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# 1 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

1. In the radioactive decay of an isotope of lead to an isotope of bismuth, a particle is emitted. Which particle is ?
0 1

X C neutron

0 1

X
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A electron

B ion

D proton

decomposing sodium azide to liberate nitrogen gas, which inflates the bag. 2NaN3 3N2 + 2Na A typical drivers airbag contains 50 g of sodium azide. Calculate the volume of nitrogen this will produce at room temperature. A 9.2 dm3 B 13.9 dm3 C 27.7 dm3 D 72.0 dm3
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2. As a simplification, an adult human can be considered to have a daily diet of 1.80 kg of carbohydrate (empirical formula CH2O). Which mass of carbon dioxide does a person produce each day if all the carbohydrate eaten is digested and oxidised? A 0.267 kg B 0.800 kg C 1.32 kg D 2.64 kg
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## 3. The diagram shows the mass spectrum of a sample of naturallyoccurring copper.

9. A pure hydrocarbon is used in bottled gas for cooking and heating. When 10 cm3 of the hydrocarbon is burned in 70 cm3 of oxygen (an excess), the final gaseous mixture contains 30 cm3 of carbon dioxide and 20 cm3 of unreacted oxygen. All gaseous volumes were measured under identical conditions. What is the formula of the hydrocarbon? A C2H6 B C3H6 C C3H8 D C4H10
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10. On collision, airbags in cars inflate rapidly due to the production of nitrogen. The nitrogen is formed according to the following equations. 2NaN3 2Na + 3N2 10Na + 2KNO3 K2O + 5Na2O + N2 How many moles of nitrogen gas are produced from 1 mol of sodium azide, NaN3? A 1.5 B 1.6 C 3.2 D 4.0
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What is the relative atomic mass of this copper? A 63.3 B 63.5 C 63.6 D 64.0
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4. The use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. What is the number of molecules in 500 cm3 of oxygen under room conditions? A 1.25 x 1022 B 1.34 x 1022 C 3.0 x 1022 D 3.0 x 1026
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11. N2O4 is a poisonous gas. It can be disposed of safely by reaction with sodium hydroxide. N2O4(g) + 2NaOH(aq) NaNO3(aq) + NaNO2(aq) + H2O(l) What is the minimum volume of 0.5 mol dm3 NaOH(aq) needed to dispose of 0.02 mol of N2O4? A 8 cm3 B 12.5 cm3 C 40 cm3 D 80 cm3
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## 5. In the preparation of soft margarine, glyceryl trieleostearate

12. A sample of chlorine containing isotopes of mass numbers 35 and 37 was analysed in a mass-spectrometer.How many peaks corresponding toCl were recorded?
+ 2

A2 is suitably hydrogenated so that, on average, one of its side-chains is converted into the CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7CO2 residue and two side-chains are converted into the CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CO2 residue. How many moles of hydrogen are required to convert one mole of glyceryl trieleostearate into the soft margarine? A4 B5 C6 D9
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B3

C4

D5
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## 13. The isotopic composition of an element is indicated below.

6. Which of these samples of gas contains the same number of atoms as 1g of hydrogen (Mr : H2, 2)? A 22 g of carbon dioxide (Mr : CO2, 44) B 8 g of methane (Mr : CH4, 16) C 20 g of neon (Mr : Ne, 20) D 8 g of ozone (Mr : O3, 48)
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What is the relative atomic mass of the element? A 10.2 B 10.5 C 10.8 D 11.0
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7. Self-igniting flares contain Mg3P2. With water this produces diphosphane, P2H4, which is spontaneously flammable in air. Which equation that includes the formation of diphosphane is balanced? A Mg3P2 + 6H2O 3Mg(OH)2 + P2H4 B Mg3P2 + 6H2O 3Mg(OH)2 + P2H4 + H2 C 2Mg3P2 + 12H2O 6Mg(OH)2 + P2H4 + 2PH3 D 2Mg3P2 + 12H2O 6Mg(OH)2 + 3P2H4
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14. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. Oxides of nitrogen are pollutant gases which are emitted from car exhausts. In urban traffic, when a car travels one kilometre, it releases 0.23 g of an oxide of nitrogen NxOy, which occupies 120 cm3. What are the values of x and y? (Assume 1 mol of gas molecules occupies 24.0 dm3.) A x = 1, y = 1 B x = 1, y = 2 C x = 2, y = 1 D x = 2, y = 4
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8. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. Most modern cars are fitted with airbags. These work by

15. In the Basic Oxygen steel-making process the P4O10 impurity is removed by reacting it with calcium oxide. The only product of this reaction is the salt calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2. In this

## 2 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

reaction, how many moles of calcium oxide react with one mole of P4O10? A1 B 1.5 C3 D6
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## A 6.55% B 13.1 % C 26.2% D 30.0%

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16.Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. A typical solid fertiliser for use with household plants and shrubs contains the elements N, P, and K in the ratio of 15 g : 30 g :15 g per 100 g of fertiliser. The recommended usage of fertiliser is 14 g of fertiliser per 5 dm3 of water. What is the concentration of nitrogen atoms in this solution? A 0.03 mol dm3 B 0.05 mol dm3 C 0.42 mol dm3 D 0.75 mol dm3
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23. A sample of the hydrocarbon C6H12 is completely burned in dry oxygen and the product gases are collected as shown. [Ar : H, 1 ; C, 12 ; O, 16.]

17. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. In leaded petrol there is an additive composed of lead, carbon and hydrogen only. This compound contains 29.7 % carbon and 6.19 % hydrogen by mass. What is the value of x in the empirical formula PbC8HX? A5 B6 C 16 D 20
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18. A household bleach contains sodium chlorate(I), NaClO, as its active ingredient. The concentration of NaClO in the bleach can be determined by reacting a known amount with aqueous hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. NaClO(aq) + H2O2(aq) NaCl(aq) + O2(g) + H2O(l) When 25.0 cm3 of bleach is treated with an excess of aqueous H2O2, 0.0350 mol of oxygen gas is given off. What is the concentration of NaClO in the bleach? A 8.75 104 mol dm3 B 0.700 mol dm3 C 0.875 mol dm3 D 1.40 mol dm3
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The increases in mass of the collecting vessels P and Q of the apparatus are MP and MQ, respectively. What is the ratio MP / MQ? A 0.41 B 0.82 C 1.2 D 2.4
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## 24. Unnilpentium is an artificial element. One of its isotopes is

262 105

Unp.

Which of the following statements is correct? A Unp has a nucleon number of 105.
262 105

19. A mixture of 10 cm3 of methane and 10 cm3 of ethane was sparked with an excess of oxygen. After cooling to room temperature, the residual gas was passed through aqueous potassium hydroxide. What volume of gas was absorbed by the alkali? A 15 cm3 B 20 cm3 C 30 cm3 D 40 cm3
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B The atom
260 105

X is an isotope of
262 105

Unp.

20. One of the most important chemical species responsible for the removal of ozone from the stratosphere is a free radical of chlorine, 35Cl . What does 35Cl contain? protons neutrons electrons A 17 18 16 B 17 18 17 C 18 17 17 D 18 17 18
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262 105

Unp.

## D The proton number of

262 105

Unp is 262.

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21.Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. Analytical chemists can detect very small amounts of amino acids, down to 3 x 1021 mol. How many molecules of an amino acid (Mr = 200) would this be? A9 B 200 C 1800 D 360 000
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22.Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. A garden fertiliser is said have a phosphorus content of 30.0% P2O5 soluble in water. What is the percentage by mass phosphorus in the fertiliser?

25. Granular urea, CON2H4, can be used to remove NO2 from the flue gases of power stations, converting it into harmless nitrogen. 2CON2H4 + x NO2 2CO2 + y H2O + z N2 What are the values of x, y and z in a balanced equation? x y z A 1 2 1 B 2 4 3 C 3 4 3 D 3 4 3
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to

26. The diagram shows the mass spectrum of a sample of zinc. Use the data to calculate the relative atomic mass of the sample. A 65 C 65.5 B 65.25 D 65.66

of

## 3 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

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27. The foul smell that skunks spray is due to a number of thiols, one of which is methanethiol, CH3SH, which burns as follows. CH3SH + 3O2 CO2 + SO2 + 2H2O A sample of 10 cm3 of methanethiol was exploded with 60 cm3 of oxygen. What would be the final volume of the resultant mixture of gases when cooled to room temperature? A 20 cm3 B 30 cm3 C 50 cm3 D 70 cm3
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28. The petrol additive tetraethyllead(IV), Pb(C2H5)4, is now banned in many countries. When it is completely burned in air, lead(II) oxide, CO2 and H2O are formed. How many moles of oxygen are required to burn one mole of Pb(C2H5)4? A 9.5 B 11 C 13.5 D 27
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29. Which ion has more electrons than protons and more protons than neutrons? A D B H3O+ C OD D OH
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31. The amount of calcium ions in a sample of natural water can be determined by using an ion-exchange column as shown in the diagram. A 50 cm3 sample of water containing dissolved calcium sulphate was passed through the ionexchange resin. Each calcium ion in the sample was exchanged for two hydrogen ions. The resulting acidic solution collected in the flask required 25 cm3 of 1.0 102 mol dm3 potassium hydroxide for complete neutralisation. What was the concentration of the calcium sulphate in the original sample? A 2.5 103 mol dm3 B 1.0 102 mol dm3 C 2.0 102 mol dm3 D 4.0 102 mol dm3
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32. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. When a sports medal with a total surface area of 150 cm2 was evenly coated with silver, using electrolysis, its mass increased by 0.216 g. How many atoms of silver were deposited per cm2 on the surface of the medal? A 8.0 1018 B 1.8 1019 C 1.2 1021 D 4.1 1022
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33. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. In forming ionic compounds, elements generally form an ion with the electronic structure of a noble gas. Which ion does not have a noble gas electronic structure? A I B Rb+ C Sn2+ D Sr2+
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30. Samples of 10 cm3 of each of the first four members of the alkane series are separately mixed with 70 cm3 of oxygen. Each is then burned and the total volume, V, of residual gas measured again at room temperature and pressure. Which graph represents the results that would be obtained?

34. The first stage in the manufacture of nitric acid is the oxidation of ammonia by oxygen. wNH3(g) + xO2(g) yNO(g) + zH2O(g) Which values for w, x, y and z are needed to balance the equation? w x y z A 4 5 4 6 B 4 6 4 5 C 5 6 5 4 D 6 5 6 4
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35. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. Titanium(IV) oxide, TiO2, is brilliantly white and much of the oxide produced is used in the manufacture of paint. What is the maximum amount of TiO2 obtainable from 19.0 tonnes of the ore ilmenite, FeTiO3? A 10.0 tonnes B 12.7 tonnes C 14.0 tonnes D 17.7 tonnes
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36. Carbon disulphide vapour burns in oxygen according to the following equation. CS2(g) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + 2SO2(g) A sample of 10 cm3 of carbon disulphide was burned in 50 cm3 of oxygen. After measuring the volume of gas remaining, the product was treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide and the volume of gas measured again. All measurements were made at the same temperature and

## 4 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

pressure, under such conditions that carbon disulphide was gaseous. What were the measured volumes? volume of gas volume of gas after after burning / adding NaOH(aq) / cm3 cm3 A 30 0 B 30 20 C 50 20 D 50 40
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37.An element X consists of four isotopes. The mass spectrum of X is shown in the diagram.

## What is the relative atomic mass of X? A 91.00 B 91.30 C 91.75 D 92.00

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38. 0.200 mol of a hydrocarbon undergo complete combustion to give 35.2 g of carbon dioxide and 14.4 g of water as the only products. What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon? A C2H4 B C2H6 C C4H4 D C4H8

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## 5 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

SECTION B

39. Which pairs of compounds have the same empirical formula? 1 ethane and ethane 2 ethene and cyclohexane 3 cyclohexane and oct-1-ene
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60 27

## ) is used to destroy cancer cells Co

in the human body. Which statements about an atom of cobalt-60 are correct? 1 It contains 33 neutrons. 2 Its nucleus has a relative charge of 27+. 3 It has a different number of neutrons from the atoms of other isotopes of cobalt.
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41. Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. The technetium99 isotope (99Tc) is radioactive and has been found in lobsters and seaweed adjacent to nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Which statements are correct about an atom of 99Tc? 1 It has 13 more neutrons than protons. 2 It has 43 protons. 3 It has 99 nucleons.
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42. For complete combustion, 1 mol of an organic compound X was found to require 2.5 mol of molecular oxygen. Which compounds could be X? 1 C2H5OH 2 C2H2 3 CH3CHO
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43. On a scale in which the mass of a 12C atom is 12 the relative molecular mass of a particular sample of chlorine is 72. Which properties of the atoms in this sample are always the same? 1 radius 2 nucleon number 3 isotopic mass
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44. Which compounds have the empirical formula CH2O? 1 methanal 2 ethanoic acid 3 methyl methanoate
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45. The relative molecular mass of a molecule of chlorine is 72. Which properties of the atoms in this molecule are the same? 1 radius 2 nucleon number 3 relative isotopic mass
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## 6 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

THEORY SECTION
1. Antimony, Sb, has been known for about 6000 years. It is present in many ancient forms of bronze, but now its main use is to strengthen lead alloys. Antimony is produced in a two-stage process from stibnite, a sulphide ore, Sb2S3. The ore is first roasted in oxygen to form the oxide. 2Sb2S3 + .............. O2 Sb4O6 + ..............SO2 (i) Balance the above equation. The oxide is then reduced with carbon. Sb4O6 + 3C 4Sb + 3CO2 (ii) What is the oxidation number of antimony in Sb4O6? .......................................................... (iii) Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide, measured at room temperature and pressure, that would be produced by the processing of 10 moles of Sb2S3. [2] (d) Use your answer to (c) to explain why chlorine has a relative atomic mass of 35.5. [1] [Total : 6]
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3. A compound, A, has the following composition by mass. C, 66.7%; H, 11.1%; O, 22.2%. It has an Mr of 72. Calculate the molecular formula of A.

[2]
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4. Compounds of phosphorus have many uses in everyday life, e.g. fertilisers, matches and in water softeners. (a) State the full electronic configuration of phosphorus.

[4] w02/q3 2. (a) Define an isotope in terms of its sub-atomic particles. ..............................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................[1] (b) Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, is used in the manufacture of phosphate fertilisers. Deduce the oxidation number of phosphorus in H3PO4. ..........................................................................................................[1] (c) The salt sodium phosphate, Na3PO4, is a water-softening agent. (i) Write the equation for the complete neutralisation of phosphoric acid with aqueous sodium hydroxide. .............................................................................................................. Sodium phosphate was prepared from 50.0 cm3 of 0.500 mol dm3 H3PO4 and an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide. (ii) How many moles of H3PO4 were used?

..............................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................[1] (b) In a mass spectrometer some hydrogen chloride molecules will split into atoms. The mass spectrum of HCl is given. Chlorine has two isotopes. The hydrogen involved here is the isotope only.
1 1

(iii) Use your equation in (c)(i) to calculate how many moles of sodium hydroxide are required.

[3] 5. Phosphorus sulphide, P4S3, is used in small amounts in the tip of a match. On striking a match, this compound burns. (i) Construct an equation for this reaction.

(i) What particle is responsible for the peak at mass 35? ............................................. (ii) What particle is responsible for the peak at mass 38? ............................................. [2] (c) Use the relative heights of the peaks to determine the proportions of the two isotopes of chlorine. Explain simply how you obtained your answer.

.............................................................................................................. (ii) Both oxides formed in (i) dissolve in water to give acidic solutions. Construct an equation for the reaction of each oxide with water. ..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................[4] [Total : 9]

## 7 Topic 01 (Atom & Stoichiometry) (A-Level)

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Use the Data Booklet to complete the table below to show the atomic structure of 56Fe and of 59Co. number of isotope
56

protons

Neutrons

electrons

Fe Co

59

6. 1.20dm3 of ammonia gas were dissolved in water to form 200 cm3 of aqueous alkali at room temperature and pressure. (i) Use the Data Booklet to calculate how many moles of NH3(g) were dissolved. (c) A sample of iron has the following isotopic composition by mass. isotope mass 54 56 57 % by mass (ii) Write the equation for the neutralisation of aqueous ammonia by dilute sulphuric acid. 5.84 91.68 2.17

## (i) Define the term relative atomic mass.

.............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................. (iii) Calculate the volume of 0.50mol dm3 sulphuric acid that is required to neutralize the 200 cm3 of aqueous ammonia.

..............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................. [3]
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7. Some perfumes and scents of flowers and fruit contain compounds which are structural isomers. Two such examples are citronellol and geraniol.

(ii) By using the data above, calculate the relative atomic mass of iron to three significant figures.

[5] [Total: 10] Confirm that citronellol and geraniol are isomers by calculating their molecular formula and their relative molecular mass, Mr. (i) Molecular formula ..................................................................................................... (ii) Mr ..........................................................................................................[2]
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9. Hydrogen sulphide burns with a blue flame in an excess of oxygen to form sulphur dioxide and water. (i) Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of H2S.

.............................................................................................................. (ii) What is the change in the oxidation number of sulphur in this reaction? from ........................................ to .................................................. (iii) What volume of oxygen, measured at room temperature and pressure, is required for the complete combustion of 8.65 g of H2S? Give your answer to two decimal places. [5]

8. Iron and cobalt are adjacent elements in the Periodic Table. Iron has three main naturally occurring isotopes, cobalt has one. (a) Explain the meaning of the term isotope. ..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................[2] (b) The most common isotope of iron is 56Fe; the only naturally occurring isotope of cobalt is 59Co.

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