-
- ,

.
,

, ,
.


.

,
. ,
,

.

. ,

, .

.
,
, , ,
.

, ,
,
, ,
. ,
,

.
. . . . .
22


MOODLE
. .


.

Moodle.
:
, ,
,
Moodle.

,
.
,
,
;
,

( ) .
, , ,
, ,

,
,
.


. :

, ;
,
;
, , , ,
; ,
, .

,


23

.

, ,
,
.


, , ,
,
,
, .

,
,
,

,
,
.

, .

. Moodle.
Moodle ,
, . - ,
.
, Moodle: ,
, ,
, . Moodle
-
. , ,
,
,
.

.
,
.
moodle .
. . , . . .
24


(
DEUTSCHE WELLE DEUTSCH WARUM NICHT)
. .

-, (Deutsch warum nicht)

Deutsche Welle . .
Deutsch warum nicht
.

.
. .
.
, ,
, .
, .
, , ,
, . Deutsch warum
nicht , :

, ,
. Deutsch warum nicht 4 .
26 . 1 1

.
- .
, .
, .
.
Hallo liebe Hrerin und Hrer.
.
. ,
.
, .
,
.
, .

(Auf Wiederhren, Bis bald, Sowieso, Ciao, Tschs, Die Hrerin ist Knigin).
. , , ,
, .
25

. , ,
.
, , .
, . .
, , ,
. .
. Deutsch Warum nicht
.
(Kobold). .
.


( , , ). ,
, .
, .
.
.
, , .

Alexandrplatz.
.
.
( , .
); ( .
. , .
, . ).
:
.

.
.
,
,
. : ,
, . :
, .
Deutsch warum nicht
, ,
.
. . .

26

TANDEM-METHOD IN TEACHING COMMUNICATIVE


PHRASEOLOGY
T. I. Nepomiluyeva, N. S. Schvakova, R. A. Voronin
Teachers' Training College, Welsk
Teachers' Training College, Arkhangelsk
Tandem-method appeared about forty years ago in Germany. We maintain,
after . Estevez et. al. [1], that tandem-method is a model of autonomous selfregulated study of a foreign language by native speakers of different languages
who work in pairs according to the principle of a coupled two-place bicycle
which is named 'tandem'. The aim of the tandem is to master the native language
of one's partner in the situation of real or virtual communication, to get to know
the personality of the partner, his character, interests and hobbies, to get
acquainted with the peculiarities of the second language country and to obtain
information on the urged issues of the day or interesting spheres of knowledge.
The basis of the tandem-method is such important didactic principles, which
demonstrate its essence, as the principle of mutuality and the principle of
personal autonomy [2]. The principle of mutuality means that every participant
of the tandem gets an equal part of use from their communication. This principle
can be realized in case both the partners spent approximately the same time and
effort on the mutual teaching. As to the principle of autonomy, it is based on the
fact that every partner takes personal responsibility for the choice of the aim,
content and means of studies and for the results of the process in his own part of
learning.
The partners' communication under the circumstance of the real contact,
which is supported by the tandem-method, has a number of peculiarities making
it different from the oral speech under the circumstance of the 'artificial' classroom communication. We think it necessary to use these peculiarities during the
process of studying communicative phraseological units in the following way:
a) in the encouraging of mutual correction of the utterance by means of
change of the whole structure or by only its part; the initiative may spring
from the both sides: on the part of the speaker and on the part of the
listener, e.g.: Does the dog really return to his vomit every now and then? >
The dog returns to his vomit; I will not change a cottage in reversion for a
kingdom in possession > I will not change a cottage in possession for a
kingdom in reversion; Half a loaf is better than two breads > Half a loaf is
better than no bread;
b) in the stimulation of mutual or competitive conclusions of unfinished
phrases: forbidden fruit > Forbidden fruit is sweet; lock the stable door > It
is too late to lock the stable door when the horse is stolen; bury their dead
> Let the dead bury their dead;
27

c)

in the explanation of unknown-for-the-partner phrases or set expressions


with the help of comparisons, synonyms, antonyms, international patterns
and expressions, etymological references or definitions, etc., e.g.: It is the
last straw that breaks the camel's back The last drop makes the cup run
over; The chain is no stronger than its weakest link The thread breaks
where it is weakest; The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak Der Geist ist
willig, aber das Fleisch ist schwach;
d) in the use of comment and emotional-expressive exclamatory phrases of the
type: Tell it to the marines! Can the leopard change his spots?! A pretty
kettle of fish! God bless my soul!
Our cooperative practice at Teachers' training colleges of the Arctic region
demonstrates real power and effect of the tandem-method in mastering English
communicative phraseology. The students find it interesting to study the rules of
communication by means of proverbs and, which is especially important, they
master not only their full forms but also their elliptical forms that are so
characteristic of oral speech in modern English.
_______________________________
1. M. Estevez, L. Begona, J. Wolff. Modell Tandem in die interkulturelle
Kommunikation in multinationalen Sprachschulen // Anders lernen im
Fremdsprachenunterricht:
Experimente
aus
der
Praxis.
Mnchen,
Langenscheidt, 1994.143-162 s.
2. G. Schneider. Lehrwerke und Lernmaterialien im Tandem // Kurzbeitrge
und Podiumsdiskussion. Beitrge ind Materialien zum interkulturellen Lernen.
Freiburg, 1990. 119-131 s.
Research advisor Ph. D., Prof. T. N. Fedulenkova.

28


-

. .


.

.

.

, . ,

,
.
,
,
.
, ,
,
[5].
.. , ,
,

()
[3].
,


.
,
,
. ,
[1],
, ,
.
,
[4].
29

-
,
,
, , ,

.
, , ,

- .

-
.

-
.
______________________________
1. . . . //
. . // :
, 4. ., 1969. 9 .
2. . . , . . .
// . . , . . //
, 2. 1995.
3. . . . //
. . // , 1. ., 2000. 50-54 .
4. . . . : , ,
// . . // , 2. .,
1985.
5. . . , . . , . . .
// . . , . . ,
. . . ., , 1991.
6. . . , . . . //
. . , . . // - .
. ., - , 2004.
. . .

30



. .
- . . . ,
.

,
[18].
,

[732].
. ,
,
[19].

,
, .
,
, , [228].
,

, [34].


, ,
, ,
.
______________________________
1. :
, . ., ,
2005. 8-29 .
2. . . -. . .,
, 2008. 14-34 .
3. . . , . . , . . .
// ,
4, 1999. 3-10 .
4. . . . :
// , 1, 2002. 32 .
. . . . .
31


-
. .
, . -
,

, ,
,
, , .
-
,
- .

( , III )

, ,
.

- ,
.


.
:
1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5.
.

:
1. ;
2.
;
3. ;
4. , - ;
32

5.
// ;
6.
.
,
,
,
.
I. - .

;
; -
.

, ,
,
.
II. .

-.
- ; , ,

, ,

-
;
.
III. .

-.
,
,

.
-

, III

(
,

031001.65
).
. . , . . .
33



. .

. . .


.

. .
. , ,
, ,
.
,
, ,

. ,
.

. , ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,
, :foul up-;
: THX=Thanks, ur =your; .
,
comments.
,
.
.
, ,
,
, , .
.
, ,
,
.
. . , . . .
34



. .


,
.
, ,
,
,
, .
-
(,
. . , . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . )
,

:

,

, .
()
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
60 % ,

, . ,

74 %


.
. . , . . .

35




( )
. .
- . . . ,
.


.
,
.
, , ,
,
, .

:
1. , : ,
, h- , -.
, , ,
. ,
, .
2. : ,
,
. , .
, .
3. : -,
,
. ,
, .
4. , : , ,
, ,
, .

, . ,
, ,
, .
,
, , , ,

.
. . . . .
36


( )
. .

(
: . , . , . ), ,
,
.

, , ,

, ( ,
).
, , , .

.

.

.
100 ( ),
() .

.
.


.

:
1) / (
): Lovegood ( . love + good ;
2) (
): Lavender ; 3) :
Garlick ( . garlic ) . ,
:
/
; , ;

/ .
. . , . . .
37

. .

.

,
.. ,
.
,
,

.


.
,
.
, -
.

( 642 ).
.
( ):
1) ( 82 ) ,
-
:

( )

(.: , ); 2)

( 75 )

: : ,
- .
(.: );
3) ( 24 ) ,
: []
, , ( )
(. ); 4) ( 22
38

)
:
;
( )(.:
).


, .
(
, ,

( , )

( . )

: , -,
<> ( )

(. -).
- . , . . . .

39

-
. .
- . . . ,
. +

, ,
.
.
.
.. ,
2855 .
, :
1. :
, h , , . ,
, ..
. 2.
. ,

. ,
h , , , - . 3.


.
,
. h. , ,
- .
, . 4.
.
:
h. , , . 5.
,
. h - h ,
. - ,
, .
,
: .
.
, . ,
.
. . . . .
40


(
)
. .

-

.
.

. . .
,
. , ,
- . ,
-,
-, 1.
2. , , 3.
.
. ,
, , ,

.
,
-.
1.
(dog leg , )
(horse head ). 2.

(nipple , )
(rabbit ),

, . 3.
() ,
- (Christmas tree
). 4.
. ,
,
(choke ).
5.
(monkey board ). 6. ,

(wildcat / ).
. . . . .
41


. .
. . . , .

. , ,
, .

.
,
,
, .
, (,
, ..), ,
.
.
,
. ,
, .
,
, Ordnung [2].
.
,
,
,
.
- 30
, (Urworte),
[3]. , , Heimat
(), Ordnung (), Pnktlichkeit (), Grndlichkeit
() .

, ,
,
,
,
[1].
,
.
, (Pnktlichkeit)
,
-.
42



.

: ,
, , . ,
.

[5].

[5].
-
.

.

[5].
. . .


[4].

Grndlichkeit,
.
,
(deutsche Grndlichkeit): , ,
.
______________________________
1. . . -. . ., 2000.
2. . . , . . .
( ) //
: , 1(9). , 2010. 6-13 .
3. H.-D. Gelfert. Was ist deutsch? Wie die Deutschen wurden, was sie sind
[Text] // Hans-Dieter Gelfert. Mnchen, Verlag C. H. Beck, 2005.
4. . . . [] // . .
( . .). ., , 2000.
280 .
5. . . . [] 3-
., . ., : , 2003. 320 .
- . , . . .

43

. . :

. .
. . . , .

,

.

. ,
()
. [4]

.

, -, .
,
-
.
, :

? ,
.
,
,

.

. ,
, ,
.

. [1]
,
, .

.
,
,
.
44

-
.,
.
. [5],
[6] [2, 3].
,
,
,

.
,
.. . ,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
( )
(im riesiegen
Bcherozean); ,
.. , :
,
.
.

, ,
.
______________________________
1. S. Krahl. Kleines Wrterbuch der Stilkunde // S. Krahl, J. Kurz. Leipzig,
Bibliogr, Institut, 1977.
2. L. Ulitzkaja. Ein frhliches Begrbnis. Aus dem Russischen von GannaMaria Braungardt // L. Ulitzkaja. Berlin, BLT, 2000.
3. L. Ulitzkaja. Sonetschka und andere Erzahlungen. [Text] // L. Ulitzkaja.
Aus dem Russischen von Ganna-Maria Braungardt. Berlin, BLT, 1999.
4. . . .
. I. , .
. . . , 2000.
5. . . . // . . ., ,
2002.
6. . . : [] // . . ., , 2008.
- . , . . . .
45



. .


.
,
.
, ..
, ,
.
,
, , , ,
.

(
), ,
( ,
), , ,
.

,
,
, ,
,
.
:
, , - , ,
, , .

, , ,
.
,
,
-
.
- ,
, ,
46

.
.

, , , , ,
, , ..
- ,

.
,
, .
.
, ,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
.

.
, ,
. ,
,

.

.
. :
,
, .

,

. ,
,
- ,

- .
. . .
47



. .
-

.

. ,
,
.
,
.
.

140 .
,
-, -, - .

. .
-,

. ,
( ).
, ( ): Je, ? (
?). , ,
, (
) ,
; ( )
( ).
-,


. , chirp ,
, (
) ,
: . chirp ,
, . c .

.
. . .
48


. .



.

, ,
-
.

()
. ,
- ,
.
,
,
, ,

,
. .

, -
.
[1].
R. Southey How
Does the Water Come Down at Lodore [2].
Here it comes sparkling, ,
And there it flies darkling ...
,
- .
.
,

.
______________________________
1. . . . . :
// . . ; . . . . . 4- ., . .
., : , 2002.
2. R. Southey. How Does the Water Come Down at Lodore.
. http:///www.en.wikiquote.org/wiki/
. . , . . .
49


-

. .
- . . . , .
,
.
,
.
.

.
-
,
.

- .
.
,
:
-: : ,
, , , , ,
. : , ,
, .
: : , ,
, , , ,
, . : .
: : ,
, .
: , , , , ,
. :
. : .
: :
, , .
: , , , ,
. : ,
, , ,
.


:
50

1. , :
, ,
,
(. ) ,
, , , ,
. 2.
,
: (. ),
. ,
:
. 3. :
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
, .
, , .
,
,
, :
( . ,
, ). 4. , :
. .
, .
:
(. ) . 5. :
,
, , , .
.
,
, , . 6. :
,
,
.
: , , , ,
-.

, .
, ;
.
. . . . .
51

,

( )
. .
- . . . , .

, .
,
,
,
.
: , , , ,
.. : ,
, , ..
, .
,
.

.
-
, . ..
: ,
, , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
,
.

, .
:
I. h ()
h, .
, , , , .


, h ,
.
h .
h, ! , .
52

II. ()
, !
!
h .

.
,
.
.
-
.

, .
h
,
.
III. ()
.
h .
h
, .
40 , , ,
40 .
h ,
, .
h ,
, .
- - h - .
- ,
, - .
h
.
IV. ( )


-

. . . . .
53


(
- - )
. .
- . . . , .

,
.

,
,
, ..
(
) , ,
.
(), ,
,
.

. ,
,

,
, ,
.
-, -
, -,

, - .
,
:
, -,
, .
,
, ,
.
.

,
, .. , ,
, .
54



, .

: , . :
: ,
, ,
, - ,
h, ,

(): ,
, , , ,
, , ,
;
: -h:
h, h, h,
h, h; -:
, ,
; -: h,
, h,
.
: h,
h, h
, ,
, h , ,
.
: -, -,
-, -, h, -.
, - -

(
), , .
,
.
:
, ,
. , ,
,
.
. . . . .
55



. .
, .



.
,


,

.
XXII 2014 . ,


. ,


.
,

,
.
,
,
, (, . .)

[1]. -
- :
, ; ;
;

[2].

. ,
, .
. [3]: ,
, , ,
56

, (
, ).
. . , ,
, ( )
, ,
,
,
,
[4].
,
.


,
.
,
.
.dsl
, DSL.
DSL.
.lsd,
Lingvo
ABBYY.

.

(-, -, ,
-,
-,
),
,

.
______________________________
1. . . . . .,
, 1969.
2. . . . . , 1980.
3. . . . :
. ., , 1987.
4. . . . . ., : -,
2007.
. . . . .
57



-
. .


,
.

,
, .
,
.
.
,
. ,

.

- .
,
(
), :

. -

, .
:
- ,
,
,
.
. . , . . .

58



( )
. .

. . .

,
, . . .
, ,

: )
, )
, ) .

(), .

,
, , ,
.



:
) : barking dogs < Barking dogs
seldom bite (.: , ,
); a good beginning < A good beginning
makes a good ending (.:
.
) : spare the rod < Spare the rod and spoil
the child (.:
); pay the piper < He who pays the piper calls the
tune (.: , , ,
, ).
) : When in Rome < When at Rome,
do as the Romans do (.: , ,
,
); out of sight < Out of sight, out of mind (.:
, ):
- ,

59

,
-
,
- :
()
: needs must < Needs must when
the devil drives (.: ,
); it's never too late < It's never too late to mend (.:
, ); art is long < Art is long,
life is short (.: ,
, ); :
() : when
Greek meets Greek < When Greek meets Greek then comes the tug of war
(.: ,
,
); when the cat is away < When
the cat is away, the mice will play (.: ,
); while there's
life < While there is life, there is hope (.: ,
); :
()
- : spare the rod < Spare the rod and spoil the
child (.:
); talk of the devil < Talk of the devil and he is
sure to appear (.: ,
- , ); give a dog a bad name
< Give a dog a bad name and hang him (.:
); :
()
: first catch your hare <
First catch your hare, then cook him (.: ,
,
); make hay < Make hay while the sun shines (.:
,
); think twice < Think twice before you speak once
(.: ,
); :
,
,
.
- . , . . . .
60

ETHNOCULTURAL ASPECT OF SYNTACTICALLY INDEPENDENT


ELEMENTS OF ENGLISH AND TURKISH SIMPLE SENTENCES
. .

The subject matter of the investigation is the phenomenon known as
syntactically independent elements of the simple sentence. These elements are
not grammatically dependent on any part of the sentence and are often
considered under different terms: expletives, sentence enclosures, fragments,
independent elements. A brief survey of the linguistic views on the elements
under study shows a variety of approaches to the description and classification
of these elements in the English simple sentence.
H. Harrison describes 8 types of expletives defining them as the elements
grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence and not entering into its
structure [2]. According to Ch. Hockett such elements are usually treated within
the sentence types called fragments [3]. M.Y. Blokh singles out 3 types of
syntactically independent elements and calls them parenthetical enclosure,
addressing enclosure and interjectional enclosure, whose common function is a
modifier of the sentence as a whole [1]. B.A. Ilyish recognizes the contentious
character of these elements which are neither the main parts of the sentence, nor
any of the usual secondary ones. He considers that the tricky elements like
apposition, direct address, parenthesis, insertions and loose parts are
syntactically independent ones in the English sentence [4]. Yet, he does not
arrange them under any common term.
Having taken into consideration the common and specific features of the
foregoing classifications we have made an attempt to work out our own
classification comprising 9 syntactically independent elements of the English
simple sentence: the single word it or there, e.g. There was no fiddling
around. (J. Rollins) person or thing addressed, e.g. Come on, come on be
the prince, Daddy. (S. Miller); interjections and exclamatory expressions,
e.g. God, youre a beautiful woman! (S. Miller); infinitive phrase, e.g. To
repeat, the police are looking for this man. (J. Rollins); preposition or
prepositional phrase; e.g. Deeply sentient, in fact. (S. Miller); participial
phrase, e.g. Looking back, I dont know how there could have been stones in
Bobbys garden. (T. Parsons); single words, such as yes, no, well, why, e.g.
So on the sixteenth, yes, I was up at five! (J. Rollins); conjunctive adverbs
(transitional adverbs), e.g. I had some friends; or rather, there were children
of my own age. (T. Parsons); parenthesis, e.g. Of course, I cared about
Sadie. (S. Miller).
As far as the Turkish sentence is concerned, there are no special detailed
descriptions or classifications of such elements. They are usually observed out
61

of any classifications and given little attention to. Only A.N. Kononov in his
Grammar of the Turkish Language mentions 3 types of sentence enclosures in
Turkish: address which is expressed by indefinite case of the name and which is
separated by commas, e.g. Canm, yalan syliyecek deilim ya... Dear sir, I
just wont lies.; parenthetical enclosures which express different meanings,
e.g. ok yazk, hi bir ey yapamam! What a pity, but I can do nothing!;
words of affirmation and negation, e.g. Yok be, doktor deilmi adam! He
is not a doktor, no. A. N. Kononov also describes interjections as syntactically
independent elements, but he regards them as a subtype of parenthesis [5].
The analysis having been done, the following conclusions can be made. The
diversity of syntactically independent elements in English shows the consistency
of ideation of English people. The mass of information in their statements is
explicit, so sentence enclosures help to specify the meaning of the statement. As
a result, message is carried more by words than by non-verbal means, and the
verbal message is direct. The Turks are characterized as highly emotional
people, who appreciate the emotional connotation of the uttered statement. So, it
is obvious why numerous types of interjections are used by Turkish people in
speech, each having its specific meaning. In comparison with Turkish, the
English language is rich in number of interjections, but still they are not so
widely used in speech, and their meaning is not so wide. The speech of the
Turks is characterized as less verbally explicit; the verbal message is indirect.
The English express their thoughts rationally with the help of various
grammatical forms, while Turkish people aim more at expressing their
emotions, and it is unnecessary to fill their language with the diversity of
grammatical constructions.
______________________________
1. M. Y. Blokh. A Course in Theoretical English Grammar, 2000.
2. H. Harrison. Basic Facts of English Grammar. L., 1990.
3. Ch. Hockett. A Course in Modern English Linguistics. N. Y., 1958.
4. B. A. Ilyish. The Structure of Modern English, 2. 1971.
5. . . . . ., 1941.
. . , . . . .

62


. .
, . -
, ,
.
.
,
, , ,
.

,
,
. ,

, ,
,
,
[1].
.
, ,
[2]. . . ,

, - [3].
:
,
-, 1213 1516 ,
, ,
, .
______________________________
1. . . . :
// .
, 2. ., 2009. 141147 .
2. . . .
// .
, 2. ., 2007. 109116 .
3. . . , . . .
. ., 2002.
. . , . . .
63


. .

50- 20
,

.
.

.
,
,
.
,

.

. ,
, , ,
.

3 ,
.

, ,

.

, , ,
,
,
.
. . , . . .

64



. .

. . .
,

,

, , , ,
[1].

,

[2].
,
, ,

-
,
.
.
,
,
, ,
.
______________________________
1. . . . :
: .
, 2009. 342 c.
2. . . . , -
. , 5, 1988.
. . .

65



. .
, .


,
.
, -,
, , ,
-,

.
,

. ,
.

, ,
,

, .
,
, ,
.

.
,
, , ,
.
.

:
1. ,
: , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
C, , .
: , , .
2. : ,
, , , , , , ,
66

, . : ,
, , , , .
3.
,
.
4.
,
, : , , , .
5. , ,


.
6.
, ,
.
,
7.
,
, .
,
.
,
,
, .


, , .
.
. . . . .

67



( )
. .


.
,
,
.

.

, .
. .
, . .

. ,

, .

, ,
.
,
, , ,
.

,
.
. ,

.
.
,
. ,

, , .
. . , . . .
68

( THE NEW YORKER)


. .


,
(, , ),
(
) --
. . . , . . , . .

, ,

-- [1].

,
.
, ,
,
.
; ()
, ,
.
, ,
.
;
,
.


The New Yorker,
, ,
, .


. 10
20 21 .



69

( ),
.

,
.
, ,
(FDR (Franklin Delano Roosevelt), Lincoln, Clinton,
Churchill), (Petrarchan Sonnet, Mark
Twain, Hemingway, Salvador Dali, the Capitol, the Louvre, a
Forbidden City ), (Rubicon, Odyssey),
(Darwinism).
,
, (the Great Depression,
Lincoln on slavery, the Civil War, Prohibition, the Okhlahoma city bombing, ,
the Cold War, the heat in Baghdad, Saddam Husseins Iraq).

(Monika and Bill).
,
.
(seven deadly sins),
(kill a commie for mommy),
(Mission Accomplished, "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington").

() .

,
, ..
______________________________
1. . . , . . , . . .
. ., , 2004.
. . , . . .

70



. .
, . -

.

,
.

,
.
,
.

, ..
,
,

, .

.
,
. ,

.
, ,
, .
. ,
, , .

, New
York Times, Washington Post Voice of America 2008
2010 . , 2008 , ,
. . , ,
, ,
, .
2009 , ; ,
. ; ,
,
71

. 2010
,
.
,
.
. .


. .
. . . , .
,
,

,
.

, .. ,
, ,
.
,

,
,
.
.
, .
, ,
, , ,
.

,
, (, ). ,
,
.
,
.
, -,
.
.
DR. RABINS: There are a few things that one can do to keep your memory
as good as possible. The first is to keep mentally and physically active. It is a bit
72

like exercise in that the more you use your memory, the better it stays. The
second seems a little ironic, but the less that you worry about your memory, the
better you do. So if you fret about misplacing things, you're actually more likely
to forget. Whereas if you realize that in a minute a word or a name that you
can't think of will come to you, and if that's the case, you actually do better
when you try to remember [1].
,

. ,
,
.
,
, (
) , ,
(if you fret about misplacing things,
you're actually more likely to forget). ,
dont fret about misplacing
things and you will forget less, .. ,
(dont) . ,

,
.
(the less that you worry about your
memory, the better you do; the more you use your memory, the better it stays),
,
.

,
,
.

,
. ,
,
, .
.
______________________________
1. Transcript Cognitive Test for Alzheimer's // NIHSeniorHealth.
. http://nihseniorhealth.gov/alzheimersdisease/symptomsan
ddiagnosis/video/a5_na.html?intro=yes. (2010, December 8)
. . . . .
73




( . ABOUTABOY)
. .
, . -
:
, ,
.
, . ,
,
. ,
,
.
Aboutaboy

: , , ,
. ,
,
.
,
-
, ,
,
, ,
.
______________________________
1. About a Boy by Nick Hornby: A Commentary On the Novel // Edited by
K. Hewitt with contributions from K. Blair [and others]. Perm, 2007. 73 p.
2. N. Hornby. About a Boy: Novel // N. Hornby. London, Penguin Books,
2000. 280 p.
3. . . . .
// .. . .
http://vivovoco.rsl.ru/VV/E_LESSON/OAK/HEADER.HTM
. . , . . .

74


(
)
. .


. ,
2007
,
, , .

1
.

.

,
www.elysee.fr, 20
( 16 2007 15 2010 ).
. , , , - - ,
-,
, .
1. - -
:
. ,
- .


(, ,
..). ,
,

. .
,
. , Ces valeurs de dmocratie, de respect des
droits de l'homme, de bonne gouvernance, nous les dfendons partout, en
Asie comme en Amrique latine ou en Europe de l'Est., Mes chers
1

:
.
75

amis, nous devons dfendre les valeurs de la dmocratie ici comme


ailleurs parce que ceux qui luttent pour la dmocratie doivent nous trouver
leurs cots. .

. .: C'est la bombe retardement que les socialistes nous
ont lgu et qu'il faut dsamorcer.
: bon droit, la faveur de, tort,
chaque chose son temps, dans le cadre de, faire preuve de ..,
-
.
(, Mais en
cet instant si solennel, ma pense va d'abord au peuple franais qui est un
grand peuple, qui a une grande histoire et qui s'est lev pour dire sa foi
en la dmocratie, pour dire qu'il ne voulait plus subir)
(Ils savaient qu'on lit l'avenir du monde dans le regard de l'enfant
martyris, de l'enfant qui a faim, de l'enfant qui voit ses parents humilis,
de l'enfant qui depuis sa naissance n'a connu que la guerre, de l'enfant
qu'on a arrach sa maison, sa patrie, sa famille) .

: ,
// ,
,
, .
2.
. ,
.
1
, :
(
()
), , Je dfendrai l'indpendance et l'identit de la
France.
Je veillerai au respect de l'autorit de l'Etat et son impartialit.
Je m'efforcerai de construire une Rpublique fonde sur des droits rels et
une dmocratie irrprochable. Je me battrai pour une Europe qui protge, pour
l'union de la Mditerrane et pour le dveloppement de l'Afrique;
- ,
;


, [ . .
: . ., 2007].
76

,
, .
,
( )
. , ,
, ,
, -,
.
- . , . . .


( )
. .



.

. ,
, . , ,
.
,
, .
, , , ,
.
,
.

:
:
, , .
1- 2-
.
. 50 .
.
77

, ,
()
.

, .
,
- .
.
,
,
, .
, , ,
,
, .
-
,
.

.

, ,
.
,
, .
,
,
. ,

.
.
,
.

. .

,
( ,
18) - .

, ,
, .
,
, , ,
78

,
.
. ,

.
______________________________
1. . . . . ., ,
1975.
2. . . . . ., ,
1973.
3. . . . . .,
, 1974.
4. . . -. , 1992. 210 .
. . .


. .

. . . , .


.

() .
, ,
. ,
, ,
:
.
.
. (Greenfield. .
., Ahmad. )
,
,
!
( Ahmad, Brooke Bond.
. .).
79


: , , .
,
. (. !,
. !)

: ,
, , ( .
., . .).
XIX
, ,
- . (
55-60 %),
. ,
( ., .
.)

,

.
,
.

,
:
!;
,
!;
!; . !;,
!


.
,
. .
,

.


.
, ,
80

, . ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
,
,
. ,
.

.
. . , . . .


. .

. . .

. ,
,
.
.

;
, ,
, ,
, , .
,


. ,

.

,
.
4
: ,
81

; ,
;
, ;
, ,
.
5
: ,
;
,
;
,

; ,
;
, .


.

, : set
ones cap at for; , ;
: lead apes in hell, dance barefoot;
; ,
: get somebody by the short hair,
wear the breeches; , .

,
. ,
, .
,
,
, ,
, : a child of shame; by the left
hand, bastard slip. , ,
, ,
,
, : , .
,
,

, , : ,
, .
.
82

,
,
, :
, , .
, ,

. , ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
. . , . . .

(
)
. .
, . -
,

(182), (122), (30)
(74).

.
:
408 222
,
186.
. ,
,
.
244
, 164.
, , .
408 ,
240, 86,
84.
83

,
,
, .

.
,
.
,
,

.
. . , . . .


.
IV
. . .
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.

,
. , ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
.

.
.
. ,
84

. ,
Heimlich Unheimlich
,
.
,
.
.
- ,
,
.

,
.

.

,
.
.
,
, -

.
. . , . .


. .
- . . . ,
.
.

,
.
, ,
.


- blogger.de.
85


(Ist Euch das schon mal aufgefallen? /Und in welchen Koffer passen denn 30
kg?! /Wer ist sie berhaupt?) (Umarmungen,
wie die mir hier fehlen! /Was eine Himmelfahrt mit so einem Koffer! /Der
Campus ist RIESIG! /Und dann geht's los!)
.
, ,

(Liebe Leute, nun msste alles klappen. /Ich heie hiermit alle
Besucher herzlich willkommen. /Ich freue mich ber Kommentare, Eintrge,
Geschichten und Gedichte. /Ich schicke liebe sonnige Gre in die Heimat!).
,
, .
, ,
(Gestern hab ich meine
frisch lackierten Volvo Felgen mit Pinstripings vervollstndigt. / IT ist nicht fr
die User oder die Firma da. Die User und die Firma sind fr IT da. / Mit den
anderen knapp 80.000 Zuschauern sah ich alles, was ein wirklich gutes FuballSpiel bieten sollte. / Unser Team hat 40:7 gewonnen).

,
.
,
, ,
.
. . , . . .

MIND
. .


,
[1].
mind, ,
,
,
.
86

--
. , ,
.
mind (heart, soul
, )
[2].
[3].

.
. [4],
,
. ,
, ,
.
mind
, ,
, , .
:
mind (n) [U,C] 1. the part of you that thinks, knows, remembers and feels
things;
2. your intelligence and ability to understand things. [5]
mind: 1. , , 2. , 3. , , 4. ,
, 5., ; , , 6. , . [6]


, ...

, ,
mind.
______________________________
1. . . .
(

):
. ., , 2005. 472 .
2. . . . Mind, Heart, Soul
: . , 2005.
3. . . , . . . .
, 2007.
4. G. Kiss. The Associative Thesaurus of English. 1972.
5. Macmillan English Dictionary. 2002.
6. -
. . . ., 1998.
. . , . . .
87


. .


. ,
, . (.
.) ,
, ,
- [1].
.
.

,
, .
.

.

, .
. . :
; ,
. , , ,
, ,
,
. .. : ,
, , , , ,
[2]. . . , . .
,
[3].
. . ,
,
, ,
, , ,
[4].
. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, , ,
, [5]. ,
.
88

.
.

/ ,
, ,
,
.
: ,
, , , , .
,
, : ;
; , ;
; ; ;
..

, : matre Renard
(. ), compre de Renard . ; sentir le
renard . , ; tirer au renard . ,
; un vieux renard , .
, ,
.
/renard , , .
. ,
,
, .
. ,
.
matre Renard (. ).
______________________________
1. . http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/

2. . . . : .
. ., " ", 1997. 40-76 .
3. . . 2006-2008.
. http://sternin.adeptis.ru
4. . . . : , , .
, , 2002. 166-205 .
5. . .
// . . . . . ., , 2001.
288 .
. . , . . .
89



. .
()
- . . .

,
.
,

.
,

, ,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
,

.
,

. , NewYorkTimes
ethniccleansing,
Guardian
bitterdispute.

.
. . , . . .

90


( ,

())
. .


- .
,

.
: ) ,
(
; ) ,
. .
: ()
,
;

. ,
.

, . .

( ) () .
, ,

. ,
, ..
.
, .
,
.

( ) ( ).
200 . ,
,
.
,
,
91

.


. ,
.

;
1917 .
,
,
.
, ,
.


1979 ,
,

.
.
1987-
1987


,
1991

.
.
,
,
. ..
, ,

.
,
,

.

, ,

.
. . .
92

. .


, , ,
. . textus
, , . textum , ,
. , . . ,
, .
.
, -,
,
, .
,
, .

,
.
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
.. , .
.

Inside Out Ceri Jones Tania Bastow.
linker (,
. link- ) .
,
,
.
, C.Jones T. Bastow
:1)
(adding new information); 2)
(connecting contrasting ideas); 3)
(showing causes and contrasts).
93

,
C. Jones T. Bastow,
.
The French Lieutenants Woman, Fowles John
( , . ).
-,
. ,
We know a world is an organism, not a machine. We also know that a
genuinely created world must be independent of its creator
also. ,
, , . .
, , ,
.
, , , :
a genuinely created world
organism , must be
independent, also.
also: used when adding something to what you have mentioned.
, also ,
. ,
, also ,
.
,
. however:
His uncle viewed with disfavor However, there was yet one more lack of interest
in Charles that pleased his uncle even less
,
, , .

, .
however: used when you are adding a fact or piece of information that
seems surprising, or seems to disagree with what you have just said.
, however ,
.
/
even better: He determined to give it to Ernestina
when he returned Even better, the increased weight on his back made it a
labour, as well as a gift
. even
better: used to say that a particular choice would be more satisfactory
, ,
.
. . .
94

QUE
. .

QUE .
,
.
QUE
. QUE :
(Ce que femme veut, Dieu le veut.);
(Les orages quil y a eu la semaine dernire ont fait du
tort aux moissons ); (Ce que ma
cot cette voiture nest rien ct de ce que mont cot les rparations. / Les
dix grammes que cette lettre pse.);
(Depuis un mois quelle a fui la maison de sant.) [1; 2].
, QUE
,
, , depuis, voil ( voici), il y a,
cela ( a) fait, pendant: Cela fait bientt neuf mois quil est l-bas [1].
Le bon usage Grevisse [1], QUE

:
Deux ranges de hautes maisons centenaires qui se taisent comme des
vieillards quelles sont. ( .)
Vous tes ce (ou celui) que jaurais voulu tre. (
)

QUE

, (Il
ma dit quil me tlphonerait dans quelques jours) [1]. , QUE
,
: Que cest beau ! [3].
, QUE
, ,
. ,
QUE .
QUE-
(circonstant universel) [4: 33]. , ,
pour, de telle manire
que, puisque, alors que, QUE,
[4]:
95

Donnne-moi ta main que je la serre. (= pour que je la serre QUE


).
Les commandes pleuvaient labbaye que ctait une bndiction. (=parce
que ctait une bndiction QUE ).
Mon mari je lai connu quon allait au bal. (= quand on allait au bal QUE
)
Ils travaillent maintenant avec des machines que avant ctait tout fait la
main a eh... (= alors que avant ctait tout fait la main a eh QUE
)
Je ne peux pas courir, que je suis trop vieux.(= car je suis trop vieux QUE
).
QUE-
, .
QUE ,
: ,
..
QUE-

[4].
(Oui puis tu tu
sens tu tintresses des il te pose des problmes donc de suite tu leur apprends
quelque chose que le cours bon ben le mec il le regarde avec des billes comme
a ou que ils rigolent dans leur coin....), :
(Nous sommes une petite commune isole la population diminue et que nous
cherchons garder la population ! ).
,
QUE, . ,
. , QUE
[4].
______________________________
1. M. Grevisse. 1989 Le Bon Usage. Grammaire franaise, 12e d. Refondue
par A. Goosse (2e tirage). Paris-Gembloux, Duculot. 1046-1051 p., 1539
1541 p.
2. . . . -
. . , . , 2008. 137-138 .
3. . . . . .,
, 2000. 832 .
4. J.Deulofeu. Quel statut pour llment QUE en franais contemporain?
Langue Franaise, n 158 (2/2008), d. Larousse, Bordas. 29-52 p.
. . . . .
96


( )
. .

C

,
.

: , , , , ,
, , , .. [1].

,
.
.

(Consolaton as a speech act).
, (
), ,


,
.


.

, ( ,

, , , ..
),
-, (
,
), - (

).

(direct consolation)
97

(indirect consolation).
, , ,
,
( - )
, , , , ..
,
.
, ,
,
. ,

.
______________________________
1. . . . //
. ., 1986. 174 .
. . , . . .

98

. .
. . . , .
, ()
, ,

.
. . ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, , ae.
, , ,
, ,
[1]. 1,5
.
. ,
,
.
, -
.
,
, .
/
:

( ), ,
, .
,
, ,
/ .
[1; 2
.] ,
.
, ;
-
.
99

: 1)
, , : '', '', , ,
: '', ''; 2)
; 3) : ''; 4)
-:
; 5) 1- 2-
: , ; 6)
.

: (, , , , );
(, , , ); ,
, , , , , .

, ,
(
).
:
, , , , , , , , ,
i .
:
.
,
, .

.
, -.
,
, . . . ,
XIX XX .
,


.
,

- . ,

.
______________________________
1. . . .
// . , 3, 1972.
2. . . , . . . . ., 2001.
. . , . . .
100

/
. . -
. . . , .

.
,
, ,
, .
,
.
.
/,
.

, /.

:
, ,
, , sprechen,
reden, sagen, Sprache, Zunge, Rede, Wort
. 213
147 .

Wort (43 %).
(49 %).

-

-

Sprache/Zunge
48 (23%)

72 (49%)
Rede
25 (18%)

1 (0,7%)
Wort
92 (43%)

48 (33%)
sprechen/reden
37 (17%)

8 (5%)
sagen
11 (5 %)

18 (12 %)

.
. . .
, 2
(+/-) [1]. -
,
: ;
. -,
: ;
, , .
.
101

81 .
- 43 % : j-m Mut, Trost sprechen;
Ein Sprichwort ein Wahrwort; Dein Wort in Gottes Ohr; eine beredete/
gelufige/ gelenkige/ fertige/ flinke Zunge haben.
57 % : eine dreiste / anmaende/freche Sprache fhren; j-n
mit leeren/ bloen/ schnen Worten abspeisen; eine bse/ spitze/
scharfe/beiende/giftige/glatte/falsche Zunge haben. ,
-
-. ,
, .
Sprache/Rede
Schweigen.
: Er schweigt, sein Schweigen aber spricht
Bnde. Reden ist Silber, Schweigen ist Gold.
,
.
Wort Tat.
(mit Wort und
Tat), (Worte sind genug gewechselt, lsst mich auch endlich Taten
sehn!), , (Wenn gute Reden sie
begleiten, dann fliet die Arbeit munter fort).
,

(der Zunge freien Lauf lassen; geflgelte/
beredete/ goldene Worte; eine beredete Zunge haben) (die
Zunge war ihm ausgerutscht; seine Zunge wetzen; an schnen Worten wird es
ihm nicht fehlen).
,
, / ,
( ,
, ), . ,
,
.
.
______________________________
1. . . . :
// , , : :
- . . 5. , 2009.
- . , . . . .

102

THE CHARACTER OF ESTIMATION IN PHRASEOLOGY


N. S. Karamzina
Severodvinsk Affiliation of
Pomorsky State University named after M. V. Lomonosov
The estimation is the objectively-subjective or the subjectively-objective
relation of the person to the object, expressed by language means explicitly or
implicitly [1]. In this definition the object is understood in the widest sense: as
the person, an animal, a subject, an action, a condition, a situation, etc.
The estimation is expressed explicitly if at least one component of the
phraseological unit is evaluative or its inner form has an evaluative character. If
all the components of the phraseological unit are non-evaluative and its inner
form is erased, then the estimation is implicit.
The following phraseological units have an explicit estimation: hate smb's
guts to hate smb to death; a labour of love disinterested or unpaid work;
make an ass of oneself to behave as the fool, to put itself in an idiotic
situation; (as) pretty as a picture beautiful; worship the ground one walks on
to be ready to kiss the earth on which it (or he) goes; (as) ugly as sin very
terrible, etc. In all those phraseological units one component is evaluative.
In the examples below there is no evaluative component in the
phraseological units, but their inner form, alive or erased, is evaluative, and the
estimation is implicit, e.g.: a feather in one's cap smb's pride; achievement, a
merit; a bull in a china shop an elephant in a crockery bench.
Any act of the estimation assumes the presence of the subject of an
estimation, i.e. the person giving it, the object of the estimation, i.e. estimated
fragment of the reality, and criteria of the estimation. In some cases, for
example at a self-estimation, the subject and object of the estimation can
coincide: A guiding light a guiding star, e.g.: I was the brains behind the job,
the guiding light when it came to making up anybody's mind (A. Sillitoe).
The estimation can be positive or negative, intellectual or connotative. We
give the examples of the intellectual estimations expressed by imagery
phraseological units.
Phraseological units with a positive estimation: a feather in one's cap smth
that one may justly be proud of; good Samaritan a person who pities and gives
practical help to persons in trouble; an old hand an experienced and highly
skilled person at some particular job.
Phraseological units with a negative estimation: an awkward customer a
person or an animal difficult or dangerous to deal with; a dog in the manger
person who prevents others from enjoying smth that is useless to himself; the
last straw an addition to a task, burden, etc. that makes it intolerable There are
much more phraseological units with a negative estimation, than those with a
103

positive estimation. This phenomenon is observed not only in phraseocon but


also in lexicon.
In one sphere of human activity, namely in advertisement, phraseological
units are used only with a positive estimation.
In the semantic structure of phraseological units, especially verbal ones, the
estimation is often combined with resultativeness.
Positive result: bring home the bacon to get the success; carry the day to
win.
Negative result: come a cropper to fail, to get into trouble; kill the goose
that laid ( lays) the golden eggs to spoil something that is good or
something that you have, by being greedy, etc.
In a number of expressive phraseological units there exists a complex
interlacing of figurativeness, intensity, emotivity and evaluativeness: (as) fierce
as a tiger furious as a tiger; swear like a trooper to curse and swear with
great facility; swim like a cork (or fish) to swim very well, etc. The evaluative
potential of these phraseological units is so significative [2] that they are often
used for expression of emotions in a corresponding context, e.g.: Throw that
madman into the sea; then we can pick him up. He swims like a cork (Ch.
Reade).
All the estimations given above are intellectual as they are components of
the corresponding concepts. Intellectual estimations amplify and become more
expressive in connotative 'environment' in figurative phraseological units.
Phraseological units with connotative estimations are rare. As an example can
serve the phraseological unit kick the bucket to die. To 'die' is an objectivelylogical component of phraseological meaning, and its rudely-disrespectful
character is a connotative component.
Summing up our analysis of the components of the connotative aspect of
phraseological units we think it necessary to underline that unlike the
significative aspect of phraseological units the connotative aspect often denotes
not real features of the denotatum but the features attributed to it by the man.
Thanks to the connotation, phraseological units are able to serve as expressive
means in communication.
______________________________
1. . . .
. ., 1986.
2. T. Fedulenkova. Discourse value of biblical proverbial idioms in English
// Textual Secrets: The Message of the Medium: Book of Abstracts of 21 st
PALA Conference. Budapest, British Council, 2001. 15 p.
Research advisor Ph. D., Prof. T. N. Fedulenkova.

104



. .


.
-
.
(20
).

,
,
,
. ( .
30.06.2006 N 90-).

,
.
(, ).
:
- -
;
- , ;
- ( ,
, , The Employee
acknowledges and agrees; under this Agreement);
- (, ,
, , , amendments, contract,
attorneys fees, court costs, compensation, rate);
- (OOO , Ness A. T., TRADE INC.);
- ,
(, , employee, supervisor);
-
, ; ,
;
.
:
- : Supplemental Employee Retirement
Plan ( ,
105

,
), tax gross up payments (
,
), Trigger date (
, ,
) , ..
.
Entire Agreement, Severability,
, , ,
.
- Perfect Infinitive Perfect
Progressive Infinitive,
, (This agreement shall be binding upon
both the Client and the Accountant; He shall have been continuously unable
or unwilling or have failed to perform his duties; Representations that
may have heretofore been made by either);
- ,
,
. 6-9 5-6
. ( ) 814 , 5-13 .
,
(
:
, , ).

. ,
, ,
, :
Contract Governed by Law, Equity, Supervision, Evaluation, Non-Competition
obligations, Certain Additional Payments by Company, Manner of Performance
of Employees Duties, Overtime, Benefits, Employers Policies,
Hiring Procedure, Sick Leave, Miscellaneous Benefits
Allowance, Meal Allowance, Transportation, Death / Funeral Benefit.
,

.
, ,

, ,
.
. . , . . .
106



. .
. . . , .
.
,
,
.
,
.

(
[1]), , ,
, , .
,

.
,
, ,
.. :
,
- ,
(.. , . ,
.. , .. , . ).
- :
( ), (
) (
- ) [2].

(
): 2
( ),
.
2 :
) :
(Frau, Weib / Weiber), ,
(Dame, Sklavin), (Mdchen, Jungfrau)
(Mutter, Tochter, Schwiegermutter); )
; ,
(Maria, Eva).
107

;
, , ,
.
: )
( , ), ) (
).
: ,
(eine schne Frau will jeder kssen; eine Frau nach Ma)
, (man sieht es an
der Nase bald, ob Weiber warm sind oder kalt; Weiber sind vernderlich wie
Aprilwetter; eine gute Frau macht aus einem Achtziger einen Vierziger, eine
bse aus einem Vierziger einen Achtziger). :
(die Frauen sagen wohl die Wahrheit aber nie ganz),
(der Mann wei, die Frau wei besser),
(wo die Frau wirtschaftet, wchst der Speck am Balken)
, / (Weiber sind Katzen mit
glatten Blgen und scharfen Tatzen).
:
,
,
, .
,
, .
______________________________
1. Hrsg. von P. Prechnlund, F.-B. Burkard. Metzler Philosophie Lexikon.
Begriffe und Definitionen. Stuttgart-Weimar, Metzler, 1999. 685 s.
2. . . .
: . . . . //
. . . , 2010. 20 .
. . , . .

108




. .
, .

[1],
, ,
.
.
,
: -kin -lin, -kin
, -lin [2,3,4,5].
,
,

(-tje, -kje, -je , -chen; -l, -l, -l, -li
) [2].
kin
XI XIV (Malkin, Johnkin)
[6,7], (lambkin , cannikin
), , ,

( , ,
-ie/y,
: (Bettie, Jonnie; Goldie [7],
: daddy , kitty , mammy
[8].
-kin
:
1. -k(n) [4,9]. ,
(Hein(e)ke,
Gieseke); (Lbke, Nuschke); (Kindeken
, Jungeken ). -ke
. XVI
(traenken , vaerken en moerken
)[10].
2. -t (-k, -j ),

[10,11,22]. ,
109


, : (volkjen
, broertje ) [10,11,12,13].
,
-t
, , ,
[17,20,21] (Liesj, Pitatj, baunt , , bilt
[18]).
3. (n) .

(Hnschen, Gretchen; dchen
).

-kin ,
-lin
, -lin
, -kin [2,4,15,16].
.., -l
: -el (-l, -l) (hisl
), -l (-li) (sseli
, fegl ) [4].
,

-lin -l / -l,
- (,
Yankl, Avroml Perele, Sorele; : til , vintl
lidele ). -l -l, ,
, ,
, [19].
,
, (, , ,
, ) .
,
, , s.
, ,
-lech / -lach (kinderlech
). ,
,

[4].
______________________________

110

1. . . .,
1990.
2. W. dtv Knig. Atlas zur deutschen Sprache, 9te Auflage. Mnchen, 1992.
3. . . . .,
, 1952.
4. . . . . .-., 1956.
5. . . . . , 1959.
6. . . . . ., ,
2000.
7. . . . . ., , 2000.
8. : www.lingvo.com
9. H. Grimme. Plattdeutsche Mundarten, 1910.
10. . . .
. ., , 1973.
11. . . ., , 1982.
12. . . . ., , 1935.
13. T. Frings. Die Stellung der Niederlande im Aufbau des Germanischen.
Max Niemeyer Verlag, Halle (Saale), 1944.
14. T. G. G. Valette. Dutch conversation grammar. eidelberg, 1928.
15. DUDEN. Etymologie. Band 7, Dudenverlag, Mannheim, Leipzig, Wien,
Zrich, 1989.
16. . . .
. ., , 2000.
17. H. Penner, H. Gerlach, H. Quiring. Weltweite Bruderschaft. Verlag
Mennonitischer Geschichtsverein, 4.te Auflage, 1984.
18. H. Wall, S. Wendel, H. Jadig. Niederdeutsch Deutsches Wrterbuch.
Omsk, 1979.
19. S. Birnbaum. Yiddish: a survey and grammar. 1979.
. http://books.google.ru
20. C. Brandt. Sprache und Sprachgebrauch der Mennoniten in Mexiko.
Gttingen, 1991.
21. R. Nieuwebour. The Altai Dialect of Plautdiitsch (West Siberian Low
German). Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, 1963.
22. . . , . . . . , 1984.
. . . . .

111

-

. .


,
. , ,
,
,
. ,
. : ,
, ,
, [1].
.
. ,
.
,
. ,
, , ,
. . . ,
-
, : 1) -, 2) -,
3) -, 4) -, 5) -, 6)
- [2].

, , ,
. ,
, .

. ,
The Interpretation of Murder
The Interpretation of Dreams.
,
.

The Interpretation of Dreams, , ,
.
. ,

,
.
112

.

.
-
,
.

suspense (. suspense , ) defeated expectancy
( ), -.
,
Whose Body? ,
, .
-. ,
Funeral in Berlin, Berlin Game, London Match Battle of
Britain. [3],
,
, ,
.

.
,
. ,
,
- ,
: The Benson Murder Case, The Canary Murder
Case, The Kidnap Murder Case The Bishop Murder Case ..

.
,
.
,
[4]. , , ,
.
______________________________
1. . . . // . . 5 ., . 4.
., 2006.
2. . . . .
, 2007. 134 .
3. . 134 .
4. . 133 .
. . , . . .
113


( . )
. .
. . . , .
, ..

.
, ,
, .
. . [1], ,
.
, .
, ,
: .
,
: ,
, .
. . [2], , ,
, ,
,

.
.
- , ,
.
,
.

;
,
.
. . :
1) -
;
2) -

;
3)
, .. ,
,
114


.
Lolita
.
:
In a nervous and slender-leaved mimosa grove at the back of their villa we
found a perch on the ruins of a low stone wall.
Through the darkness and the tender trees we could see the arabesques of
lighted windows
That vibrant sky seemed as naked as she was under her light frock.


, ,
, .
We were coming out of some office building one morning, with her papers
almost in order, when Valeria, as she waddled by my side, began to shake her
poodle head vigorously without saying a word.

( ) ,
.
A mounting fury was suffocating me not because I had any particular
fondness for that figure of fun, Mme Humbert, but because matters of legal and
illegal conjunction were for me alone to decide, and here she was, Valeria,
brazenly preparing to dispose in her own way of my comfort and fate.
,
,
, .
, . .

;
, ,
;
, ,
, , ,
- .
______________________________
1. . . . [] : //
. . . ., , 1981. 334 .
2. . . . [] //
. . . M., , 1989. 405 .
. . , . . .
115


(
THE SCHOOL FOR SCANDAL BY R.B. SHERIDAN)
. .
. . . , .

(, , , ,
, ).
,
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
: , - .
.. [1],
, ,
- , , , , , .
.
.. , .. , .. ,
.. [2] :
(Othello, Don
Juan, Romeo, Hamlet)
.


,
,
(, ..),
. :


.
: , , .

.
116

The School for Scandal


, :
Lady Teazle.
to tease
. to tease
, ,
,

,
.
Sir Benjamin Backbite. .
to backbite , ,
, ,
.
Lady Sneerwell ,
sneer , ,
, well ,
.
.
, ,


, ,
.

.

,
. , ,
,
.
,
.
______________________________
1. . . . [] : //
. . . ., , 1981. 334 .
2. . . . [] : .
- . . . // . . , . . ,
. . , . . . , ., 1991. 270 .
. . , . . .
117

:

. .


,
. ,
. .: (1) Absence de preuve nest
preuve
dabsence.
(

) . (2) Paris est le plus dlicieux des


monstres: l, vieux et pauvre; ici, tout neuf comme la monnaie d'un nouveau
rgne, Balzac. ( : ,
; , , )
. (3) Vivre simplement pour que d'autres puissent simplement vivre,
Gandhi. ( , , )
. (4) Ceux qui donnent des canons aux enfants. Ceux qui donnent
des enfants aux canons. (, . ,
) .
, ,
, ,

,
:
,
. .:
,

[1; 2; 3]. (Apprendre aimer l'art en luimme, et
non pas luimme dans l'art. ,
). ,
[1; 2; 3]. (Il a
l'air vivace et maladif. ; Ni cet excs
dhonneur, ni cette indignit. ,
). ,
,
, [1]. ,
: .
. (Il faut
manger pour vivre et non pas vivre pour manger. ,
, , ). ,

[1]. (Dieu cra l'homme ou l'homme cra Dieu?
?).
118

, ,
[4]. -, ,
, , , , ,
, ( 5)
, ( 6) : (5) Le monde des
affaires ne doit pas diriger les affaires du monde. (
) ; C'tait un homme mort qui vivait
encore. ( , ) . (6)
Mon projet c'est vous ! Son projet, c'est lui! ( !
!).
-, , :
,
( 7),

( 8). .: (7) Valse mlancolique et langoureux vertige!
( !). (8) Je ne prtends
pas justifier ma vie par mes livres, non plus que mes livres par ma vie. (
,
, ). ,
, , ,
,
, .
, -,
, :
(
9), ( 10). .: (9) Rien ne me verra
plus, je ne verrai plus rien ( ,
) (10) Vide et amour, amour et vide ( ,
).

, ,
, .
______________________________
1. . http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figure_de_style:
2. Prpabac. Cours dentranement. Franais. Hatier Paris, 2005. 272 p.
3.. . . . ,
, 2007. 108 .
4. A. Rabatel. Points de vue en confrontation dans les antimetaboles plus
et moins // Langue franaise, 160, 2008. 2136 p.
. . . . .
119




. .



.

, 25%
Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English [2] (1412 )

: 1)
( : 1, 2 ), 2) (
: 1`- ), 3)
(, ).

(OE), (ME), (NE) [3].

.

,
[1].
STATISTICA 6.0
,
, -
. .. .
p=0,95 ,
, r xy |0.06|.
.
,
.
.
,
47 30x3=90,
52%.

.
\
: 23 24 .
120

-
.
. 1.

0,24

0,20

-0,09

-0,07

0,12

0,12

-0,07

-0,07

NE

-0,20

-0,19

0,10

0,09

0,06

. 2.

NE

`1

`2

0,13
0,14

0,09
0,08

0,19

0,12

`3

`4

`5

`6

1`

6`

5`

7`

2`

3`

4`

0,24

0,14

0,13

0,06

0,07

0,09

0,08

0,07
0,08

0,09

0,17

0,12

0,08

0,07

0,10

. 3.
/

OE
ME

-0,07
-0,05

0,07
0,05

-0,05

NE

0,07

-0,07

-0,06
-0,06

0,09
0,06

0,08

-0,09

-
(1,2) 1-2
- ,
.

(4-6 )
, .
______________________________
1. . . , . . , . . , . . .
.
, i , 1990. 182 .
2. A. S. Hornby et al. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current
English, the. 3rd ed. Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press, 1980. 1056 .
3. W. Little. The shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles.
Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1968. 2516 p.
. . . . .
121

SPRING

. .
()
- . . .
,

[3].
. . , ,

[1].
spring.
,
,
[2].
, ,
spring, ,
.
, spring springan
(3 , ), , ,
(14 ). 15 .
, : season following winter.
(young person)
( 20 ) [5].
,
spring
,
: There's a feeling of spring in the air today [4].

, : He was in the spring of his years
[4].

: He is full of the joys of spring [4].
spring
, . . ,
.
______________________________
1. . . . // :
. ., Academia, 1997.
122

2. . . . :
- (15-17 2010 .).
, , 2010.
3. . . //
. ., 1991.
4. . http://www.abbyyonline.com/
5. . http://www.etymonline.com/
. . . . .
,
EN
. .

, ,
:
, ,
[1]. , , .
: de, , par, sur, en.
,
(soccuper des enfants ; fixer par une pingle
; fournir qch en charbon ).
,
, (se distinguer de qch par
qch - (..) - (..).
,
.

: , ..
, en,
.
, en ,
[2].
-, ,
: abonder, foisonner, consister, se mesurer, sexprimer, se chiffrer,
galer, surpasser, dpasser, : Ses adieux consistaient en trois baisers.
-, ,
[2] . : La rivire abonde
en poisson.
123

-, , ,
en: galer, vaincre,
dpasser. : Par lantiquet les hymnes vdiques dpassent les textes
grecs.
-,
,
en.
-: approvisionner, alimenter, fournir, s'enrichir, quiper,
s'acquitter. : Alimentation d'une ville en eau, d'une usine en matires
premires. Les communes contribuent aussi largement financer les zones
d'urbanisation qu'il faut quiper en infrastructure.
,
/ , : grandir, gagner,
perdre, monter, : L'infirmimre sembla gagner en absurde. En vieillissant,
la plupart des hommes perdent en audace.

en
. : a)Paul gagne de la sagesse; b)Paul gagne en
sagesse.
,
.

-, ,
, en.
:
a) : classer, dcomposer, dcouper, distribuer,
diviser, clater, exploser, fractionner, partager, rompre. :
Eviter que la socit humaine ne se rompe en deux trongons
ennemis; L'pigraphie latine s'analyse en trois composantes.
b) : (se) grouper, regrouper, se confondre, se
fondre, amalgamer, constituer, disposer, : Plusieurs
socites se constituent en cartel.
c) : s'achever, s'actualiser, amliorer,
s'panouir, installer, s'instituer. : La dfensive s'achevait
en offensive. Max a amelior le carrosse en auto. Lentement,
I'immensite s'institue en valeur premiere.
,
. ,
, ,
.
, , en,
.
.
____________________________
124

1. . . ., , 1998.
685 .
2. I. Khammarl. Les complments de verbe rgis par en // Lingistique
franaise. Paris, 2000. 52-73 p.
. . . . .

.
. .

, ,
,
.

.
:


(.. [3] .), (G. Lakoff, M.
Johnson , Z. Kovecses .),
, ,

, ,
, .

.
:
,
(Martin Eden: , , ,
.; John Barleycorn: ( )
,
, , , , ,
, ,
),
( ,
),

:
,
,
,
125

,
[2].

. .

,
.
,
(blaze of health), (he was inflamed),
, (violent heat of creative
fever), (fired him with love).

(, ). (
, , , , ,
, )

.

. (He
is a red-handed killer), :
( ,
, ),
(he is a strange friend, John Barleycorn), , ,
(He is the king of liars), (I sneered--or, rather, John Barleycorn
sneered). ,

: (realm of
mind, . [1, 2]), ,
(White
Logic) ;
, [2].
,

.
, .
Martin Eden John Barleycorn

,
.
______________________________
1. Z. Kovecses. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction // Z. Kovecses. USA,
Oxford University Press, 2010. 400 p.
126

2. G. Lakoff, M. Johnson Metaphors We Live By // G. Lakoff. USA,


University Of Chicago Press, 2003. 256 p.
3. . . . // . . . .,
, 1999. 895 c.
. . , . .

127


. . ...................... 75
. . ........................ 20
. . ....................... 22
. .......................... 77
. . ............................ 109
. . ....................... 79
. . ........................... 44
. . ...................... 112
. . ............................. 114
. . ............................ 23
. .......................... 25
. . ........................... 46
. . .......................... 48
. . ........................... 116
. . ............................. 81
. . ....................... 49
. . ............................ 50
. . ..................... 83
. ...................................... 84
. . ............................. 19
. . .............................. 52
. . ............................ 118
. . ............................. 85
. . ....................... 120
. . ........................... 29
. . .............................. 86
. ..................... 88
. . ........................ 122
. . .......................... 31
. . .......................... 54
. . ...................... 90
. . ......................... 32
. . ........................ 34
. . ........................ 56
. . ........................ 123
. . ......................... 91
. . ........................... 125
. . ...................... 35

Karamzina N. S. ........................103
Nepomiluyeva T. I. .....................27
Schvakova N. S. ..........................27
Voronin R. A...............................27
. . ..........................3
. . ..........................58
. . ..........................59
. . ........................5
. . ..........................61
. . ............................63
. . .............................93
. . ...........................64
. . .............................7
. . .............................36
. . ...............................37
. . .................................65
. . ............................66
. .........................................38
. .......................8, 68
. . .........................40
. . ............................69
. . .......................9
. . .....................95
. . .....................97
. . ............................71
. . .................................41
. . ..........................11
. . ...........................72
. . ......................99
. . ..........................74
. . .........................13
- . . ..................101
. . ................................42
. . ....................14
. . .........................17
. . ...........................105
. . ...............................19
. . ............................107

128



............................................................................................................ 3
. . ...................................................................................... 3
. . ................................................................................... 5
. . ......................................................................................... 7
. . ....................................................................................... 8
. . .................................................................................. 9
. . ...................................................................................... 11
. . ..................................................................................... 13
. . ............................................................................... 14
. . .................................................................................... 17
. . , . . ................................................................. 19
. . ..................................................................................... 20
. . ................................................................................... 22
. . ........................................................................................ 23
. . ..................................................................................... 25
T. I. NEPOMILUYEVA, N. S. SCHVAKOVA, R. A. VORONIN....................... 27
. . ....................................................................................... 29
. . ....................................................................................... 31
. . ..................................................................................... 32
. . .................................................................................... 34
. . ................................................................................... 35
......................................................... 36
. . ......................................................................................... 36
. . ............................................................................................ 37
. ...................................................................................................... 38
. . ..................................................................................... 40
. . ............................................................................................. 41
. . ............................................................................................. 42
. . ....................................................................................... 44
. . ....................................................................................... 46
. . ...................................................................................... 48
. . .................................................................................. 49
. . ......................................................................................... 50
. . ........................................................................................... 52
. . ....................................................................................... 54
. . ..................................................................................... 56
............................................... 58
. . ...................................................................................... 58
. . ...................................................................................... 59
129

. . ...................................................................................... 61
. . ........................................................................................ 63
. . ....................................................................................... 64
. . .............................................................................................. 65
. . ........................................................................................ 66
. . ..................................................................................... 68
. . ......................................................................................... 69
. . ......................................................................................... 71
. . ....................................................................................... 72
. . ...................................................................................... 74
. . .................................................................................. 75
. . ..................................................................................... 77
. . ................................................................................... 79
. . .......................................................................................... 81
. . ................................................................................ 83
. ................................................................................................... 84
. . .......................................................................................... 85
. . .......................................................................................... 86
. . ............................................................................... 88
. . .................................................................................. 90
. . ..................................................................................... 91
.................................................................. 93
. . .......................................................................................... 93
. . ................................................................................. 95
. . ................................................................................ 97
. . ................................................................................. 99
. . - ............................................................................... 101
N. S. KARAMZINA ................................................................................... 103
. . ....................................................................................... 105
. . ......................................................................................... 107
. . .......................................................................................... 109
. . ................................................................................. 112
. . ........................................................................................... 114
. . ........................................................................................ 116
. . .......................................................................................... 118
. . ................................................................................... 120
. . .................................................................................... 122
. . ..................................................................................... 123
. . ........................................................................................ 125

130


XLIX

-

. .

30.03.2011 .
60x84/16

.-. . 7,2. . . . 8,2.
____
120 .
________________________________________________________________
-
630090, . , . , 2