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- ,


I.
1.
) Pn = n!= 1 2 3...(n 1) n .
m
) An = n ( n 1)...( n m + 1).
Ak
n!
.
) Cnk = n =
Pk ( n k ) ! k !

2. .
m
P ( A) = , m - A , n -
n
.
3.
:
P ( A + B) = P( A) + P( B)
:
P ( A + B) = P( A) + P( B) P( AB)

4.
:
P ( A B) = P( A) P( B)
:
P ( A B) = P( A) P( B | A),
,
P ( A B) = P( B) P( A | B).
P( A | B) - A , B ,
P( B | A) - B , A .

5.
n

P ( A) = P( H k )P( A | H k ) , H1 , H 2 ,..., H n - ,
k =1

H i H j = , i j , H i = , - .
i =1

6. ( ).

P( H m ) P( A | H m )
P ( H m | A) = n
, m = 1,..., n , H1 , H 2 ,..., H n - .
P( H k )P( A | H k )
k =1

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7.
n!
p k (1 p) n k - k
k !( n k ) !
n , p -
.
Pn (k ) = Cnk p k (1 p ) n k =

8. .
k0 n :
np (1 p) k0 < np + p , p - .
9.
k np
1
- k n

Pn (k )
npq npq
, p - , q = 1 p .

10.
m np
m np
Pn (m1 , m2 ) 2
1
- k1

npq
npq

k2 n , p -
, q = 1 p .

11. p :

P p 2
n

n
.
p(1 p)

II.
12.

xi

x1

x2

xn

pi

p1

p2

pn

1.

p
i =1

=1

13. ( )
X

F ( x ) = P ( X < x ) . , 0 1.

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- ,

f ( x ) ,

F ( x) =

f ( t ) dt .

14. ( )
X
f ( x ) = F ' ( x ) . .

f ( x ) dx = 1

( 1).

15.
:
1) P ( < X < ) = F ( ) F ( )

2) P ( < X < ) = f ( x ) dx

16.
1) X , :
n

M ( X ) = xi pi
i =1

1) X , :
M (X ) =

f ( x ) x dx .

17.

D ( X ) = M X M ( X ) = M ( X 2 ) ( M ( X ) ) .
1) X , :
2

D ( X ) = ( xi M ( X ) ) pi = x pi ( M ( X ) ) = x pi xi pi
i =1
i =1
i =1
i =1

1) X , :
n

D( X ) =

f ( x ) ( x M ( X ))

2
i

dx =

f ( x) x

2
i

dx ( M ( X ) ) =
2

18.
= D( X )
19. r

f ( x ) x dx f ( x ) x dx .

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- ,

r = M ( X r ) .
, :
1 = M ( X 1 ) = M ( X )
20. r

r = M X M ( X )

, :

2 = M X M ( X )

) = D( X ) .

21.

As =

3
3

,
( ), .
,
.
22.

E=

4
3
4

. ,
, ,
.

III.
21. ()

X - n
, p . q = 1 p .
X :

xk

pk

qn

n p q n 1

..

..

C nk p k q n k

: P ( X = k ) = Cnk p k (1 p )

pn
nk

= Cnk p k q n k .

: M ( X ) = np , D ( X ) = npq , = npq
n = 5 :

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22. ()

,
, , ,

.
p 0, n , np = const
. p A
,
.
:

xk

..

pk

..

k
k!

..
..

: P ( X = k ) =
: M ( X ) = , D ( X ) = , =
= 1; 4;10 .

k
k!

e .

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- ,

23. ()


,
.
:
0, x < 0
p ( x) =
x
e , x 0
> 0 .
: M ( X ) =

, D( X ) =

,=

>
0

.
2

24. ()


(,
[-0,5; 0,5]), ,

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- ,

:
xa
0
1

p ( x) =
a xb
ba
x>b
0

(b a ) , = b a
a+b
: M ( X ) =
, D( X ) =
2
12
2 3
:
2

25. ()

, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,

.
:
( x a )2
1
exp
f ( x) =

: M ( X ) = a , D ( X ) = 2 , =
:

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- ,

a = 0 = 1
, .
x

2
1
e t / 2 dt .

2 0
X
( ; )

( x ) =

a
a
P ( < X < ) =




X
( ).

P (| X a |< ) = 2 .

IV.
26.
D( X )
P (| X M ( X ) |< ) 1
2

27.
MX
P( X ) > 1

28.
n

M [ ( x)] = ( xi ) pi
i =1

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29. X Y
XY = M X M ( X ) Y M (Y ) = M ( X Y ) M ( X ) M (Y )

30. X Y

rXY =

XY
X Y

31.

pt (k ) =

( t ) k e

k!