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, 2011/2012 . .

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1.1 - -
| = | v1 + i | v2 , 2 | = | v1 i | v2 , 2 | =
a

1.1. (|||| ||||) ( | ) a) (1.1)

vn | vm = mn (m, n = 1, 2); b b) | = | v(k) eik dk ,


a

| v(k) e2ik dk ,

(1.2)

vk | vk = (k k ). (1.3) 1.2. (): |,| H : 1.3. : |,| H : || + || |||| + |||| . (1.5) |||| |||| | | | . (1.4)

1.4. : (x) n | (| vn (| u(x) ) :


2

| =
0

| u(x) (x)dx =

+ n=

| vn n .

(1.6)

, 1 vn (x) u(x) | vn = einx , 2 2 x [ 0 , 2 ] , n = 0, 1, 2 , . . . . (1.7)

1.2

1.5. : (x) n | | v(k) | u(x) : | =

| u(x) (x)dx =

| v(k) (k)dk .

(1.8)

, 1 v(x, k) u(x) | v(k) = eikx , 2 x, k ( , ) . (1.9)

1.2
1.2.1

1.6. : ( )+ i. A+ = A; ( )+ ( )1 1 ii. A = A+ ; ( )+ iii. a A = a A+ ; ( )+ +B = A+ + B + ; iv. A ( )+ B = B + A+ ; v. A vi. ( | | )+ = | | . 1.7. (U ,V ; H ): i. a U , a a = 1; ii. U n (n ); U I iii. i ; U +I iv. U H U + ; v. I iH . I + iH

1.8. (x): b (x) + u(x) (


a

v (x )(x )dx = (x) . )1 .

(1.10)

: I + | u v |

1: d , i dx

1.9. , p = L2 (R).

1.2.2

1.10. : [ ] [ ] i. L , M = M , L ; [ ] , L =0 ii. L [ ] [ ] , aM = a L, M ; iii. L [ ] , a I = 0, I ; iv. L [ ] [ ] [ ] v. L1 + L2 , M = L1 , M + L2 , M ; [ ] [ ] [ ] vi. L1 L2 , M = L1 , M L2 + L1 L2 , M ; [ ] [ ] [ ] vii. M , L1 L2 = M , L1 L2 + L1 M , L2 ; viii. : [ [ ]] [ [ ]] [ [ ]] 1 , L2 , L3 2 , L3 , L1 3 , L1 , L2 L + L + L = 0.

1.11. e M eL =
L n= n=0

1 [ ] L, M , n! (n) [ ] = L, M ,... , (1) [ ] [ ] , L, M = L .


(n1)

(1.11)

[ L, M ]
(0)

=M, [

L, M

L, M

]
(n)

(1.12)

1.12. (1.11) ( 1.11), , eL+M = eL eM e 2 [ L , M ] ,



1

(1.13)

[ [ ]] [ [ ]] , L, M , L, M L = M = 0.

(1.14)

1.2

1.13. f (x) . , [ ] df (+ ) a a , f (+ ) = a , d+ a (1.15)

a a+ 1 [ ] a , a+ = I . (1.16)

1.14. A B a) A = B + B + 3 I , b) A = B B + + I . (1.17)

, A , [ ] [ ] + , B , B . B b) A a) (1.18)

1.15. a+ a+ + aa a+ a + aa+ a+ a+ aa A1 = , A2 = , A3 = i . (1.19) 4 4 4 [ ] Ai , Aj , a a+ (1.16).

1.16. + + + + + b b b b b b bb B1 = , B2 = , B3 = . (1.20) 2 2 2 [ ] i , Bj , + B b b } { , + + + + = I , = 0 . bb b b bb b b (1.21)

1.17. L, : LL+ + L+ L = I ?
1

(1.22)

, (1.16), . , .

1:

1.2.3

1.18. , , () , { } = Tr L = n Sp L vn Lv ( | vn ), (1.23)
n

: i. , . ii. Sp LM = Sp M N , Sp(L1 L2 L3 ) = Sp(L2 L3 L1 ) . iii. Sp(L1 + L2 + ) = Sp L1 + Sp L2 + . iv. Sp(aL) = a Sp L, a C.

1.2.4

1.19. p, 1.9? 1.20. , L1 ( ) , L, . 1.21. a L2 (R) : 1 ( d ) . a= x+ dx 2 i. a+ , a. ii. a a+ . iii. ( ) . 1. 1.22. L, t, {Ln }: L | un = Ln | un , | un , : un | um = nm . (1.26) (1.25) (1.24)

1.2

, a) b)

dLn un , = un L dt d | um = | un dt n=m

un Lum Lm Ln

+ | um ,

(1.27)

d ( = 0); L = L. dt 1.23. , | Ua A, a, A | Ua = a | Ua , | Ua f (A), f (a): f (A) | Ua = f (a) | Ua . (1.28) 1.24. | A, a. , , , , B , [ ] A , B = B + 2B A2 , (1.29) B | B A. ? 1.25. 2 2- k (k = 1, 2, 3) , [ m , j ] = 2i mjk k ( k 1 3!), (1.30) , 3 . ijk . 1.26. Sx , Sy Sz , 1 E3 , : 0 1 0 0 i 0 1 0 0 Sx = 1 0 1 , Sy = i 0 i , Sz = 0 0 0 . (1.31) 2 0 1 0 2 0 i 0 0 0 1 i. Si (i = 1, 2, 3). ii. Si , Sx . ] [ iii. Si , Sj .
En n- , .
1

1:

1.2.5


{ } { } | U | , | U | . . . , { } A U AU + , B U B U + . . . , (U U + = U + U = I)

1.27. , | ,| ,... { } b) A,B ,... a)

(1.32)

: i. : |||| = || ||, | = | ; ii. : A+ = A, (A )+ = A ; iii. : | u A, , | u A , ; [ ] [ ] = i A , B , G = i A , B iv. : G

2
2.1

2.1. a, . . { 0, 0 < x < a, U (x) = (2.1) , x < 0 , x > a. ( : x x = x + a) 2.2. 2.1 ( ) ( ) , ( ) x n p n , x n ( ) p n . 2.3. a (. 2.1) . 2.4. , . 2.5. - : U (x) = (x) , > 0 . (2.2) , .

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2:

2.6. { (x) , > 0 , U (x) = ,

|x| < a , |x| > a . ma 2 1 . , , (. . 2.1).

. 2.1:

2.7. , .

2.2

2.8. - : U (x) = (x) (. . 2.2). : 1) E ; 2) E 0.


. 2.2:

2.9. (. { . 2.3) 0, x < 0 x > a, U (x) = U0 , 0 < x < a (U0 > 0) . : 1) E ( E U0 ); 2 ma2 U0 2) E 0 ( E E U0 ); 2 2 2 ma U0 ma E 3) 1 1. 2 2
. 2.3:

2.8. 2.10. [ ] - : U (x) = (x) + (x a) (. . 2.4). , , . . R(En ) = 0, D(En ) = 1.


. 2.4:

2.11. (x) = A exp{x2 + ix}; ( > 0, R).

2.3

11

2.3

2.12. t = 0 a (. 2.1) : (x, 0) = Ax(x a) . (2.3) t = 0 (x, t) t > 0. 2.13. . 2.14. . 2.15. U sh , : ( ) + | s = U sh | h , Ls = U sh Lh U sh . (2.4) 2.16. (x), , x p = 2 . (2.5)

2.17. (t = 0) | u0 . t (t > 0) | un , V (t) = F (t)x. : i. F (t) = A(t t0 ); ii. F (t) = sin t, ; iii. F (t) = t. 2.18. (t = 0) | (t = 0) = | U , a | U = | U , | U = e
||2 /2 n= n=0

n | un . n!

(2.6)

, t (t > 0).

3
3.1

3.1. : [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] a) L , r 2 , L , p 2 , L , r p , L , ( p )2 ; r [ ] [ ] [ ] b) L , ( r ) , p p L , ( r ) , p r L , (a + b) ; p r [ ] [ ] [ ] , x x , , x p , , p p , c) L L L r , p , L -, , a b .

3.2. z . 3.3. | um z L2 L2 . x y

3.2

3.4. 1/2 Sx , Sy Sz Sx -. 3.5. Rn () 1/2. Rn ( = 2)? 3.6. Rn () 1. Rn ( = 2)?

12

3.2 3.7. 1 Sx , Sy Sz Sz -.

13

3.8. 1/2 Sx Sz -. ( ) 1 3.9. | = 5 | u+ + 2 | u z. ? Sz ? | u Sz : Sz u = u . 2 3.10. P (t) | (t = 0) = | u+ | u , B = ex B1 cos t ey sin t + ez B0 ? H = B S .

3.11. z, 2 2 ?

4
4.1

4.1. , : A , 1 + x2 /a2 { x2 } b) (x) = A exp 2 { |x| } , c) (x) = A exp 2 a) (x) = . . 4.2. , : { x2 } { |x| } a) (x) = Ax exp , b) (x) = Ax exp , 2 2 . . 4.3. , U (x) { kx , x > 0 (k > 0) , U (x) = , x < 0 , (x > 0): ( ) (x) = Ax exp x . 14

4.2

15

4.2

4.4. - a - W = (x a/2) , a = const.

. 4.5. E . 1- . . 4.6. 3- , { 0, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < a, 0 < z < a; V (x, y, z) = , , { V0 , 0 < x < a/2 , W = 0 , . , 1- . 4.7. , : (1 ) 0 0 0 1 , 1 , V0 = const . H = V0 0 2 i. ( = 0); ii. H; iii. 1- . . 4.8. E . 4.9. B : i. , , ; ii. , , .

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4:

4.3

4.10. 3.10. . 4.11. t = 0, { E0 = const , 0 < t t0 , E (t) = 0, t > t0 , 1 En = (n + 2 ). t > t0 . , . n = 0 .

5
5.1

5.1. 1/2 . . 5.2. . 5.3. . : , . 5.4. 1/c2 .

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