Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

, ,

4000
4 .
(, )
0

24

32

72

80

96

104 216 224 240 248 288 296 312 320

648 656 672 680 720 728 744 752 864 872 888 896 936 944 960 968

-
. ,
, ,
(20 ),
0

72

216

288

648

720

864

936

,
. .
, ,
10 (40 )

,
,
.
0

216

648

864

216
432
216
,
.
(, , , ,
, , ).
72
0

72
72

216

144

72
288

648

360

72
720

864

144

936

32 ,
, . ,

.
16

8
0

40

8
24

32

72

108
80

96

40

104 216 224 240 248 288 296 312 320

648 656 672 680 720 728 744 752 864 872 888 896 936 944 960 968

16

40

108

40

, ,
.
(,
) .


, (4 ).


:


(Cantor), :
- [0, 1], ;
- [1/3,2/3];
- ,
;


, .
, , ,
, ,
..






,


.
,



.



,
,
.
Xj (1 < j < N);
M(N)
;
Lj
(1 < j < N);
N .

(N) N , Lj
j
, , a R(N)
Lj . Lj
,
j. , R
, ,
X.


R/S, , S
,
, R/S N
N:

, R/S

, =0,5.
.



.
x(t) H (0,5<H<1),
> 0

, x(t).
:
-
-
-
H (self-similarity parameter).
H ,
.
H = 0,5 .
H 1,
.


,
, (t) {xt,t=0,1,2,...}.
m-
x(m) = {xk(m), k=0,1,2,...},
m.
:
x(3)


. (1)
. (3)
, .
, ,
.
( , , . .) ,
.

(exactly self-similar)
B (0 <B< 1), m = 1,2,... :
-
-
, B
H= 1-(B/2).
B=1, 1/m.
.
:
(asymptotically self-similar) k,
:
-
-

, (m) , 1/m m,
l/mB. ,
, ,
1/m.



() .
. ,
L
>L :
, (short-rang dependent)
, ,
, :


(long-rang dependent) , ,
:
B ,
=1(B/2).
.
, 0<<1
0,5<<1. ,
=0,5, >0,5.


, ,
,
(heavy-tailed distributions).
, .

, ,
. ,
X , :

(Pareto) k a(k,< 0)
, :

k .
. a1
.

, ,
(heavy tail).
(, )
.

Ethernet
1989 1992 Bellcore
Ethernet(
20 ). Ethernet, 20 40
100 .
.
, 1989 ., 27
Ethernet-.
27- , 1000 100-
.


10
( ). ,
2,7 , 0,27 . .
,
10
.

Ethernet ,
Ethernet-, , -,
, , -,
, , -,
.
Ethernet-
- ON/OFF.
: ON,
, OFF, .
Bellcore ON/OFF
, ,
1 2. ,
,
. ,

ON/OFF,

,
H=(3-)/2. , 1<<2
0,5<H< 1, .
Ethernet- ,
1,2,
H = 0,9.


,
-, 37
,
. ,
Ethernet.
- ON/OFF ,
.

1,16 1,5.
-, , ,
.
, -
. , ,
,
, -.
, , , ,
. ,
,
,
, .

TCP, FTP TELNET


TCP-,
FTP- TELNET-, TCP-.
:

TCP-
.
TELNET-
.
,

, .
, FTP,
, , .
FTP- ,
FTP-
. ,
.

VBR-
, ,
ATM , .
, ,
.
JPEG.
, ,
.
.
.
,

, , . ,
.
, ,
, .
.
,
VBR,
.



,

.
.
Bellcore ,
Ethernet, , ISDN
100000 .

. , ,
,
.

, ,
. , ,
, 80 %,

50 60 %.
ISDN Ethernet

Trace Data ,

;
Quieving Analysis

;
Utilization

;
Normalized Delay


(FBM).
FBM .
q
:

H . H=0,5
q= /(1 - ),


(//1).
(/D/l)
:

.


.

,


,


.




. ,
VBR- ATM
, ,
,

.

,
- .


.

-.
. -
VBR- . ,
, ,
, ,
. -,
,


. ,
,
( TCP) ,
, ( FTP) . .
.

, .