Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 200

DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93

ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGS

ABSTRACT

The Engineering Sym bology, Prints, and Drawings Handbook was developed to assist
nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and
technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of
engineering prints, their use, and their function. The handbook includes information on
engineering fluid drawings and prints; piping and instrument drawings; major symbols and
conventions; electronic diagrams and schematics; logic circuits and diagrams; and fabrication,
construction, and architectural drawings. This information will provide personnel with a
foundation for reading, interpreting, and using the engineering prints and drawings that are
associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

Key Words: Training Material, Print Reading, Piping and Instrument Drawings, Schematics,
Electrical Diagrams, Block Diagrams, Logic Diagrams, Fabrication Drawings, Construction
Drawings, Architectural Drawings

Rev. 0 PR
DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGS

OVERVIEW

The Departm ent of Energy Fundam entals Handbook entitled Engineering Sym bology,
Prints, and Drawings was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsible
for the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities. A basic understanding of engineering
prints and drawings is necessary for DOE nuclear facility operators, maintenance personnel, and
the technical staff to safely operate and maintain the facility and facility support systems. The
information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering
concepts to the job. This knowledge will improve personnel understanding of the impact that
their actions may have on the safe and reliable operation of facility components and systems.

The Engineering Sym bology, Prints, and Drawings handbook consists of six modules
that are contained in two volumes. The following is a brief description of the information
presented in each module of the handbook.

Volume 1 of 2

Module 1 - Introduction to Print Reading

This module introduces each type of drawing and its various formats. It also
reviews the information contained in the non-drawing areas of a drawing.

Module 2 - Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

This module introduces engineering fluid diagrams and prints (P&IDs); reviews
the common symbols and conventions used on P&IDs; and provides several
examples of how to read a P&ID.

Module 3 - Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

This module reviews the major symbols and conventions used on electrical
schematics and single line drawings and provides several examples of reading
electrical prints.

Rev. 0 PR
DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGS

OVERVIEW (Cont.)

Volume 2 of 2

Module 4 - Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

This module reviews electronic schematics and block diagrams. It covers the
major symbols used and provides several examples of reading these types of
diagrams.

Module 5 - Logic Diagrams

This module introduces the basic symbols and common conventions used on logic
diagrams. It explains how logic prints are used to represent a component's
control circuits. Truth tables are also briefly discusses and several examples of
reading logic diagrams are provided.

Module 6 - Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings

This module reviews fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings and


introduces the symbols and conventions used to dimension and tolerance these
types of drawings.

The information contained in this handbook is by no means all encompassing. An


attempt to present the entire subject of engineering drawings would be impractical. However,
the Engineering Sym bology, Prints, and Drawings handbook does present enough information
to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced
theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to improve understanding of basic
system operation and equipment operations.

Rev. 0 PR
Department of Energy
Fundamentals Handbook

ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,


AND DRAWINGS
Module 1
Introduction to Print Reading
Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Anatomy of a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
The Title Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Grid System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Revision Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Notes and Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES OF DRAWINGS,


VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Categories of Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&IDs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Electrical Single Lines and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Logic Diagrams and Prints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Drawing Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Views and Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Rev. 0 Page i PR-01


LIST OF FIGURES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Title Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figure 2 Example of a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure 3 Revision Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 4 Methods of Denoting Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 5 Notes and Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 6 Example P&ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 7 Example of a Single Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 8 Example of a Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 9 Example of an Electronic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 10 Example of a Logic Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 11 Example of a Fabrication Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 12 Example of a Single Line P&ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 13 Example Pictorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 14 Example of an Assembly Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 15 Example of a Cutaway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Figure 16 Example Orthographic Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Figure 17 Orthographic Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Figure 18 Example of an Isometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

PR-01 Page ii Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

NONE

Rev. 0 Page iii PR-01


REFERENCES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading

REFERENCES

ANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards


Institute.

ANSI Y32.2 - 1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, American
National Standards Institute.

Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,


California, 1976.

Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1979.

Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,
Virginia, 1972.

Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
1968.

Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.

TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing Company,
Barrington, Illinois, 1974.

Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphical Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,


Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.

Zappe, R.W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
1968.

PR-01 Page iv Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given an engineering print, READ and INTERPRET the information contained in the
title block, the notes and legend, the revision block, and the drawing grid.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 STATE the five types of information provided in the title block of an engineering
drawing.

1.2 STATE how the grid system on an engineering drawing is used to locate a piece of
equipment.

1.3 STATE the three types of information provided in the revision block of an engineering
drawing.

1.4 STATE the purpose of the notes and legend section of an engineering drawing.

1.5 LIST the five drawing categories used on engineering drawings.

Rev. 0 Page v PR-01


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction to Print Reading

Intentionally Left Blank.

PR-01 Page vi Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING

INTRODUCTION T O PRINT READING

A through knowledge of the information presented in the title block, the revision
block, the notes and legend, and the drawing grid is necessary before a drawing
can be read. This information is displayed in the areas surrounding the graphic
portion of the drawing.

EO 1.1 STATE the five types of information provided in the title block
of an engineering drawing.

EO 1.2 STATE how the grid system on an engineering drawing is used


to locate a piece of equipment.

EO 1.3 STATE the three types of information provided in the revision


block of an engineering drawing.

EO 1.4 STATE the purpose of the notes and legend section of an


engineering drawing .

Introduction

The ability to read and understand information contained on drawings is essential to perform most
engineering-related jobs. Engineering drawings are the industry's means of communicating
detailed and accurate information on how to fabricate, assemble, troubleshoot, repair, and operate
a piece of equipment or a system. To understand how to "read" a drawing it is necessary to be
familiar with the standard conventions, rules, and basic symbols used on the various types of
drawings. But before learning how to read the actual "drawing," an understanding of the
information contained in the various non-drawing areas of a print is also necessary. This chapter
will address the information most commonly seen in the non-drawing areas of a nuclear grade
engineering type drawing. Because of the extreme variation in format, location of information,
and types of information presented on drawings from vendor to vendor and site to site, all
drawings will not necessarily contain the following information or format, but will usually be
similar in nature.

In this handbook the terms print, drawing, and diagram are used interchangeably to denote the
complete drawing. This includes the graphic portion, the title block, the grid system, the revision
block, and the notes and legend. When the words print, drawing, or diagram, appear in quotes,
the word is referring only to the actual graphic portion of the drawing.

Rev. 0 Page 1 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading

Anatomy of a Drawing

A generic engineering drawing can be divided into the following five major areas or parts.

1. Title block
2. Grid system
3. Revision block
4. Notes and legends
5. Engineering drawing (graphic portion)

The information contained in the drawing itself will be covered in subsequent modules. This
module will cover the non-drawing portions of a print. The first four parts listed above provide
important information about the actual drawing. The ability to understand the information
contained in these areas is as important as being able to read the drawing itself. Failure to
understand these areas can result in improper use or the misinterpretation of the drawing.

The Title Block

The title block of a drawing, usually located on the bottom or lower right hand corner, contains
all the information necessary to identify the drawing and to verify its validity. A title block is
divided into several areas as illustrated by Figure 1.

First Area of the Title Block

The first area of the title block contains the drawing title, the drawing number, and lists
the location, the site, or the vendor. The drawing title and the drawing number are used
for identification and filing purposes. Usually the number is unique to the drawing and
is comprised of a code that contains information about the drawing such as the site,
system, and type of drawing. The drawing number may also contain information such as
the sheet number, if the drawing is part of a series, or it may contain the revision level.
Drawings are usually filed by their drawing number because the drawing title may be
common to several prints or series of prints.

Second Area of the Title Block

The second area of the title block contains the signatures and approval dates, which
provide information as to when and by whom the component/system was designed and
when and by whom the drawing was drafted and verified for final approval. This
information can be invaluable in locating further data on the system/component design or
operation. These names can also help in the resolution of a discrepancy between the
drawing and another source of information.

PR-01 Page 2 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING

Figure 1 Title Block

Third Area of the Title Block

The third area of the title block is the reference block. The reference block lists other
drawings that are related to the system/component, or it can list all the other drawings that
are cross-referenced on the drawing, depending on the site's or vendor's conventions. The
reference block can be extremely helpful in tracing down additional information on the
system or component.

Other information may also be contained in the title block and will vary from site to site and
vendor to vendor. Some examples are contract numbers and drawing scale.

Rev. 0 Page 3 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading

Drawing Scale

All drawings can be classified as either drawings with scale or those not drawn to scale.
Drawings without a scale usually are intended to present only functional information about
the component or system. Prints drawn to scale allow the figures to be rendered
accurately and precisely. Scale drawings also allow components and systems that are too
large to be drawn full size to be drawn in a more convenient and easy to read size. The
opposite is also true. A very small component can be scaled up, or enlarged, so that its
details can be seen when drawn on paper.

Scale drawings usually present the information used to fabricate or construct a component
or system. If a drawing is drawn to scale, it can be used to obtain information such as
physical dimensions, tolerances, and materials that allows the fabrication or construction
of the component or system. Every dimension of a component or system does not have
to be stated in writing on the drawing because the user can actually measure the distance
(e.g., the length of a part) from the drawing and divide or multiply by the stated scale to
obtain the correct measurements.

The scale of a drawing is usually presented as a ratio and is read as illustrated in the
following examples.

1" = 1" Read as 1 inch (on the drawing) equals 1 inch (on the actual
component or system). This can also be stated as FULL SIZE in
the scale block of the drawing. The measured distance on the
drawing is the actual distance or size of the component.

3/8" = 1' Read as 3/8 inch (on the drawing) equals 1 foot (on the actual
component or system). This is called 3/8 scale. For example, if a
component part measures 6/8 inch on the drawing, the actual
component measures 2 feet.

1/2" = 1' Read as 1/2 inch (on the drawing) equals 1 foot (on the actual
component or system). This is called 1/2 scale. For example, if a
component part measures 1-1/2 inches on the drawing the actual
component measures 3 feet.

PR-01 Page 4 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING

Grid System

Because drawings tend to be large and complex, finding a specific point or piece of equipment
on a drawing can be quite difficult. This is especially true when one wire or pipe run is
continued on a second drawing. To help locate a specific point on a referenced print, most
drawings, especially Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&ID) and electrical schematic drawings,
have a grid system. The grid can consist of letters, numbers, or both that run horizontally and
vertically around the drawing as illustrated on Figure 2. Like a city map, the drawing is divided
into smaller blocks, each having a unique two letter or number identifier. For example, when a
pipe is continued from one drawing to another, not only is the second drawing referenced on the
first drawing, but so are the grid coordinates locating the continued pipe. Therefore the search
for the pipe contained in the block is much easier than searching the whole drawing.

Figure 2 Example of a Grid

Rev. 0 Page 5 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading

Revision Block

As changes to a component or system are made, the drawings depicting the component or system
must be redrafted and reissued. When a drawing is first issued, it is called revision zero, and the
revision block is empty. As each revision is made to the drawing, an entry is placed in the
revision block. This entry will provide the revision number, a title or summary of the revision,
and the date of the revision. The revision number may also appear at the end of the drawing
number or in its own separate block, as shown in Figure 2, Figure 3. As the component or
system is modified, and the drawing is updated to reflect the changes, the revision number is
increased by one, and the revision number in the revision block is changed to indicate the new
revision number. For example, if a Revision 2 drawing is modified, the new drawing showing
the latest modifications will have the same drawing number, but its revision level will be
increased to 3. The old Revision 2 drawing will be filed and maintained in the filing system for
historical purposes.

Figure 3 Revision Block

PR-01 Page 6 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING

Changes

There are two common methods of indicating where a revision has changed a drawing that
contains a system diagram. The first is the cloud method, where each change is enclosed by a
hand-drawn cloud shape, as shown in Figure 4. The second method involves placing a circle (or
triangle or other shape) with the revision number next to each effected portion of the drawing,
as shown in Figure 4. The cloud method indicates changes from the most recent revision only,
whereas the second method indicates all revisions to the drawing because all of the previous
revision circles remain on the drawing.

Figure 4 Methods of Denoting Changes

The revision number and revision block are especially useful in researching the evolution of a
specific system or component through the comparison of the various revisions.

Rev. 0 Page 7 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading

Notes and Legend

Drawings are comprised of symbols and lines that represent components or systems. Although
a majority of the symbols and lines are self-explanatory or standard (as described in later
modules), a few unique symbols and conventions must be explained for each drawing. The notes
and legends section of a drawing lists and explains any special symbols and conventions used on
the drawing, as illustrated on Figure 5. Also listed in the notes section is any information the
designer or draftsman felt was necessary to correctly use or understand the drawing. Because
of the importance of understanding all of the symbols and conventions used on a drawing, the
notes and legend section must be reviewed before reading a drawing.

Figure 5 Notes and Legends

PR-01 Page 8 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Introduction to Print Reading Summary

The title block of a drawing contains:

the drawing title


the drawing number
location, site, or vendor issuing the drawing
the design, review, and approval signatures
the reference block

The grid system of a drawing allows information to be more easily identified


using the coordinates provided by the grid. The coordinate letters and/or
numbers break down the drawing into smaller blocks.

The revision block of a drawing provides the revision number, a title or summary
of the revision, and the date of the revision, for each revision.

The notes and legend section of a drawing provides explanations of special


symbols or conventions used on the drawing and any additional information the
designer or draftsman felt was necessary to understand the drawing.

Rev. 0 Page 9 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

INTRODUCTION T O T HE T YPES OF DRAWINGS,


VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVE S

To read a drawing correctly, the user must have a basic understanding of the
various categories of drawings and the views and perspectives in which each
drawing can be presented.

EO 1.5 LIST the five drawing categories used on engineering drawings.

Categories of Drawings

The previous chapter reviewed the non-drawing portions of a print. This chapter will introduce
the five common categories of drawings. They are 1) piping and instrument drawings (P&IDs),
2) electrical single lines and schematics, 3) electronic diagrams and schematics, 4) logic diagrams
and prints, and 5) fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings.

Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&IDs)

P&IDs are usually designed to present functional information about a system or component.
Examples are piping layout, flowpaths, pumps, valves, instruments, signal modifiers, and
controllers, as illustrated in Figure 6.

Figure 6 Example P&ID

PR-01 Page 10 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

As a rule P&IDs do not have a drawing scale and present only the relationship or sequence
between components. Just because two pieces of equipment are drawn next to each other does
not indicate that in the plant the equipment is even in the same building; it is just the next part
or piece of the system. These drawings only present information on how a system functions, not
the actual physical relationships.

Because P&IDs provide the most concise format for how a system should function, they are used
extensively in the operation, repair, and modification of the plant.

Electrical Single Lines and Schematics

Electrical single lines and


schematics are designed to
present functional information
about the electrical design of a
system or component. They
provide the same types of
information about electrical
systems that P&IDs provide
for piping and instrument
systems. Like P&IDs,
electrical prints are not usually
drawn to scale. Examples of
typical single lines are site or
building power distribution,
system power distribution, and
motor control centers.
Figure 7 is an example of an
electrical single line.

Electrical schematics provide a


more detailed level of
information about an electrical
system or component than the
single lines. Electrical Figure 7 Example of a Single Line
schematic drawings present
information such as the individual relays, relay contacts, fuses, motors, lights, and instrument
sensors. Examples of typical schematics are valve actuating circuits, motor start circuits, and
breaker circuits.

Rev. 0 Page 11 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction to Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Figure 8 is an example of a motor start circuit schematic. Electrical single lines and schematics
provide the most concise format for depicting how electrical systems should function, and are
used extensively in the operation, repair, and modification of the plant.

Figure 8 Example of a Schematic

PR-01 Page 12 Rev. 0


Introduction to Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Electronic Diagra ms and Schematics

Electronic diagrams and schematics are designed to present information about the individual
components (resistors, transistors, and capacitors) used in a circuit, as illustrated in Figure 9.
These drawings are usually used by circuit designers and electronics repair personnel.

Figure 9 Example of an Electronic Diagram

Rev. 0 Page 13 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction to Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Logic Diagra ms and Prints

Logic diagrams and prints can be used to depict several types of information. The most common
use is to provide a simplified functional representation of an electrical circuit, as illustrated in
Figure 10. For example, it is easier and faster to figure out how a valve functions and responds
to various inputs signals by representing a valve circuit using logic symbols, than by using the
electrical schematic with its complex relays and contacts. These drawings do not replace
schematics, but they are easier to use for certain applications.

Figure 10 Example of a Logic Print

Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings are designed to present the detailed
information required to construct or fabricate a part, system, or structure. These three types of
drawings differ only in their application as opposed to any real differences in the drawings
themselves. Construction drawings, commonly referred to as "blueprint" drawings, present the
detailed information required to assemble a structure on site. Architectural drawings present
information about the conceptual design of the building or structure. Examples are house plans,
building elevations (outside view of each side of a structure), equipment installation drawings,
foundation drawings, and equipment assembly drawings.

Fabrication drawings, as shown in Figure 11, are similar to construction and architectural drawing
but are usually found in machine shops and provide the necessary detailed information for a
craftsman to fabricate a part. All three types of drawings, fabrication, construction, and
architectural, are usually drawn to scale.

PR-01 Page 14 Rev. 0


Introduction to Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Figure 11 Example of a Fabrication Drawing

Rev. 0 Page 15 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction to Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Drawing Format

P&IDs, fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings can be presented using one of several
different formats. The standard formats are single line, pictorial or double line, and cutaway.
Each format provides specific information about a component or system.

Single Line Drawings

The single line format is most commonly used in P&IDs. Figure 12 is an example of a
single line P&ID. The single line format represents all piping, regardless of size, as
single line. All system equipment is represented by simple standard symbols (covered in
later modules). By simplifying piping and equipment, single lines allow the system's
equipment and instrumentation relationships to be clearly understood by the reader.

Figure 12 Example of a Single Line P&ID

Pictorial or Double Line Drawings

Pictorial or double line drawings present the same type information as a single line, but
the equipment is represented as if it had been photographed. Figure 13 provides an
example illustration of a pictorial drawing. This format is rarely used since it requires
much more effort to produce than a single line drawing and does not present any more
information as to how the system functions. Compare the pictorial illustration, Figure 13,
to the single line of the same system shown in Figure 12. Pictorial or double line
drawings are often used in advertising and training material.

PR-01 Page 16 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1O16/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Figure 13 Example Pictorial

Assembly Drawings

Assembly drawing are a special application of pictorial drawings that are common in the
engineering field. As seen in Figure 14, an assembly drawing is a pictorial view of the
object with all the components shown as they go together. This type pictorial is usually
found in vendor manuals and is used for parts identification and general information
relative to the assembly of the component.

Figure 14 Example of an Assembly Drawing

Rev. 0 Page 17 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Cutaway Drawings

A cutaway drawing is another special type of pictorial drawing. In a cutaway, as the


name implies, the component or system has a portion cut away to reveal the internal
parts of the component or system. Figure 15 is an illustration of a cutaway. This
type of drawing is extremely helpful in the maintenance and training areas where the
way internal parts are assembled is important.

Figure 15 Example of a Cutaway

PR-01 Page 18 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Views and Perspectives

In addition to the different drawing formats, there are different views or perspectives in which
the formats can be drawn. The most commonly used are the orthographic projection and the
isometric projection.

Orthographic Projections

Orthographic projection is widely used for fabrication and construction type drawings,
as shown in Figure 16. Orthographic projections present the component or system
through the use of three views, These are a top view, a side view, and a front view.
Other views, such as a bottom view, are used to more fully depict the component or
system when necessary.

Figure 16 Example Orthographic Projection

PR-010
Rev. Page 19 PR-01
INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Figure 17 shows how each of the three views is obtained. The orthographic projection
is typically drawn to scale and shows all components in their proper relationships to each
other. The three views, when provided with dimensions and a drawing scale, contain
information that is necessary to fabricate or construct the component or system.

Figure 17 Orthographic Projections

PR-01 Page 20 Rev. 0


Introduction To Print Reading DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Isometric Projection

The isometric projection presents a single view of the component or system. The view
is commonly from above and at an angle of 30°. This provides a more realistic three-
dimensional view. As shown on Figure 18, this view makes it easier to see how the
system looks and how its various portions or parts are related to one another. Isometric
projections may or may not be drawn to a scale.

Figure 18 Example of an Isometric

Rev. 0 Page 21 PR-01


INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading
OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Drawing Types, Views, and Perspectives Summary

• The five engineering drawing categories are:

P&IDs

Electrical single lines and schematics

Electronic diagrams and schematics

Logic diagrams and prints

Fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings

PR-01 Page 22 Rev. 0


ENGINEERING SYM BOLOGY, PRINTS,
AND DRAW INGS
M odule 2
Engineering Fluid
Diagrams and Prints
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF C ONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Valve Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Valve Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Control Valve Designations . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Sensing Devices and Detectors . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Modifiers and Transmitters . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Indicators and Recorders . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Examples of Simple Instrument Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Miscellaneous P&ID Symbols . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

READING ENGINEERING P&IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Standards and Conventions for Valve Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Rev. 0 Page i PR-02


TABLE OF CONTENTS DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

TABLE OF C ONTENTS

FLUID POWER P&IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Fluid Power Diagrams and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Reading Fluid Power Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Types of Fluid Power Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

PR-02 Page ii Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Valve Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figure 2 Valve Actuator Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Figure 3 Remotely Controlled Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Figure 4 Level Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure 5 Control Valves with Valve Positioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 6 Control Valve Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 7 Piping Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 8 More Piping Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 9 Detector and Sensing Device Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 10 Transmitters and Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 11 Indicators and Recorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 12 Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 13 Signal Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 14 Instrumentation System Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 15 Symbols for Major Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 16 Miscellaneous Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 17 Valve Status Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 18 Exercise P&ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Figure 19 Fluid Power Pump and Compressor Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Figure 20 Fluid Power Reservoir Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Figure 21 Symbols for Linear Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Rev. 0 Page iii PR-02


LIST OF FIGURES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

LIST OF FIGURES (Cont.)

Figure 22 Symbols for Rotary Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Figure 23 Fluid Power Line Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Figure 24 Valve Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Figure 25 Valve Symbol Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Figure 26 Fluid Power Valve Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Figure 27 Simple Hydraulic Power System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Figure 28 Line Diagram of Figure 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Figure 29 Typical Fluid Power Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Figure 30 Pictorial Fluid Power Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Figure 31 Cutaway Fluid Power Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Figure 32 Schematic Fluid Power Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

PR-02 Page iv Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Instrument Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Rev. 0 Page v PR-02


REFERENCES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

REFERENCES

ANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards


Institute.

ANSI Y32.2 - 1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, American
National Standards Institute.

Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,


California, 1976.

Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1979.

Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,
Virginia, 1972.

Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
1968.

Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.

TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing Company,
Barrington, Illinois, 1974.

Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphical Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,


Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.

Zappe, R.W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
1968.

PR-02 Page vi Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given an engineering print, READ and INTERPRET facility engineering Piping and
Instrument Drawings.

ENABLING OBJECTIVE S

1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the following types of valves:

a. Globe valve g. Relief valve


b. Gate valve h. Rupture disk
c. Ball valve i. Three-way valve
d. Check valve j. Four-way valve
e. Stop check valve k. Throttle (needle) valve
f. Butterfly valve l. Pressure regulator

1.2 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the following types of valve
operators:

a. Diaphragm valve operator


b. Motor valve operator
c. Solenoid valve operator
d. Piston (hydraulic) valve operator
e. Hand (manual) valve operator
f. Reach-rod valve operator

1.3 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for educators and ejectors.

1.4 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the following lines:

a. Process
b. Pneumatic
c. Hydraulic
d. Inert gas
e. Instrument signal (electrical)
f. Instrument capillary
g. Electrical

Rev. 0 Page vii PR-02


OBJECTIVES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

ENABLING OBJECTIVES (cont.)

1.5 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the following basic types of
instrumentation:

a. Differential pressure cell


b. Temperature element
c. Venturi
d. Orifice
e. Rotometer
f. Conductivity or salinity cell
g. Radiation detector

1.6 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs to denote the location, either local
or board mounted, of instruments, indicators, and controllers.

1.7 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the following types of instrument
signal controllers and modifiers:

a. Proportional
b. Proportional-integral
c. Proportional-integral-differential
d. Square root extractors

1.8 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the following types of system
components:

a. Centrifugal pumps
b. Positive displacement pumps
c. Heat exchangers
d. Compressors
e. Fans
f. Tanks
g. Filters/strainers

PR-02 Page viii Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 OBJECTIVES

ENABLING OBJECTIVES (cont.)

1.9 STATE how the following valve conditions are depicted on an engineering P&ID:

a. Open valve
b. Closed valve
c. Throttled valve
d. Combination valves (3- or 4-way valve)
e. Locked-closed valve
f. Locked-open valve
g. Fail-open valve
h. Fail-closed valve
i. Fail-as-is valve

1.10 Given an engineering P&ID, IDENTIFY components and DETERM INE the flowpath(s)
for a given valve lineup.

1.11 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering fluid power drawings for the following
components:

a. Pump
b. Compressor
c. Reservoir
d. Actuators
e. Piping and piping junctions
f. Valves

1.12 Given a fluid power type drawing, DETERM INE the operation or resultant action of the
stated component when hydraulic pressure is applied/removed.

Rev. 0 Page ix PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineer Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Intentionally Left Blank.

PR-02 Page x Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

To read and understand engineering fluid diagrams and prints, usually referred
to as P&IDs, an individual must be familiar with the basic symbols.

EO 1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the


following types of valves:

a. Globe valve g. Relief valve


b. Gate valve h. Rupture disk
c. B all valve i. Three-way valve
d. Check valve j. Four-way valve
e. Stop check valve k. Throttle (needle) valve
f. Butterfly valve l. Pressure regulator

EO 1.2 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the


following types of valve operators:

a. Diaphragm valve operator


b. Motor valve operator
c. Solenoid valve operator
d. Piston (hydraulic) valve operator
e. Hand (manual) valve operator
f. Reach rod valve operator

EO 1.3 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for


educators and ejectors.

EO 1.4 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the


following lines:

a. Process e. Instrument signal (electrical)


b. Pneumatic f. Instrument capillary
c. Hydraulic g. Electrical
d. Inert gas

Rev. 0 Page 1 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

EO 1.5 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the


following basic types of instrum entation:

a. Differential pressure cell e. Rotometer


b. Tem perature element f. Conductivity or
c. Venturi salinity cell
d. Orifice g. Radiation detector

EO 1.6 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs to denote


the location, either local or board mounted, of instruments,
indicators, and controllers.

EO 1.7 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the


following types of instrument signal modifiers:

a. Proportional
b. Proportional-integral
c. Proportional-integral-differential
d. Square root extractors

EO 1.8 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering P&IDs for the


following types of system components:

a. Centrifugal pum ps e. Fans


b. Positive displacement pumps f. Tanks
c. Heat exchangers g. Filters/strainers
d. Compressors

Symbology

To read and interpret piping and instrument drawings (P&IDs), the reader must learn the meaning
of the symbols. This chapter discusses the common symbols that are used to depict fluid system
components. When the symbology is mastered, the reader will be able to interpret most P&IDs.

The reader should note that this chapter is only representative of fluid system symbology, rather
than being all-inclusive. The symbols presented herein are those most commonly used in
engineering P&IDs. The reader may expand his or her knowledge by obtaining and studying the
appropriate drafting standards used at his or her facility.

PR-02 Page 2 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

Valve Symbols

Valves are used to control the direction, flow rate, and pressure of fluids. Figure 1 shows the
symbols that depict the major valve types.

It shoud be noted that globe and gate valves will often be depicted by the same valve symbol.
In such cases, information concerning the valve type may be conveyed by the component
identification number or by the notes and legend section of the drawing; however, in many
instances even that may not hold true.

Figure 1 Valve Symbols

Rev. 0 Page 3 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Valve Actuators

Some valves are provided with actuators to allow remote operation, to increase mechanical
advantage, or both. Figure 2 shows the symbols for the common valve actuators. Note that
although each is shown attached to a gate valve, an actuator can be attached to any type of valve
body. If no actuator is shown on a valve symbol, it may be assumed the valve is equipped only
with a handwheel for manual operation.

Figure 2 Valve Actuator Symbols

The combination of a valve and an actuator is commonly called a control valve. Control valves
are symbolized by combining the appropriate valve symbol and actuator symbol, as illustrated
in Figure 2. Control valves can be configured in many different ways. The most commonly
found configurations are to manually control the actuator from a remote operating station, to
automatically control the actuator from an instrument, or both.

In many cases, remote control of a valve is accomplished


by using an intermediate, small control valve to operate
the actuator of the process control valve. The
intermediate control valve is placed in the line supplying
motive force to the process control valve, as shown in
Figure 3. In this example, air to the process air-operated
control valve is controlled by the solenoid-operated,
3-way valve in the air supply line. The 3-way valve may
supply air to the control valve's diaphragm or vent the
diaphragm to the atmosphere.
Figure 3 Remotely Controlled Valve

PR-02 Page 4 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

Note that the symbols alone in Figure 3 do not provide the reader with enough information to
determine whether applying air pressure to the diaphragm opens or closes the process control
valve, or whether energizing the solenoid pressurizes or vents the diaphragm. Further, Figure 3
is incomplete in that it does not show the electrical portion of the valve control system nor does
it identify the source of the motive force (compressed air). Although Figure 3 informs the reader
of the types of mechanical components in the control system and how they interconnect, it does
not provide enough information to determine how those components react to a control signal.

Control valves operated by an instrument signal are symbolized in the same manner as those
shown previously, except the output of the controlling instrument goes to the valve actuator.
Figure 4 shows a level instrument (designated "LC") that controls the level in the tank by
positioning an air-operated diaphragm control valve. Again, note that Figure 4 does not contain
enough information to enable the reader to determine how the control valve responds to a change
in level.

Figure 4 Level Control Valve

An additional aspect of some control valves is a valve positioner, which allows more precise
control of the valve. This is especially useful when instrument signals are used to control the
valve. An example of a valve positioner is a set of limit switches operated by the motion of the
valve. A positioner is symbolized by a square box on the stem of the control valve actuator. The
positioner may have lines attached for motive force, instrument signals, or both. Figure 5 shows
two examples of valves equipped with positioners. Note that, although these examples are more
detailed than those of Figure 3 and Figure 4, the reader still does not have sufficient information
to fully determine response of the control valve to a change in control signal.

Rev. 0 Page 5 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Figure 5 Control Valves with Valve Positioners

In Example A of Figure 5, the reader can reasonably assume that opening of the control valve
is in some way proportional to the level it controls and that the solenoid valve provides an
override of the automatic control signals. However, the reader cannot ascertain whether it opens
or closes the control valve. Also, the reader cannot determine in which direction the valve moves
in response to a change in the control parameter. In Example B of Figure 5, the reader can make
the same general assumptions as in Example A, except the control signal is unknown. Without
additional information, the reader can only assume the air supply provides both the control signal
and motive force for positioning the control valve. Even when valves are equipped with
positioners, the positioner symbol may appear only on detailed system diagrams. Larger, overall
system diagrams usually do not show this much detail and may only show the examples of
Figure 5 as air-operated valves with no special features.

Control Valve Designations

A control valve may serve any number of functions within a fluid system. To differentiate
between valve uses, a balloon labeling system is used to identify the function of a control valve,
as shown in Figure 6. The common convention
is that the first letter used in the valve designator
indicates the parameter to be controlled by the
valve. For example:

F = flow
T = temperature
L = level
P = pressure
H = hand (manually operated valve)

The second letter is usually a "C" and identifies


the valve as a controller, or active component, as
opposed to a hand-operated valve. The third
letter is a "V" to indicate that the piece of
equipment is a valve. Figure 6 Control Valve Designations

PR-02 Page 6 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

Piping Systems

The piping of a single system may


contain more than a single medium.
For example, although the main
process flow line may carry water, the
associated auxiliary piping may carry
compressed air, inert gas, or hydraulic
fluid. Also, a fluid system diagram
may also depict instrument signals and
electrical wires as well as piping.
Figure 7 shows commonly used
symbols for indicating the medium
carried by the piping and for
differentiating between piping,
instrumentation signals, and electrical
wires. Note that, although the
auxiliary piping symbols identify their
mediums, the symbol for the process
flow line does not identify its medium. Figure 7 Piping Symbols

Rev. 0 Page 7 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

The diagram may also depict


t h e i n d i v i d u al f i t t i n g s
comprising the piping runs
depending on its intended use.
Figure 8 shows symbols used
to depict pipe fittings.

Instrumentation

One of the main purposes of a


P&ID is to provide functional
information about how
instrumentation in a system or
piece of equipment interfaces
with the system or piece of
equipment. Because of this, a
large amount of the symbology
appearing on P&IDs depicts
instrumentation and instrument
loops.

The symbols used to represent


instruments and their loops can Figure 8 More Piping Symbols
be divided into four categories.
Generally each of these four
categories uses the component
identifying (labeling) scheme identified in Table 1. The first column of Table 1 lists the letters
used to identify the parameter being sensed or monitored by the loop or instrument. The second
column lists the letters used to indicate the type of indicator or controller. The third column lists
the letters used to indicate the type of component. The fourth column lists the letters used to
indicate the type of signals that are being modified by a modifier.

PR-02 Page 8 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

TAB LE 1
Instrument Identifiers

Type of Indicator
Sensed Parameter or Controller Type of Component Type of signal

F = flow R = recorder T = transmitter I = current


T = temperature I = indicator M = modifier V = voltage
P = pressure C = controller E = element P = pneumatic
I = current
L = level
V = voltage
Z = position

The first three columns above are combined such that the resulting instrument identifier indicates
its sensed parameter, the function of the instrument, and the type of instrument. The fourth
column is used only in the case of an instrument modifier and is used to indicate the types of
signals being modified. The following is a list of example instrument identifiers constructed from
Table 1.

FIC = flow indicating controller TT = temperature transmitter


FM = flow modifier PT = pressure transmitter
PM = pressure modifier FE = flow element
TE = temperature element FI = flow indicator
TR = temperature recorder TI = temperature indicator
LIC = level indicating controller FC = flow controller

Rev. 0 Page 9 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Sensing Devices and Detectors

The parameters of any system are monitored for indication, control, or both. To create a usable
signal, a device must be inserted into the system to detect the desired parameter. In some cases,
a device is used to create special conditions so that another device can supply the necessary
measurement. Figure 9 shows the symbols used for the various sensors and detectors.

Figure 9 Detector and Sensing Device Symbols

PR-02 Page 10 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

M odifiers and Transmitters

Sensors and detectors by themselves are not sufficient to create usable system indications. Each
sensor or detector must be coupled with appropriate modifiers and/or transmitters. The
exceptions are certain types of local instrumentation having mechanical readouts, such as bourdon
tube pressure gages and bimetallic thermometers. Figure 10 illustrates various examples of
modifiers and transmitters. Figure 10 also illustrates the common notations used to indicate the
location of an instrument, i.e., local or board mounted.

Transmitters are used to


convert the signal from a
sensor or detector to a
form that can be sent to a
remote point for
processing, controlling, or
monitoring. The output
can be electronic (voltage
or current), pneumatic, or
hydraulic. Figure 10
illustrates symbols for
several specific types of
transmitters.

The reader should note that


modifiers may only be
identified by the type of
input and output signal
(such as I/P for one that
converts an electrical input
to a pneumatic output)
rather than by the
monitored parameter (such
as PM for pressure
modifier).

Figure 10 Transmitters and Instruments

Rev. 0 Page 11 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Indicators and Recorders

Indicators and recorders are


instruments that convert the signal
generated by an instrument loop
into a readable form. The
indicator or recorder may be
locally or board mounted, and like
modifiers and transmitters this
information is indicated by the
type of symbol used. Figure 11
provides examples of the symbols
used for indicators and recorders
and how their location is denoted.

Controllers

Controllers process the signal from


an instrument loop and use it to
position or manipulate some other
system component. Generally they
are denoted by placing a "C" in
the balloon after the controlling
parameter as shown in Figure 12.
There are controllers that serve to
process a signal and create a new
signal. These include proportional Figure 11 Indicators and Recorders
controllers, proportional-integral
controllers, and proportional-integral-differential controllers. The symbols for these controllers
are illustrated in Figure 13. Note that these types of controllers are also called signal
conditioners.

Figure 12 Controllers Figure 13 Signal Conditioners

PR-02 Page 12 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

Exa mples of Simple Instrument Loops

Figure 14 shows two examples of


simple instrument loops. Figure 14
(A) shows a temperature transmitter
(TT), which generates two electrical
signals. One signal goes to a board-
mounted temperature recorder (TR) for
display. The second signal is sent to
a proportional-integral-derivative (PID)
controller, the output of which is sent
to a current-to-pneumatic modifier
(I/P). In the I/P modifier, the electric
signal is converted into a pneumatic
signal, commonly 3 psi to 15 psi,
which in turn operates the valve. The
function of the complete loop is to
modify flow based on process fluid
temperature. Note that there is not
enough information to determine how
flow and temperature are related and
what the setpoint is, but in some
instances the setpoint is stated on a
P&ID. Knowing the setpoint and
purpose of the system will usually be
sufficient to allow the operation of the
instrument loop to be determined.
Figure 14 Instrumentation System Examples

The pneumatic level transmitter (LT) illustrated in Figure 14 (B) senses tank level. The output
of the level transmitter is pneumatic and is routed to a board-mounted level modifier (LM). The
level modifier conditions the signal (possibly boosts or mathematically modifies the signal) and
uses the modified signal for two purposes. The modifier drives a board-mounted recorder (LR)
for indication, and it sends a modified pneumatic signal to the diaphragm-operated level control
valve. Notice that insufficient information exists to determine the relationship between sensed
tank level and valve operation.

Components

Within every fluid system there are major components such as pumps, tanks, heat exchangers,
and fans. Figure 15 shows the engineering symbols for the most common major components.

Rev. 0 Page 13 PR-02


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Figure 15 Symbols for Major Components

PR-02 Page 14 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

Miscellaneous P&ID Symbols

In addition to the normal symbols used on P&IDs to represent specific pieces of equipment, there
are miscellaneous symbols that are used to guide or provide additional information about the
drawing. Figure 16 lists and explains four of the more common miscellaneous symbols.

Figure 16 Miscellaneous Symbols

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Engineering Fluids Diagra ms and Prints Summary

In this chapter the common symbols found on P&IDs for valves, valve operators, process
piping, instrumentation, and common system components were reviewed.

Rev. 0 Page 15 PR-02


READING ENGINEERING P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

READING ENGINEERING P&IDs

Standards and conventions have been developed to provide consistency from


drawing to drawing. To accurately interpret a drawing, these standards and
conventions must be understood.

EO 1.9 STATE how the following valve conditions are depicted on an


engineering P& ID drawing:

a. Open valve e. Locked-closed valve


b. Closed valve f. Locked-open valve
c. Throttled valve g. Fail-open valves
d. Com bination valves h. Fail-closed valve
(3- or 4- way valve) i. Fail-as-is valve

Standards and Conventions for Valve Status

Before a diagram or print can be


properly read and understood, the
basic conventions used by P&IDs
to denote valve positions and
failure modes must be understood.
The reader must be able to
determine the valve position, know
if this position is normal, know
how the valve will fail, and in
some cases know if the valve is
normally locked in that position.
Figure 17 illustrates the symbols
used to indicate valve status.
Unless otherwise stated, P&IDs
indicate valves in their "normal"
position. This is usually
interpreted as the normal or
primary flowpath for the system.
An exception is safety systems,
which are normally shown in their Figure 17 Valve Status Symbols
standby or non-accident condition.

3-way valves are sometimes drawn in the position that they will fail to instead of always being
drawn in their "normal" position. This will either be defined as the standard by the system of
drawings or noted in some manner on the individual drawings.

PR-02 Page 16 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 READING ENGINEERING P&IDs

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Reading Engineering P&IDs Summary

This chapter reviewed the basic symbology, common standards, and conventions used on
P&IDs, such as valve conditions and modes of failure. This information, with the
symbology learned in the preceding chapter, provides the information necessary to read
and interpret most P&IDs.

Rev. 0 Page 17 PR-02


P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

P&ID PRINT READING E XAMPLE

The ability to read and understand prints is achieved through the repetitive
reading of prints.

EO 1.10 Given an engineering P&ID, IDENTIFY components and


DETERM INE the flowpath(s) for a given valve lineup.

Exa mple

At this point, all the symbols for valves and major components have been presented, as have the
conventions for identifying the condition of a system. Refer to Figure 18 as necessary to answer
the following questions. The answers are provided in the back of this section so that you may
judge your own knowledge level.

PR-02 Page 18 Rev.0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE

Figure 18 Exercise P&ID

Rev. 0 Page 19 PR-02


P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

1. Identify the following components by letter or number.

a. Centrifugal pump
b. Heat exchanger
c. Tank
d. Venturi
e. Rupture disc
f. Relief valve
g. Motor-operated valve
h. Air-operated valve
i. Throttle valve
j. Conductivity cell
k. Air line
l. Current-to-pneumatic converter
m. Check valve
n. A locked-closed valve
o. A closed valve
p. A locked-open valve
q. A solenoid valve

2. What is the controlling parameter for Valves 10 and 21?

3. Which valves would need to change position in order for Pump B to supply flow to only
points G and H?

4. Which valves will fail open? Fail closed? Fail as is?

PR-02 Page 20 Rev.0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE

Answers for questions on Figure 18

1. a. A or B
b. C or D
c. E
d. 31
e. 1
f. 8 or 17
g. 2,3,7 or 16
h. 10, 21
i. 12 or 24
j. 26
k. 32
l. 28
m. 5 or 14
n. 18 or 19
o. 18 or 19
p. 4
q. 11 or 23

2. Temperature as sensed by the temperature elements (TE)

3. Open 18 and/or 19
Shut 13 and 25

4. Fail Open: 2 and 3


Fail Closed: 10 and 21
Fail as is: 7 and 16

Rev. 0 Page 21 PR-02


P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

P&ID Print Reading Exa mple Summary

This chapter provided the student with examples in applying the material
learned in Chapters 1 and 2.

PR-02 Page 22 Rev.0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

FLUID P OWER P&IDs

Fluid power diagrams and schematics require an independent review because they
use a unique set of symbols and conventions.

EO 1.11 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering fluid power


drawings for the following components:

a. Pum p d. Actuators
b. Com pressor e. Piping and piping junctions
c. Reservoir f. Valves

EO 1.12 Given a fluid power type drawing, DETERM INE the operation
or resultant action of the stated component when hydraulic
pressure is applied/removed.

Fluid Power Diagra ms and Schematics

Different symbology is used when dealing with systems that operate with fluid power. Fluid
power includes either gas (such as air) or hydraulic (such as water or oil) motive media. Some
of the symbols used in fluid power systems are the same or similar to those already discussed,
but many are entirely different.

Fluid power systems are divided into five basic parts:


pumps, reservoirs, actuators, valves, and lines.

Pumps

In the broad area of fluid power, two categories of


pump symbols are used, depending on the motive
media being used (i.e., hydraulic or pneumatic). The
basic symbol for the pump is a circle containing one
or more arrow heads indicating the direction(s) of
flow with the points of the arrows in contact with the
circle. Hydraulic pumps are shown by solid arrow
heads. Pneumatic compressors are represented by
hollow arrow heads. Figure 19 provides common
Figure 19 Fluid Power Pump and
symbols used for pumps (hydraulic) and compressors Compressor Symbols
(pneumatic) in fluid power diagrams.

Rev. 0 Page 23 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Reservoirs

Reservoirs provide a location for storage of the motive media (hydraulic fluid or compressed gas).
Although the symbols used to represent reservoirs vary widely, certain conventions are used to
indicate how a reservoir handles the fluid. Pneumatic reservoirs are usually simple tanks and
their symbology is usually some variation of the cylinder shown in Figure 20. Hydraulic
reservoirs can be much more complex in terms of how the fluid is admitted to and removed from
the tank. To convey this information, symbology conventions have been developed. These
symbols are in Figure 20.

Figure 20 Fluid Power Reservoir Symbols

Actuator

An actuator in a fluid power system is any device that converts the hydraulic or pneumatic
pressure into mechanical work. Actuators are classified as linear actuators and rotary actuators.
Linear actuators have some form of piston device. Figure 21 illustrates several types of linear
actuators and their drawing symbols.

PR-02 Page 24 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

Figure 21 Symbols for Linear Actuators

Rotary actuators are generally called motors and may be fixed or variable. Several of the more
common rotary symbols are shown in Figure 22. Note the similarity between rotary motor
symbols in Figure 22 and the pump symbols shown in Figure 19. The difference between them
is that the point of the arrow touches the circle in a pump and the tail of the arrow touches the
circle in a motor.

Rev. 0 Page 25 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Figure 22 Symbols for Rotary Actuators

Piping

The sole purpose of piping in a fluid power system is to transport the working media, at pressure,
from one point to another. The symbols for the various lines and termination points are shown
in Figure 23.

Figure 23 Fluid Power Line Symbols

PR-02 Page 26 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

Valves

Valves are the most complicated symbols in fluid power systems. Valves provide the control that
is required to ensure that the motive media is routed to the correct point when needed. Fluid
power system diagrams require much more complex valve symbology than standard P&IDs due
to the complicated valving used in fluid power systems. In a typical P&ID, a valve opens, closes,
or throttles the process fluid, but is rarely required to route the process fluid in any complex
manner (three- and four-way valves being the common exceptions). In fluid power systems it
is common for a valve to have three to eight pipes attached to the valve body, with the valve
being capable of routing the fluid, or several separate fluids, in any number of combinations of
input and output flowpaths.

The symbols used to represent fluid power valves must contain much more information than the
standard P&ID valve symbology. To meet this need, the valve symbology shown in the
following figures was developed for fluid power P&IDs. Figure 24, a cutaway view, provides
an example of the internal complexity of a simple fluid power type valve. Figure 24 illustrates
a four-way/three-position valve and how it operates to vary the flow of the fluid. Note that in
Figure 24 the operator of the valve is not identified, but like a standard process fluid valve the
valve could be operated by a diaphragm, motor, hydraulic, solenoid, or manual operator. Fluid
power valves, when electrically operated by a solenoid, are drawn in the de-energized position.
Energizing the solenoid will cause the valve to shift to the other port. If the valve is operated
by other than a solenoid or is a multiport valve, the information necessary to determine how the
valve operates will be provided on each drawing or on its accompanying legend print.

Figure 24 Valve Operation

Rev. 0 Page 27 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Refer to Figure 25 to see how the valve in Figure 24 is transformed into a usable symbol.

Figure 25 Valve Symbol Development

PR-02 Page 28 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

Figure 26 shows symbols for the various valve types used in fluid power systems.

Figure 26 Fluid Power Valve Symbols

Rev. 0 Page 29 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Reading Fluid Power Diagra ms

Using the symbology previously


discussed, a fluid power diagram can
now be read. But before reading some
complex examples, let's look at a
simple hydraulic system and convert it
into a fluid power diagram.

Using the drawing in Figure 27, the


left portion of Figure 28 lists each part
and its fluid power symbol. The right
side of Figure 28 shows the fluid
power diagram that represents the
drawing in Figure 27.

Figure 27 Simple Hydraulic Power System

Figure 28 Line Diagram of Simple Hydraulic Power System

PR-02 Page 30 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

With an understanding of the principles involved in reading fluid power diagram, any diagram
can be interpreted. Figure 29 shows the kind of diagram that is likely to be encountered in the
engineering field. To read this diagram, a step-by-step interpretation of what is happening in the
system will be presented.

Figure 29 Typical Fluid Power Diagram

The first step is to get an overall view of what is happening. The arrows between A and B in
the lower right-hand corner of the figure indicate that the system is designed to press or clamp
some type of part between two sections of the machine. Hydraulic systems are often used in
press work or other applications where the work piece must be held in place.

Rev. 0 Page 31 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

With the basic function understood, a detailed study of the diagram can be accomplished using
a step-by-step analysis of each numbered local area in the diagram.

LOCAL AREA NUMBER 1


Symbol for an open reservoir with a strainer. The strainer is used to clean the oil before
it enters the system.

LOCAL AREA NUMBER 2


Fixed displacement pump, electrically operated. This pump provides hydraulic pressure
to the system.

LOCAL AREA NUMBER 3


Symbol for a relief valve with separate pressure gage. The relief valve is spring operated
and protects the system from over pressurization. It also acts as an unloader valve to
relieve pressure when the cylinder is not in operation. When system pressure exceeds its
setpoint, the valve opens and returns the hydraulic fluid back to the reservoir. The gage
provides a reading of how much pressure is in the system.

LOCAL AREA NUMBER 4


Composite symbol for a 4-way, 2-position valve. Pushbutton PB-1 is used to activate the
valve by energizing the S-1 solenoid (note the valve is shown in the de-energized
position). As shown, the high pressure hydraulic fluid is being routed from Port 1 to Port
3 and then to the bottom chamber of the piston. This drives and holds the piston in local
area #5 in the retracted position. When the piston is fully retracted and hydraulic pressure
builds, the unloader (relief) valve will lift and maintain the system's pressure at setpoint.

When PB-1 is pushed and S-1 energized, the 1-2 ports are aligned and 3-4 ports are
aligned. This allows hydraulic fluid to enter the top chamber of the piston and drive it
down. The fluid in the bottom chamber drains though the 3-4 ports back into the
reservoir. The piston will continue to travel down until either PB-1 is released or full
travel is reached, at which point the unloader (relief) valve will lift.

LOCAL AREA NUMBER 5


Actuating cylinder and piston. The cylinder is designed to receive fluid in either the
upper or lower chambers. The system is designed so that when pressure is applied to the
top chamber, the bottom chamber is aligned to drain back to the reservoir. When pressure
is applied to the bottom chamber, the top chamber is aligned so that it drains back to the
reservoir.

PR-02 Page 32 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

Types of Fluid Power Diagra ms

Several kinds of diagrams can be used to show how systems work. With an understanding of
how to interpret Figure 29, a reader will be able to interpret all of the diagrams that follow.

A pictorial diagram shows the physical arrangement of the elements in a system. The
components are outline drawings that show the external shape of each item. Pictorial drawings
do not show the internal function of the elements and are not especially valuable for maintenance
or troubleshooting. Figure 30 shows a pictorial diagram of a system.

Figure 30 Pictorial Fluid Power Diagram

A cutaway diagram shows both the physical arrangement and the operation of the different
components. It is generally used for instructional purposes because it explains the functions
while showing how the system is arranged. Because these diagrams require so much space, they
are not usually used for complicated systems. Figure 31 shows the system represented in
Figure 30 in cutaway diagram format and illustrates the similarities and differences between the
two types of diagrams.

Rev. 0 Page 33 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Figure 31 Cutaway Fluid Power Diagram

A schematic diagram uses symbols to show the elements in a system. Schematics are designed
to supply the functional information of the system. They do not accurately represent the relative
location of the components. Schematics are useful in maintenance work, and understanding them
is an important part of troubleshooting. Figure 32 is a schematic diagram of the system
illustrated in Figure 30 and Figure 31.

Figure 32 Schematic Fluid Power Diagram

PR-02 Page 34 Rev. 0


Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 FLUID POWER P&IDs

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Fluid Power P&IDs Summary

This chapter reviewed the most commonly used symbols on fluid power
diagrams and the basic standards and conventions for reading and
interpreting fluid power diagrams.

Rev. 0 Page 35 PR-02


FLUID POWER P&IDs DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints

Intentionally Left Blank

PR-02 Page 36 Rev. 0


ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,
AND DRAWINGS
Module 3
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF C ONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Fuses and Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Relays, Contacts, Connectors, Lines, Resistors,
and Miscellaneous Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6
Large Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7
Types of Electrical Diagrams or Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
Reading Electrical Diagrams and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

ELECTRICAL WIRING AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM


READING EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Rev. 0 Page i PR-03


LIST OF FIGURES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Basic Transformer Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Figure 2 Transformer Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Figure 3 Switches and Switch Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figure 4 Switch and Switch Status Symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Figure 5 Fuse and Circuit Breaker Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure 6 3-phase and Removable Breaker Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 7 Common Electrical Component Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 8 Large Common Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 9 Comparison of an Electrical Schematic and a Pictorial Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Figure 10 Comparison of an Electrical Schematic and a Wiring Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 11 Wiring Diagram of a Car's Electrical Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 12 Schematic of a Car's Electrical Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 13 Example Electrical Single Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 14 Examples of Relays and Relay Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 15 Ganged Switch Symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 16 Three-Phase Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 17 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Figure 18 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

PR-03 Page ii Rev. 0


Electrical Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Comparison Between Wiring and Schematic Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Rev. 0 Page iii PR-03


REFERENCES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

REFERENCES

ANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards Institute.

ANSI Y32.2 - 1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, American
National Standards Institute.

Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,


California, 1976.

Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1979.

Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,
Virginia, 1972.

Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
1968.

Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.

TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing Company,
Barrington, Illinois, 1974.

Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphical Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,


Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.

Zappe, R.W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
1968.

PR-03 Page iv Rev. 0


Electrical Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given an electrical print, READ and INTERPRET facility electrical diagrams and
schematics.

ENABLING OBJECTIVE S

1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering electrical drawings for the following
components:

a. Single-phase circuit breaker m. Electric motor


(open/closed) n. Meters
b. Three-phase circuit breaker o. Junctions
(open/closed) p. In-line fuses
c. Thermal overload q. Single switch
d. "a" contact r. Multiple-position switch
e. "b" contact s. Pushbutton switch
f. Time-delay contacts t. Limit switches
g. Relay u. Turbine-driven generator
h. Potential transformer v. Motor-generator set
i. Current transformer w. Generator (wye or delta)
j. Single-phase transformer x. Diesel-driven generator
k. Delta-wound transformer y. Battery
l. Wye-wound transformer

1.2 Given an electrical drawing of a circuit containing a transformer, DETERMINE the


direction of current flow, as shown by the transformer's symbol.

1.3 IDENTIFY the symbols and/or codes used on engineering electrical drawings to depict
the relationship between the following components:

a. Relay and its contacts


b. Switch and its contacts
c. Interlocking device and its interlocked equipment

Rev. 0 Page v PR-03


OBJECTIVES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

ENABLING OBJECTIVES (Cont.)

1.4 STATE the condition in which all electrical devices are shown, unless otherwise noted
on the diagram or schematic.

1.5 Given a simple electrical schematic and initial conditions, DETERMINE the condition of
the specified component (i.e., energized/de-energized, open/closed).

1.6 Given a simple electrical schematic and initial conditions, IDENTIFY the power sources
and/or loads and their status (i.e., energized or de-energized).

PR-03 Page vi Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

To read and interpret electrical diagrams and schematics, the basic symbols and
conventions used in the drawing must be understood. This chapter concentrates
on how electrical components are represented on diagrams and schematics. The
function of the individual electrical components and the theory behind their
operation is covered in more detail in the Electrical Science Handbook.

EO 1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering electrical drawings for


the following components:

a. Single-phase circuit breaker m. Electric motor


(open/closed) n. Meters
b. Three-phase circuit breaker o. Junctions
(open/closed) p. In-line fuses
c. Therm al overload q. Single switch
d. "a" contact r. Multiple-position switch
e. "b" contact s. Pushbutton switch
f. Tim e-delay contacts t. Limit switches
g. Relay u. Turbine-driven generator
h. Potential transformer v. Motor-generator set
i. Current transformer w. Generator (wye or delta)
j. Single-phase transformer x. Diesel-driven generator
k. Delta-wound transform er y. Battery
l. W ye-wound transform er

EO 1.2 Given an electrical drawing of a circuit containing a transform er,


DETERM INE the direction of current flow, as shown by the
transform er's symbol.

EO 1.3 IDENTIFY the symbols and/or codes used on engineering electrical


drawings to depict the relationship between the following components:

a. Relay and its contacts


b. Switch and its contacts
c. Interlocking device and its interlocked equipment

EO 1.4 STATE the condition in which all electrical devices are shown, unless
otherwise noted on the diagram or schematic.

EO 1.5 Given a sim ple electrical schematic and initial conditions, DETERM INE
the condition of the specified component (i.e., energized/de-energized,
open/closed).

Rev. 0 Page 1 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

Symbology

To read and interpret electrical


diagrams and schematics, the
reader must first be well
versed in what the many
symbols represent. This
chapter discusses the common
symbols used to depict the
many components in electrical
systems. Once mastered, this
knowledge should enable the
r eader t o successf ul l y
understand most electrical
diagrams and schematics.

The information that follows


provides details on the basic
symbols used to represent
components in electrical
transmission, switching,
control, and protection
diagrams and schematics.

Transformers

The basic symbols for the Figure 1 Basic Transformer Symbols


various types of transformers
are shown in Figure 1 (A). Figure 1 (B) shows how the basic symbol for the transformer is
modified to represent specific types and transformer applications.

In addition to the transformer


symbol itself, polarity marks
are sometimes used to indicate
current flow in the circuit.
This information can be used
to determine the phase
relationship (polarity) between
the input and output terminals
of a transformer. The marks
usually appear as dots on a
transformer symbol, as shown Figure 2 Transformer Polarity
in Figure 2.

PR-03 Page 2 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

On the primary side of the transformer the dot indicates current in; on the secondary side the dot
indicates current out.

If at a given instant the current is flowing into the transformer at the dotted end of the primary
coil, it will be flowing out of the transformer at the dotted end of the secondary coil. The current
flow for a transformer using the dot symbology is illustrated in Figure 2.

Switches

Figure 3 shows the most common types of switches and their symbols. The term "pole," as used
to describe the switches in Figure 3, refers to the number of points at which current can enter
a switch. Single pole and double pole switches are shown, but a switch may have as many poles
as it requires to perform its function. The term "throw" used in Figure 3 refers to the number
of circuits that each pole of a switch can complete or control.

Figure 3 Switches and Switch Symbols

Rev. 0 Page 3 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 4 provides the common symbols that are used to denote automatic switches and explains
how the symbol indicates switch status or actuation.

Figure 4 Switch and Switch Status Symbology

PR-03 Page 4 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

Fuses and Breakers

Figure 5 depicts basic fuse and circuit breaker symbols for single-phase applications. In addition
to the graphic symbol, most drawings will also provide the rating of the fuse next to the symbol.
The rating is usually in amps.

Figure 5 Fuse and Circuit Breaker Symbols

Rev. 0 Page 5 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

When fuses, breakers, or switches are used in three-phase systems, the three-phase symbol
combines the single-phase symbol in triplicate as shown in Figure 6. Also shown is the symbol
for a removable breaker, which is a standard breaker symbol placed between a set of chevrons.
The chevrons represent the point at which the breaker disconnects from the circuit when
removed.

Figure 6 Three-phase and Removable Breaker Symbols

Relays, Contacts, Connectors, Lines, Resistors,


and Miscellaneous Electrical Components

Figure 7 shows the common symbols for relays, contacts, connectors, lines, resistors, and other
miscellaneous electrical components.

PR-03 Page 6 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

Figure 7 Common Electrical Component Symbols

Large Components

The symbols in Figure 8 are used to identify the larger components that may be found in an
electrical diagram or schematic. The detail used for these symbols will vary when used in system
diagrams. Usually the amount of detail will reflect the relative importance of a component to
the particular diagram.

Rev. 0 Page 7 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 8 Large Common Electrical Components

PR-03 Page 8 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

Types of Electrical Diagra ms or Schematics

There are three ways to show electrical circuits. They are wiring, schematic, and pictorial
diagrams. The two most commonly used are the wiring diagram and the schematic diagram.
The uses of these two types of diagrams are compared in Table 1.

TAB LE 1
Comparison Between Wiring and Schematic Diagra ms
Wiring Diagrams Schematic Diagrams

1. Emphasize connections between 1. Emphasize "flow" of system


elements of a circuit or system
2. Use horizontal and vertical lines to
2. Use horizontal and vertical lines to show system flow
represent the wires
3. Use symbols that indicate function of
3. Use simplified pictorials that clearly equipment, but the symbols do not
resemble circuit/system components look like the actual equipment

4. Place equipment and wiring on 4. Drawing layout is done to show the


drawing to approximate actual "flow" of the system as it functions,
physical location in real circuit not the physical layout of the
equipment

The pictorial diagram is usually


not found in engineering
applications for the reasons shown
in the following example.
Figure 9 provides a simple
example of how a schematic
diagram compares to a pictorial
equivalent. As can be seen, the
pictorial version is not nearly as
useful as the schematic, especially
if you were trying to obtain
enough information to repair a
Figure 9 Comparison of an Electrical Schematic
circuit or determine how it and a Pictorial Diagram
operates.

Rev. 0 Page 9 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 10 provides an example of the relationship between a schematic diagram (Figure 10A) and
a wiring diagram (Figure 10B) for an air drying unit. A more complex example, the electrical
circuit of an automobile, is shown in wiring diagram format in Figure 11 and in schematic format
in Figure 12. Notice that the wiring diagram (Figure 11), uses both pictorial representations and
schematic symbols. The schematic (Figure 12) drops all pictorial representations and depicts the
electrical system only in symbols.

Figure 10 Comparison of an Electrical Schematic and a Wiring Diagram

PR-03 Page 10 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

Figure 11 Wiring Diagram of a Car's Electrical Circuit

Rev. 0 Page 11 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 12 Schematic of a Car's Electrical Circuit

When dealing with a large power distribution system, a special type of schematic diagram called
an electrical single line is used to show all or part of the system. This type of diagram depicts
the major power sources, breakers, loads, and protective devices, thereby providing a useful
overall view of the flow of power in a large electrical power distribution system.

On power distribution single lines, even if it is a 3-phase system, each load is commonly
represented by only a simple circle with a description of the load and its power rating (running
power consumption). Unless otherwise stated, the common units are kilowatts (kW). Figure 13
shows a portion of an electrical distribution system at a nuclear power plant.

PR-03 Page 12 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

Figure 13 Example Electrical Single Line

Rev. 0 Page 13 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

Reading Electrical Diagra ms and Schematics

To read electrical system diagrams and schematics properly, the condition or state of each
component must first be understood. For electrical schematics that detail individual relays and
contacts, the components are always shown in the de-energized condition (also called the shelf-
state).

To associate the proper relay with the contact(s) that it operates, each relay is assigned a specific
number and/or letter combination. The number/letter code for each relay is carried by all
associated contacts. Figure 14 (A) shows a simple schematic containing a coil (M1) and its
contact. If space permits, the relationship may be emphasized by drawing a dashed line
(symbolizing a mechanical connection) between the relay and its contact(s) or a dashed box
around them as shown in Figure 14 (B). Figure 14 (C) illustrates a switch and a second set of
contacts that are operated by the switch.

Figure 14 Examples of Relays and Relay Contacts

PR-03 Page 14 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

When a switch is used in a circuit, it may contain several sets of contacts or small switches
internal to it. The internal switches are shown individually on a schematic. In many cases, the
position of one internal switch will effect the position of another. Such switches are called
ganged switches and are symbolized by connecting them with a dashed line as shown in
Figure 15 (A). In that example, closing Switch 1 also closes Switch 2. The dashed line is also
used to indicate a mechanical interlock between two circuit components. Figure 15 (B) shows
two breakers with an interlock between them.

Figure 15 Ganged Switch Symbology

In system single line diagrams, transformers are often represented by the symbol for a single-
phase air core transformer; however, that does not necessarily mean that the transformer has an
air core or that it is single phase. Single line system diagrams are intended to convey only
general functional information, similar to the type of information presented on a P&ID for a
piping system. The reader must investigate further if more detail is required. In diagrams

Rev. 0 Page 15 PR-03


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS Electrical Diagrams and Schematics

depicting three-phase systems, a small symbol may be placed to the side of the transformer
primary and secondary to indicate the type of transformer windings that are used.

Figure 16 (A) shows the most commonly used symbols to indicate how the phases are connected
in three-phase windings. Figure 16 (B) illustrates examples of how these symbols appear in a
three-phase single line diagram.

Figure 16 Three-Phase Symbols

PR-03 Page 16 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93
Electrical Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Electrical Diagra ms and Schematics Summary

This chapter covered the common symbols used on electrical diagrams and
schematics to represent the basic electrical components.

Polarity on a transformer is defined by dots placed on the primary and secondary


windings. On the primary side, the dot indicates current in; on the secondary, the
dot indicates current out.

Switches, relays, and interlocked equipment commonly use dashed lines or boxes
to indicate the relationship between them and other components.

Electrical components, such as relays, are drawn in the de-energized state unless
otherwise noted on the diagram.

Rev. 0 Page 17 PR-03


ELECTRICAL WIRING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

ELECTRICAL WIRING AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM


READING EXAMPLES

This chapter contains several examples that will help to build, through practice,
on the knowledge gained in reading electrical wiring and schematic diagrams.

1.6 Given a sim ple electrical schematic and initial conditions, IDENTIFY
the power sources and/or loads and their status (i.e., energized or de-
energized).

Exa mples

To aid in understanding the symbology and diagrams discussed in this module refer to Figure 17
and Figure 18. Then answer the questions asked about each. The answers for each example are
given on the page following the questions.

Referring to Figure 17:

1. What type of diagram is it?

2. What is the rating on the fuses protecting the motor controller circuit?

Refer to the number at the far left to locate the following lines.

3. What is the component labeled ITDR in line 13?

4. Which lines contain limit switches?

5. Which lines contain pushbutton switches?

6. How many contacts are operated from relay 8CR?

7. What component is represented by the symbol on the far right of line 4?

PR-03 Page 18 Rev. 0


Electrical Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 ELECTRICAL WIRING
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

Figure 17 Example 1

Rev. 0 Page 19 PR-03


ELECTRICAL WIRING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

Answers to questions on Figure 17.

1. Schematic

2. 10 amps

3. A time delay closing switch

4. Lines 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15

5. Lines 3, 4, 5, 6, and 18

6. 4.

7. A green lamp

Figure 18 Example 2

PR-03 Page 20 Rev. 0


Electrical Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 ELECTRICAL WIRING
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

Referring to Figure 18.

1. What type of diagram is Figure 18?

2. How many current transformers are in the diagram?

3. What type of circuit breakers are shown?

4. What is the voltage on the main bus?

5. What is the voltage entering the transformer in the lower left corner?

6. Classify the transformer in the upper left corner.

7. What is the component in the lower left corner?

Rev. 0 Page 21 PR-03


ELECTRICAL WIRING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

Answers to questions on Figure 18.

1. System diagram

2. 3. If you said 4, the one in the upper right is a potential transformer.

3. Drawout type.

4. 4.16 kV or 4160 V.

5. 480 V.

6. Delta primary, grounded wye secondary.

7. (Emergency) diesel generator

PR-03 Page 22 Rev. 0


Electrical Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 ELECTRICAL WIRING
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Electrical Wiring and Schematic Diagra m Reading Exa mple Summary

This chapter reviewed the material presented in this module through


the practice reading examples.

Rev. 0 Page 23 PR-03


ELECTRICAL WIRING DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Electrical Diagrams and Schematics
AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM READING EXAMPLES

Intentionally Left Blank.

PR-03 Page 24 Rev. 0


Department of Energy
Fundamentals Handbook

ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,


AND DRAWINGS
Module 4
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES ii
iii
LIST OF TABLES

REFERENCES iv

OBJECTIVES v

ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS AND SCHEMATICS 1

Introduction 1
Electronic Schematic Drawing Symbology 2
Examples of Electronic Schematic Diagrams 5
Reading Electronic Prints, Diagrams, and Schematics 7
Block Drawing Symbology 12
Examples of Block Diagrams 12
Summary 17

EXAMPLES 18

Example 1 18
Example 2 22
Summary 23

Rev. 0 Page i PR-04


LIST OF FIGURES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Electronic Symbols 3

Figure 2 Electronic Symbols (Continued) 4

Figure 3 Example of an Electronic Schematic Diagram 5

Figure 4 Comparison of an Electronic Schematic Diagram


and its Pictorial Layout Diagram 6

Figure 5 Transformer Polarity Markings 7

Figure 6 Schematic Showing Power Supply Connections 8

Figure 7 NPN Transistor-Conducting 9

Figure 8 NPN Transistor-Nonconducting 9

Figure 9 PNP Transistor 10

Figure 10 Diode 10

Figure 11 Bistable Symbols 11

Figure 1 2 Example Blocks 12

Figure 1 3 Example Block Diagram 13

Figure 14 Example of a Combined Drawing, P&ID, Electrical Single Line,


and Electronic Block Diagram 15
.
Figure 15 Example Combination Diagram of Electrical Single Line, and Block Diagram 16

Figure 16 Example 1 19

Figure 17 Example 2 22

PR-04 Page ii Rev. 0


Electronic Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

NONE

Rev. 0 Page iii PR-04


REFERENCES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

REFERENCES

ANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards


Institute.

ANSI Y32.2 -1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, American
National Standards Institute.

Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,


California, 1976.

Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1979.

Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,
Virginia, 1972.

Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons Inc,
1968.

Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.

TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing


Company, Barrington, Illinois, 1974.

Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphica1 Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,


Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.

Zappe, R. W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
1968. .

PR-04 Page iv Rev. 0


Electronic Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given a block diagram, print, or schematic, IDENTIFY the basic component symbols
as presented in this module.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering electronic block diagrams, prints, and
schematics, for the following components.

a. Fixed resistor o. Fuse


b. Variable resistor p. Plug
c. Tapped resistor q. Headset
d. Fixed capacitor r. Light bulb
e. Variable capacitor s. Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
f. Fixed inductor t. Half wave rectifier
g. Variable inductor u. Full wave rectifier
h. Diode v. Oscillator
i. Light emitting diode (LED) w. Potentiometer
j. Ammeter x. Rheostat
k. Voltmeter y. Antenna
1. Wattmeter z. Amplifier
m. Chassis ground aa. PNP and NPN transistors
n. Circuit ground bb. Junction

1.2 STATE the purpose of a block diagram and an electronic schematic diagram.

. Rev. 0 Page v PR-04


.
.
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Intentionally Left Blank.

PR-04 Page vi Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS,
PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

To read and understand an electronic diagram or electronic schematic,


the basic symbols and conventions must be understood.

EO 1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on engineering


electronic block diagrams, prints, and schematics, for
the following components.

a. Fixed resistor n. Circuit ground


b. Variable o. Fuse
resistor p. Plug
c. Tapped resistor q. Headset
d. Fixed capacitor r. Light bulb
e. Variable s. Silicon controlled rectifier
capacitor (SCR)
f. Fixed inductor t. Half wave bridge rectifier
g. Variable u. Full wave rectifier
inductor v. Oscillator
h. Diode w. Potentiometer
i. Light emitting x. Rheostat
diode (LED) y. Antenna
j. Ammeter z. Amplifier
k. Voltmeter aa. PNP and NPN transistors
l. Wattmeter bb. Junction
m. Chassis ground

EO 1.2 STATE the purpose of a block diagram and an


electronic schematic diagram.

Introduction

Electronic prints fall into two basic categories, electronic schematics and block diagrams.
Electronic schematics represent the most detailed category of electronic drawings. They depict
every component in a circuit, the component's technical information (such as its ratings), and
how each component is wired into the circuit. Block diagrams are the simplest type of drawing.
As the name implies, block diagrams represent any part, component, or system as a simple
geometric shape, with each block capable of representing a single component (such as a relay)
or an entire system. The intended use of the drawing dictates the level of detail provided by

Rev. 0 Page 1 PR-04


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

each block. This chapter will review the basic symbols and conventions used in both types of
drawings.

Electronic Schematic Drawing Symbology

Of all the different types of electronic drawings, electronic schematics provide the most detail
and information about a circuit. Each electronic component in a given circuit will be depicted
and in most cases its rating or other applicable component information will be provided. This
type of drawing provides the level of information needed to troubleshoot electronic circuits.

Electronic schematics are the most difficult type of drawing to read, because they require a very
high level of knowledge as to how each of the electronic components affects, or is affected by,
an electrical current. This chapter reviews only the symbols commonly used in depicting the
many components in electronic systems. Once mastered, this knowledge should enable the
reader to obtain a functional understanding of most electronic prints and schematics.

Figure 1 and Figure 2 illustrate the most common electronic symbols used on electronic
schematics.

PR-04 Page 2 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS
Figure 1 Electronic Symbols
Rev. 0 Page 3 PR-04
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics
Figure 2 Electronic Symbols (Continued)
PR-04 Page 4 Rev. 0
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

Examples of Electronic Schematic Diagrams

Electronic schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit, no matter
how small. The schematics do not show placement or scale, merely function and flow. From this,
the actual workings of a piece of electronic equipment can be determined. Figure 3 is an example
of an electronic schematic diagram.

Figure 3 Example of an Electronic Schematic Diagram

A second type of electronic schematic diagram, the pictorial layout diagram, is actually not so
much an electronic schematic as a pictorial of how the electronic circuit actually looks. These
drawings show the actual layout of the components on the circuit board. This provides a
two-dimensional drawing, usually looking down from the top, detailing the components in their
location. Shown in Figure 4 is the schematic for a circuit and the same circuit drawn in pictorial
or layout format for comparison. Normally the pictorial layout would be accompanied by a parts
list.

Rev. 0 Page 5 PR-04


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 4 Comparison of an Electronic Schematic Diagram and its Pictorial Layout Diagram

PR-04 Page 6 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

Reading Electronic Prints, Diagrams and Schematics

To properly read prints and schematics, the reader must identify the condition of the components
shown and also follow the events that occur as the circuit functions. As with electrical systems,
the relays and contacts shown are always in the de-energized condition. Modern electronic
systems usually contain few, if any, relays or contacts, so these will normally play a minor role.

Electronic schematics are more difficult to read than electrical schematics, especially when solid
state devices are used (The Electronic Science Fundamental Handbook discusses electrical
schematics in detail). Knowledge of the workings of these devices is necessary to determine
current flow. In this section, only the basics will be covered to assist in reading skills.

The first observation in dealing with a detailed electronic schematic is the source and polarity of
power. Generally, power will be shown one of two ways, either as an input transformer, or as
a numerical value. When power is supplied by a transformer, polarity marks will aid in
determining current flow. In this convention, dots on the primary and secondary indicate current
flow into the primary and out of the secondary at a given instant of time. In Figure 5, the current
is into the top of the primary and out of the bottom of the secondary.

PRIMARY SECONDARY

Figure 5 Transformer Polarity Markings

Generally, the electrical power source is indicated at the point where it enters a particular
schematic. These values are stated numerically with polarity assigned (+15 volts, -15 volts).
These markings are usually at the top and bottom of schematics, but not always. In the example
shown in Figure 6, power is shown at both the top and bottom in a circuit using two power
sources. Unless specified as an Alternating Current (AC) power source, the voltages can
normally be assumed to be Direct Current (DC).

Rev. 0 Page 7 PR-04


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 6 Schematic Showing Power Supply Connections

In any circuit, a ground must be established to create a complete current path. Ground is usually
depicted by the use of the ground symbol that was shown previously. The direction of current
flow can be determined by observing the polarity of the power supplies. When polarities are
shown, current flow can be established and ground may not always be shown.

With the power sources located and the ground point established, operation of the devices can
be determined.

The most common semiconductor devices are the transistor and the diode. They are made from
materials like silicone and germanium, and have electrical properties intermediate between
conductors and insulators. The semiconductor will be one of two varieties, the PNP or NPN.
The designation indicates the direction the electrons move through the device. The direction of

PR-04 Page 8 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

the arrow indicates type, as shown in Figure 2. There are, however, many different ways to install
a transistor to achieve different operational characteristics. These are too numerous to cover here,
so only the most common and basic configuration (the common emitter) will be shown.

Even though transistors contain multiple junctions of p- or n-type material, current flow is
generally in the same direction. Using conventional current flow (i.e. from + to -), current will
travel through the transistor from most positive to least positive and in the direction of the arrow
on the emitter. In Figure 7, the transistor has a positive power supply with ground on the emitter.
If the input is also positive, the transistor will conduct.

Figure 7 NPN Transistor-Conducting

If the input goes negative, as in Figure 8, the conduction of the device stops because the input,
or in this case the base junction, controls the transistor condition. Notice that when current flows,
it does so in the direction of the arrow.

Figure 8 NPN Transistor-Nonconducting

Rev. 0 Page 9 PR-04


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 9 uses a PNP transistor. The same rules apply as above except that this time polarities of
power must change to allow current flow.

Figure 9 PNP Transistor

The same rules that apply to transistors hold true with diodes. However, diodes are simpler than
transistors because they have only one junction and conduct in only one direction, as indicated
in Figure 10. The diode symbol, like the transistor symbol, shows the direction of conduction by
the direction of the arrow, which is from positive to negative.

Figure 10 Diode

Although these simple rules will not allow you to read all electronic schematics, they will aid in
understanding some of the basic concepts.

PR-04 Page 10 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

An item that may cause confusion when reading electronic prints or schematics is the markings
used to show bistable operation. In most cases, bistables will be indicated by a box or circle, as
shown in Figure 11 (A). The lines in or around these bistables not only mark them as bistables,
but also indicate how they function.

Figure 11 Bistable Symbols

Figure 11 (B) shows the various conventions used to indicate bistable operation. Commonly,
one circuit will interface with other circuits, which requires a method that allows the reader to
follow one wire or signal path from the first drawing to the second. This may be done in many
ways, but generally the line or conductor to be continued will end at a terminal board. This
board will be labeled and numbered with the continuation drawing indicated (a separate drawing
may exist for each line). With the next drawing in hand, only the terminal board that matches
the previous number needs to be found to continue. In cases where terminal boards are not
used, the conductor should end with a number (usually a single digit) and also the next drawing
number. To assist in locating the continuation, coordinates are provided on some drawings that
indicate the location of the continuation on the second drawing. The continuation point on the
second drawing will also reference back to the first drawing and the coordinates of the
continuation.

Rev. 0 Page 11 PR-04


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Block Drawing Symbology

Not all electronics prints are drawn to the level of detail depicting the individual resistors and
capacitors, nor is this level of information always necessary. These simpler drawings are called
block diagrams. Block diagrams provide a means of representing any type of electronic circuit
or system in a simple graphic format. Block diagrams are designed to present flow or functional
information about the circuit or system, not detailed component data. The symbols shown in
Figure 12 are used in block diagrams.

Figure 12 Example Blocks

When block diagrams are used, the basic blocks shown above (Figure 12) can be used for
almost anything. Whatever the block represents will be written inside. Note that block
diagrams are presented in this chapter with electronic schematics because block diagrams are
commonly found with complex schematic diagrams to help present or summarize their flow or
functional information. The use of block diagrams is not restricted to electronic circuits. Block
diagrams are used extensively to show complex instrument channels and other complex systems
when only the flowpath of the signal is important.

Examples of Block Diagrams

The block diagram is the most basic and easiest to understand of all the types of engineering
prints. It consists of simple blocks that can represent as much, or as little, as desired. An
example of a block diagram is shown in Figure 13.

This particular block diagram represents an instrumentation channel used to measure the
neutron flux, indicate the measured flux, and generate output signals for use by other systems.

PR-04 Page 12 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

Figure 13 Example Block Diagram

Each block represents a stage in the development of a signal that is used to display on the meter
at the bottom or to send to systems outside the bounds of the drawing. Notice that not all blocks
are equal. Some represent multiple functions, while others represent only a simple stage or single
bistable circuit in a larger component. The creator of the block diagram decides the content of
each block based on the intended use of the drawing.

Each of the type of drawing reviewed in this and previous modules is not always distinct and
separate. In many cases, two or more types of drawings will be combined into a single print.
This allows the necessary information to be presented in a clear and concise format.

Rev. 0 Page 13 PR-04


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 14 provides a sample illustration of how the various types of drawings can be combined.
In this example, mechanical symbols are used to represent the process system and the valves
controlled by the electrical circuit; electrical single line symbols are used to show the solenoid
relays and contacts used in the system; and electronic block symbols are used for the controllers,
summers, I/P converter, and bistables.

PR-04 Page 14 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS
Figure 14 Example of a Combined Drawing, P&ID, Electrical Single Line, and Electronic Block Diagram
Rev. 0 Page 15 PR-04
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Figure 15 illustrates the use of an electronic block diagram combined with an electrical single line
diagram. This drawing represents a portion of the generator protection circuitry of a nuclear
power generating plant.

Figure 15 Example Combination Diagram of Electrical Single Line, and Block Diagram

PR-04 Page 16 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Electronic Diagrams and Schematics ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS, PRINTS, AND SCHEMATICS

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Electronic Diagrams, Prints, and Schematics Summary

This chapter covered the common symbols used to represent the basic electronic
components used on electronic diagrams, prints, and schematics.

A block diagram presents the flow or functional information about a circuit, but it
is not a detailed depiction of the circuit.

An electronic schematic diagram presents the detailed information about the circuit,
each of its components, and how they are wired into the circuit.

Rev. 0 Page 17 PR-04


EXAMPLES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

EXAMPLES

This chapter provides several exercises to reinforce the material presented in this
module.

Example 1

To assist in your understanding of reading symbols and schematics, answer the following
questions concerning the following figures. The answers to each example are given on the page
following the questions.

PR-04 Page 18 Rev. 0


Electronic Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 EXAMPLES

Figure 16 Example 1

Rev. 0 Page 19 PR-04


EXAMPLES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Refer to Figure 16 to answer the following:

1. List the number which corresponds to the listed component.

a. coil or inductor
b. PNP transistor
c. diode
d. positive power supply
e. fixed resistor
f. capacitor
g. NPN transistor
h. variable resistor
.
i. negative power supply
j. circuit ground
k. potentiometer

2. What is the value of R13? (Include units)

3. With the input to Q1 at -15 volts, will the transistor be conducting or nonconducting?
Why?

4. What is the value of C1? (Include units)

PR-04 Page 20 Rev. 0


Electronic Diagrams and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 EXAMPLES

Answers to questions on Figure 16

1. a.10 d. 7 g.1 j. 11
b.2 e.4 h.6 k. 5
c.3 f.9 i.8

2. 3.3 kilo-ohm, or 3300 ohms.

3. Nonconducting, because the potential of the base (-15 v) is not positive relative to the
emitter (-15 v).

4. 50 microfarads or 0.000050 farads.

Rev. 0 Page 21 PR-04


EXAMPLES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Example 2

Figure 17 Example 2

Refer to Figure 17 to answer the following:

a. How many resistors are there in the circuit?

b. How many transistors are there? , and are they PNP or NPN transistors?

c. What is CR4?

d. How many power supplies are there feeding the circuit and its components?

e. How many capacitors are in the circuit?

f. Q2 will conduct when the output of U2 is a positive or negative voltage?

PR-04 Page 22 Rev. 0


Electronic Diagram and Schematics DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 EXAMPLES

Answers to questions on Figure 17

a. Seven resistors, R11, R13, R14, R20, R12, Rl, RL

b. Two, both are NPN type transistors.

c. Diode

d. Two power supplies, a 1-5 VDC to the U2 amplifier and 24 VDC battery in the circuit.

e. One, C7

f. NPN transistors conduct when their base junction is positive

Summary
The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Exercise Summary

This chapter reviewed the material presented in this module through


practice print reading exercises.

Rev. 0 Page 23 PR-04


EXAMPLES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Intentionally Left Blank

PR-04 Page 24 Rev. 0


Department of Energy
Fundamentals Handbook

ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,


AND DRAWINGS
Module 5
Logic Diagrams
Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Time Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Complex Logic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Truth Tables . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


Reading Logic Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Examples . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Example 1 . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Example 2 . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Summary . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Rev. 0 Page i PR-05


LIST OF FIGURES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Example of a Pump Start Circuit Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Figure 2 Example of Pump Start Circuit as a Logic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figure 3 Basic Logic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure 4 Conventions for Depicting Multiple Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure 5 COINCIDENCE Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 6 EXCLUSIVE OR and EXCLUSIVE NOR Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 7 Type One Time Delay Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 8 Type Two Time Delay Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 9 Type Three Time Delay Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 10 Symbols for Complex Logic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Figure 11 Truth Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 12 Logic Gate Status Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 13 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 14 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

PR-05 Page ii Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

NONE

Rev. 0 Page iii PR-05


REFERENCES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

REFERENCES

ANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards


Institute.

ANSI Y32.2 - 1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, American
National Standards Institute.

Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,


California, 1976.

Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1979.

Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,
Virginia, 1972.

Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
1968.

Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.

TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing Company,
Barrington, Illinois, 1974.

Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphical Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,


Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.

Zappe, R.W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
1968.

PR-05 Page iv Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given a logic diagram, READ and INTERPRET the diagrams.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on logic diagrams to represent the following components:

a. AND gate h. Adder


b. NAND gate i. Time-delay
c. COINCIDENCE gate j. Counter
d. OR gate k. Shift register
e. NOR gate l. Flip-flop
f. EXCLUSIVE OR gate m. Logic memories
g. NOT gate or inverter

1.2 EXPLAIN the operation of the three types of time delay devices.

1.3 DEVELOP the truth tables for the following logic gates:

a. AND gate d. NAND gate


b. OR gate e. NOR gate
c. NOT gate f. EXCLUSIVE OR gate

1.4 IDENTIFY the symbols used to denote a logical 1 (or high) and a logical 0 (or low) as
used in logic diagrams.

1.5 Given a logic diagram and appropriate information, DETERMINE the output of each
component and the logic circuit.

Rev. 0 Page v PR-05


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Intentionally Left Blank.

PR-05 Page vi Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS

ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS

This chapter will review the symbols and conventions used on logic diagrams.

EO 1.1 IDENTIFY the symbols used on logic diagrams to represent


the following components:

a. AND gate h. Adder


b. NAND gate i. Time-delay
c. COINCIDENCE gate j. Counter
d. OR gate k. Shift register
e. NOR gate l. Flip-flop
f. EXCLUSIVE OR gate m. Logic memories
g. NOT gate or inverter

EO 1.2 EXPLAIN the operation of the three types of time delay


devices.

Introduction

Logic diagrams have many uses. In the solid state industry, they are used as the principal
diagram for the design of solid state components such as computer chips. They are used by
mathematicians to help solve logical problems (called boolean algebra). However, their principle
application at DOE facilities is their ability to present component and system operational
information. The use of logic symbology results in a diagram that allows the user to determine
the operation of a given component or system as the various input signals change.

To read and interpret logic diagrams, the reader must understand what each of the specialized
symbols represent. This chapter discusses the common symbols used on logic diagrams. When
mastered, this knowledge should enable the reader to understand most logic diagrams.

Facility operators and technical staff personnel commonly see logic symbols on equipment
diagrams. The logic symbols, called gates, depict the operation/start/stop circuits of components
and systems. The following two figures, which use a common facility start/stop pump circuit
as an example, clearly demonstrate the reasons for learning to read logic diagrams. Figure 1
presents a schematic for a large pump, and Figure 2 shows the same pump circuit using only
logic gates. It is obvious that when the basic logic symbols are understood, figuring out how
the pump operates and how it will respond to various combinations of inputs using the logic
diagram is fast and easy, as compared to laboriously tracing through the relays and contacts of
the schematic diagram for the same information.

Rev. 0 Page 1 PR-05


ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams
Figure 1 Example of a Pump Start Circuit Schematic Diagram
PR-05 Page 2 Rev. 0
Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS

Figure 2 Example of Figure 1 Pump Start Circuit as a Logic Diagram

Rev. 0 Page 3 PR-05


ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Symbology

There are three basic types of logic gates. They are AND, OR, and NOT gates. Each gate
is a very simple device that only has two states, on and off. The states of a gate are also
commonly referred to as high or low, 1 or 0, or True or False, where on = high = 1 = True,
and off = low = 0 = False. The state of the gate, also referred to as its output, is determined
by the status of the inputs to the gate, with each type of gate responding differently to the
various possible combinations of inputs. Specifically, these combinations are as follows.

AND gate - provides an output (on) when all its inputs are on. When any one of the
inputs is off, the gate's output is off.

OR gate - provides an output (on) when any one or more of its inputs is on. The gate
is off only when all of its inputs are off.

NOT gate - provides a reversal of the input. If the input is on, the output will be off.
If the input is off, the output will be on.

Because the NOT gate is frequently used in conjunction with AND and OR gates, special
symbols have been developed to represent these combinations. The combination of an AND
gate and a NOT gate is called a NAND gate. The combination of an OR gate with a NOT
gate is called a NOR gate.

NAND gate - is the opposite (NOT) of an AND gate's output. It provides an output
(on) except when all the inputs are on.

NOR gate - is the opposite (NOT) of an OR gate's output. It provides an output only
when all inputs are off.

Figure 3 illustrates the symbols covering the three basic logic gates plus NAND and NOR
gates. The IEEE/ANSI symbols are used most often; however, other symbol conventions are
provided on Figure 3 for information.

PR-05 Page 4 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS

Figure 3 Basic Logic Symbols

The AND gate has a common variation called a COINCIDENCE gate. Logic gates are not
limited to two inputs. Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of inputs a gate can have.
But, as the number of inputs increases, the symbol must be altered to accommodate the
increased inputs. There are two basic ways to show multiple inputs. Figure 4 demonstrates
both methods, using an OR gate as an example. The symbols used in Figure 4 are used
extensively in computer logic diagrams. Process control logic diagrams usually use the
symbology shown in Figure 2.

Figure 4 Conventions for Depicting Multiple Inputs

Rev. 0 Page 5 PR-05


ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

The COINCIDENCE gate behaves like an AND gate


except that only a specific number of the total number
of inputs needs to be on for the gate's output to be on.
The symbol for a COINCIDENCE gate is shown in
Figure 5. The fraction in the logic symbol indicates that
the AND gate is a COINCIDENCE gate. The
numerator of the fraction indicates the number of inputs
that must be on for the gate to be on. The denominator
states the total number of inputs to the gate.

Two variations of the OR gate are the EXCLUSIVE


OR and its opposite, the EXCLUSIVE NOR. The
EXCLUSIVE OR and the EXCLUSIVE NOR are
symbolized by adding a line on the back of the standard Figure 5 COINCIDENCE Gate
OR or NOR gate's symbol, as illustrated in Figure 6.

EXCLUSIVE OR - provides an output (on) when only one of the inputs is on. Any
other combination results in no output (off).

EXCLUSIVE NOR - is the opposite (NOT) of an EXCLUSIVE OR gate's output. It


provides an output only when all inputs are on or when all inputs are off.

Figure 6 EXCLUSIVE OR and EXCLUSIVE NOR Gates

Time Delays

When logic diagrams are used to represent start/stop/operate circuits, the diagrams must also
be able to symbolize the various timing devices found in the actual circuits. There are three
major types of timers. They are 1) the Type-One Time Delay Device, 2) the Type-Two Time
Delay Device, and 3) The Type-Three Time Delay Device.

PR-05 Page 6 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS

Upon receipt of the input signal, the Type-One Time Delay Device delays the output
(on) for the specified period of time, but the output will stop (off) as soon as the input
signal is removed, as illustrated by Figure 7. The symbol for this type of timer is
illustrated in Figure 7.

Figure 7 Type One Time Delay Device

The Type-Two Time Delay Device provides an output signal (on) immediately upon
reciept of the input signal, but the output is maintained only for a specified period of
time once the input signal (off) has been removed. Figure 8 demonstrates the signal
response, and Figure 8 illustrates the symbol used to denote this type of timer.

Figure 8 Type Two Time Delay Device

Rev. 0 Page 7 PR-05


ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Upon reciept of an input signal, Type-Three Time Delay Devices provide an output
signal for a specified period of time, regardless of the duration of the input. Figure 9
demonstrates the signal response and illustrates the symbol used to denote the timer.

Figure 9 Type-Three Time Delay Device

Complex Logic Devices

In addition to the seven basic logic gates, there are several complex logic devices that may be
encountered in the use of logic prints.

Memory devices - In many circuits, a device that can "remember" the last command or
the last position is required for a circuit to function. Like the AND and OR gates,
memory devices have been designed to work with on/off signals. The two input signals
to a memory device are called set and reset. Figure 10 shows the common symbols
used for memory devices.

PR-05 Page 8 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS

Figure 10 Symbols for Complex Logic Devices

Flop-flop - As the name implies, a flip-flop is a device in which as one or more of its
inputs changes, the output changes. A flip-flop is a complex circuit constructed from
OR and NOT gates, but is used so frequently in complex circuits that it has its own
symbol. Figure 10 shows the common symbol used for a flip-flop.

Rev. 0 Page 9 PR-05


ENGINEERING LOGIC DIAGRAMS DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

This device, although occasionally used on component and system type logic diagrams,
is principally used in solid state logic diagrams (computers).

Binary counter - Several types of binary counters exist, all of which are constructed of
flip-flops. The purpose of a counter is to allow a computer to count higher than 1,
which is the highest number a single flip-flop can represent. By ganging flip-flops,
higher binary numbers can be constructed. Figure 10 illustrates a common symbol used
for a binary counter.

Shift register - Is a storage device constructed of flip-flops that is used in computers to


provide temporary storage of a binary word. Figure 10 shows the common symbol used
for a shift register.

Half adder - Is a logic circuit that is used in computer circuits to allow the computer to
"carry" numbers when it is performing mathematical operations (for example to perform
the addition of 9 + 2, a single 10s unit must be "carried" from the ones column to the
tens column). Figure 10 illustrates the symbol used for a half adder.

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Engineering Logic Diagrams Summary

This chapter reviewed the seven basic symbols used on logic diagrams and the
symbols used for six of the more complex logic devices.

There are three types of time delay devices:

Type One - delays the output signal for a specified period of time

Type Two - only generates an output for the specified period of time

Type Three - receipt of an input signal triggers the device to output a


signal for the specified time, regardless of the duration of the input

PR-05 Page 10 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES

TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES

Truth tables offer a simple and easy to understand tool that can be used to
determine the output of any logic gate or circuit for all input combinations.

EO 1.3 DEVELOP the truth tables for the following logic gates:

a. AND gate d. NAND gate


b. OR gate e. NOR gate
c. NOT gate f. EXCLUSIVE OR gate

EO 1.4 IDENTIFY the symbols used to denote a logical 1 (or high)


and a logical 0 (or low) as used in logic diagrams.

EO 1.5 Given a logic diagram and appropriate information,


DETERMINE the output of each component and the logic
circuit.

Truth Tables

When a logic gate has only two inputs, or the logic circuit to be analyzed has only one or two
gates, it is fairly easy to remember how a specific gate responds and determine the output of
the gate or circuit. But as the number of inputs and/or the complexity of the circuit grows, it
becomes more difficult to determine the output of the gate or circuit. Truth tables, as illustrated
in Figure 11, are tools designed to help solve this problem. A truth table has a column for the
input of each gate and column for the output of each gate. The number of rows needed is based
on the number of inputs, so that every combination of input signal is listed (mathematically the
number of rows is 2n, where n = number of inputs). In truth tables, the on and off status of the
inputs and outputs is represented using 0s and 1s. As previously stated 0 = off and 1 = on.
Figure 11 lists truth tables for the seven basic logic gates. Compare each gate's truth table with
its definition given earlier in this module, and verify for yourself that they are stating the same
thing.

Rev. 0 Page 11 PR-05


TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Figure 11 Truth Tables

PR-05 Page 12 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES

Reading Logic Diagrams

When reading logic prints the reader usually must decide the input values to each gate. But
occasionally the print will provide information as to the normal state of each logic gate. This
is denoted by a symbol similar to the bistable symbol, as shown in Figure 12. The symbol is
drawn so that the first part of the square wave indicates the normal state of the gate. The
second part of the square wave indicates the off-normal state of the gate. Figure 12 also
illustrates how this notation is applied.

Figure 12 Logic Gate Status Notation

Reading a logic diagram that does not provide information on the status of the gates is not any
more difficult. It simply requires the reader to choose the initial conditions, determine the
response of the circuits, and modify the inputs as needed. The following exercises will illustrate
how to read some simple logic diagrams.

Examples

To aid in understanding the material presented in this module, practice reading the following
logic diagrams by answering the questions. The answers are on page 18.

Rev. 0 Page 13 PR-05


TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Example 1

Refer to Figure 13 to answer the following questions. Figure 13 illustrates a logic diagram of
a simple fan start circuit.

Figure 13 Example 1

PR-05 Page 14 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES

1. Identify by number the following logic symbols:

a. AND

b. OR

c. Time delay

d. Retentive-Memory

2. How long must the safety signal be present before the time delay (1) will pass an output
(on) signal to Gate 2?

3. Under what conditions will Gate 2 turn on?

4. Under what conditions will the low flow alarm (5) sound?

5. Since the control switch is always in the AUTO position (due to the spring return
feature), what logic gate keeps the continuous on signal that is generated by the control
switch being in the AUTO position from starting the fan? What signal must also be
present to allow the AUTO signal to start the fan?

6. If 12 minutes after first receiving a safety signal, with the fan control switch in the
AUTO position, the safety signal is removed (off), what will happen to the fan? Why?

7. How many ways can the fan be started? How many ways can the fan be stopped?

Rev. 0 Page 15 PR-05


TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Example 2

Refer to Figure 14 to answer the following questions. Figure 14 illustrates a simple valve
control circuit. Flow control valve (FCV) 1-147 is an air-operated valve, with its air controlled
by flow solenoid valve (FSV) 1-147, which is shown in its de-energized position.

Figure 14 Example 2

PR-05 Page 16 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES

1. Identify by number the following logic symbols.

a. AND

b. OR

c. NOT

2. As drawn, with the hand switch in the AUTO position and no safety signal present,
what is the status of the two inputs to Gate 4, on or off?

3. Since electrical components are drawn in their de-energized state, and using the answer
from Question 2, is the flow solenoid valve (FSV-1-147) in its correct position? Why?

4. How many ways can FSV-1-147 be energized? De-energized?

5. If a safety signal is present, can FCV-1-147 (valve FSV-1-147 energized) be opened?


Why?

Rev. 0 Page 17 PR-05


TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Answers to example 1.

1. a. 2
b. 3
c. 1
d. 4

2. The safety signal must be received for greater than 10 minutes before it will pass
through the time delay. If the safety signal is removed before 10 minutes has elapsed
no signal will be passed to Gate 2.

3. Gate 2 will turn on when the hand-switch is in the AUTO position and a safety signal
has been received for greater than 10 minutes.

4. If flow switch (FS) 30-38 senses less than 20,000 cfm, 45 seconds after the fan has
started, or the same condition exists on the 1B-B fan, the alarm will sound.

5. AND Gate 2 prevents the on signal from passing until a safety signal is also received
(>10 minutes).

6. Ten minutes after receiving the safety signal, the fan started. At 12 minutes, removing
the safety signal only removes the continuous start signal to the fan. The fan will
continue to run until the hand switch is placed in the stop position. Further, with the
removal of the safety signal, the fan will remain stopped when the hand switch spring
returns to the AUTO position. Note that if the hand switch is placed in the stop
position while the safety signal is present, the fan will stop, but will restart as soon as
the switch spring returns to the AUTO position.

7. It can be started by two signals - START and AUTO plus a safety signal.
It can be stopped by one signal - STOP (but will only remain stopped if no safety signal
is present or the switch is held in the stopped position).

Answers to example number 2.

1. a. 1 & 4
b. 2
c. 3

2. Right input is - on - this is because the hand control switch is in the AUTO position, and
the AUTO switch contacts are made up, resulting in an on signal. Therefore the hand-
switch CLOSE position contacts are open, resulting in an off signal. The off signal is
reversed in the NOT gate and becomes an on signal.

PR-05 Page 18 Rev. 0


Logic Diagrams DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES

Left input is - off -. To determine this, the status of the gates feeding the left input must
be determined.

Looking at the OR gate (2) above it


The right input to the OR gate is - off - because the hand control switch
is in the AUTO position. The OPEN position contacts are not made up,
resulting in an off signal.

The left input to the OR gate comes from the AND gate (1) above it.

Looking at the three inputs to the AND gate. The bottom input
is - on - because the hand control switch is in the AUTO position
and the AUTO contacts are made up, resulting in an on signal.

The middle input to the AND gate is - on - because the NOT gate
reverses the off safety signal.

The top input is - off - because the valve is not fully open,
resulting in the generation of an off signal. Note this is the signal
that, once the valve has traveled to the fully open position, allows
the valve to remain open after the hand switch is allowed to
spring return to the AUTO position.

Now that all the inputs are known, we can work back through the circuit to determine
the status of the left input to the AND gate (4).

Because the one input, the top, to the AND gate (1) is off, the output of
the AND gate is off. Therefore, the left input into the OR gate (2) is off.
Therefore, because both the left and right inputs to the OR gate (2) are
off the output of the OR gate (1) is off.

3. Yes, de-energized is correct because the left input of the AND gate (4) is off and its right
input is on. But because it is an AND gate and both its inputs are not on, it will not pass
an on signal to the solenoid to energize it.

4. It can be energized one way - the hand switch can be momentarily placed in the OPEN
position.

It can be de-energized two ways - the hand switch can be placed in the CLOSE position,
or, if the valve is open and a safety signal is received, the valve will automatically close.

5. Yes, the valve can be opened, but it will not remain open when the hand switch is
allowed to spring return to the AUTO position. This is because the safety signal's NOT
gate removes the on signal that allows the AND gate (1) to output an on signal and
energize the solenoid.

Rev. 0 Page 19 PR-05


TRUTH TABLES AND EXERCISES DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93 Logic Diagrams

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Truth Tables and Exercises Summary

The normal and off-normal status of each logic gate can be symbolized by the use
of a symbol similar to the bistable.

The first part of the square wave indicates the normal state of
the gate.

The second part of the square wave indicates the off-normal state
of the gate.

This chapter presented the truth tables for each of the seven basic logic gates.

This chapter reviewed several examples of how to read logic diagrams of simple
pump and valve circuits.

PR-05 Page 20 Rev. 0


Department of Energy
Fundamentals Handbook

ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,


AND DRAWINGS
Module 6
Engineering Fabrication, Construction,
and Architectural Drawings
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,


AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 1
Dimensioning Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 5
Dimensioning and Tolerance Symbology, Rules, and Conventions .. . . . . . . . . . 6
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 12

ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,


AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Rev. 0 Page i PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
LIST OF FIGURES Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Example of a Fabrication Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Figure 2 Example of a Construction Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figure 3 Example of an Architectural Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Figure 4 Types of Dimensioning Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 5 Example of Dimensioning Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 6 Symbology Used in Tolerancing Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Figure 7 Examples of Tolerance Symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 8 Example of Tolerancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 9 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 10 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 11 Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

PR-06 Page ii Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

NONE

Rev. 0 Page iii PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
REFERENCES Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings

REFERENCES

ANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards


Institute.

ANSI Y32.2 - 1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, American
National Standards Institute.

Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,


California, 1976.

Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1979.

Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,
Virginia, 1972.

Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
1968.

Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.

TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing Company,
Barrington, Illinois, 1974.

Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphical Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,


Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.

Zappe, R.W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
1968.

PR-06 Page iv Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given an engineering fabrication, construction, or architectural drawing, READ and


INTERPRET basic dimensional and tolerance symbology, and basic fabrication,
construction, or architectural symbology.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 STATE the purpose of engineering fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings.

1.2 Given an engineering fabrication, construction, or architectural drawing, DETERMINE


the specified dimensions of an object.

1.3 Given an engineering fabrication, construction, or architectural drawing, DETERMINE


the maximum and minimum dimensions or location of an object or feature from the stated
drawing tolerance.

Rev. 0 Page v PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Intentionally Left Blank.

PR-06 Page vi Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,


AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

This chapter describes the basic symbology used in the dimensions and tolerances
of engineering fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings. Knowledge
of this information will make these types of prints easier to read and understand.

EO 1.1 STATE the purpose of engineering fabrication, construction,


and architectural drawings.

EO 1.2 Given an engineering fabrication, construction, or architectural


drawing, DETERMINE the specified dimensions of an object.

EO 1.3 Given an engineering fabrication, construction, or architectural


drawing, DETERMINE the maximum and minimum
dimensions or location of an object or feature from the stated
drawing tolerance.

Introduction

This chapter will describe engineering fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings.
These three types of drawings represent the category of drawings commonly referred to as
blueprints. Fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings differ from P&IDs, electrical
prints, and logic diagrams in that they are drawn to scale and provide the component's physical
dimensions so that the part, component, or structure can be manufactured or assembled.
Although fabrication and construction drawings are presented as separate categories, both supply
information about the manufacture or assembly of a component or structure. The only real
difference between the two is the subject matter. A fabrication drawing provides information
on how a single part is machined or fabricated in a machine shop, whereas a construction
drawing provides the construction or assembly of large multi-component structures or systems.

Fabrication drawings, also called machine drawings, are principally found in and around
machine and fabrication shops where the actual machine work is performed. The drawing
usually depicts the part or component as an orthographic projection (see module 1 for
definition) with each view containing the necessary dimensions. Figure 1 is an example of a
fabrication drawing. In this case, the drawing is a centering rest that is used to support material
as it is being machined.

Rev. 0 Page 1 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Figure 1 Example of a Fabrication Drawing

PR-06 Page 2 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Construction drawings are found principally at sites where the construction of a structure or
system is being performed. These drawings usually depict each structure/system or portion of
a structure/system as an orthographic projection with each view containing the necessary
dimensions required for assembly. Figure 2 provides an example of a construction print for a
section of a steel roof truss.

Figure 2 Example of a Construction Drawing

Architectural drawings are used by architects in the conceptual design of buildings and
structures. These drawings do not provide detailed information on how the structure or
building is to be built, but rather they provide information on how the designer wants the
building to appear and how it will function. Examples of this are location-size-type of doors,
windows, rooms, flow of people, storage areas, and location of equipment. These drawings can
be presented in several formats, including orthographic, isometric, plan, elevation, or
perspective. Figure 3 provides an example of an architectural drawing, of a county library.

Rev. 0 Page 3 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Construction, and Architectural Drawings
Figure 3 Example of an Architectural Drawing
PR-06 Page 4 Rev. 0
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Dimensioning Drawings
For any engineering fabrication, construction, or architectural drawing to be of value, exact
information concerning the various dimensions and their tolerances must be provided by the
drawing. Drawings usually denote dimensions and tolerances per the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. These standards are explained in detail in Dimensioning
and Tolerancing, ANSI Y14.5M - 1982. This section will review the basic methods of denoting
dimensions and tolerances on drawings per the ANSI standards.

Dimensions on a drawing can be expressed in one of two ways. In the first method, the drawing
is drafted to scale and any measurement is obtained by measuring the drawing and correcting for
the scale. In the second method, the actual dimensions of the component are specified on the
drawing. The second method is the preferred method because it reduces the chances of error
and allows greater accuracy and drawing flexibility. Because even the simplest component has
several dimensions that must be stated (and each dimension must have a tolerance), a drawing
can quickly become cluttered with dimensions. To reduce this problem, the ANSI standards
provide rules and conventions for dimensioning a drawing. The basic rules and conventions
must be understood before a dimensioned drawing can be correctly read.

Rev. 0 Page 5 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Dimensioning and Tolerance Symbology, Rules, and Conventions

When actual dimensions are specified on a print, the basic line symbols that are illustrated by
Figure 4 are used.

Figure 4 Types of Dimensioning Lines

PR-06 Page 6 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Figure 5 provides examples of the various methods used on drawings to indicate linear, circular
and angular dimensions.

Figure 5 Example of Dimensioning Notation

Rev. 0 Page 7 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Construction, and Architectural Drawings

When a drawing is dimensioned, each dimension must have a tolerance. In many cases, the
tolerance is not stated, but is set to an implied standard. An example is the blueprint for a
house. The measurements are not usually given stated tolerances, but it is implied that the
carpenter will build the building to the normal tolerances of his trade (1/8-1/4 inch), and the
design and use of the blueprints allow for this kind of error. Another method of expressing
tolerances on a drawing is to state in the title block, or in a note, a global tolerance for all
measurements on the drawing.

The last method is to state the tolerance for a specified dimension with the measurement. This
method is usually used in conjunction with one of the other two tolerancing methods. This type
of notation is commonly used for a dimension that requires a higher level of accuracy than the
remainder of the drawing. Figure 6 provides several examples of how this type of tolerancing
notation can appear on a drawing.

Tolerances are applied to more than just linear dimensions, such as 1 + 0.1 inches. They can
apply to any dimension, including the radius, the degree of out-of-round, the allowable out-of-
square, the surface condition, or any other parameter that effects the shape and size of the
object. These types of tolerances are called geometric tolerances. Geometric tolerances state
the maximum allowable variation of a form or its position from the perfect geometry implied
on the drawing. The term geometry refers to various forms, such as a plane, a cylinder, a cone,
a square, or a hexagon. Theoretically these are perfect forms, but because it is impossible to
produce perfect forms, it may be necessary to specify the amount of variation permitted. These
tolerances specify either the diameter or the width of a tolerance zone within which a surface
or the axis of a cylinder or a hole must be if the part is to meet the required accuracy for proper
function and fit. The methods of indicating geometric tolerances by means of geometric
characteristic symbols are shown in Figure 6. Examples of tolerance symbology are shown in
Figure 7.

PR-06 Page 8 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Figure 6 Symbology Used in Tolerancing Drawings

Rev. 0 Page 9 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Figure 7 Examples of Tolerance Symbology

PR-06 Page 10 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Because tolerances allow a part or the placement of a part or feature to vary or have a range,
all of an object's dimensions can not be specified. This allows the unspecified, and therefor non-
toleranced, dimension to absorb the errors in the critical dimensions. As illustrated in Figure
8 (A) for example, all of the internal dimensions plus each dimension's maximum tolerance adds
up to more than the specified overall dimension and its maximum tolerance. In this case the
length of each step plus its maximum tolerance is 1 1/10 inches, for a maximum object length
of 3 3/10 inches. However the drawing also specifies that the total length of the object cannot
exceed 3 1/10 inches. A drawing dimensioned in this manner is not correct, and one of the
following changes must be made if the part is to be correctly manufactured.

To prevent this type of conflict, the designer must either specify different tolerances for each
of the dimensions so that the length of each smaller dimension plus its maximum error adds up
to a value within the overall dimension plus its tolerance, or leave one of the dimensions off,
as illustrated in Figure 8 (B) (the preferred method).

Figure 8 Example of Tolerancing

Rev. 0 Page 11 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Engineering Fabrication, Construction,


and Architectural Drawings Summary

The purpose of a fabrication drawing is to provide the information necessary to


manufacture and machine components.

The purpose of construction drawings is to provide the information necessary to


build and assemble structures and systems.

The purpose of architectural drawings is to provide conceptual information about


buildings and structures.

This chapter reviewed the basic symbology used in dimensioning engineering


fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings.

PR-06 Page 12 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS, EXAMPLES

ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,


AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, EXAMPLES

The information presented in the previous chapter is reviewed in this chapter


through the performance of reading drawing examples.

Examples

To aid in understanding the material presented in this module, practice reading the following
prints by answering the questions. The answers are on the page following the last example.

Example 1

Figure 9 Example 1

Rev. 0 Page 13 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS, EXAMPLES Construction, and Architectural Drawings

1. What is the overall height of the structure?

2. What is the width (front-to-back) of the structure?

3. What is the difference between the width (front-to-back) and the width (side-to-side) of
the base of the structure?

Example 2

Figure 10 Example 2

1. What is the geometric characteristic being given a tolerance?

2. What is the maximum diameter of the shaft?

3. What is the minimum diameter of the shaft?

PR-06 Page 14 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS, EXAMPLES

Example 3

Figure 11 Example 3

1. What is the geometric characteristic being given a tolerance?

2. What is the maximum length of the cylinder?

3. What is the minimum length of the cylinder?

Rev. 0 Page 15 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS, EXAMPLES Construction, and Architectural Drawings

Answers to example 1.

1. 5' 6"

2. 4' 1"

3. 9" (4' 10" side-to-side distance - 4' 1" front-to-back distance)

Answers to example 2.

1. Using Figure 6, the straight line in the geometric characteristic box indicates
"straightness." This implies that the surface must be straight to with in 0.02 inches.

2. 16.00 inches

3. 15.89 inches

Answers to example 3.

1. Using Figure 6, the circle with two parallel bars in the geometric characteristic box
indicates "Cylindricity," or how close to being a perfect cylinder it must be (in this case
0.25 inches).

2. 4.15 inches. The nominal length of 4.1 plus the tolerance of 0.05.

3. 4.05 inches. The nominal length of 4.1 minus the tolerance of 0.05.

PR-06 Page 16 Rev. 0


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
Engineering Fabrication, ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION,
Construction, and Architectural Drawings AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS, EXAMPLES

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Engineering Fabrication, Construction,


and Architectural Drawing Exercise Summary

This chapter reviewed the material on dimensioning and tolerancing


engineering fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings.

Rev. 0 Page 17 PR-06


DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93
ENGINEERING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION, Engineering Fabrication,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS, EXAMPLES Construction, and Architectural Drawings

end of text.

CONCLUDING MATERIAL

Review activities: Preparing activity:

DOE - ANL-W, BNL, EG&G Idaho, DOE - NE-73


EG&G Mound, EG&G Rocky Flats, Project Number 6910-0022
LLNL, LANL, MMES, ORAU, REECo,
WHC, WINCO, WEMCO, and WSRC.

PR-06 Page 18 Rev. 0