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Introduction

The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required, strength, durability, and workability as economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix design. The proportioning of ingredient of concrete is governed by the required performance of concrete in 2 states, namely the plastic and the hardened states. If the plastic concrete is not workable, it cannot be properly placed and compacted. The property of workability, therefore, becomes of vital importance. The compressive strength of hardened concrete which is generally considered to be an index of its other properties, depends upon many factors, e.g. quality and quantity of cement, water and aggregates; batching and mixing; placing, compaction and curing. The cost of concrete is made up of the cost of materials, plant and labour. The variations in the cost of materials arise from the fact that the cement is several times costly than the aggregate, thus the aim is to produce as lean a mix as possible. From technical point of view the rich mixes may lead to high shrinkage and cracking in the structural concrete, and to evolution of high heat of hydration in mass concrete which may cause cracking. The actual cost of concrete is related to the cost of materials required for producing a minimum mean strength called characteristic strength that is specified by the designer of the structure. This depends on the quality control measures, but there is no doubt that the quality control adds to the cost of concrete. The extent of quality control is often an economic compromise, and depends on the size and type of job. The cost of labour depends on the workability of mix, e.g., a concrete mix of inadequate workability may result in a high cost of labour to obtain a degree of compaction with available equipment. Requirements of concrete mix design The requirements which form the basis of selection and proportioning of mix ingredients are : a ) The minimum compressive strength required from structural consideration b) The adequate workability necessary for full compaction with the compacting equipment available. c) Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to give adequate durability for the particular site conditions

d) Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to temperature cycle in mass concrete.

Types of Mixes

1. Nominal Mixes In the past the specifications for concrete prescribed the proportions of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. These mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio which ensures adequate strength are termed nominal mixes. These offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a margin of strength above that specified. However, due to the variability of mix ingredients the nominal concrete for a given workability varies widely in strength. 2. Standard mixes The nominal mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio (by volume) vary widely in strength and may result in under- or over-rich mixes. For this reason, the minimum compressive strength has been included in many specifications. These mixes are termed standard mixes. IS 456-2000 has designated the concrete mixes into a number of grades as M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40. In this designation the letter M refers to the mix and the number to the specified 28 day cube strength of mix in N/mm2. The mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3) and (1:1:2) respectively. 3. Designed Mixes In these mixes the performance of the concrete is specified by the designer but the mix proportions are determined by the producer of concrete, except that the minimum cement content can be laid down. This is most rational approach to the selection of mix proportions with specific materials in mind possessing more or less unique characteristics. The approach results in the production of concrete with the appropriate properties most economically. However, the designed mix does not serve as a guide since this does not guarantee the correct mix proportions for the prescribed performance. For the concrete with undemanding performance nominal or standard mixes (prescribed in the codes by quantities of dry ingredients per cubic meter and by slump) may be used only for very small jobs, when the 28-day strength of concrete does not exceed 30 N/mm2. No control testing is necessary reliance being placed on the masses of the ingredients. Factors affecting the choice of mix proportions The various factors affecting the mix design are: 1. Compressive strength

It is one of the most important properties of concrete and influences many other describable properties of the hardened concrete. The mean compressive strength required at a specific age, usually 28 days, determines the nominal water-cement ratio of the mix. The other factor affecting the strength of concrete at a given age and cured at a prescribed temperature is the degree of compaction. According to Abrahams law the strength of fully compacted concrete is inversely proportional to the water-cement ratio. 2. Workability The degree of workability required depends on three factors. These are the size of the section to be concreted, the amount of reinforcement, and the method of compaction to be used. For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners or inaccessible parts, the concrete must have a high workability so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel sections. The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment available at the site. 3. Durability The durability of concrete is its resistance to the aggressive environmental conditions. High strength concrete is generally more durable than low strength concrete. In the situations when the high strength is not necessary but the conditions of exposure are such that high durability is vital, the durability requirement will determine the water-cement ratio to be used. 4. Maximum nominal size of aggregate In general, larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is the cement requirement for a particular water-cement ratio, because the workability of concrete increases with increase in maximum size of the aggregate. However, the compressive strength tends to increase with the decrease in size of aggregate. IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 recommend that the nominal size of the aggregate should be as large as possible. 5. Grading and type of aggregate The grading of aggregate influences the mix proportions for a specified workability and water-cement ratio. Coarser the grading leaner will be mix which can be used. Very lean mix is not desirable since it does not contain enough finer material to make the concrete cohesive. The type of aggregate influences strongly the aggregate-cement ratio for the desired workability and stipulated water cement ratio. An important feature of a satisfactory aggregate is the uniformity of the grading which can be achieved by mixing different size fractions. 6. Quality Control

The degree of control can be estimated statistically by the variations in test results. The variation in strength results from the variations in the properties of the mix ingredients and lack of control of accuracy in batching, mixing, placing, curing and testing. The lower the difference between the mean and minimum strengths of the mix lower will be the cement-content required. The factor controlling this difference is termed as quality control.

The common method of expressing the proportions of ingredients of a concrete mix is in the terms of parts or ratios of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. For e.g., a concrete mix of proportions 1:2:4 means that cement, fine and coarse aggregate are in the ratio 1:2:4 or the mix contains one part of cement, two parts of fine aggregate and four parts of coarse aggregate. The proportions are either by volume or by mass. The water-cement ratio is usually expressed in mass Factors to be considered for mix design The grade designation giving the characteristic strength requirement of concrete. The type of cement influences the rate of development of compressive strength of concrete. Maximum nominal size of aggregates to be used in concrete may be as large as possible within the limits prescribed by IS 456:2000. The cement content is to be limited from shrinkage, cracking and creep. The workability of concrete for satisfactory placing and compaction is related to the size and shape of section, quantity and spacing of reinforcement and technique used for transportation, placing and compaction.

Procedure

1. Determine the mean target strength ft from the specified characteristic compressive strength at 28-day fck and the level of quality control. ft = fck + 1.65 S where S is the standard deviation obtained from the Table of approximate contents given after the design mix. 2. Obtain the water cement ratio for the desired mean target using the emperical relationship between compressive strength and water cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting water cement ratio. The water cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting water cement ratio for the requirements of durability given in table and adopts the lower of the two values. 3. Estimate the amount of entrapped air for maximum nominal size of the aggregate from the table.

4. Select the water content, for the required workability and maximum size of aggregates (for aggregates in saturated surface dry condition) from table. 5. Determine the percentage of fine aggregate in total aggregate by absolute volume from table for the concrete using crushed coarse aggregate. 6. Adjust the values of water content and percentage of sand as provided in the table for any difference in workability, water cement ratio, grading of fine aggregate and for rounded aggregate the values are given in table. 7. Calculate the cement content form the water-cement ratio and the final water content as arrived after adjustment. Check the cement against the minimum cement content from the requirements of the durability, and greater of the two values is adopted. 8. From the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and the percentage of sand already determined in steps 6 and 7 above, calculate the content of coarse and fine aggregates per unit volume of concrete from the following relations:

where V = absolute volume of concrete = gross volume (1m3) minus the volume of entrapped air Sc = specific gravity of cement W = Mass of water per cubic metre of concrete, kg C = mass of cement per cubic metre of concrete, kg p = ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume fa, Ca = total masses of fine and coarse aggregates, per cubic metre of concrete, respectively, kg, and Sfa, Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine and coarse aggregates, respectively 9. Determine the concrete mix proportions for the first trial mix. 10. Prepare the concrete using the calculated proportions and cast three cubes of 150 mm size and test them wet after 28-days moist curing and check for the strength. 11. Prepare trial mixes with suitable adjustments till the final mix proportions are arrived at.

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Dear Again Regards Raj Mohammad Khan I am back with M-20 Mix Designs as per

All IS-10262-2009

M-20 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H A-1 Stipulations for Proportioning 1 Grade Designation 2 Type of Cement 3 Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 4 5 6 Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 7 Exposure Condition 8 Degree of Supervision 9 Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate 10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3 11 Chemical Admixture Type A-2 Test Data for Materials Superplasticiser Confirming to IS9103 Good Normal 25 mm (Slump) Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 20 mm 250 kg/m3 M20 OPC 53 grade confirming to IS12269-1987

1 Cement Used 2 Sp. Gravity of Cement 3 Sp. Gravity of Water 4 Chemical Admixture 5 Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 6 Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 7 Sp. Gravity of Sand 8 Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 9 Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 10 Water Absorption of Sand 11 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate 12 Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate 13 Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand 14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates 15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates 15 Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates2.882 Separate Analysis Done 16 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates nil Separate Analysis Done Separate Analysis Done 1.23% nil nil 0.83% 0.97% 2.605 2.878 2.884 Not Used 1.00 3.15 Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

A-3 Target Strength for Mix Proportioning 1 Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 30N/mm2 2 Characteristic Strength @ 28 days A-4 Selection of Water Cement Ratio 1 2 Adopted Water Cement Ratio A-5 Selection of Water Content 1 Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 2 Estimated Water content for 25 mm Slump 145 Lit. 3 Superplasticiser used A-6 Calculation of Cement Content 1 Water Cement Ratio 2 Cement Content (145/0.5) 290 kg/m3 Which is greater then 250 kg/m3 0.5 nil 186 Lit. 0.5 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.5 20N/mm2

A-7 Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content 1 Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 2 Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.65) A-8 Mix Calculations 3 1 Volume of Concrete in m 65.00% 35.00% 1.00 62.00%

2 Volume of Cement in m3 (Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000 3 Volume of Water in m3 (Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000 4 Volume of Admixture @ 0% in m3 (Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000 5 Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 1 (Sr. no. 2+3+4) 6 Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.65 7 Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.35 1 Mass of Cement in kg/m3 2 Mass of Water in kg/m3 3 Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 4 Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 1429 1029 400 nil 696 145 290 0.267 0.496 0.763 nil 0.145 0.09

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

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Dear All Again I am back with M-25 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009. Regards Raj Mohammad Khan

M-25 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H A-1 Stipulations for Proportioning 1 Grade Designation 2 Type of Cement 3 Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 4 5 6 Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 7 8 Exposure Condition Degree of Supervision Normal Good 50-75 mm (Slump) Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 20 mm 310 kg/m3 M25 OPC 53 grade confirming to IS12269-1987

9 Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate 10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3 11 Chemical Admixture Type A-2 Test Data for Materials 1 Cement Used 2 Sp. Gravity of Cement 3 Sp. Gravity of Water 4 Chemical Admixture 5 Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 6 Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 7 Sp. Gravity of Sand 8 Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 9 Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 10 Water Absorption of Sand 11 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil 12 Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil 1.23% 0.83% 0.97% 2.605 2.878 2.884 BASF Chemicals Company 1.00 3.15 Coromandal King OPC 53 grade Superplasticiser Confirming to IS9103

13 Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand 14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates 15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates 15 Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882 16 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates A-3 Target Strength for Mix Proportioning 1 Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 2 Characteristic Strength @ 28 days A-4 Selection of Water Cement Ratio 1 2 Adopted Water Cement Ratio A-5 Selection of Water Content 1 Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 2 3 Superplasticiser used A-6 Calculation of Cement Content 1 Water Cement Ratio 2 Cement Content (138/0.43) 320 kg/m3 Which is greater then 310 kg/m3 0.43 0.5 % by wt. of cement Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm Slump 186 Lit. 138 Lit. 0.43 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45 25N/mm2 36N/mm2 Separate Analysis Done nil Separate Analysis Done Separate Analysis Done

A-7 Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content 1 Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 2 Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) A-8 Mix Calculations 1 Volume of Concrete in m3 2 Volume of Cement in m3 (Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000 3 Volume of Water in m3 (Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000 4 Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 (Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000 5 Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 1 (Sr. no. 2+3+4) 6 Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.62 7 Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.38 1 Mass of Cement in kg/m3 2 Mass of Water in kg/m3 138 320 0.288 0.471 0.759 0.00134 0.138 0.10 1.00 62.00% 38.00% 62.00%

3 Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 4 Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 5 Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 6 Water Cement Ratio 0.43

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

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Dear All Again Regards Raj Mohammad Khan I am back with M-30 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009

M-30 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H A-1 Stipulations for Proportioning 1 Grade Designation 2 Type of Cement 3 Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 4 5 20 mm Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 17003 A) 310 kg/m3 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45 M30 OPC 53 grade confirming to IS12269-1987

6 Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 7 Exposure Condition 8 Degree of Supervision 9 Type of Aggregate 10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 11 Chemical Admixture Type A-2 Test Data for Materials 1 Cement Used 2 Sp. Gravity of Cement 3 Sp. Gravity of Water 4 Chemical Admixture 5 Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 6 Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 7 Sp. Gravity of Sand 8 Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 9 Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 10 Water Absorption of Sand 1.23% 0.83% 0.97% 2.605 2.878 2.884 BASF Chemicals Company 1.00 3.15 Coromandal King OPC 53 grade Crushed Angular Aggregate 540 kg/m3 Superplasticiser Confirming to IS9103 Good Normal 50-75 mm (Slump)

11 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil 12 Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil 13 Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand 14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates 15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates 15 Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882 16 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates A-3 Target Strength for Mix Proportioning 1 Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 2 Characteristic Strength @ 28 days A-4 Selection of Water Cement Ratio 1 2 Adopted Water Cement Ratio A-5 Selection of Water Content 1 Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 2 3 Superplasticiser used A-6 Calculation of Cement Content 1 Water Cement Ratio 0.5 % by wt. of cement 0.42 Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm Slump 186 Lit. 160 Lit. 0.42 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45 30N/mm2 42N/mm2 Separate Analysis Done nil Separate Analysis Done Separate Analysis Done

2 Cement Content (160/0.42) 380 kg/m3 Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7 Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content 1 Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 2 Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) A-8 Mix Calculations 1 Volume of Concrete in m3 2 Volume of Cement in m3 (Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000 3 Volume of Water in m3 (Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000 4 Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 (Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000 5 Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 1 (Sr. no. 2+3+4) 6 Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.62 7 Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.38 0.273 0.445 0.718 0.00160 0.160 0.12 1.00 62.00% 38.00% 62.00%

A-9 Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition) 1 Mass of Cement in kg/m3 2 Mass of Water in kg/m3 3 Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 4 Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 5 Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 6 Water Cement Ratio 0.42

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

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Dear All Again Regards Raj Mohammad Khan I am back with M-35 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H A-1 1 Grade Designation 2 3 Type of Cement Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size M35 OPC 53 grade confirming to IS12269-1987 20 mm Stipulations for Proportioning

4 5 6

Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) Workability (MORT&H 1700-4)

310 kg/m3 0.45 50-75 mm (Slump) Normal Good Crushed Angular Aggregate

7 Exposure Condition 8 Degree of Supervision 9 Type of Aggregate 10 11 Chemical Admixture Type A-2 1 Cement Used 2 Sp. Gravity of Cement 3 Sp. Gravity of Water 4 Chemical Admixture 5 Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 6 Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 7 Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605 2.878 2.884 BASF Chemicals Company 1.00 3.15 Coromandal King OPC 53 grade Test Data for Materials Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3 Superplasticiser Confirming to IS9103

8 Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 9 Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 10 Water Absorption of Sand 11 12 13 Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand 14 15 15 16 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates A-3 1 Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 47N/mm2 2 Characteristic Strength @ 28 days A-4 1 2 Adopted Water Cement Ratio A-5 1 Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit. Selection of Water Content 0.4 Selection of Water Cement Ratio Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45 35N/mm2 Target Strength for Mix Proportioning Separate Analysis Done Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates Sp.Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates nil Separate Analysis Done Separate Analysis Done 2.882 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate 1.23% nil nil 0.83% 0.97%

2 3

A-6 1

Calculation of Cement Content Water Cement Ratio 0.4 400 kg/m3 Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

2 Cement Content (160/0.42) A-7 1 Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 2 Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00% Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00% A-8 1 Volume of Concrete in m3 2 Volume of Cement in m3 (Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000 3 Volume of Water in m3 (Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000 4 Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 (Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000 5 Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 1 (Sr. no. 2+3+4) 0.711 0.00168 0.160 0.13 1.00 Mix Calculations 62.00%

6 Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.62 7 Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.38 A-9 1 Mass of Cement in kg/m3 2 Mass of Water in kg/m3 3 Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 4 Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 5 Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 6 Water Cement Ratio 0.40 2.00 1271 915 356 704 160 400 0.270 0.441

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

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Dear procedure Regards Raj Mohammad Khan for calculating the concrete

All, ingredients

Here i am giving the mix designs as per IS-10262-2009 which gives to change the

A-1Stipulations for Proportioning 1 Grade Designation 2 Type of Cement 3 Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 4 5 6 Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 7 Exposure Condition 8 Degree of Supervision 9 Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate 10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3 11 Chemical Admixture Type A-2Test Data for Materials 1 Cement Used 2 Sp. Gravity of Cement 3 Sp. Gravity of Water 4 5 Chemical Admixture Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate Not Used 2.884 1.00 3.15 Coromandal King OPC 53 grade Superplasticiser Confirming to IS-9103 Good Normal 25 mm (Slump) 20 mm Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 250 kg/m3 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.5 M15 OPC 53 grade confirming to IS12269-1987

6 Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 7 Sp. Gravity of Sand 8 Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97% 9 Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83% 10 Water Absorption of Sand 11 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate 12 Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate 13 Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand 14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates 15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates 15 Sp.Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 16 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates 1 2 Characteristic Strength @ 28 days A-4Selection of Water Cement Ratio 1 Maximum Water Cement Ratio 15N/mm2 0.5 Separate Analysis Done A-3Target Strength for Mix Proportioning Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 25N/mm2 nil Separate Analysis Done Separate Analysis Done 2.882 1.23% nil nil 2.605 2.878

(MORT&H 1700-3 A) 2 Adopted Water Cement Ratio A-5Selection of Water Content 1 2 3 Superplasticiser used A-6Calculation of Cement Content 1 Water Cement Ratio 2 Cement Content (135/0.5) 270 kg/m3 Which is greater then 250 kg/m3 0.5 nil Maximum Water content (10262-table2) 186 Lit. Estimated Water content for 25 mm Slump 135 Lit. 0.5

A-7Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content 1 Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00% 2 Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 10.65) A-8Mix Calculations 1 Volume of Concrete in m3 2 Volume of Cement in m3 (Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000 3 Volume of Water in m3 (Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of 0.135 0.09 1.00 65.00% 35.00%

Water)x1000 4 Volume of Admixture @ 0% in m3 (Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000 5 Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 1 (Sr. no. 2+3+4) 6 Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.65 7 Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 Sr. no. 5 x 0.35 1 Mass of Cement in kg/m3 2 Mass of Water in kg/m3 3 Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 4 Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 5 Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 6 Water Cement Ratio 0.5 nil 1460 1051 409 711 135 270 0.273 0.507 0.779 nil

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

The mix design for M35 Grade Of Concrete for pile foundations provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors. Grade Characteristic Standard Target (from = Test Aggregate Specific Cement Coarse Fine Aggregate : 2.62 Water Coarse Fine Aggregate : 1.0 % MIX DESIGN Take Sand content as percentage of total aggregates = 36% Select Water Cement Ratio = 0.43 for concrete grade M35 (From Fig 2. of I.S. 10262- 1982) Select Water Content = 172 Kg (From IS: 10262 for 20 mm nominal size of aggregates Maximum Water Content = 186 Kg/ M3 ) Hence, Cement Content= 172 / 0.43 = 400 Kg / M3 Formula for Mix Proportion of Fine and Coarse Aggregate: 1000(1-a0) = {(Cement Content / Sp. Gr. Of Cement) + Water Content +(F a / Sp. Gr.* Pf )} Aggregate : Absorption: 0.5% Aggregate : : Data Type Mean I.S of Strength Deviation Strength : 456-2000) 38.15 For : Concrete (Fck) : T.M.S.= = Fck : 1.91 +1.65 35+ x : 35 M35 Mpa Mpa* S.D. Mpa Material: Crushed Gravity 3.15 2.67 1.651.91

1000(1-a0) = {(Cement Content / Sp. Gr. Of Cement) + Water Content +Ca / Sp. Gr.* Pc )} Where Ca = Coarse Aggregate Content Fa = Fine Aggregate Content Pf = Sand Content as percentage of total Aggregates = 0.36 Pc = Coarse Aggregate Content as percentage of total Aggregates. = 0.64 a0 = Percentage air content in concrete (As per IS :10262 for 20 mm nominal size of aggregates air content is 2 %) = 0.02 Hence, 1000(1-0.02) = {(400 /3.15) + 172 +(Fa / 2.62 x 0.36)} Fa = 642 Kg/ Cum As the sand is of Zone II no adjustment is required for sand. Sand Content = 642 Kg/ Cum 1000(1-0.02) = {(400 /3.15) + 172 +(Ca / 2.67 x 0.64)} Hence, Ca = 1165 Kg/ Cum From combined gradation of Coarse aggregates it has been found out that the proportion of 53:47 of 20 mm & 10 mm aggregates produces the best gradation as per IS: 383. Hence, 20 mm Aggregates = 619 Kg And 10 mm Aggregates = 546 Kg To obtain slump in the range of 150-190 mm water reducing admixture brand SP430 from Fosroc with a dose of 0.3 % by weight of Cement shall be used. Hence the Mix Proportion becomes: Units Kg/ M3 Cement : Sand: Coarse Aggregates = 1 : 1.6 : 2.907

Cem W/C Water Sand 20mm 10mm Admix 400 0.43 172 1 0.43 635 1.6 619 1.547 564 1.36 1.2 0.003

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The mix design M-50 grade (Using Admixture Sikament) provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors. Parameters for mix design M50 Grade Type Brand Admixture Sp. Cement Fine Coarse Minimum Aggregate Aggregate Cement (As per (20mm) contract) =400 = = = kg / of = of Designation cement cement Sika = [Sikament = Vikram 170 = O.P.C-43 ( ( Grasim H ) M-50 grade ) ]

Coarse Aggregate (10mm) = 2.66 Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45 Mix Calculation: 1. Target Mean Strength = 50 + ( 5 X 1.65 ) = 58.25 Mpa 2. Selection 3. Calculation of of water cement water:

3

ratio:-

Assume water cement ratio = 0.35 Approximate water content for 20mm max. Size of aggregate = 180 kg /m (As per Table No. 5 , IS : 10262 ). As plasticizer is proposed we can reduce water content by 20%. Now water content = 180 X 0.8 = 144 kg /m3 4. Calculation Water Water Cement content content cement per = cum 144/0.35 of ratio of = concrete 411.4 cement = = kg 144 / content:0.35 kg m3

Say cement content = 412 kg / m3 (As per contract Minimum cement content 400 kg / Hence O.K. 5. Calculation for C.A. & F.A.: [ Formula's can be seen in earlier posts]Volume Volume Volume Volume of of of of cement water Admixture = = = 412 144 concrete / / ( ( / 3.15 1 X X (1.145 X = 1000 1000 1000 ) ) ) = = 1 = 0.1308 0.1440 0.0043 m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 )

4.994

Total weight of other materials except coarse aggregate = 0.1308 + 0.1440 +0.0043 = 0.2791 m3 Volume of coarse and fine aggregate = 1 0.2791 = 0.7209 m3 Volume of F.A. = 0.7209 X 0.33 = 0.2379 m3 (Assuming 33% by volume of total aggregate ) Volume of C.A. = 0.7209 0.2379 = 0.4830 m3 Therefore weight of F.A. = 0.2379 X 2.61 X 1000 = 620.919 kg/ m3 Say weight of F.A. = 621 kg/ m3 Therefore weight of C.A. = 0.4830 X 2.655 X 1000 = 1282.365 kg/ m3 Say weight of C.A. = 1284 kg/ m3 Considering 20mm 10mm Hence Cement Water Fine Coarse Coarse Water: = = 20 = = Mix 412 144 aggregate aggregate aggregate cement: F.A.: 20 10 C.A. = X X mm: 10mm 706 578 details 1.025 1.025 = mm mm 0.35: = = 1: = 621 706 578 1.472: = = kg kg per 422 147.6 0.55: 0.45 . . m3 kg kg kg kg kg 3.043 was Slump No. of cube cohesive = casted and 120 = 9 homogeneous. mm Nos.

Observation: A. B. C. Mix

days

average

compressive

strength

52.07

MPa.

28 days average compressive strength = 62.52 MPa which is greater than 58.25MPa Hence the mix accepted. We are thankful to Er Gurjeet Singh for this valuable information.

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The mix design M-40 grade for Pier (Using Admixture Fosroc) provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors. Parameters for mix design M40 Grade Type Brand Admixture Fine Sp. Fine Coarse Coarse Minimum of = of Designation cement cement Fosroc Aggregate Gravity Aggregate Aggregate Aggregate Cement (As per (20mm) (10mm) contract) = 400 Cement = = = kg / ( = = Vikram Conplast SP = = = O.P.C-43 ( 430 Grasim G8M M-40 grade ) ) 3.15 2.61 2.65 2.66 m3 Zone-II

Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45 Mix Calculation: 1. Target Mean Strength = 40 + (5 X 1.65) = 48.25 Mpa 2. Selection 3. Calculation Assume 4. Calculation Hence o.k. 5. Calculation for C.A. & F.A.: As per IS : 10262 , Cl. No. 3.5.1 cement of of content of water cement 400 cement content: kg water: / ratio:m3 -

(As per contract Minimum cement content 400 kg / m3) 400 X 0.4 = 160 kg Which is less than 186 kg (As per Table No. 4, IS: 10262)

V = [ W + (C/Sc) + (1/p) . (fa/Sfa) ] x (1/1000) V = [ W + (C/Sc) + {1/(1-p)} . (ca/Sca) ] x (1/1000) Where V = absolute volume of fresh concrete, which is equal to gross volume (m 3) minus the volume of entrapped air , W = mass of water ( kg ) per m3 of concrete , C = mass of cement ( kg ) per m3 of concrete , Sc = specific gravity of cement, (p) = Ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume , (fa) , (ca) = total mass of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) per m3 of Concrete respectively, and Sfa , Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and Coarse aggregate respectively. As per Table No. 3 , IS-10262, for 20mm maximum size entrapped air is 2% . Assume F.A. by % of volume of total aggregate = 36.5 % 0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.365 ) ( Fa / 2.61 )] ( 1 /1000 ) => Fa = 660.2 kg Say Fa = 660 kg. 0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.635 ) ( Ca / 2.655 )] ( 1 /1000 ) => Ca = 1168.37 kg. Say Ca = 1168 kg. Considering 20 mm : 10mm = 0.6 : 0.4 20mm 10mm = 467 kg . Hence Mix details per m3 = 701 kg .

Cement Water Fine Coarse Coarse Admixture aggregate aggregate = 0.6 % aggregate

= = = 20 10 by mm mm weight of

kg kg kg kg kg kg.

Recron 3S = 900 gm Water: cement: F.A.: C.A. = 0.4: 1: 1.65: 2.92 Observation: A. B. C. 7 No. days of average Mix was Slump cube compressive casted strength cohesive = = = 12 51.26 and homogeneous. 110mm Nos. MPa.

28 days average compressive strength = 62.96 MPa which is greater than 48.25MPa Hence the mix is accepted. We are thankful to Er Gurjeet Singh for this valuable information.

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