Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 132

..

I.

1.

,
.
1. .
, , ,
,
. . ,
N : n = 1, 2,, N . ,
N

, R . , ,
,
.
:

(1.1)

x = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xN ),

xn - n ( n = 1, 2,, N ).

, , , , .
3 , 5 2 ,
. :

x = ( 3,5,2 ,0 ,...,0 ). , ,
.

:

(1.2)

X = R+N = { x R N : xn 0 n = 1,..., N }.

, X R ,
N

, , ,
, .
, f . x , y

X , x = ( x1 ,..., x N ) , y = ( y1 ,..., y N ) . x f y
, x ,
, , y . ,

( x f y ) ( x ~ y ). ,
x , y . ,
, x y .
,
:

(1.3) x , y X : x f y , y f x , x ~ y .

.
,

(1.4) x , y , z X : x f y y f z , x f z .
, ,
, :

(1.5) x X : x f x
,
,
. ,
. X
:

(1.6) x > y, x f y .
, , , , ,
, ,
. ,
, , .
, x , y , z
X :

(1.7) y f x , z f x y z ,

y + ( 1 ) z f , 0 < < 1.
,
. ,

,
.
, ,
. ,
x2

x2

x2

y
y + (1 ) z

x
y + (1 ) z

x
x

z
x1

. 1.1.

x1
. 1.2.

x1

. 1.3.

. ,
, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3.
, . 1.1 1.7,
. ,
.
. , . 1.2, .
. , , ,

y + ( 1 ) z p x . , . 1.3,
, .

2. .
( f ) X ,
.

(1.8)

{(xn , yn )}n=1

xn f y n n xf y , x = lim xn y = lim y n .
n

,
, ,
,
.
U ( x ) , :
, ,
. :

(1.9)

U ,
( f ), x, y X : xf y U ( x) U ( y ).


. .

(1.10) U ( x1 , x2 ) = k x1 x2 , k , , = const , k , , > 0.


,
.
, :

(1.11)

U ( x1 , x2 )
U ( x1 , x2 )
>0
> 0.
x1
x2

,
.
,

x2
U1 U2

U3

U4

( x1 , x2 )

(). . 1.4
-

+ = 1. .

U4
U1
. 1.5.

U2

U3

U 1 ,

x1

( x1 , x2 ) ,

U1

, ,

U 1 . , U 2 ,
,
U 2 . ,
( x1 , x2 ) . .
1.5.
.
1. .


.
2. ,
, , .

.
3. .

.
4. (MRS)
.

,
().
2 1 2,

1,
( ):

(1.12) RS = (1)

x2
x
= 2
x1
x1

U = const

dx

( 2 ) = 2
(1.13) MRS = lim
x 0
x
dx
1

U = const

x2

:
MRS
. , . 1.6 A

,

. , A

. 1.6

dx2
= tg .
dx1

x1

, MRS,

MRS =

dx2
= tg .
dx1

, : U ( x1 , x2 ) , x1 x2
, .
1 :

(1.14) MU x1 =

U ( x1 , x2 )
x1

x1 ,

1 ,
.

(1.15) dU ( x1 , x2 ) =

U ( x1 , x2 )
U ( x1 , x2 )
dx1 +
dx2
x1
x2

, , 1 2- , ,

(1.16) dU ( x1 , x2 ) =

U ( x1 , x2 )
U ( x1 , x2 )
dx1 +
dx2 = 0
x1
x2

, , ,
.

(1.17) MU x1 dx1 + MU x2 dx2 = 0


, :

dx2
(1.18)
dx1

U
=

U = const

x1
x2

MU x1
MU x2

MRS. ,
MRS .

3. .
, ,
:
, .
.
, N ,
(, , ..), .
, ,

. ,
N :

p1

p
p= 2
M

pN
,
. , ( ,
) :

p1 , p2 ,..., p N = const .
, ,
. I ,
, I = const .
.
x X ,
:

p x = p1 x1 + p2 x2 + ... + p N xN I .
BP ,I = { x R+ : p x I }
N

, , p
I .
x BP ,I .
. 1.7 N = 2
.
.
,

x2


I .
:

p1 x1 + p2 x2 = I

,

BP,I

. 1.7

, x2 x1 :

I
p1

x1

(1.19) x2 =

I
p
1 x1
p2 p2

1.19 ,

(1.20) tg =

p1
p
, tg = 1 .
p2
p2

, ,
. .
.
, .

x1 , x2 . -, ,
. ,
.

pn > 0, n = 1,2 ,..., N .


-, , . ,
, ,
. .
, ,
. -, , .
, I > 0 ,
. ,
, xn = 0 n = 1,..., N . -, ,
, x y BP ,I ,
z = x + ( 1 ) y ,

(1.21) [0,1] , BP ,I .

2.


.
1. .
, ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
, ,
(MRS)
( ):

, , , .
,
, - .
:

X = R+N .

, , . ,
,
, xi > 0 i .
:

max U (x1, x2, , xn) ,


(2.1)

Xi

p1x1 + + pnxn = I
, , ,
. :

(2.2)

L = U ( x , x ,..., x ) ( p x
1

+ p2 x2 + ... + pn xn I )

( )
:

L U ( x1 ,..., xn )
=
p1 = 0
x1
x1
L U ( x1 ,..., xn )
=
p2 = 0
x2
x2

(2.3)

L U ( x1 ,..., xn )
=
pn = 0
xn
xn

L
= I p1 x1 p2 x2 ... pn xn = 0

, x1 , x2 ,..., xn ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .

(2.4)

U x1 p1
=
U x2 p2

, (2.4)

MU 1
, , .
MU 2
:

(2.5)

MU1
p
= MRS = 1 .
MU 2
p2

(2.5),
:

(2.6)

U xi
p
= i ,
U x j p j

(2.7) MRS X j X i =

pi
.
pj

, :

.
.

, .
- . ,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
.

x1* = d1 ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , I )

x2* = d 2 ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , I )

(2.8)

xn* = d n ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , I )

d1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) = 0 d1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) = d1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I )


d 2 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) = 0 d 2 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) = d 2 ( p1 ,..., pn , I )
(2.9)

d n ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) = 0 d n ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) = d n ( p1 ,..., pn , I )

p1 ,..., pn , I > 0 > 0.


,
, ,
, .
. -:

k, a, b = const k, a, b >0.

:
a
b
max (k x1 x2 ) ,
x1 , x 2

p1 x1 + p2 x2 = I
,
. :

MRS =

U x1 p1
=
U x2 p2

p1 x1 + p2 x2 = I
x1 x2,
:

a
)I
(2.10)
*
a
+
b
;
X1 =
p1
(

b
)I
*
a
+
b
X2 =
p2
(

, -
, , ,
. ,

a
b
, :
a+b
a+b

, .
. ,

, .
:

(2.11)

U max = U ( x1* , x2* ,..., xn* ) = U [d1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ),..., d n ( p1 ,..., pn , I )] =


= V ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , I ).

,
( ) ,
.
: V ( p1 ,...,

pn , I ) .

2.
.


( )
( ). , ,
,
. .
, ,
.
.

,
.
U ( x1 ,..., xn ) = U > U (0,...,0) = 0 .
,
, , xi > 0 i .
U :
min ( p1 x1 + p2 x2 + ... + pn xn ) ,

x1 ,..., xn

(2.12)

U ( x1 ,..., xn ) =

, ,
.
. :

(2.13)

L=

p1 x1 + p2 x2 + ... + pn xn (U ( x1 ,..., xn ) U )

( )
:

U ( x1 ,..., xn )
L
= p1
=0
x1
x1
U ( x1 ,..., xn )
L
= p2
=0
x2
x2
(2.14)

U ( x1 ,..., xn )
L
=0
= pn
xn
xn

L
= U U ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0

, p1 ,..., pn , U = const . ,
*

x1 , x2 ,..., xn , ,
,
, U .
,
.
, .
,
:

pi U xi
= MRS j i
=
p j U x j

(2.15)

,
.
.

,
. ,
.
, .

x1* = h1 ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , U )
x2* = h2 ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , U )
(2.16)

M
xn* = hn ( p1 , p2 ,..., pn , U )

1,, n,
, , . , ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, .

:

h1 ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) = 0 h1 ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) = h1 ( p1 ,..., pn , U )


(2.17)

hn ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) = 0 hn ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) = hn ( p1 ,..., pn , U )

p1 ,..., pn , U > 0 > 0


, ,

.

U : ,
.
.

, ,
.
:

Emin = p1 x1* + ... + pn x*n = p1 h1 ( p1 ,..., pn ,U ) +


(2.18) + ... + pn hn ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) = E ( p1 ,..., pn , U )

pi > 0, i = 1,..., n, U > U (0,...,0).


*

( x1 ,..., xn ) .
, E ( p1 ,..., pn , U )
, ,
, .
, 1 :

(2.19)

E ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) = p1 x1* + ... + pn xn* = E ( p1 ,..., pn , U )


p1 ,..., pn , U > 0 > 0.

.
.

1. x = ( x1 ,..., xn )
*

I > 0 , x
*

, U ( x1 ,..., xn ) . ,
I
.
2.

x * = ( x1* ,..., xn* )


*

U > 0, x
*

, I = p1 x1 + ... + pn xn .
, U
.

,
, :

p1 ,..., pn > 0, I > 0 U > 0


(2.20) E ( p1 ,..., pn ,V ( p1 ,..., pn , I )) I
(2.21) V ( p1 ,..., pn , E ( p1 ,..., pn ,U )) U
(2.22) d i ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) hi ( p1 ,..., pn ,V ( p1 ,..., pn , I ))
(2.23) hi ( p1 ,..., pn ,U ) d i ( p1 ,..., pn , E ( p1 ,..., pn ,U )).
3. .
, . ,

x2

()

.
,

. , ,

, , ,
- .

X
*


. 2.1

*
1

x1

. 2.1.

, (
) ( ).
, . 2.1 .
. ,
, ,

x2

, ,
. ,

U1

U2

, .
,

U3

:
, ,
.

x1

x2

. 2.2.

. 2.1:

( x1* , x2* )

M,

x = ( x ,0) .
*

*
1

U1

U2

U3

,
,

. 2.3.

X1 =

I
P1

x1

( x2 > 0) ,

, M. ,
U 3 .

(2.24)

p1
< MRS 2 1 ( x1* , x2* )
p2

( ).

,
, ,
.
:

(2.25) U ( x1 , x2 ) = a x1 + b x2 , a > 0, b > 0; a, b = const


MRS =

a
,
b

, MRS ,

, , .
. 2.4 .

:

max U ( x1 , x2 ) = max (a x1 + b x2 ) ,
(2.26)

x1 , x 2

x1 , x 2

p1 x1 + p2 x2 = I
,

x2

, 1.
=

a
=tg()
b

U3

X *2

, ,

U2

,
,

U1

X
. 2.4.

x1

*
1

, .2.3, ,
. . 2.3 ,
: x1 =
*

I
; x2* = 0. ,
p1

, , ,
, .
, 1
:

(2.27)

x1* =

I
a p
, > 1
p1
b p2

I
a p
x1* 0; , = 1
b p2
p1

x1* = 0,

a p1
<
b p2

: MRS >

MRS =

p1
(
p2

a
), .
b

( ). ,

.
, ,
. , ,
.

.
. (. . 2.4) .
,

. , :

(2.28)

RS =

x2
x1

U=const

0
=0
x1

(2.29) U ( x1 , x2 ) = min{ax1 , bx2 }, a, b > 0, a, b = const


min ,
. .
a x1 < b x2 , U ( x1 , x2 ) = a x1 .
.

a x1 > b x2 , U ( x1 , x2 ) = b x2 .
. , , ,

a x1 = b x2 , U ( x1 , x2 ) = a x1 = b x2 . .
,

(2.30)

x2 a
= .
x1 b

, ,
.
, .

:

maxU ( x1 , x2 ) = max (min{ax1 , bx2 })


(2.31)

x1 , x 2

x1 , x 2

p1 x1 + p2 x2 = I

, , 1,
.
*

. 2.4. ( x1 , x2 ) ,
,

a
, ,
b

. . 2.4 . ,
,
, .

3.

.
1. .
- . ,

.
( ) .
. 3.1() .
I 1 ( )
'

1, x1 . I 2 ,
.
''

2 x1 . ,
( I 3 ),
'''

, 3, x1
. 1, 2 3 ,
-.
-
. - ( x1 , x2 ) ,

.
. 3.1()

'

''

'''

. x1 , x1 x1
.

x2

I3
p2

I2
p2

:
3

(3.1)

I1
p2

x1
x
> 0; 2 > 0
I
I

3.1(),
,

x 1 x 1

x 1

x1
. 3.1()

I3

(. 3.1())
.

I2

, 1%

I1

2 1%
.
,

x 1

x 1 x 1

. 3.1()

x1

1%. ,
, ,

. 2 , :

(3.2)

2 x2
>0
I 2

(. . 3.1()) 1 .
:

(3.3)

2 x1
<0
I 2

- , . 3.2.
.
( ,
). . 3.2 ,
.
, , ,

x1
<0
I

(3.4)

. 3.3

x2

,
4

U4

U3

2
1

U2
U1

x1

. 3.2.

I0 ,

, , .
- ,
.

2,

) 2
(. . 3.4);
) 2 ,
2 1. ( 2)
:

(3.5)

U ( x1 , x2 ) = ( x1 ) + x2

, 1

x2

.

1 ,

I0

x2
> 0 (. . 3.7).
I

x2 = k3 - (x1)

, -

x2 = k2 - (x1)

x2 = k1 - (x1x)

. 3.3.
. 3.4.

x1
= 0 ,
I

x1

. ,
- .
- .

, , p2 = const ,

I = const . , 1 : p1 > p1 > p1 . ,


( ). : x1 < x1 < x1 .
, , ,
.

(3.6)

x1
<0
p1

. 3.9() ,
.
'

1, x1 .
(2) ,
''

U 2 . 2, x1

. p1
'''

(3), 3, x1

. 1,2 3 , -.

x2

x2

I0

x1

x1

. 3.5.

U3

. 3.7()

U2
1

U1
. 3.7()

P1

x1

. 3.6.

x1

x1' , x1'' , x1''' .

3.9()

: p1 , p1, p1 . ,

p1

p1

p1

( x1 , x2 ) ,
1

x1

x1

x1


. 3.7()

x1

2.

(
). ,
.

2. .

; (
), ,

,
.

x2

X *2

X *2*

1
U2

U1

X 1*

1
X '1

X *1*

x1
. 3.8.

(
). ,
,
() . ,
, ,
, .
.

. 1 2,
. 3.8, .
, .
, :
, ,
. , ,
.
, 1, ,
, . ,
, .

1 2,
, :

(3.8)

x1 = x1 x1

( 1
1) ( 1 2).
,
(, )
2 , U1.

( , 2).
.
,
, :

(3.9)

x1

= x1' x1


, :

(3.10)

x1

= x1 x1'

() ( 3, 1),
, , . ,
1, ,
, ,
.
( ) ,
p1 . .
3.2 (). (, U 1 )

p1 . p1 , ,
.
, ,
U 1 . ,
: ,
.
:

, , ,
.
p 2 = const p1 > p1 > p1 , 1- :
'

''

'''

x1' < x1'' < x1''' . , ,


,
1- .

3. .
(1915 .)

(3.11) x1 = h1 ( p1 , p2 ,U ) =

E ( p1 , p2 ,U )
p1

.
( )

. ,
2 , .
.

x1 = h1 ( p1 , p 2 ,U ) 1.
E ( p1 , p 2 ,U ) p1 > 0 ,
.

1

. ,
:

(3.12) x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I )
2

(3.13) h1 ( p1 ,..., pn ,U )
:

(3.14) E ( p1 ,..., pn ,U )


. ,
:

(3.15) E ( p1 ,..., pn ,V ( p1 ,..., pn , I )) I


(3.16) h1 ( p1 ,..., pn ,U ) x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , E ( p1 ,..., pn ,U ))
(3.32) p1 , , p1
:

(3.17)

h1 ( p1 ,..., pn ,U ) x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , E ( p1 ,..., pn ,U ))


=
+
p1
p1
+

x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , E ( p1 ,..., pn , U )) E ( p1 ,..., pn , U )

E
p1

(3.31), (3.33) :

(3.18)

h1 ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) E ( p1 ,..., pn , U )


=
+

p1
p1
I
p1

(3.27) (3.34),
:

(3.19)

x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I ) h1 ( p1 ,..., pn , U ) x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I )


=

x1
p1
p1
I

(3.20)

x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I )
p1


. ,
. .

(3.21)

h1 ( p1 ,..., pn , U )
p1


. ,
, ,
. ,

(3.22)

x1 ( p1 ,..., pn , I )
x1
I

, .

:

1
1
(3.23) p = p
1
1

comp

x1
x1
I

,
.

4.

. .
1. .
, ,

(. 4-1).

P
(

, ..

D ()


, . 4.2.
,

D
Q
(
)

. 4-1

P
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

d1

2 4 6 8 10

P
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1


. ,

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

d2

2 4 6 8 10

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

. 4-2

, . ,
: , , ;
, , .

.
P

D1

D2
D2

D1
. 4-3

(Q)

. 4-4

(Q)


: 1) ()

.
; 2)
(. 4.3), (.
4.4). , ,

. :
; ;
; ; .

P
D2

D1

D1

D2

D1

D2
D2

D1

. 4-5
P

P
D2

D1

D1

D2

D1

D2

D2


D1

. 4-6
, , ,

. , , .

. X Y
(, ), Y
X X , ,
X . Y , X
. (, )
: Y X ,
Y X .
, ,
. , .
.
.
, , , , ,

x2
. ,
. ,

,
2

U1

.3.7(a)

P1

, ,
x1

. , ,

p1

, (, ,

p1

).
,

p1

x 1

x1

x1

, ,

x1

. 3.7()

, . ,

, , , ,
, .
, ,
. , .
, , .

2. .

( ) ,

p
d

(4.1)

E pd =

Q Q Q P
=
,
P P P Q

Q ; P .
() .
, , ,

Q
Q
,
< 0.
P
P
. ,


.
(4.1)
.
,
:

(4.2)

E pd =

Q P
,
P Q


. ,
.
,
, ,
:

(4.3)

P1 + P2

Q
E pd =
2 ,
P Q1 + Q2
2
P1 ;
P2 ;
Q1 ;
Q2 .

,
. (, 2%
4%, ). , < E pd < 1.
,
. (, 3%
1%). , 1 < E pd < 0.
,
, .. E pd = 1.
,
. ,
, , .
.
,
, , , Q = 0.

,
, .
.
, ,
, ,
.
. , E pd .

. ,
, .
. ,
:
.
. ,
, :

(4.4)

a
b
a
2b

Q = a b P,
N

..

, a, b > 0;
E pd = 1

a
2

a, b

. 4-5

. 4.5.
,
,

0.
, E pd = 1,

a a
; , .. [NK]. L.
2 2b

[NL) ;
(LK] .

(4.5)

Q = a p b , a > 0, b < 0

b. ,
:

. R Q,
P :

(4.6)

R = QP

41

3. .

x y :

(4.7)

Qx
100%
Qx Py
Qx
dx
=

EPy =
Py
Py Qx
100%
Py

EPdxy , ;
Qx = Q1x1 X ;
Px = Py1 Y ;

Qx = Qx2 Q1x X ,

Y (Qx2 X Y );
Py = Py2 Py1 Y ( Py2 ).

,
(4.7) :

(4.8)

Qx Py Qx Py
=

EPdxy = lim

Py 0 P
y Qx Py Qx

,
X Y .

,
(4.7). .

:
Py1 + Py2

(4.9)

EPdxy =

Qx2 Q1x
12 2.
2
1
Py Py Qx + Qx
2

dx
, EPy
> 0.


, .
: ,
, ..
, .
,

1%- .
:

(4.10)

Q
100%
Q I
Q
d
EI =
=
,
I

I
Q
100%
I

I = I1 ;
I = I 2 I1 ( I 2 ).


, .

, :

(4.11)

I1 + I 2
Q
E =
2 ,
I Q1 + Q2
2
d
I


:
Q I Q I
=

I Q I Q

d
(4.12) EI = lim

I 0

.
, ( )
.

. ,
.
,
(, ).

. ,
.
1.
: 0 < EId < 1.
2. :
EId > 1.

II.

5.

1. .

.
,
. .
,

. ,
,
. .
, ,
. ,
,
.
( ), .
()

,
.

,

(5.1)

y = f ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ),

y , ;
x1 ;
x2 ;
xn n ;

n (),

.
,
. ,
, .. . ,
. , ,
, .
,


.
(5.1) ,
.
, (5.1) .
,
.

.
,
.
,
.

(5.2)

f (0, x2 ,..., xn ) = f ( x1 , 0, x3 ,..., xn ) = ... =


= f ( x1 ,..., xn 2 , 0, xn ) = f ( x1 ,..., xn 1 , 0) = 0

, .

(5.3)

f ( x1 ,..., xn )
> 0 i = 1,..., n,
xi

.. .
,
. ,

f ( x1 ,..., xn )

. , ,
.

r
f , S , , f ( x ) t
r
f ( x ) t ,
r
r
f ( x + (1 ) x ) t t R,
(5.4) r r
x , x S [0,1].

(5.5)

r r
r
r
f ( x + (1 ) x ) > t , x x (0,1),
, .

, -
, .
,

, ..
.
,

, ..
.
() ,

.
, .
,

( ) ,
( ) . ,
, .
,

.
, ;
.

2. .
,
( L).
. ( y )
( L) :

(5.6)

y = f ( L)


() ( )
TPL . ,
.

. ,
APL , ( L) :

(5.7)

APL =

y
TP
, APL = L .
L
L


.
( MPL ) ,
.
:

(5.8)

MPL =

y
,
L

y ( ); L
.
8, 800 1500 , 1
,
:

(5.9)

y ( L) dy ( L)
=
L 0 L
dL

MPL = lim

). XIX ,
. ,
,
(, ),
,
, .
, ,
.
,

,
. , , ..
( ) .
,
(, )
.

(.. ),
.
, .

, ,
. . 51 ,
. :


(y)

TPL
y

**

y*

y1

L**

L*

. 51

-

(L)

APL
MPL

L*

L**

. 51

-

(L)

,
, , L .
, ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
,
.

,
. , ,
. , . 51
, ,

y1
, ..
L1

L1.
,
, ,
. (. 51), L
, y .
y

, .

,
MPL ,
.
,
. , , ,
; .
L .
.

.
, .
, .
. ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, ( ).

(. . 51).

3. .

;
. y
:

y = f ( x1 ,..., xn ).

, n, ,
.

.
,
( x1 , x2 ). . . 52.

x2

y3=200
y2=150
y1=100
. 52

x1

(x1 x2 ),
, , y1.
: f ( x1 , x2 ) = y1.
.

1.

, .

.

2.
3.

.
y = f ( x1 , x2 )
r
x , , (
- ) ,
.

4.

5.

- ,
( ) .

MRTS (
).
y = f ( x1 , x2 ),
,
, 1
, .
RTS1,2 =

(5.10)

x2
x1

y = y fix

x1 0
x
dx
MRTS1,2 = lim 2 = 2
x1 0
dx1
x1

(5.11)

MRTS

y = y fix

, y , (..

).

y = f ( x1 , x2 ) :
f ( x)

f ( x)

(5.12) dy = x dx1 + x dx2 = 0.


1
2
:

(5.13)

f ( x)
f ( x)
dx1 =
dx2
x1
x2
f ( x) x

dx

MP

1
2
1
(5.14) f ( x) x = dx MRTS = MP
2
1
2

, ,

, .

.
n

() .
n n ,
. ,
n , ,
, , .


.
. ,
. , ,
, ..
.

. ,
f ( x1 ,..., xn ),

( x1 ,..., xn ) 0,

t , s > 0 :

(5.15)

f ( s x1 ,..., s xn ) = s t f ( x1 ,..., xn )

t ,
s s t . t = 1,
.

. t > 1,
. t < 1,
.
,

. 3
. -
1 .
.
, .
-:

(5.16) y ( x1 , x2 ) = A x1 x2 , A, , > 0
.
:

(5.17)

f ( s x1 , s x2 ) = ( s x1 ) ( s x2 ) = s + A x1 x2 = s + f ( x1 , x2 )

, + < 1, ; + = 1,
; + > 1,
.
.
:

(5.18) y ( x1 , x2 ) = ax1 + bx2 , a > 0 b > 0


:

(5.19) ax1 + bx2 = const


(5.20) x2 =

const a
x1
b
b

56. ,
:

(5.21)

m > 0

f (mx1 , mx2 ) = a mx1 + b mx2 = m(ax1 + bx2 ) = m f ( x1 , x2 )

,
.
,

(5.22)

MRTS = const =

a
b

MRTS 0 .
: , ,
,

, .. , .
, ,
.

(5.23) y = min{ax1 , bx2 }, a > 0, b > 0.


ax1 < bx2 , y = ax1 =

y
x1
x1

, 2- , .
ax1 > bx2 , y = bx2 =

y
x2
x2

, 1- .
ax1 = bx2 , y = ax1 = bx2
.
,
x2 a
= . ,
x1 b
.

x2

x2

y3
=

y2
tg =

y1

a
b

. 53

x1

x2

y2

x2

y1
x1

x2

a
b

x1

. 54
a b , .

(5.23),
, :

(5.24)

f (mx1 , mx2 ) = min{a mx1 , b mx2 } = m min{ax1 , bx2 } = m f ( x1 , x2 ) m > 0

6.

1. .

.

( ) .
, () .
() ,

, , ..
. ,
, , , , ..

. ,
,
,
, .. ,
, ,
.
,
.. , .
, ,
(.. ) ( )
, .

() , ,
. , ,
, ,
,
. () ,
, () .

() ,

, . ,

. ,

.
.
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
. ,

,
.
, ,
, .

2. .

; .
; .
, ,
. ,
. , .

. .
, , ,
.
, .. ,
.. ,
. ,
, , ..
( ) ,

. ,
, .
x1 , x2 ,..., xn , w1 , w2 ,..., wn
, . y ,
, C .
, w1 ,..., wn > 0 C > 0. ,
f ( x1 ,..., xn ), ,
.

f ( x1 ,..., xn ) = y,

y = const.

f (0,..., 0) < y.

, , , , .. x1 ,..., xn > 0.

:
(6.1)

min w1 x1 + ... + wn xn ,

x1 ,..., xn

f ( x1 ,..., xn ) = y.

, .
:
(6.2)

L = w1 x1 + ... + wn xn ( f ( x1 ,..., xn ) y ) min


:
f ( x1 ,..., xn )
L
= w1
=0
x1
x1
f ( x1 ,..., xn )
L
= w2
=0
x2
x2
(6.3)

M
f ( x1 ,..., xn )
L
= wn
=0
xn
xn
L
= f ( x1 ,..., xn ) y = 0

(6.9),
:
(6.4)

f ( x1 , x2 )
=

w1

x1

f ( x1 , x2 )
=

x2

w2

, 1 . ,

. , (.. )

,
.

f ( x1 , x2 )
(6.5)

f ( x1 , x2 )

x1

x2

w1
MP1 ( x1 , x2 ) w1
, ..
=
MP2 ( x1 , x2 ) w2
w2

(6.6) , MRTS21 =

w1
, .
w2

(6.9), :
(6.7)

f
wi
xi MPi
=
=
= MRTS j i
w j f
MPj
x j

(conditional) .

1- 2- ,
:
(6.8)

x1 = h1 ( w1 ,..., wn , y )
x2 = h2 ( w1 ,..., wn , y )


, .
.
, , ,
.
.

,
. .
, ,
,
:
(6.9)

C ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) = w1 x1 + ... + wn xn = w1h1 ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) + ... + wn hn ( w1 ,..., wn , y )

w1 ,..., wn > 0 y > f (0,..., 0).

, xi xi , i = 1,..., n, C = w1 x1 + ... + wn xn
.
(6.9) , , , .
.
:

(6.10)

AC ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) =

C ( w1 ,..., wn )
y

,
. .
:
(6.11)

MC ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) =

C ( w1 ,..., wn )
y

,
.
(6.9), (6.10) (6.11)
. , > 0
(6.12)

C ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) = w1 x1 + ... + wn xn = C ( w1 ,..., wn , y ).

(6.13)

AC ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) =

(6.14)

MC ( w1 ,..., wn , y ) =

C ( w1 ,..., wn )
y

= AC ( w1 ,..., wn , y )

C ( w1 ,..., wn )
= MC ( w1 ,..., wn , y )
y

.
,
: , . ,
,
.
,
. , ,
. ,
. ,
. , :
C ( y ), AC ( y ), MC ( y ). .

, .
,
,
.
, , .
:
(6.15)

y = f ( x1 ,..., xn ) y

:
(6.16)

C ( y ) = w1 x1 ( y ) + ... + wn xn ( y )

(6.17)

LAC ( y ) =

C ( y)
y

, (6.15) t ,
m .
:
(6.18)

ym = f (m x1 ,..., m xn ) = mt f ( x1 ,..., xn ) = mt y

, m :
(6.19)

C ( ym ) = w1 (m x1 ) + ... + wn (m xn ) = m [ w1 x1 + ... + wn xn ] = m C ( y )

:
(6.20)

LAC ( ym ) =

C ( ym ) m C ( y ) m
=
= t LAC ( y )
ym
mt y
m

C(y)

t >1

. ,

(6.20)

LAC ( ym ) < LAC ( y ), ..

. . 6.1-

,
.
. 6.1-

LAC
LMC

t =1

, ,
LAC ( ym ) = LAC ( y ).

LMC(y)

y. 0 < t < 1

LAC(y)

.
,

(6.20)

LAC ( ym ) > LAC ( y ),

..

.
. 6.4-

. 6.1-

. ,

, .. ,
.
, .. .

, .
LMC
. , LAC
, , LAC .
LMC LAC . ,

:
(6.21)

LMC (1) =

C C (1) C (0) C (1)


=
=
= LAC (1)
y
1 0
1

C (0) = 0, .
,
LMC. C ( y ) ,
.
, .

3. .
, .

,
( ) ,
( ) . ,
, .
FC ,

. . , ,
,
: 100 , 1000
, .
, ,
(. . 6.2).

VC ( y ) ,

TC(y)


(. . 6.2).
.

VC(y)

FC

. 6.2

(,

). ,
, .
,
.
(, ) TC ( y )
: TC ( y ) = FC + VC ( y ). ( MC )

MC
(.)

.
MC =

MC(y)

TC
y

TC

()

()

.
,
,

. 6.3

(.)

:
(6.22)

TC ( y ) dTC
=
y 0
y
dy

MC = lim

,

. ,
:

(6.23)

MC =

VC ( y )
dVC
, MC ( y ) =
Q
dy

,
,
.
. ,
.

: , , .
, , MC ;
, MC .
( AC ) .

:
(6.24)

AC ( y ) =

TC ( y )
y

AFC
(./.)

( AFC )


( FC )
( y ) :

AFC(y)

(6.25)

AFC ( y ) =

FC
y

FC ,

y ,
,
. 6.4.
. 6.4

y
(.)

: ,
.
,
.
( AVC )
(VC ) y :
(6.26)

AVC ( y ) =

VC ( y )
y

6.5,

AVC
MC
(./.)


:
,

MC(y)

.
,

AVC(y)

.
,

. 6.5

y
(.)

, :
(6.27)

MC (1) =

TC (1) TC (0) VC (1) + FC VC (0) FC VC (1)


=
=
= AVC (1).
1 0
1
1

,
AC,
AFC,
AVC

AC,
AVC,
MC

AC(y)

MC(y)

AVC(y)

AC(y)

AVC(y)

AFC(y)
y

. 6.7
. 6.6
, ,

. ,
(6.28)

AC ( y ) =

TC ( y ) FC + VC ( y )
=
= AFC ( y ) + AVC ( y ).
y
y

7.


.
1. .
,

,
.
, , 1%.
(
), , .. ,
, ,
, . ,
, ;
.
P

P(Q)

P=const

D
(q)
(Q)
. 7.1-
. 7.1-
,

. ,
. ,
, ,
, ;
. ,
, .

. ,


; .
. ,
. ,
. . ,
, ,
, .
, . , , ,
Q.
,

, , ..
. ,
, . ,
.
.
( P), ,
:
(7.1) TR(Q) = P Q.
(7.2)

(Q) = TR (Q ) TC (Q),

(Q) ;
TC (Q) ;

, , Q,
.
MR(Q) ,

. :
(7.4)

MR(Q) =

TR(Q)
,
Q

, , ..
, .
, ,
,
.
(7.5)

MR =

TR TRi TRi 1 P Qi P Qi 1 P (Qi Qi 1 )


=
=
=
= P.
Qi Qi 1
Qi Qi 1
Qi Qi 1
Q

(7.6)

max (TR(Q) TC (Q) ) Q > 0,

(7.7)

max ( p Q TC (Q) ) Q > 0.

(7.8)

d
dTC
= p
=0
dQ
dQ

6,
. :
(7.9)

p = MC (Q ), MR = MC (Q ),

Q .
, ,
, ,
.
, Q , ,
:
(7.10)

d 2
dQ 2

(7.11)

p TC (Q ) < 0

(7.12)

TC (Q ) < 0, TC (Q ) > 0

Q = Q

<0

P,
MC

MC(Q)
d: P = MR

P1

Q1

Q2
Q
. 7.2
:

P,
MC

P2

:
d3

Q1 Q2 . ,

d2

p1
. Q1

d1

P1

7.2

MC(Q)

P3

, Q2
.

2.
. 7.3

Q1

Q2

Q3


,
.
, ?
. 7.3. p1.
, Q1 . ,
p2 . Q1
? , p2 MC (Q1 ). , ,
. p2
Q2 .
MC
, ,
.
, ( AC )
, , ,

.
,
.
, , ,
. . 7.4.

Q P , , AB
. ABCD
.
, , ?
:
.
. 7.4 , .
,

AC(Q)

BE
A

P = MR

AVC(Q)
F

AFC. , . 7.4

AC

AVC

MC(Q)
C

CBEF


. 7.4

Q*

,
,

.. CBEF. Q
, , . 7.4
ABCD. ,
.
,
P,MC,
AC, AVC


AVC.
MC(Q)

S: = P(Q) AC(Q)


, ,
. ,

AVC(Q)

. 7.5

. 7.5.
P(Q) , ,
.


P,LMC,
LAC

, :

( )
LMC(Q)

LAC(Q)

, -,
.
. 7.6

LTC (Q), LAC (Q) LMC (Q).


:
(7.13)

p = LMC (Q )

(7.14)

dLMC
>0
dQ

,
, ..
.
,
LMC , LAC ,
. 7.6.

3. .
,
.
.
1. , ,
,
.
2. , ,
,
.
, .
, .

3. ,
, .

,

. ,
. ,
, .
m .
j :
(7.15)

q j ( p ), j = 1,..., m.

:
m

(7.16)

Q( p) = q j ( p)
j =1

,
,
,
.
,
.
(.. ),
, .

EPS , :
(7.17)

EPS =

dQ P

dP Q

:
(7.18)

EPS =

Q2 Q1 p1 + p2

,
p2 p1 Q1 + Q2

p1 ;
p2 ( );
Q1 , p1 ;
Q2 p2 .
,
: 0 EPS < . , ,
, .. 0 < EPS < 1.

,
, .. 1 < EPS < .
, 1%-
1% (, 3% 10% 25%).
( EPS = 1),
. 1%-
1%.
, ,
, .
(P > 0 P < 0),
(Q = 0).
, ( )
. .
. ,
, : P0
Q1 , Q2 , Q3 .
: EPS . ,
, ,
; ,
, ;
( ),
.
, , ,
, ,
. x
x
() . :
, . ,
. , ,
,
, .

S2

S1
S2

S1
(
)

. 7.7

(Q)

. 7.8

(Q)

, , ,
. : ( , ,
), ;
; ; ;
, ;
.
. , ,
,
,
. ,
, .
. ,
,
.
(. . 7.7). , ,
(. . 7.8).

. () ,
, .
T , , , . ,
1000000 . .
, ,
. ,
, T
. , .

, , .
. ()
t. t = 5 ., ,
5 .
, :
(7.19) T = t Q, t = const

:
(7.20) (Q) = p Q TC (Q) t Q

:
(7.21)

d
= p TC (Q) t = 0
dQ

(7.22)

P = MC (Q ) + t

,
MC1 MC2 = MC1 + t.
,
. Q1 Q2 ,
.
,
.
, . ,
, ,
.
, .

III.

8.

1.
.
1 x :
n

(8.1)

Qxd ( px ) = xi ( px ),
i =1

Qxd x, ;
px ;
xi ( px ) x i ;
n , .

3 x
:
m

(8.2)

Qxs ( px ) = q j ( px ),
j =1

Qxs x, ;
px ;
q j ( px ) x j ;
m .


:
(8.3)
(8.4)

Qxd ( px ) = Qxs ( px ),
n

i =1

j =1

xi ( px ) = q j ( px )

D
()

P
(

S
(
)

, ,
, ,
.

P*

(. 81),

. 8-1
P

Q*

Q
(
)

.

P

P1
P*

6=P*
3

Qs

Q*

Qd

. 8-2

Qd

Q*

Qs

. 8-3

, . .
82. , p = 3 (Qd > Qs )

. ,
, , .
.
,
, . ,
, .
, Qs . ,
: p = 6.

D0

(a)

D1

E1

P1
PE

PE
P1

(c)

D0

(b)

D0

E2

Q2 QE

S0

E1

QE Q1

D1

S1

PE
P2

QE Q1

P2
PE

(d)

Q
S2
S0

E2
E

Q2 QE

) ; b) ;
) ; d)
. 8-4

(Qd < Qs ).
, . (. . 83).
,
, . , ,
, .
, , ,
, .

. (. 84): D0
, D1 , PE QE .
( D0 ,
D1 : . 84) PE QE .
( S0 ,
S1 : . 8 4) PE , QE
. (

S0 , S2 : . 84d) PE , Q E
. D
S PE QE -.

2. .

CS

P*

CS .

PS

(. 8

Q*

5). ,

. 8-5

..

, , .
,
(. 85). PS .

SW .
,

,
.

,
,
P0
A

( ), PMAX < PE ( PE
) PMAX .

Pmax

, ,
Q1

Q0
. 8-6

Q2

. PMAX
.
-
. ,
,
, , .
. 86 .
Q0 Q1. , ,
,

A. .

B.
, , A B.
? , -
Q1 , .
, A.
. , .
, : A C.
, ..
:
(8.5)

SW = CS + PS = A B A C = B C

,
. 86. ,
.
, ,
, .

.

P
S

. 87, Pmin

Pmin

P0

Q2 ,

- Q3 , Q2 Q3

.
D

Q3

Q0
. 8-7

Q2

,
(. 87).
. . 87
. , :

(8.6)

CS = A B

,
, . 87 .
Q0 Q3 ,
C . ,
Q0 Q2 .
pmin Q3 , ,
Q2 Q3 , .
, .
. . 87
D. ,
, :
(8.7)

PS = A C D

:
(8.8)

SW = CS + PS = A B + A C D = B C D

,

.

3. .
.
, ,

.
, .
, ( P),
( LMC ).
, ,
.
, .
, ,
. , , .

,
.
,
( LACmin ).
, , LACmin ,
, P < LACmin , . ,
:
.

, ,
, .
,
,
.
, ,
.
, . ,
,
. ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
C ( y ). ,
, y .
C ( y )
= p , ,
:

.
. 1, 2,3 4
. . 4
. MC , 4
4 , .
.
,
n ?
-, , p ,
.

,
p .
. 88.

. ,

.
,
..
P

(1 )

S1

(2 )

S2
A

( ).

(3 )

S3
S4 (4 )

P*

,
y

. 8-8

,
,

.
?
p, y. n ,
p, y, n y.
,
n, .. ,
.
(

0 ,
(. . 8
*

SLR

SLR
:
P*=minLAC.
. 8-9

9).

,
.
,


. , ,

9.

1. .
, ,

. .
,
, .
,
, .
, .. , .
,
.
:
.
- ,
, . ,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.

,
. ,
- .
,
, : ,
, ;
- ,
(, De Beers ,
90% );

,
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, .

, ,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
( ), , ,
, .
- ,
, . ,
.
. .
, .
(),
. ,
, , . , , ,
, ,
.

2. .

p( y ) . ,
y :

(9.1)

TR( y ) = p( y ) y

:
max ( y ), ,

(9.2)

max [ p( y ) y c( y ) ]
y

(9.3)
(9.4)

p ( y ) + p( y ) y = c( y )
( ).
2 p( y ) + p( y ) y c( y ) < 0
( ).

(9.3) , ,
, :

(9.5)

MR( y ) = MC ( y )

,
TR dTR
=
= MR( y );
y
dy

(9.6)

y 0

(9.7)

MC ( y ) = lim

lim

y 0

TC dTC
=
.
y
dy

,
(
, ).
. ,
.
. :

(9.8)

MR( y ) = p( y ) + p( y ) y

, p( y ) < 0.
(9.8) ,

(9.9)

MR( y ) < p( y ) y > 0

( )
, (9.8).

(9.8), :

(9.10)

dp y
1
MR( y ) = TR( y ) = p( y ) + p( y ) y = p( y ) 1 +
= p ( y ) 1 + d
,

E p ( y )
dy p( y )
E pd ( y ) ,
.

(9.11)

1
p ( y ) 1 + d
= MC ( y )
E p ( y )

, E pd ( y ) < 0, .
, E pd < 1,
: 1 < E pd < 0.
1

(9.12) E d ( y ) < 1 1 + E d ( y ) < 0 MR( y ) < 0,


p
p
p( y ) > 0 . (9.11)
.
. ,
. ,

.
P



MC(y)

E pd < 1,

MR( y ) > 0,

,
. ,

P*

P(y)

,
.

MR(y)

y*

y
. 91

. 91. ,
(9.11) :

(9.13)

p( y ) =

MC ( y )
1
1+ d
E p ( y)

, ,

(E

d
p

< 1) , (9.13) , p ( y ) > MC ( y ) y.

. y x,

x, ,

y. , ,

( )
. , ,
,
. , MC
MR,
. ,
.

3. .
.


?
,

P,MR,MC

pm

( ,

MC
A

pk

). .

92

D: P(y)

: p( y ).
pm
MR
. 92

ym

yk

ym .
y


pk yk

. ,
, ..

, ( yk , pk )
( ym , pm ).
, ,
, ( ).
,
, , .
, ,
, , .
- , ,
. , pm

pk , .

, A B. ,
, , ,
, , C , -
. , , A C.
:

(9.14) SW = CS + PS = ( A B) + ( A C ) = B C
,
.
( ).
- -
,
, .

, ,
. (, ..);
, .
,
. ,
,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
.

1 , ,
, ,
, .
,
, (
), , .
,
.
,
, ,
.

, (),
pk . ,
, ( p1 ,
, ).

p kt

MC = const=C
: P(y)

MR
y

. 93

MC + t

yt

pk

P,MR,LAC,LMC

pt
p

, ,
.
.

, .
, .
, , ,
, . ,
:
. , .

,
.
,
. , ,
, .. MC
(. . 93) MC + t ,
.
,
. 93.
, , : ?

.
: MC = const = c.

(9.15)

p( y ) = a b y, (a, b > 0)

t.
MC = const ,
, . ,
2 , . , MR
2 , . .
, , - :

(9.16) y = A p b , A, b > 0
t . ,
t.
.
, , ..
, .

10.

1. .
,
- :
, Qm ,
, P (Q)
Pm (. . 10.1).
P
A

Pm
K
Pc


KPmEL
.

MC
AC

E
L

MR

P(Q)

Qm Qc

. 10.1

Pm.
( Pm > Pc , Qm < Qc ),

APm E ).

( Pm > MC (Qm ) ) price maker -


( )
.


, , .
, , ,
, .
price-maker, ..
P

MC

pc

( ).

CS

PS

q=D(p)

. 10.2

qc

(
).

,
(
,
).

(), .. .
, ()
,
, , ,
.
, .
(first-degree price discrimination),
(perfect price discrimination), ,
, .
.
(second-degree price discrimination)
, ,
, .
(third-degree price discrimination)
,
, ,
.

2. .

,
, ,
, (. .
). ,
.
,
.
,
.
, , .
T (q) = A + p q, A .
, n ,
q =

D( p )
, .
n

q = D( p) ( p(q ) = D 1 ( p ) ).
. 10.2 .
, ,
CS. , , ,
. ,
qc . ,

pc

pc = MC (qc ),

qc

CS =

(P(q) p

) dq (. . 10.2). ,

T (q) = pc q + A, A
pc . . ,
, A =

CS
CS
. , T (q) = pc q +
n
n

q > 0 ( T (q) = 0 q = 0 ), = CS + ( pc qc C (qc )).


[ ,
].
PS , , ,

SW = CS + PS = . , ,
,
; , ,

, - . ,
. , CS
.

3. .
, ,
, , n
(n 2). , ,
. ,
,
. ,
- (, , . .),
( , . .).
,
.
. , ,
, , ,
, ( A ""
B, , ).

,
.
,
,
.
, :
-

V1 (q1 ) = U1 (q1 ) + y1 V2 (q2 ) = U 2 (q2 ) + y2 ;

U 2 (q) > U1 (q) MU 2 (q ) > MU1 (q );

MC = AC = c = const.

, 2
( ), 1 (
).
i
ri = p(qi ) qi ( qi ri ). ,

1 (r1 ; q1 ), 2 (r2 ; q2 ).

(r1 ; q1 )

(r2 ; q2 ),

.
: -,
U1 (q1 ) r1 0

(10.1)

U 2 (q2 ) r2 0

(10.1) , ,
, , .
-,
(10.2)

U1 (q1 ) r1 U1 (q2 ) r2
U 2 (q2 ) r2 U 2 (q1 ) r1


( ). (10.2).
(10.1) (10.2) :
(10.3)

r1 U1 (q1 )

(10.4)

r1 U1 (q1 ) U1 (q2 ) + r2

(10.5)

r2 U 2 (q2 )

(10.6)

r2 U 2 (q2 ) U 2 (q1 ) + r1


r1 r2 . (10.3)(10.6) .
(10.3) (10.6). , (10.5) (.. r2 = U 2 (q2 )) , , (10.6)
r2 r2 U 2 (q1 ) + r1 , , U 2 (q1 ) r1.
U1 (q1 ) < U 2 (q2 ) r1 , (10.3), .
, (10.4) (.. r1 = U1 (q1 ) U1 (q2 ) + r2 ), ,
, , MU 2 (q ) > MU1 (q ), ,
.
(10.2) (10.6) ( ):
(10.7)

r1 = U1 (q1 )

(10.8)

r2 = U 2 (q2 ) U 2 (q1 ) + r1

(10.7) (10.8) ,
, (.. ),
, q2 , q1.

= (r1 cq1 ) + (r2 cq2 ),


q1 q2 . , (10.7) (10.8), :
(10.9)

= (U1 (q1 ) cq1 ) + (U 2 (q2 ) U 2 (q1 ) + U1 (q1 ) cq2 )

(10.9) q1 q2 , :
(10.10)

U1(q1 ) c + U1(q1 ) U 2 (q1 ) = 0


U 2 (q2 ) c = 0

(10) :

(10.11)

U1(q1 ) = c + (U 2 (q1 ) U1(q1 )) > c


U 2 (q2 ) = c

(.. MU 2 (q ) > MU1 (q ), U 2 (q1 ) U1(q1 ) > 0. U1(q1 ) > c).


(11) , (U1(q1 ))
MC , , .
, MC , ..
, .
:
(
, ),
-

( ) ,
- - .

(..
U 2 (q2 ) = c),

(.. U1(q1 ) > c).


,
, ,
( ),
.
, .
1. .

. .
,
( 1015 2 . 80 .,
100 , 2 . 50 .).

( )
, (,
).
, . ,
.
. ,
, .

4. .

, n , ..
n , .
, , , , ...
, n
. .
n
.
, ,
, ,
, , .
, , .

.
, , .
, , :
-

- n (n 2).

n
(1 ,..., n ).

(10.12)

dD( p)
p
dq p

=
.
dp D( p) dp q

- .

( )
( p1 ,..., pn ), pi i,

q1 = D1 ( p1 ),..., qi = Di ( pi ),..., qn = Dn ( pn ).

(10.13)

q = D ( p) =

qi =

i =1

i =1

D i ( p i ),


(10.14)

= TR TC =

i =1

p i Di ( p i ) TC ( Di ( p i )).
i =1



(10.15)

n
MRi (qi ) = MC qi .
i =1

:
(10.16)

MR = TR = ( p q) = p(q) + p(q)q = p(q)[1 + (dq / dp ) ( p / q)] = p(q ) [1 + 1/ ].

,
(10.17)

pi (qi ) [1 + 1/ i ] = MC (q ).

, i i [1; n]
:
(10.18)

pi (qi ) =

MC (q)
.
1+ 1

,
:
(10.19)

1+ 1
l
p k (q k )
=
p l (q l ) 1 + 1

10.19 , , , , ..
,
.
:
,
( ).
:
-

(50% )
, ;

, ;

, .

, ,
.

11.

1. .
.


, () ,
.
, .. . ,
( ). ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, , , , ,
, .
, ,
, , . ,
,
. ,
(. 2 ).
, ,
: ,
.
: , ,
,
.
:

(11.1) L =

P(Q ) MC (Q )
P(Q )

(11.2) 0 L < 1

0 1.
P = MC L = 0. L, .

, . 2
:

(11.3)

P (Q ) =

MC (Q )
1
1+ d
Ep


, , E pd
, .
(11.3), .
(11.3) :

(11.4) MC (Q ) = P(Q ) 1 +

E pd

(11.4) (11.1):

(11.5)

1
P(Q ) P(Q ) 1 + d
E p = 1
L=

P(Q )
E pd

. (11.5) ,

, .
, , .
. -.
-
,
, .

.
, .
,
.
,

.
- ( I HH ),
.
:

I HH = ( Si 2 ) i = 1, 2,..., n
i =1

(11.6)

n ;

Si i .
1)

I HH < 1000, .

2)

1000 < I HH < 1800 .

3)

I HH > 1800 .

, .
, . ?
, , , ,
. , , . ,
, .
, ,
. ,

.
.

2. .
,
,

( ).
,
, .
1
5% , ,
( 1%).
( ) ,

, ,

, .
:
(, , , )

, ,
.

,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, , , ,
..
, - ,
. .

,
, .

MC(Q)

P*=P(Q*)


AC(Q)

AC(Q)*

D: P(Q)
MR(Q

. 111

(11.7) (Q) = TR(Q) TC (Q),


(11.8)

d dTR dTC
=

=0
dQ dQ
dQ

(11.9)

dTR dTC
=
, MR(Q ) = MC (Q ).
dQ
dQ

LMC(Q)

PLR

LAC(Q)

D: P(Q)
MR(Q

LR

Q1

. 112

. , . 112.
D .

,
QLR
, PLR

. : , .
.
, ,
:

(11.10)

MR (Q ) = LMC (Q )
P (Q ) = LAC (Q )

P = LRACmin .

P = LRMC = LRACmin . .
,
, . ,
, .
, LRACmin , ,
, .

.
. 112 Q1 QLR

,
.
, ,
, .

.

12.

: .

1. .
,

. ,
, (,
,

),

(, ), .
, ..
.
,
. .
,
, .
,
.
,
. .

.
, , ,

. 9.
,

.
,
.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.

,
.
. .
. XX . ,

(). 30 .
, ,
. ,

(
).

P
()

Q*
. 12.1

Q
( )

. 12.1.
, p . -
(, , ),
. ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
. - , ,
.
, -
: .
,
, , ..
, .
. ,
: .

. ,

. ,
-. .

2. .
, -
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
.
c A ( x A ) A; cB ( xB ) B.

.
A :

A ( x A , xB ) = x A h ( x A + xB ) c A ( x A )
(12.1) max
X
A

B ( x A , xB ) = xB h ( x A + xB ) cB ( xB )
(12.2) max
X
B

, .
, :

(12.3)

A ( x A , xB )
= h( x A + xB ) + x A h( x A + xB ) cA ( x A ) = 0
x A
B ( x A , xB )
= h( x A + xB ) + xB h( x A + xB ) cB ( xB ) = 0
xB

(12.4)

2 i
= 2 h( x A + hB ) + h( x A + xB ) xi ci( xi ) < 0 i = A, B.
xi2

(.. , ).
(12.3) .
A , ( xB = const ),
x A :

A ( x A , xB )
= 0 h( x A + xB ) + x A h( x A + xB ) cA ( x A ) = 0
x A
x A xB ,
( ) A B :

(12.5) xA = f A ( xB ).
,
( x = const ), xB :

( x A , xB )
= 0 h( x A + xB ) + x h( x A + xB ) c ( x ) = 0
x
( )
, xB x A :

(12.6) x = f ( x ).
,

, , ,
.
,
.
,
(12.3):

h( x A + xB ) + x A h( x A + xB ) cA ( x A ) = 0
h( x A + xB ) + xB h( x A + xB ) cB ( xB ) = 0
: .

(
), .
1838 . ,
. , ,
.
,

.
,
, .
, .
, . A B.
p = h( x A + xB ), x A A; xB
B. x A xB , ,
. , :

? ,
, .
, ,
. , ,

(.. ).

, : .
, .
. ,
, , .
,
, . , ,

. .
, .
:

(12.7) q = D( p).
:

(12.8) MC1 = MC2 = AC1 = AC2 = c = const.


Di i :

D( pi ), pi < p j

(12.9)

Di ( pi , p j ) =

1
D( pi ), pi = p j
2
0, pi > p j ,

pi , i (i = 1, 2), p j , j ( j = 1, 2).
. ,
, .

( p , p ),

.
i = 1, 2 pi
i

(12.10) ( pi , p j ) ( pi , p j )

(12.11)

p1 = p2 = c.

. 3 .
,

(12.12)

p1 > p2 > c.

1 1 = 0. , 1
p1 = p2 ( E > 0 ),
D( p2 E )

(12.13) 1 = p2 E c > 0
. , ,
p1 > p2 . p1 p2 .
,

(12.14)

p1 = p2 > c

1 :
D( p1 ) ( p1 c)
(12.15) =
2
1

1 p1 E , :

(12.16) 1 = D( p1 E ) ( p1 E c)
, 1. .
, (
), ,
c.
, , c, ,

(12.17)

p1 > p2 = c

2, , - ( p2 + E ) ,
, . , 2
p2 = c, p1 > c. . , 1-, 2-,

3- . :
p1 = p2 = c.
,
. .
,
. , ,
.
,
. , . ,


. , ,

.

3. .
. (..
). , 1
y1. 2 y2
, 1.
, .. . , ,
, ,
. :

(12.18)

p(Y ) = p( y1 + y2 ).

, .
. ,
; . , ,
: 1-
, .
: c1 ( y1 ); : c2 ( y2 ).
, ?

, , , .
, -, , ,
, , . , ,

.
:

(12.19) 2 ( y1 , y2 ) = p( y1 + y2 ) y2 c2 ( y2 ),
p( y1 + y2 ) y2 . , 2
, . , , y1 . ,
, y2
:

[ p( y1 + y2 ) y2 c2 ( y2 )]
(12.20) max
y
2

(12.21)

2
p( y1 + y2 )
= p( y1 + y2 ) +
y2 c2 ( y2 ) = 0
y2
y2

y2 y1 ,
, :

(12.22) y2 = f 2 ( y1 )
, ,
, , .
, , , 1
, , 2 . ,
1 :

[ p( y1 + f 2 ( y1 )) y1 c1 ( y1 )]
(12.23) max
y
1

1- :

(12.24)

1
= 0,
y1

p (Y ) + p(Y ) [1 + f 2( y1 ) ] y1 = c1( y1 )

(12.31) (12.34) , .
(12.34), , .
y1 y2 = f ( y1 ),
y2 , .
.
.

, , , ,
,
. , ,
, .
, , . ,
(price-maker), price-taker
( .
, :
, , ..
.
. .
, , 2 , ..
. ,
- ()
n 1 ,

. , D( p)
. 1 ( : c1 ( y1 )), 2 (c2 ( y2 )
). . , .
, , .
p1. ,
, , :

(12.25)

p1 = c2 ( y2 ), p1 = const.

-: S 2 ( p1 ).
, .
, ,
: ,
.
, . ,
p1 , S 2 ( p1 ) . , ,
, :

(12.26) r ( p1 ) = D( p1 ) S2 ( p1 )
r ( p1 ) , .
:

(12.27) 1 ( p1 ) = p1 r ( p1 ) c1 (r ( p1 ))
:

[ p1 r ( p1 ) c1 (r ( p1 ))]
(12.28) max
P
1

(12.29)

d 1
= r ( p1 ) + p1 r ( p1 ) c1(r ( p1 )) r ( p1 ) = 0
dp1

1- p1 ,
. ,
:

(12.30) y1 = r ( p1 )
:

(12.31) y2 = S2 ( p1 ).

IV.

13.

1. .

. -
,
, ,
, .
,
.

, .
,
.
,
. ,
( )
,
. , ,
, ,
.
( ) ,
. , ,

,

, .

,
.
.
-,
.

(.. , ),
,

. ,
,
.
-, ,
.

. ,
.
.

.
-, .
,
. ,
.
-, ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, .

2. .

, .
(
), .
, , .

, ,
. , . , ,
, .
. . ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
, ..
, . , (
) , ..
. ,
, ,
, , .. .
.


, .
, ,
.
, , ,
, -, , -, , -,
. , ,
, ,
, .

. ,
? , .
. ,
. , ,
, , , : ,
, - .
, , - .
. .
. ,
, - .
(TEC ) ,

( ). ( MEC )

TEC , .

, : MEC =

dTEC
. , MEC
dQ

(Q ) , 13.1, ..
.

.
: Q1 P1 (. 13.1).
P

MSC = MC + MEC

( MSC )

S (MC)

P2

: , .

MSC = MC + MEC

P1

MEC

MC , MEC , ,
,
D ()

Q2

Q1

. 13.1

, .
, -
. (. . 13.1) ( S )
MC .
,
, , , . .
13.1 Q2

P2 .

, .

P2 -

,
.
2. .

, .
, .
,
. ,
. ,
,
.
y1 = y1 ( x1 ) , y1

(13.1) , x1
.
y 2 = y 2 ( x2 ) , y 2

(13.2) , x2
.
, ..
:

(13.3)

dy1 ( x1 )
> 0;
dx1

dy 2 ( x2 )
> 0.
dx2

(13.4)

y 2 ( x2 , y1 )
< 0.
y1

, .
, , ..

p1 , p2 , w1 , w2 = const ,

p1 ;
p2 ;
w1 ;

w2 .
,
.
, :

(13.5)

1(x1) = p1 y1(x1) w1 x1

(13.6)

d1
dy
= p1 1 w1 = 0
dx1
dx1

(13.7) : p1 =

w1
w
= 1 = MC1
dy1 dx1 MPX
1

, MC1

.

:

(13.8)

y1 = y1 (x1 ).

. ,
, ,
:

(13.9)

2 (x2 , y1 (x1 )) = p2 y2 (x2 , y1 (x1 )) w2 x2

(13.10)

d 2
dy
= p2 2 w2 = 0
dx2
dx2

(13.11)

p2 =

w2
w
= 2 = MC 2
dy 2 dx2 MPX
2

, , ,
,

, :

(13.12) ( x1 , x2 ) = p1 y1 ( x1 ) + p2 y2 ( x2 , y1 ( x1 )) w1 x1 w2 x2
:

(13.13)

dy
y dy

= p1 1 + p 2 2 1 w1 = 0
dx1
x1
y1 dx1
y

= p 2 2 w2 = 0
x2
x2

, , ,
, .
.
(13.13) :

p1 =
(13.14)

y
w1
p y 2 y1 dy1 dx1
w
2
= 1 + p2 2 =
y1
dy1 dx1
dy1 dx1
MPX
1

= MC1 + MEC = MSC1


MEC = p 2

y 2
< 0 .
y1

y 2
> 0
y1

1 , . MEC
:
1 .

MSC1 . ,
: p1 = MSC1 , p1 = MC1 .
-,
:

(13.15)

p2 =

w2
= MC 2 .
dy 2 dx2

,
. .,

, .
,

. ,
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
, :

(13.16) t = p2

y 2
, t .
y1

(13.17)

1 (x1 ) = p1 y1 (x1 ) w1 x1 t y1 (x1 )

(13.18)

dy
dy
d 1
= p1 1 w1 t 1 = 0
dx1
dx1
dx1

, p1 :

p1 =

w1
dy dx
w
dy
+ t 1 1 = 1 + p2 2 =
dy1 dx1
dy1 dx1 MPX
dy1
1
424
3
1

(13.19)

= MC1 + MEC = MSC1


4. .
,

, , ,
.
.
,
. , .
,
. ,
.
,
? , .
, ; , .
, .
,
.

. , ,

, . ,
, ,
. -

,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
(

).
. , ,
- .

. ,

. ,
, ,
.
. , , ,
,
.
,
, , .
, ,

, ..
. , ,
: 1 000 000 1 000 001 .

. , , ,
, .. .
.
( ) ,

, .
.
, ,
,

, .
.
, :

.
. ,


, . ,
,
. , :
QA = q1 = q2 = ... = qn ,

QA

qi , i i = 1, 2,..., n). ,

. ,
:

(13.20)

MSB = MB1 + MB2 + ... + MBn = MBi ,


i =1

MSB
;
MBi ,
i (i = 1, 2,..., n).
,
, ,

.
13.2 D QA

D1 D2 , p A ,
QA , p1 p2 : p A = p1 + p2 .


PA=P1+P2

MSC

P1

P2

:
MSB = MSC ( . 13.2)

D:

D1:
D2:
Q

. 13.2

.
Q

14.

:
.

1. .

,
,
. .
, ,
, .
,

, .
.
.
- -,

, , . ,
, ,
: . ,

, , ( ).

,

, . ,
, ,
, ,
.

. , ,
.

2. .

.
,
.
" ,
.. .
.
1970 :
, .
, , (
), ( ), ,
. , ( )
. ,
, .
q1 , -

q2 > q1 . ,
, .
,
, .
, :

q = p q1 + ( 1 p ) q2 .
,
;
, ( 1 p ) .
, q ,
, ( q 2 )
, .
,
, , q1 .

, ,
. ,
,
.
: ?
,
.
,

. ,
, , , ,
. .

.
-
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, : , - . ,
, .
.
. ,
. - ,
. , .
.
, , . . ,
. , .
,
,
. , .
.
, ;
, ;
Sony Panasonic, ,
.
, .
, , ,
.
. .
: ,
, , .
, .

. , ,

. , -
.
( )
. , ,

, .
, , ,
. ,
, .

, ,
.
, .
,
.
(1974 ):

, q1 ,
q 2 > q1 . ,
,
. , . q1 p . ,
,
. , ,
, : yi = qi , i = 1,2 .
, ()
: y = q = q1 + ( 1 ) q 2 .
S , . ,
S ,
. S ,
. , S
i qi , C1 > C 2 . , S ,
, 1 -
.
, S , ..

, . .
, :
, .
, : .
.
: U i ( y , s ) = y ci s .
qi - , (s, ),

dy
= c i > 0.
ds

14.1.
Y
I1
I2

q2

q1

S0

S1

. 14.1

S, ,
, .. .
,
.
.
,
S,
S q.
, :

y = q1 s < s
y = q2

s s

s < s , - s s .

, s < s , s = 0 ,

s ( 0 , s )

. , s s , s .
s = 0 ,

q1 q2 c1 s s

( q2 q1 )
( q q1 )
= s0 (1) (. ). tg = c1 tg = 2
.
c1
s0

, ( 0 ,q1 ) ,
, q 2 , ( s0 ,q 2 ) .

s = s q 2 ,

s = 0 q1 , , : q1 q 2 c2 s s

( q2 q1 )
= s1 (2).
c2

( 0 ,q1 ) ( s1 ,q2 ) I 2 ,

q2 , ( s ,q2 ) s < s1 , ( 0 ,q1 ) .


c1 > c2 , (1) (2) , s1 > s0 . , s [s0 , s1 ] ,

,

.
.
q1 , s = 0 u1 = q1 .

q 2 s = s0 ,
. ,

-, s > s0 .

3. .
,
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
, , , , ,

.
,
. , ,

- , ,
. .
, ?
, ,
, . .
.
, , .
, ?
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
.
, ,
, . ,
, , , .
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
, , .
, , ,
, , .
, :
,

, . ,
100%- , ,
.
.

, ,
.
,
. :
.
100% ,
. ,
, 80%- . ,
1000 ., 800 . , 200 . .
, , :
, .
- .
, , .
, ,
50000 . , 40000 .,
. 100000 .,
50000 ., 50000 . - .

, . ., .
, .
100%
, .
,
.
.
- - ,

. , , ,
,
.

, .
, ,
.
-, - .
,
, - ,
. - ,

,
; ,
. ,
.
- :
,
? ,
.
, ,
. .
, .