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QUALITY SYSTEMS USED IN INDUSTRY

CONTROL APPAREL

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PROJECT SUPERVISOR:
MR.BABIR RAMZAN

PROJECT MEMBERS:

Syed khuram Hassan

bet-sp07-003

DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF FAISALABAD PAKISTAN

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We hereby declare that this project, neither as a whole nor as a part therefore has been copied out from any source. It is further declared that we develop this project and this report entirely on the basis of our personal efforts made under the sincere guidance of our project supervisor Sir Babar Ramzan.

We further declare that this project and all associated documents and records and partial requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering (Garments technology)

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WITH THE DEEP SENSE OF HONOUR TO OUR BELOVED AND DEAREST PARENTS & BROTHERS RESPECTED TEACHERS AND ALL THOSE WHO DEVOTED THEIR YESTERDAY FOR OUR BRIGHT TODAY

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With the blessings of almighty ALLAH and prayers of our parents we made this humble attempt to achieve the goal that we set for us in the beginning of final year. Although it was not an easy task but with the devotion of our project team and cooperation of our respected teachers we have at least succeeded in completion of our project.

The support and encouragement rendered by our CHENAB TEXTILE MILL staff was very vital in the completion of this project, their guidance and encouragement played a key role in the planning and completion of this project.

We are also very thankful to the Head of Department of Textile Engineering Mr.NAVEED AKHTAR for facilitating us. We are very thankful to our project advisor MR.BABIR RAMZAN for his guidance and providing us the facilities which was the real source of inspiration for the completion of this project.

In the end we are thankful to all the lab attendants and staff members without the cooperation of whom the achievement of this goal would have been a dream only.

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Contents............................................................................................................................... 7 Chapter#1.......................................................................................................................... 11 INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY AND COST OF QUALITY..........................................................11 1.0. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................12 1.1.PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY CONTROL............................................................................14 1.2.THE ROLE OF QUALITY CONTROL...............................................................................15 1.3. QUALITY TERMS........................................................................................................ 15 1.4.RESPONSIBILITIES OF QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPATMENT..........................................15 1.5.DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY...........................................................................................16 1.6.THE COST OF QUALITY...............................................................................................18 1.6.0.Introduction......................................................................................................... 18 1.6.1.Importance of Cost of Quality in Apparel Sector..................................................19 1.7.THE ATTACK ON COSTS.............................................................................................20 1.8.CONTROLLING COSTS................................................................................................21 1.8.0.Classification of Cost of Quality in Apparel Sector...............................................22 Chapter#2.......................................................................................................................... 24 FABRIC INSPECTION SYSTEMS..............................................................................24 2.1. FABRIC QUALITY INSPECTION....................................................................................25 2.2. Four- Point System....................................................................................................25 2.1.0Advantages...........................................................................................................26 2.3.TEN POINT SYSTEM....................................................................................................28 2.3.0.Advantages..........................................................................................................29 2.3.1.Disadvantage.......................................................................................................29 2.4.GRANITEVILLE78 SYSTEM.........................................................................................29 2.5. DALLAS SYSTEM .......................................................................................................30 2.6. CONCLUSION............................................................................................................30 Chapter #3......................................................................................................................... 31 SPREADING AND CUTTING QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM......................................................31 ........................................................................................................................................... 31 3.1. QUALITY CONTROL BEFORE SPREADING...................................................................32 3.2. SPREADING QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS......................................................................32 3.3. Fabric Spreading Objective.......................................................................................32

Contents

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3.4. THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SPREADING PROCESS..................................................33 3.5. Type of Spreads........................................................................................................ 34 3.6. General Fabric Spreading System.............................................................................34 3.7. Conclusion................................................................................................................ 36 3.8.1Cutting (Manual)...................................................................................................36 3.8.2. Cutting (Auto).....................................................................................................36 3.9. Cut components inspection...................................................................................37 3.10. Cutting Room Functions......................................................................................37 3.11. Requirements of Pattern Cutting.........................................................................37 3.16. Safety Instructions in Handling Cutting...............................................................38 3.13.Numbering............................................................................................................ 39 3.14.Sorting, Bundling, Storage and transfer for Production........................................39 3.15. Panel Checking System.......................................................................................39 3.16. Conventional cut parts inspection System...........................................................39 3.17. Conclusion........................................................................................................... 40 Chapter #4......................................................................................................................... 41 STITCHING QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS............................................................................41 4.1. STITCHING................................................................................................................ 42 4.2. 7-0 system................................................................................................................42 4.2.1. Advantages.........................................................................................................42 4.2.2.Disadvantages.....................................................................................................42 4.3. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM............................................................................................43 4.3.1. Advantages.........................................................................................................45 4.3.2. Disadvatages......................................................................................................45 4.4. Conventional Quality Control System.......................................................................46 4.5. Random Inspection System:.....................................................................................46 4.6. GUIDE LINES TO QUALITY CONTROL IN STITCHING DEPARTMENT............................46 4.7. Conclusion................................................................................................................ 47 Chapter#5.......................................................................................................................... 48 SAMPLING & FINAL INSPECTION METHODS.........................................................................48 5.1. Cutting...................................................................................................................... 48 5.2.Sewing.......................................................................................................................49 5.2.1.Potential Major faults ..........................................................................................49

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5.2.2.Potential minor faults..........................................................................................50 5.3. Embroidery...............................................................................................................51 5.4. Printing.....................................................................................................................52 5.5. Finishing and packaging...........................................................................................53 5.6. Final Audit................................................................................................................. 54 5.7. Clipping Inspection................................................................................................... 54 5.8. Final inspection.........................................................................................................54 5.9. Pressing Inspection ...........................................................................58 5.10. SPECS INSPECTION................................................................................................. 58 5.11. Folding and Presentation (or Hanger Pack).............................................................58 5.12. Packing inspection..................................................................................................59 5.13. Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 59 References .........................................................................................................................60 From Websites:................................................................................................................60 From Persons:.................................................................................................................. 61

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Chapter#1
INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY AND COST OF QUALITY

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1.0. INTRODUCTION
Garment manufacturing is quit different to any other conventional manufacturing. it is not a continuous production method. Each style is different product that requires different type of fabric color buttons thread etc. Hence requirement of product integrity at every stage requires detailed knowledge about the quality parameters, quality problems, their causes and remedies. For quality production it is better to know the complete process of garment making (selection of yarn-fabric production and garment manufacturing) so that quality level can be improved. If one say "improve quality improve productivity" with out showing how when and where we can improve it. That will not solve the problem. Instead of that we should try to draw the attention of work force towards the shortcomings inherent in the quality systems and processes. To ensure a quality product evaluation of input material. The factories that control/ensure the fabric quality level dont have worers with necessary skill level and understanding. They dont understand the types and inherent nature and characteristics of the fabric. Some characters, which appear as fabric defect, may be nature of another type of fabric. There were many instances where fabric is rejected due to this misunderstanding. There are no proper training facilities courses, and material available in our country to enhance the knowledge of workers engaged in knitwear production. At present technological level, it impossible for any fabric mil to manufacture absolutely defect free fabric. To control and evaluate the fabric and garment quality. the first step that manufacturer should take is the quality control and the

What is Quality?
Quality is unusually slippery and difficult to come to grip with. Therefore some might say Quality is something I know when I see it. To some Quality is difficult to be explained like love or happiness. Once the concept of Quality is understood fundamentally it stops being slippery and becomes something which can hold by its tail.

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According to dictionary Quality is: - an essential character: nature, an ingredient or distinguishing attribute: property, a character trait, superiority of kind, degree of grade or excellence. Different people have different views about quality. The best money can buy Meeting a specification or conformance to specifications. Craftsmanship The degree of excellence that an item possesses. Product with no defect found Absence of variation in its broad sense. Meeting or exceeding customer expectation.

These responses depend on peoples perception of the value of a product or service under consideration and their explanation of performance, durability, reliability etc. of that product or service.

Customer satisfaction
The key is to know accurately customer expectations on a continuing basis. Unless you know customer expectations how could you satisfy a customer or meet or exceed their expectations. For this it is essential to understand the 5ws Why When Where What Who Therefore understanding the customer need is the priority in the Quality of a product. The customer is not satisfied???

Why do we buy a product?


We buy a product because we want to use that product.If the product that you bought has some deficiency you will not be satisfied. Then you say that the product that you bought is defective, and you

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will be mentally worried every time you make use of the product and physically too you may not feel comfortable. Therefore Quality is also defined as fitness for use. The fitness for use concept can be applied to garments too. For a garment to be fit for use provided its style is acceptable: -

It must be free from defects such as stain, material (fabric) defects, open seams, loose hanging broken stitches, Skip/Slip stitches, puckered seams, misaligned components/buttons/buttonholes, defective trims and accessories etc.

It must fit properly for the label size. It must look attractive. It must perform satisfactorily in normal use that a garment must be able to withstand normal laundering/dry cleaning/pressing cycles. Without loss of color or shrinkage; seams must not come apart; fabric must not tear, etc.

Quality is a matter of your taste, training and attitude, and your understanding of taste, culture and attitudes of your buyers. The better the understanding between two, the better the quality

1.1.PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY CONTROL


The essential requirements for producing a reliable product has been stated as follows:A satisfactory design of product, thoroughly proved by adequate development testing in order to establish its reliability under the conditions to which it will be subjected in use. This is the Requisite Quality of the product. A full specification of the requirements of this quality, which must be clearly understood by everyone concerned with the production of the constituent parts and of the complete end product. Confirmation that the manufacturing processes are capable of meeting these requirements. Full acceptance, by all those concerned with production, of the responsibility for meeting the standards set by the specification. Checks on the product at every stage of manufacture to detect any departures from the specification. Record essential information derived from these checks to provide accurate evidence for action. Establishment of lines of communication, - i.e. Feedback to Production, - to ensure that this action is taken to effect the appropriate adjustments to materials, process and operatives to maintain

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FUTURE production within the specification. Instruction in the use, applications and limitations of the product. A study of user experience, feedback to the department's concerned, and rapid remedial action.

1.2.THE ROLE OF QUALITY CONTROL


In a total quality control scheme, the total involvement of all personnel is required as a philosophy. The staff concerned in all duties must be given authority to carry out their functions. These functions should be defined. Lines of communication and responsibility should be established to carry out an effective policy. Horizontal communication at all levels of personnel between Quality Control, Production and other departments is needed. Also there must be vertical lines, which follow the lines of responsibility and authority. In order to achieve this aim, the terms of reference under which staff work, must be established. This is, perhaps, best accomplished by job descriptions. It is the job of Quality Control to establish the correct information concerning a quality situation, and present this clearly to their colleagues. Persons outside Quality Control must be authorised to make the commercial decisions involved from a pre-established series of options, the consequences of each being fully understood. Payment schemes should be re-examined where necessary to reward quality as well as production, in a balanced way, since both are commercially important.

1.3. QUALITY TERMS


Quality
It is defined as that combination of design and properties of materials of a product which are needed for the intended end use and level of the market in which it is sold

Quality Control
"The systems required for programming and co-coordinating the efforts of the various groups in an organization to maintain the requisite quality" As such Quality Control is seen as the agent of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control.

Quality Assurance
"The establishment and maintenance of all activities and functions concerned with the attainment of requisite quality"

1.4.RESPONSIBILITIES OF QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPATMENT


INDULGE AND MONITOR QUALITY SYSTEMS Page 15

The Q/A dept is required to induce the Q/C dept to implement standard quality systems required by buyers to improve and maintain a very good OQL.The implemented quality system should be monitored on a daily basis. So that the system runs without any failure. Under no circumstances the systems should be changed or stopped.The quality system should be very strong so that nothing could penetrate through and result in failure of audits or re-screening. TRAINING AND EVALUATING QUALITY STAFF It is the prime responsibility of the senior quality staff to train all the Q/A staff toAchieve skilled levels within a short frame of time.The Q/A dept in coordination with the production dept and Q/C dept should train the Q/C team to achieve skilled levels.A training program should be designed which will enable to execute simple and proper training to enhance the skill levels of Q/C and Q/A staff up to standard.The Q/A department will evaluate all the inline and final quality control inspectors on their performance.The evaluation will be based on the over all quality level less than 4 % for any merit or reward systems.

ASSURE THE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS


Q/A will performance audits at cutting stage to assure the cut products to confirm required quality standard at OQL 1.5 %.The inline Q/A Auditor will perform random audits to assure stitching quality of products. The objective will be to inspect and identify the problems and give Corrective action to the root cause of the problems, The Q/A auditor will highlight the problems to the Q/C dept for corrective action. The inline audits will be conducted at A.Q.L 1.5 with a view of preventing re-occurrence of the problems. The Finishing Q/A officers will audit finished goods before packing with the same .Objective and concentrate more on the presentation of the final products. The audit will be conducted at A.Q.L 1.5. The Final Q/A Auditor will conduct audit for quality and specs. The final auditor will also conduct packing audit to ensure the Ratio, Color, Cartoning, Packing accuracy, Presentation, Packing accessories, CTN marks and numbers etc.

1.5.DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY
Dimension 1: Performance
Does the product or service do what it is supposed to do, within its defined tolerances?

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Performance is often a source of contention between customers and suppliers, particularly when deliverables are not adequately defined within specifications. The performance of a product often influences profitability or reputation of the end-user. As such, many contracts or specifications include damages related to inadequate performance.

Dimension 2: Features
Does the product or services possess all of the features specified, or required for its intended purpose? While this dimension may seem obvious, performance specifications rarely define the features required in a product. Thus, its important that suppliers designing product or services from performance specifications are familiar with its intended uses, and maintain close relationships with the end-users.

Dimension 3: Reliability
Will the product consistently perform within specifications? Reliability may be closely related to performance. For instance, a product specification may define parameters for up-time, or acceptable failure rates. Reliability is a major contributor to brand or company image, and is considered a fundamental dimension of quality by most end-users.

Dimension 4: Conformance
Does the product or service conform to the specification? If its developed based on a performance specification, does it perform as specified? If its developed based on a design specification, does it possess all of the features defined?

Dimension 5: Durability
How long will the product perform or last, and under what conditions? Durability is closely related to warranty. Requirements for product durability are often included within procurement contracts and specifications. For instance, fighter aircraft procured to operate from aircraft carriers include design criteria intended to improve their durability in the demanding naval environment.

Dimension 6: Serviceability
Is the product relatively easy to maintain and repair?

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As end users become more focused on Total Cost of Ownership than simple procurement costs, serviceability (as well as reliability) is becoming an increasingly important dimension of quality and criteria for product selection.

Dimension 7: Aesthetics
The way a product looks is important to end-users. The aesthetic properties of a product contribute to a companys or brands identity. Faults or defects in a product that diminish its aesthetic properties, even those that do not reduce or alter other dimensions of quality, are often cause for rejection.

Dimension 8: Perception
Perception is reality. The product or service may possess adequate or even superior dimensions of quality, but still fall victim to negative customer or public perceptions. As an example, a high quality product may get the reputation for being low quality based on poor service by installation or field technicians. If the product is not installed or maintained properly, and fails as a result, the failure is often associated with the products quality. Summary It should be obvious from the discussion above that the individual dimensions of quality are not necessarily distinct. Depending on the industry, situation, and type of contract or specification several or all of the above dimensions may be interdependent. When designing, developing or manufacturing a product (or delivering a service) the interactions between the dimensions of quality must be understood and taken into account. While these dimensions may not constitute a complete list of relevant dimensions, taking them into consideration should provide us with a better understanding of the slippery concept of quality.

1.6.THE COST OF QUALITY


1.6.0.Introduction
A manufacturer stays in business only as long as his product quality satisfies his customers at the price they are prepared to pay. Failure to maintain an adequate quality standard can therefore be disastrous. But maintaining an adequate standard of quality also costs effort. From the first investigation to find out what the potential customer for a new product really wants, through the processes of design, specification, controlled manufacture and sale, to the arrangements for sales service to the customer, effort is being spent on

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ensuring that the company's product - and reputation - are good. If it is spent wisely, it can result in savings greater than the increase in costs, and hence in an improvement to profits. The costs represented by this effort can be a significant proportion of the products sales value (Do you know what the total is in your Company? In some instances the cost of scrap, rework and inspection costs alone has been found to be as high as 20% of turn-over) and any manufacturer should be interested in making sure that he is getting good value for his expenditure. He cannot feel sure unless he has studied what the costs are, how they are incurred and what they ought to be. If they are higher than they should be, he must consider ways in which they can be reduced.

1.6.1.Importance of Cost of Quality in Apparel Sector


Cost of Quality (COQ) in the apparel sector is still a widely understood misconception. The term often gets associated incorrectly with the price of creating quality merchandise. Actually, it is the other way round i.e. the amount of money incurred because the product was not manufactured right at the first time. Thus, the concept of quality costs in the garment industry is a means to quantify the total cost involved in quality-related efforts and deficiencies pertains to a manufactured apparel product. Although it is not very easy to calculate COQ for any industry, research shows that the costs of poor quality can range from 15%-40% of business costs (e.g. rework, returns or complaints, reduced service levels, lost revenue). Most of the apparel units do not know what their quality costs are because they do not keep records on a daily basis. A large portion of resources is consumed in finding and correcting mistakes in the merchandise or related processes. Typically, the cost to eliminate a failure in the customer phase is five times greater than it is at the merchandise development or manufacturing phase. Every time work is redone, the cost of quality increases. The obvious examples in the apparel sector include: The reworking of a garment The retesting of performance of apparel The rebuilding of a garment machine The correction of an apparel size specification sheet or change of care label The reprocessing of garment to improve dimensional stability after wash or the replacement of a trim to fulfill the requirement of a customer or to meet safety issues.

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In general, the cost of quality has two main components: the cost of good quality (or the cost of conformance) and the cost of poor quality (or the cost of non-conformance) according to Philip B Crosby in his book Quality Is Free. The cost of poor quality affects internal and external costs resulting from failing to meet the requirements specified for an apparel product by the garment industry. On the other hand, the cost of good quality affects the cost for investing in the prevention of nonconformance to requirements and the costs for appraising the apparel product for conformance to requirements.

1.7.THE ATTACK ON COSTS


Obviously, the most significant improvements will usually be achieved by concentrating effort on the areas of high cost. For this purpose an analysis of the principal costs is required. Studies have shown that a fairly typical ratio between the three main groups of costs in a manufacturing company is: Prevention Costs 5% Appraisal Costs 30% Failure Costs - 65%

Failure Costs, because they are typically the largest, will usually give the largest return for the effort involved in reducing them. An effective way of attacking Failure Costs is through a temporary increase in prevention and appraisal costs. Appraisal Costs - for example, the cost of production and inspection - might be reduced by more attention to Value Engineering, which would to some extent increase prevention costs, and a closer control of the manufacturing process, which would increase appraisal costs. Appraisal Costs will usually be the next to come under attack. An analysis of all essential quality control operations will often show opportunities for reducing expenditure without reducing effectiveness. For example, statistical sampling techniques may be used as a means of control, indicating trends in performance and assisting to maintain quality. By improving the control of the process, 100 per cent inspection may no longer be necessary. Total costs will be lowest when design staff are aware of the cost implications of their work. Good design saves cost not only at the design stage itself but throughout production and testing: products become easier to make "right first time". Good design is needed not only when conceiving the product

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but also when conceiving systems for production and quality control. After failure and appraisal costs have been reduced by attention to the prevention aspect, it may be possible to reduce prevention costs as well. We have seen that the process of reducing failure costs may well involve increasing expenditure on the design, developing, testing, manufacturing and inspecting processes. However, there must clearly be a point beyond which it would be uneconomic to incur additional expense. Failure costs might possibly be eliminated but at considerable, possibly prohibitive, costs in other areas. There is a point at which the aggregate of all costs is at a minimum for the intended selling price. Achieving this minimum cost will involve reviewing product designs, and improving planning processes, facilities and methods. When the initial attack on costs has been successful, it will be logical to provide a means for analysing costs and for reporting on them in order to keep a close watch on progress so that, firstly, a worthwhile reduction in the attacked cost is achieved; and secondly, the expected increase in other costs is not exceeded.

1.8.CONTROLLING COSTS
The only purpose of reporting costs is to provoke action. Without action the money spent on deriving and reporting data is wasted. Action is required whenever there is a significant difference between an actual cost and the budget set for it. Action is also required to discover the reason for the difference and to eliminate it. If cost reports are to be effective in provoking this type of action they must be - presented at suitably short intervals - presented quickly following the period they represent - presented in simple, direct, intelligible form - presented to the people who have the authority and knowledge to act effectively. It is often effective for reports to be sent both to the person who is expected to take action and also to his immediate superior. It is important to remember that the actual costs revealed by control reports are the result of joint action by quality control staff and by the design or manufacturing functions. Action to correct undesirable

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trends may therefore have to be taken by all these groups in co-operation. Action by any one group may well be fruitless.

1.8.0.Classification of Cost of Quality in Apparel Sector


However, no standard relationship exists among the four parameters of quality costs. One can expect to reduce the internal and external failure costs by increasing prevention and appraisal costs. But it is also well understood that, in spite of excellent quality of raw materials and good inspection coverage, the quality of a garment also depends on workmanship, which may be a prime factor of hindrance in the attainment of quality owing to poor training, poor maintenance of machines, and lack of requisite skill.

1.8.1.Prevention Costs
The costs of all activities specifically designed to prevent poor quality in an apparel product or associated processes. Examples of prevention cost: New merchandise review Quality planning Supplier capability surveys Process capability evaluations Quality improvement team meetings Quality improvement projects Quality education and training

Minimum neck stretch must meet the required measurements specified. Sample complies measures 22".Monofilament thread is not permitted for use in children's clothing. For all the paints and other coatings used on hardware including buttons, the lead content must be tested for permissible limit. All buttons must be machine lock stitched and withstand pull test.

1.8.2.Appraisal Costs:
The costs associated with measuring, evaluating apparel merchandise or auditing related production factory to assure conformance to quality standards and performance requirements.

Examples of Appraisal Costs


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Incoming and source inspection/test of purchased material. In-process and final inspection/test. Product. Process or service audits. Calibration of measuring and test equipment. Associated supplies and materials.

1.8.3.Internal Failure Costs


Failure costs that arise before an apparel company supplies its product to the customer i.e. prior to delivery or shipment of the merchandise. These are due to deficiencies discovered before delivery and are associated with the failure (non-conformance) to meet the needs of customers. If internal quality failures of defective merchandise are identified before shipping then optimistically there may be no external failure costs.

Examples of Internal Failure Costs


Scrap Rework Re-inspection Re-testing Material review Downgrading Returning garment for re-work

1.8.4.External Failure Costs


These are typically due to errors found by customers. Failure costs that arise after a garment unit supplies the product to the customer, such as cost of returned merchandise, cost of quality claims, cost of transportation for the defective merchandise, personnel costs associated with these activities. These costs can be much higher than internal failure costs, because the stakes are much higher.

Examples of External Failure Costs


Processing customer complaints Customer returns Product recalls

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Chapter#2
FABRIC INSPECTION SYSTEMS

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2.1. FABRIC QUALITY INSPECTION


The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. They inspect 20% of the rolls that they receive and evaluate them based on a four-point system. This way, we can avoid fabric related quality problems before it is put into production.

2.2. Four- Point System


It was published in 1959 by the National Association of Shirt Pajama Sportswear Manufacturers. Widely adopted and used in knitted fabric.

Amount to select
Inspect at least 20% of the total rolls of the shipment.

Selection of rolls
Select at least one roll of each color. If more than one role must be selected, then choose the additional roles in proportion to the total number of roles per color received.

Defect Classification (Four- Point System)


Size Defect 3 inches or less Over 3 inches, but less than 6 Over 6 inches, but less than 9 Over 9 inches Penalty 1 Point 2 Points 3 Points 4 Points .

The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty point. Only major defects are considered. No penalty points are assigned to minor defects. (A major defect is any defect that would cause a final garment to be considered a second.)

Major Defects
Major woven fabric defects include but are not limited to slubs, holes, missing yarns, yarn variation, end out, soiled yarns, and wrong yarn. Major dye or printing defects are out of register, dye spots, machine stop, color out, color smear, or shading.

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Acceptance Criteria and Calculation


40 points per 100 yards is the acceptable defect rate # of Points per 100 yds = # of penalty points x 100 Yds inspected

Inspection Procedure
Determine the amount to inspect 20%). Select the rolls to inspect. Put the rolls on the inspection machine or other viewing device. Cut off a 6 inch piece across the width off the end of the roll. Mark the right and left side of the strip. Stop the inspection process every 50 yards and use the strip to check for any shading problems. Also make sure to check the end of the role. Inspect for visual defects with the light on at a speed slow enough to find the defects. (The fabric must be checked at a slow rate in order to effectively find flaws). Sometimes you may have to turn the light off to see how a flaw will affect the appearance of a garment. Check that the roll contains the correct yardage as stated by the piece goods source. Check for skewed, biased, and bowed fabric. Mark any defects to the side with colored tape so that they can be easily found and noted. Record any defects.

The weaving division functions under the principles of the internationally acclaimed American 4 point system to reduce wastage and ensure quality. Under this system, fabric inspection and grading is carried out as per ASTM standard.

2.1.0Advantages
4 point system has not width limitation. Worker can easily understand it.

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Quality Control Inspection Report Fabric Supplier:_______________ Style #:_______________ Total Rolls Recv'd:______________ Points Per 100 yds:______________

Width Roll Color Ordered A c t # Min. ual On

Length Color Dye

Shade Def.

Penalty Points Fab. Total Hole Soil Def.

Point Per Rej (x)

Max Roll Actual

Yards Yards

100 Points yd

2.3.TEN POINT SYSTEM


The ten point system for piece goods evaluation was approved by the Textile distributors institute and the National Federation of Textile, in 1955. The earliest inspection system and is designed to identify defects and to assign each defect a value based on severity of defect. The system assigns penalty points to each defect depending on its length and whether it is in the warp (ends) or weft (fill) direction. While sounding simple, it can get quite complicated in practical use. The following table shows the assignment of penalty points. Warp defects Under 1 1 - 5 5 - 10 10- 36 Points 1 3 5 10 Weft defects Under 1 1 - 5 5 width of goods Over the width of goods Points 1 3 5 10

The grading is done as a piece or roll of fabric is considered good if the total penalty points, assessed to that piece or roll, do not exceed the length of fabric on it. If the points exceed the length, then the roll considered seconds, and may be rejected.

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For example if we had a roll of 50 yards of fabric and if we found defects totaling to less than 50 points, then the roll was considered good. If there were more than 50 penalty points, then the piece was considered seconds. There have been some questions raised about the fairness of the system based on the argument that this system does not allow for the inspection of various widths. If one will study the system closely, it can be seen that apparent inequity of the system is just that, apparent although stringent. This method is still used by some manufacturers.

2.3.0.Advantages
Oldest and most used in woven finished fabric. In it length of fabric is used and along the length of warp and weft defects are identified.

2.3.1.Disadvantage
It has width limitation. It is difficult in practical use

2.4.GRANITEVILLE78 SYSTEM
It was introduced in 1975 for the field of fabric grading. The system divided defects into major and minor types .The major defect was one which was very obvious and lead the goods to second quality. The minor defect was one may or may not have cause garment to second, depending on its location in the end use item.

PENALTY POINT ASSIGNMENT OF GRANITEVILLE78


Defect Length 9 9-18 18-27 27-36 Penalty Points 1 2 3 4

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The principle was established in garment cutting piece, which the short length defects (less than 9) will normally be removed. The system tries to balance the importance of longer defects (over 9) and put less weight on 1-10 defects such as slubs .The system also suggests the viewing distance of 9 foot instead of normal 3-foot viewing distance. The system tends to eliminate very small defects from the total penalty score. Disadvantages: As this system is used on cutting pieces according to my point of view it also increase the cost of production. We should control problems before cutting.

2.5. DALLAS SYSTEM


There is also a Dallas System published in the 1970's. That system was developed specifically for knits. According to this system, if any defect was found on a finished garment the garment would then be termed a second. In regard to fabric, this system defines a second as "more then one defect per ten linear yards, calculated to the nearest ten yards." For example, one piece 60 yards long would be allowed to have six defects. Disadvantage It increases the cost of production as defect is located after the garment is finished.

2.6. CONCLUSION
4 point system is most widely used system in apparel industry.4 point system is best as compared to other systems since it is easy to teach and learn.4 point system usually used for knitted fabric and 10 point system is used for woven fabric.Other systems are like Graniteville78 and Dallas system has some problems such as viewing distance and they affect the cost of production as defects are located after cutting and on finish garments.

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Chapter #3
SPREADING AND CUTTING QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM

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3.1. QUALITY CONTROL BEFORE SPREADING


The inspector should receive a swatch of lab-dip approval to evaluate the correctness of GSM, Construction and shade of fabric. Ensure that the lot received is for the concerned P.O and style.Lab report for shading, color fastness, crocking, and all other tests (spectrophotometer, delta-e, shrinkage, torque effect, pilling and performance) should be received. Color continuity should be established by making a color continuity swatch card. Shade blankets should be made to evaluate shading after washing. Then lots should be segregated according to dye lot #s.Lots should be segregated according to width of fabric (according to marker width) Fabric inspection report should be received. If the spreading process is manual and without under-bed blowers, the fabric (knit) should be relaxed at least 6 hrs before spreading. If auto spreading is used, ensure that the under-bed blowers are functioning properly.

3.2. SPREADING QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS


Spreading quality must be measured with respect to the following factors: Ply alignment: length and width Ply tension: stretch, slack edge Grain alignment: bowing Splicing: waste and precision; Damage placement: economy of placement; Surface direction; and Static electricity

3.3. Fabric Spreading Objective


The objective of spreading is To place a number of plies of fabric under the marker according to the planning process. In the color required Correctly aligned as to length and width At correct tension

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3.4. THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SPREADING PROCESS


Spreading must achieve a number of specific objectives:

Alignments of the plies


Every ply must comprise at least the length and width of the marker. In addition it should have minimum possible extra outside those measurements. Because nature of fabric is such that fabric width varies piece to piece

Elimination of the Fabric Flaws


Fabric flaws may be identifies by the supplier or by the spreader. It must be eliminated by different methods.

Correct Ply direction


For fabrics designated both one way only and one way either way, the spread should contain plies whose surface direction is compatible with the pattern facing of the marker.

Correct Ply Tension


If the plies are spread with too slack a tension they will lie in ridges with irregular fullness. If plies are spread in a stretched state they will maintain their tension while held in a lay, but will contract after cutting or during sewing, thus shrinking the garment parts to a smaller size than the pattern pieces. Thus tension in the plies should be optimum.

Elimination of Static Electricity


In spreading plies of fabric containing man made fibers, friction may increase the static electricity in the fabric. The spreader will experience in laying a ply neatly on top of the others due to either attraction or repulsion of those plies according to how they are charged. Method to reduce static electricity: - Change the method of threading the fabric through the guide bars - increase the humidity of the atmosphere in the cutting room - arrange to earth the lay

Avoidance of distortion in the spread

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A layer of glazed paper, laid glazed upside down, is normally placed at the bottom of the spread. This helps to avoid disturbing the lowest plies on the material in the spread when the base plate of a straight knife passes underneath. Also gives stability to the lay if it is to be moved on a table.

Avoidance of Fusion during cutting


Anti-fusion paper may be used in the same way as interleaving. It contains a lubricant which lubricates the knife blade as it passes through the spread.

3.5. Type of Spreads


There are two types of spreads with respect to alignment:

Straight Edge
A straight-edge spread has all the ply edges on one side of the spread superposed perfectly in a vertical line. The ply edge alignment on the other side of the spread may not be superimposed in a vertical to the table. This will depend on the variations in cloth width among the bolts of fabrics used in the spread. If there is no width variation, both sides will form vertical lines to the table surface in a straightedge spread. If the fabric width varies from bolt to bolt, or within each bolt, only one side of a straight-edge spread will have vertical superposing. The greater the width variation, the greater the unevenness in the no straight edge. This is also true for both sides of a straight-edge spread, which has poor side edge alignment on the supposed straight-edge side.

Centered Edge
A centered spread is one in which the plies are spread with their longitudinal centers superposed in a vertical line. In a perfect quality spread of this type both side edges of every ply are equidistant from the lengthwise center of the spread. Width alignment refers to the superposing precision at the sides of the spread. The greater the variation in width or length alignment, the greater the waste in precision cutting since the ends and sides must be trimmed to the narrowest and shortest plies. Precise cutting of a spread of superposed plies demands that each cut side of a components block be a vertical line to the table surface.

3.6. General Fabric Spreading System


Before spreading some parameters must be keep in mind. Mark the Splice Zone on the Spreading Table

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Fabrics usually contain many defects. The defects in pieces which are cut into patterns are highly undesirable. To avoid this, the spreading operator must identify and cut out defects as the material is being spread on the table. However, if the material is cut in the mid of the pattern, it will lead to more material wastage. To avoid this, zones are defined called splice zones, where cuts can be made by the spreading operator. Also it is also required to decide about the overlap of the next section of cloth. Thus there are two lines in a splice zone: One line shows how far the previous piece of cloth must extend and one line shows where the next piece of the cloth must begin, i.e. how much overlap is needed. Thus when a flaw is encountered, the spreader is stopped, the operator moves back to the nearest splice point, cuts the flaw out and moves the spreader back to overlap the cut line with the required overlap. Apart from cutting out defects, splices are also used to achieve proper shade matching when starting a new roll of cloth. Thus the splicing points are marked by means of a chalk or paint. Use Paper for the first ply in case the table surface is rough or when fine fabrics are being spread Identify the defects noticed in the fabric by means of stickers

Use lubricated paper for separating layers To prevent scorching in the natural fibers (coarse fabrics).To prevent fusing in the synthetic fabrics. Ensure that decided number of ply count and height of the spread is achieved.

How to spread Pull the fabric to far end position Position the fabric at the far end (with our without weight or pins) Align the ply (width on one side) Cut the ply after each lay Repeat this process from until the entire roll is spread. Check ply count Page 35

Repeat a and then b to g till the decided number of ply are spread Mark the remnants of the rolls with length in meters and roll number and stack separately at the given place.

3.7. Conclusion
Spreading is the main operation where quality can be control before cutting.Spreading effects the shape of cut parts so lay must be in standard form before cutting.

3.8. CUTTING
Cutting is irreversible process in garments cutting, so it must be done carefully. There are two types of cutting. Manual Automatic

3.8.1Cutting (Manual)
Ensure small parts are cut first starting from one end of the folding. Ensure marker position is not disturbed in the cutting process. Ensure shapes are accurate after cutting (this could be achieved if correct cutting mode is followed).Ensure miss-cuts, Ragged cuts, Narrow goods are not resulted in cut components. Ensure cut-marks and notch marks are accurate. Shaping should be done immediately if necessary.

3.8.2. Cutting (Auto)


Ensure that the vacuum suction device functions properly. Ensure that correct gauge of polythene is used, and also ensure that the polythene is not damaged. Ensure that no foreign matter is on the folding. Ensure that the laser indicator is correctly focused. Ensure that the blades are timely and properly sharpened (if straight knives are used). If laser cutting is used ensure that the laser device functions correctly. Ensure that the folding moves smoothly on the table without any obstacle. Ensure that the cut parts and off cuts are removed from table immediately during the process. Ensure that no ragged cutting or miss cutting takes place. Shaping should be done immediately if necessary.

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3.9. Cut components inspection


Check quantity in bundles for correctness (randomly all sizes) (should be in accordance to cutting ticket/job card) randomly select 20% of the cuts covering all sizes for inspection. Check for correctness of specs by checking the first part, middle part, last part of all the bundles selected for inspection.(on hard approved pattern).The total 20% selected should undergo fabric quality and cutting quality (shade, specs, etc) inspection on all components. This inspection should be done without disturbing the sequence of the bundles. Any defective component should be replaced immediately with the same shade, and component cut from the balance fabric of the same lot. If any replacement cannot be found, all parts/components in the bundles at the same sequence count, should be taken out and job card amended accordingly. The components should be discarded as rejects according to the above.

3.10. Cutting Room Functions


Apply the following principles of marker-making: Proper pattern placement Attention to order requirements Cost effective fabric yield Accuracy and neatness Identify the characteristics of lay-up fabric. Avoid waste of lay-up fabric. Use various spreading techniques and equipment. Follow a production order form. Operate industrial fabric cutting machines and related equipment. Maintain industrial fabric cutting machines and related equipment.

3.11. Requirements of Pattern Cutting


The following items are required to enable the cutter to create clear, correct and accurate patterns. Good quality white pattern paper. Large sheets or roll of cardboard (for basic blocks) Page 37

A Perspex square with 45 and 90 markings as well as centime measurement. A 15cm plastic ruler (useful for marking seam allowances) A pair of sharp paper cutting scissors A good-quality tape measure (with metal ends) Clear sticky tape A Soft rubber 3 H or 4H pencils (no softer) and pencil sharpener Dress markers pins Fine felt-tip pens or hard crayons (to outline ports of draft) A meter stick A tracing wheel would also be found useful, as would a dressmakers stamped Although French curves are an easy method of drawing curved lines it is far better to achieve the skill of freehand drawing, which comes with practices.

Consumption Calculations

3.16. Safety Instructions in Handling Cutting


Areas near cutting tables should be clearly marked, and their access restricted should be restricted by barriers.On motorized and automatic cutting tables the warning signals should be fitted to indicate when blade is in motion.The machine ideally should be fitted with automatic adjustable guards to fully cover the exposed part of the cutting blade. The five finger chain blades should be available to all the operator working on knife and should be worn on all times during cutting work.There should be a regular check on the condition of the light, guard, and table fittings.Only fully trained operatives should be allowed to work on knives.The operators' standards should be checked against the published operating practice on a regular basis and should be corrected wherever a deviation is found. There should be an effective cleaning system in operation that prevents build up of fluff, fly and off cuts, thus reducing fire, health & trip hazards.

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3.13.Numbering
Numbering plan must be given by the numbering incharge, specifying the style #, color, P.O No., Serial No., No. Of garments cut, sizes.All the parts shall be numbered in a pre determined sequence and at pre determined location.Numbering stickers gum strength (Light/Medium/Heavy) has to be decided keeping in mind the kind of fabric being cut.

3.14.Sorting, Bundling, Storage and transfer for Production


After the completion of the cutting process the spread is first sorted out in respect of different sizes and the components of the pattern and than these sorted out components are handled according to the production policy and the needs of the plant. The manner of folding or superposing the plies in the bundles should be such that there is (a) minimum or no creasing, and (b) minimum or no disarraying of the cut alignment. Any deviation from these two principles increases the pick-up and positioning time for the sewing operator. If the bundle must be tied securely because of movement before the operator gets the bundle care should be taken not to use card or other ties which may mar the surface or edge of the cut plies. Boxes are an excellent means for bundling and transporting cut sections without the necessity of bundle tying. This saves tying and untying time.

3.15. Panel Checking System


The checkers carried out panel checking by placing the cut panels on the pattern and checking for accuracy of notches, grain lines, nap direction, crocked cutting, measurements & tolerance. Mark the pattern on a board (Acrylic. Card Board) along with +/- tolerance as dotted lines around the outline marked. Place the cut panel (component) on this marked area. It becomes easier to asses if the cut panel is within or out of tolerance. This inspection board has to verified and approved by pattern maker before usage. Once the fabric is cut, they shall be bundled and marked with inspection status. When a bundle is checked, they shall be marked with green as c.When cut panels are inspected they shall be marked with green as I. All panels shall be checked for fabric defects.

3.16. Conventional cut parts inspection System


In conventional cutting system cut parts inspection is one according to military standard system. There are two types of inspection first one is 100% inspection which is carried out for less then 200 pieces & other is 20% inspection which is carried out for that lot which has more than 200 pieces.

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3.17. Conclusion
Cutting is irreversible process so it must be according to given parameteres.Cutting affects the overall Quality of a finished garment. Cut parts inspection helps in improving the quality product for go ahead in stitching. During cut parts inspection shade, shape and other faults are removed and on the basis of rejected pieces report a lot is hold or go ahead for stitching, so by controlling quality at this stage is fruitful in spite of we stitch a garment and after stitching that garment is rejected due to flaws.

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Chapter #4
STITCHING QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

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4.1. STITCHING
It is process of interlacing of sewing thread in a specific repeated unit. Generally used quality control systems are here under.

4.2. 7-0 system


In lines 7-0 system is applied by Quality Control Inspector. The machine output undergoes 2.5 Observed Quality Level. Not a single piece is allowed to reach the Finishing Section unless audited by the Auditor.56 pieces are checked in eight hour shift if there are no defects and if there are defects then more pieces are checked. Quality controllers and Supervisors regularly meet and assist each other to achieve the desired quality level. Quality efficiency of each Operator, each Line and each Supervisor are recorded in computer and their performances frequently monitored. The factory has in House Washing Plant; well enough for Stone Washing, enzyme wash and Bleach Wash. Production capacity of the Washing Unit is perfectly matched with the Production Capacity of the Machines. In the Finishing Section, Rotary Type of Quality Check or two-tier Checks, is Applied depending upon the style. In any case, No Piece is allowed to go inside the polybag unless audited by the Final Auditor.

4.2.1. Advantages
Quality is improved Operator hourly capacity is checked Machine capacity is hourly checked Hourly efficiency is checked Quality assurance is improved Quick feedback

4.2.2.Disadvantages
It is not properly implement Training is hard Measurement of garment is not checked hourly Page 42

Fabric faults are not checked

4.3. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM


Aim
To build in quality at the point and to quickly identify problem areas in order to reduce defects reworking and to improve factory efficiency.

Process
The traffic signal system is based on three lights red, amber and green. The lights are used to symbolize the quality status at the operation and make supervisor aware of where problems are occurring and give the in line controllers an idea where they have to spend more time. Green Amber Red Good Isolated defects found Recurring defects or major defects found

In line QC has to check a minimum of 10 piece each visit to the work station. The In line controller will monitor the inspection and record it. The traffic lights must work in sequence unless the frequency of defects it too high. If the inspector finds. Defects None One Two Color Code Green Amber Red Frequency of QC visit Once pr hour Twice per hour Twice per hour Signatures QC QC/Supervisor QC/QC Exce./Line supervisor/Manager Action None Inform supervisor Operator shown correct method from supervisor mechanic called. Operation stop

Two or more

2 Red

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Sequence of Colors

1st Color check 0 fault 1 fault 1 1 Green

Time 2nd Color check 1 hour None None 1 1 Green Green Red Red

Time 3rd Color check Etc.. 1 hour 2 hour 2 hour Etc.. None 1

Time

4th Color check

Amber 2 hour Amber 2 hour Amber 2 hour

Amber 2 hour Red and Stop If 2 red you have to stop and inform the line manager and QC Exec and then follow sequence as normal

None

Green

2 or more red 2 or more red

Red

2 hour 2 hour

None

Amber 2 hour Red and stop Etc..

Etc

Red

1 or more

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The In line inspector will then determine where their time is most needed. After the inspector has completed all checks in line then they must walk to the front of the line check who is on amber and red lights and then return to them. This will ensure that the correct number of checks are done.

4.3.1. Advantages
Quality is build at needle point Fault is quickly identified Defects reworking reduce Improve overall efficiency

4.3.2. Disadvatages
It is costly as we install it Not easy for workers to understand Page 45

4.4. Conventional Quality Control System


In this system in line quality inspector check the garments after each hour the output of a operator according to military standard system and faults are identified. With the help of standard card inspector take the sample and check that according to requirement.

4.5. Random Inspection System:


This system is old system and used at local level in small factories. QC person check the output of a operator by taking random ly sample size and check the quality parameters.

4.6. GUIDE LINES TO QUALITY CONTROL IN STITCHING DEPARTMENT


Feeding/Loading System
In the process of feeding/Loading the feeder/loader should ensure that the sequences in the bundles are not disturbed. At the time of feeding/Loading any conspicuous defect should be discarded or replaced with part of same shade. The feeding/Loading quantity should be counted and ensured that it is correct according to quantity mentioned in the bundle.

On the spot defect recovery system


All these four systems will be working together at the time of implementation. All machines will be having green flags at starting time. The rowing Q/C or Q/C inspector should randomly select seven pieces. From each bundle, of all operations. The 7 pieces should pass at (0) zero defects. If a single defect is found the total bundle fails (Rejected). Then the green flag is replaced by a yellow flag. The first part of the 5 part ticket is issued to the machine operator at this time. Operator who stitched the bundle will have to inspect the full bundle for faults in his operation, and rectify defects immediately (on the spot) up to specification or discard the defective pieces, what ever appropriate.

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If the rowing Q/C or Q/C inspector identifies the same mistake for the second time (in same operator) the yellow flag is replaced by red flag and second part of the 5 part ticket is issued. The operator has to fallow the same procedure as before. Now the rowing Q/C or Q/C inspector will do a follow up of inspections of 3 consecutive bundles of the same operator, by issuing the balance 3 follow up tickets (one at a time).If the 3 follow up inspection results passes, the green flag is re-installed. If any of the follow up inspection results fails, the 3 follow up re-starts from that point.

The rowing Q/C or Q/C inspector should inspect critical operations every hour. Other operations could be confined to an inspection of once, twice or thrice according to the criticality of occurrence of faults.

Inspection of every 5th piece of operation by the End line Inspection (100% inside-out)

operator

The operator should inspect his part of operation, on every 5th piece to determine any faulty stitching. All pieces that complete all operation should be checked inside out by end line inspectors.

4.7. Conclusion
Over all according to our observation 7-0 system is most suitable to our industry because it is easy to implement and results are better than other systems .Traffic signal system is also a good system but it is costly and other system s have there own importance but regarding to quality 7-0 system is most effective as quick feedback is get by this system efficiency and quality is improved by this system.

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Chapter#5
SAMPLING & FINAL INSPECTION METHODS

5.1. Cutting
The cut bundles received from cutting department are inspected 100% for visual defects such as the following: 1. Knitting defects such as holes, barre, needle line, yarn shade variation, repeat difference etc. 2. Processing defects such as water marks component shading, compactor shoe marks, dead cotton slubs etc. 3. Mis-cuts, improper notching etc. 4. The front and back panel are matched as per the requirement of the buyer. 5. In case of design/repeats of parts same should match. 6. Sampling Quantity: Visual Inspection 100%

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Measurement Check

2 out of 10 pieces

In case of any variation in the above parameters, the complete bundle is returned to the cutting department for correction/replacement. Acceptance Standard: Bundle Size Up to 5 Pieces 6 to 10 pieces 11 to 15 pieces 16 to 20 pieces More than 20 pieces Defects allowed 0 1 2 3 4

Where it is possible to change the defective part by replacement, the quality inspector checks the exchanged part for shade variation, and measurement and ensure to put the same number that of the damaged part. Reporting defects Rate: Defects rate in cutting= The total defects found / No of bundle checked

5.2.Sewing
The QA follows the parameters stated below 1. 2. 3. 4. Fabric pattern, design, weight etc. Stitch details Placement accessories and trims Folding and packing details

5.2.1.Potential Major faults


1. Any surface hole or weakening defects which could develop into a hole 2. Visible flaws 3. Shading within the garment 4. Dye spots, misprints 5. Cuts and tears 6. Non matching checks and stripes 7. Bowing of fabric, if it effects the appearance of the garment 8. Spots or stains 9. Deviation in measurement specs more than the given tolerance 10. Twisted or puckered seam 11. Broken stitches or open seam 12. Seams not bar tacked unless covered by another seam 13. Irregular or uneven top stitching and contrast stitching Page 49

14. Run-off in top stitching in visible areas. 15. Incorrect stitch counts 16. Incorrect seam allowance 17. Twisted hems and uneven hems 18. Missing bar tack 19. Uneven fronts, sleeves and other symmetric components 20. Poorly done and objectionable mending. 21. Broken/skip stitch

5.2.2.Potential minor faults.


1. Removable stains 2. All other temporary defects other than listed above. In-line quality audit The quality inspector conducts in-line quality audit as per the steps mentioned below: 1. Pick up one bundle after any operation at random 2. Check the quality level of that particular operation 3. Repeat this procedure for minimum of 3 times of the same operation within a day In case some type of rejection is encountered repeatedly, production is held temporarily until corrective action is ensured by line supervisor. End of the line quality Quality inspector station at the end of all sewing operation and check the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Stitch formation Component shade variation Sewing alterations and variations Damaged parts Size label jumping Missed sewing operation Broad measurement specification

Pilot run Depending on the size of the order, pilot run is carried out. All the pieces are visually inspected and measurement for any quality defects. The sample sizes for pilots runs are as follows. Order Quantity Up to 3000pcs 3001 to 6000pcs 6001 to 9000pcs Pilot Strike Off 25pcs 40pcs 60pcs

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9001 to 15000pcs Above 15,000pcs

75pcs 100pcs

Any major deviation in measurement or style is incorporated in the pattern/sewing line before the bulk production start.

5.3. Embroidery
The QA ensure quality through sample embroidery sew-out. Sample of a garment along with placement details is made before going in to mass production, parameters are strictly followed to ensure quality embroidery Parameters 1. Right shade of threads 2. Positioning of the embroidery 3. Coverage, stitch density is as per the order 4. Embroidery alignment 5. Fraying of thread 6. Clarity in the design as per original 7. Right tension of the threads 8. Holes due to needle 9. Skip/missed threads 10. Shade variation within the box of thread

The pilot quantity of strike off. Order Quantity Up to 2000pcs 2001 to 5000pcs 5001 to 8000pcs 8001 to 15000pcs Above 15000pcs Pilot Strike Off 15pcs 25pcs 35pcs 50pcs 60pcs

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The pilot strike off panels/garments are 100% visually inspected and changes are incorporated in the bulk production.

5.4. Printing
The QA ensures that an approved strike off of the print with the shade card giving the pantone references number. Is available with the Department. Sample of the garment along with the placement details must be available. Before starting bulk production, pilot strike off of using the actual garment /panel is taken and inspected for the following quality. Parameters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Right shade of colors Positioning of the print Proper registration Print alignment Clarity in the design as per original Properly cured surface Stains Skew ness of print

The pilot quantity of strike off . Order Quantity Up to 2000pcs 2001 to 5000pcs 5001 to 8000pcs 8001 to 15000pcs Above 15000pcs Pilot Strike Off 15pcs 25pcs 35pcs 50pcs 60pcs

The pilot strike off panels/garments are 100% visually inspected and changes are incorporated in the bulk production.

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5.5. Finishing and packaging


The purpose of pressing a knit/woven fabric product is to eliminate the wrinkle and yield original feeling. The following points are ensure by the QA inspector while ironing is in process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Knit product must be iron finished at proper temp The system press must have Teflon shoe and must be cleaned periodically Areas such as collar, embroidery, printing, etc. should not be hard ironed. No small wrinkles, defective luster and iron-pressed marks should be observed on the surface The size of the iron finished product must conform to order specification The garment must be allowed to be cooled for at least 1 hour before putting in poly bag. The ironing table top cloth must have marking for horizontal and vertical markings matching the outline size of the garment.

Packing is an important aspect of a given garment. The following aspects are checked by the inspector: 1. The price ticket, hangtag, bar code stickers. 2. The right size of the poly bag should be used for the garment 3. After the garment is inserted in the poly bag, it should not be sloppy or too tight. Page 53

4. The ratio of pre-packs and qualities per carton must be checked randomly. 5. The garment through the poly bag must be visually symmetric 6. All carton markings must conform to the order requirement

5.6. Final Audit


The purpose of the final, audit is to establish the quality level of the final pieces goods before it leaves the factory. The QA manager has to conduct a final quality audit of the packed goods and this has to done at two stages: 1. Once 50% of the shipment is packed 2. Other when 100% of the shipment is packed In case there is any quality problem at the above stages, the packed goods have to be screened for the specific quality aspects Once corrected the above procedure has to be repeated again.

5.7. Clipping Inspection


Clipping (Trimming of Thread) should be inspected for cut stitches and cut holes. This is a 100% inspection.

5.8. Final inspection


Garment inspection is a vital process of quality control for measuring the quality of the product, comparing with requirements and acting on the variations. There are three types of final inspection Step wise inspection Batch inspection 100% inspection

Stepwise inspection Page 54

Stepwise inspection has two types one is final inspection and other is super final inspection. In final inspection we sort out sewing faults and in super final inspection we check specs, shade and shape of the garment. Disadvantage It is time consuming Man power increased

Batch inspection In it a team of final inspectors check the pieces and make batch for example a batch is consist of 100 garments from those batches randomly some batches are inspect by auditor and pass, fail report is made on type of fault and occurrence of faults. 100% Inspection Once the garment has been fully assembled, then it must pass though a final inspection. In the final inspection, 100% of the garments manufactured are checked for defects. Any defects found will be returned to the original operator for repair. Inspectors are expected to not only check for defects, but are also required to cut threads as they see necessary. Each inspector should have his/her own pair of scissors. These should always be used to cut long threads. There is no tolerance for repairs caused by pulling threads instead of cutting them. Each inspector should be given a bag of her own number. The numbers are to be inserted into one of the front pockets. This way they are easy to locate incase the identity of the inspector in needed. There is no tolerance for an inspector who refuses to put numbers into the pockets. Inspectors are expected to follow inspection procedures to ensure that the entire garment has been inspected.

Inspection Procedures:
Garments should enter the End of Line inspection process inside out. Begin with the front of the garment and work down and to the back. Establishing a routine is the most effective way to ensure that no operations are missed. All long threads should be cut as seams are being checked for defects. The garment should then be turned outside in.

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All exterior threads should be clipped. Pockets, tacks, and any fabric defects should be checked. Any defects found should be marked with red tape and set aside for repairs. Check the zipper to ensure that it zips and unzips freely. Check the buttons and button holes. Make sure they line up and are functional. Inseam and waist should be measured. Check measurement results against the label to be sure that the garment is the same size as stated on the label. After inspection and thread trimming, the inspectors number should be placed in the pocket and the garment should be neatly stacked. The stacks should be picked up by the End of Line auditor. He will then check the garments once more. (This is a more general check to ensure that inspectors are effectively inspecting their garments.)

Once this last audit is done, the garments can be stacked and taken to pressing.

Inspection is Conducted to evaluate the First passed yield (FPY).That is the first time past percentage, on an hourly basis.

End Line Audit Report


2.5 AQL Inspect 7 Reject on 1 Defect Line Hour Accept Reject Reason Minor Defects Improvements

Auditor Name:________________________________________ Date:____________________

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The defects identified are segregated into 3 main categories. Rafu Stain Alteration

A) Rafu
Rafu is minor fabric faults which are mend-able. Very Important Factors Darning is not accepted on body. Operational darning could be accepted. If it is not conspicuous. Any fabric fault mended by Knitting needle (Knitted) and not prominent to the naked eye could be accepted. Any defect that is not according to the above factors should be discarded as totally rejected items.

B) Stain
If any dust spot, oil spot or any other stain spot could be removed by either stain removers or light washing, without, effecting the accepted. Any slight patch dispersed as a result of the above process, should be discarded as a reject. color, appearance, hand feel, and specs could be

C) Alteration
If any sewing defect could be recovered by re-work, without effecting seams or body quality standards, it is acceptable. If the reworking results are miss-shape, specs variation, miss alignment, or any other defect the product should be discarded as a reject.

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Any uncut thread or loose thread should be taken care of before OK garments passed to the folding stage.

5.9. Pressing Inspection


Pressing tables should be marked with length and breadth of all sizes of garments according to Buyers specifications. Pressing Inspection is done to evaluate. Correctness of shape of Neck/Shoulder/Sleeve/ Side Seam/ bottom hem in uppers; and shape ofwaist/ Hip/ Side Seam/ inseam/ leg opening in bottoms. No shiny marks /crease marks on seams No Excessive moisture by steam. No Color fading No Dust marks/Stain marks/oil marks Pressing as required.

5.10. SPECS INSPECTION


100% of garments should undergo critical specs inspection. (For Tops-Body length, Chest, Sleeve length, neck, arm hole and, shoulder) (For Bottoms-Side seam, inseam, hip,waist and leg opening) .All other measurements as defined by the particular buyer should undergo random specs inspection at least 10% of the total quantity. Any garment that is not within the specified tolerance limit should be discarded as a rejected item..Please note this does not mean that all garments should be within tolerance. This tolerance limit is allowed to accommodate any human error which rearly occurs.

5.11. Folding and Presentation (or Hanger Pack)


The inspector should ensure that there is no dust, fluff or loose thread in the presentation of the garments. Appearance should be attractive and eye catching. The folding should be even and balanced, and according to the specifications of folding. The correctness in the position of label, accurate shape after folding, not looking miss-aligned after folding and all other factors pertaining to folding should be

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given more emphasis. Correctness of labels, stickers, Tags or any other attachments and aids of attachments should be ensured. Correctness of poly bags, measurements of poly bags, marks and numbers an poly bags, sealing of poly bags, poly bag mouth, should be ensured. Correctness of size and sticker or any other accessories on poly bag should be ensured. Correctness of Hangers and sizes, size of hanger quality of hangers, printing, emboss, carvings, alignment, packing performance should be ensured.

5.12. Packing inspection


After final inspection, the garments are poly-packed, dozen-wise, color wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in the cartoon. The cartoon is marked with important information in printed form which is seen from outside the cartoon easily. The cartoons of the manufactured garments are delivered or placed in the dispatch department or finished product godown, from where the garments lot is delivered for shipment. There is no margin for any packing error. Packing should be 100% correct. Correctness of Quantity in CTNS should be ensured. Correctness of sizes in CTNS should be ensured. Correctness of pre-packs, ratio packs, catalogue packs, mix packs (if allowed) should be ensured. Correctness of style and P.O should be ensured. Correctness of color and size assortments should be ensured.CTNS size, CTN marks and numbers, CTN quality, packing capability, No of plies, shade, sealing ability, hanger pack capability...etc. should be ensured. Ensure that security slip (white) is fixed while sealing CTNS with inspector signature, Id number, unit number, and P.O. code Ensure that CTN tape/adhesive tape/Gum tape sealing tape adheres properly to CTN without bubbling or detaching. Ensure that CTNS look attractive, clean, without bulking, un-smashed, without damage, without excessive CTN tape protruding at the corners and stackable without disturbance. Ensure the correction of CTN stickers (ASN, DTS, OCR, ETC) and undamaged stickers are fixed.

5.13. Conclusion
By final inspection of garments at all stages like clipping, final inspection, pressing and packing we have full confidence on our shipment.

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References
From Websites: http://www.textileguides.com/garments-pattern http://www.cutplan.com/nestplan-nesting-parts-material.htm http://mytextilenotes.blogspot.com/2007_12_01_archive.html http://articles.textileclass.com/methods-of-cutting-fabric-uses-of-scissor/ http://www.wmolaw.com/files/The_8_Dimensions_of_Quality.pdf http://lssacademy.com/2008/05/28/8-dimensions-of-quality/ http://www.apparelkey.com/ApparelKey/Document/Cate2/2.3.6.4/casestudy3prabirjana.pdf?TABLENAME=Cate2&PARENTNODE=2.3.6.4

http://www.accordiausa.com/cat-24-1- 17/Product_Quality_Inspection.htm

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http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article http://articles.textileclass.com/garments-manufacturing-sequence/ http://www.tpingzhi.asp.htm From Persons:


Mr.Sohail from fabric dept. Chenab Textile Mill Faisalabad. Mr.Subasinghe from cutting dept. Chenab Textile Mill Faisalabad. Mr.Awais from PPC dept. Chenab Textile Mill Faisalabad. Mr.Ali from Stitching dept. Chenab Textile Mill Faisalabad. Mr.Rasika from quality control dept. Chenab Textile Mill Faisalabad.

Mr.Sajid/Mr.Qammer from pressing & folding dept. Chenab Textile Mill Faisalabad.

From Books

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