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: -224

09111006

2003


1.
2.
3.

1.
2.

1.
,
,
,
, ,

,
.

2.

,

,

,
.

3.
1.
602
n-p-n .

.

I=50 , =5 , f=2 70

- I=50 , I=5 .3
- I=50 , I=5 ...3
U=50 , f=2 ,
4
U=0 , f=2 , 25
U=10 , I=10 , f=2
, ...300
.150
U=120 , =298 , :..70

-.120
-.160
- ..100
- 5
75
.80
=358 0,2
....393
..... 233 358
5

2.

I =

E U
R

: I = 0, U = U = 0, I =
/R.

I =

E U
R

: I = 0, U = U = 0, I = /R.
, R ,
, R = 390 , R =
680 .
-E
C

VT

. 1.
-

3. ( )
.


. : U= 13,8
, U= 0,79 , I=16,7 , I=0,625 .

,
R1 R2
U =

E R2
R1 + R 2 .

. I,
R2, I = (10 - 20) I0
R1, R2:

R1 =

R2 =

E U 0
20 0,79
=
= 2 ()
I + I 0
(0,625 + 9,375) 10 3
U 0
0,79
=
= 0,084 ()
I
9,375 10 3

U =

E R2
20 82
=
= 0,8 ( )
R1 + R 2 82 + 2000

3.

- :
H 11 =

U
I

U =CONST

-
7

;
H 21 =

I
I

U =CONST

;
H 22 =

I
U

I =CONST

(
);
H 12 = 3 10 4

.
I, I, U, U

;

H 11 =

U
I

H 21 =

I
I

H 22 =

I
U

U = CONST

U =CONST

I = CONST

0,2
= 25 ()
(0,8 0,425) 10 3

( 21,98 10,66) 10 3
= 45,28
0,25 10 3

0,66 10 3
= 0,66 10 4
10

()

5.

, . 4.

C
r

SU

. 4.
( )

:
C = C

U
U

12
; C = 7,84 10 () ,

C = 8,2 10 12 ()

r =

1
H 22

r = r H 21 + 1

r = 1,5 10 4 ()

5
; r = 6,8 10 ()

r =

( ) ()
( )

25 mB
I 0 mA

; r = 360 ( )

r = r H 21 + 1

4
; r = 1,6 10 ()

r 1,5

; r 5 ()

C =

1
2 f r

- ,

- ,
9

12
; C = 3 10 ()

= ( + ) (r r ) r

; = 0,015 ()
S=

H 21
H 11

- ; S = 1,81 (/)

6.

)
= ,
: = |21| = 0,15 -
, |21| -
, - ,
( );
)
, :
f =

f
H 21 + 1

1,5 10 8
= 3,24 10 6 ( )
45,28 + 1
-

;
f = 1.5 f = 1,5 1,5 10 8 = 2,25 10 8 ( ) -

;
f =

f
1,5 10 8
=
= 0,4 ( )
8 r
8 3,14 8,2 10 12 5

;
fS =

1
1
=
= 10,6 10 9 ( )
2 2 3,14 0,015 10 9
-

7.

Y-

Y21( ), Y11( )
, :

Y21 ( ) =

S
1 + ( )

1,81
1 + (0,015 10 9 w) 2

,
;
1
Y11 ( ) =
H 11

1 + ( ) 2
1 + ( S ) 2

1+ (w
)2
1
0,2 10 8
=
25 1 + ( w
)2
6,67 1010

,
,

= 2 , S = 2 S .

Y21( ) Y11( ),

(10 100) S;
8.
:

R ~ = R R = R R /( R + R ) =

390 680
= 247,85
390 + 680
();

, R~= 240

12

9.

(I,

U)

I = 0; U = I R~+U = 70 10-6 240+13,8=13,82


10.

I = (U).

6.

U. ,
( . 6, ).
11.

U
U1 = U. ;

U2 = U. /2

R:
R1 = ; R2 = R ( ):
1)

14

Ki =

I
I

Ku =

U
U

- ;

- ;

K = = U I U I = K u K i

, U = U

, I , U -
(
)
;
U1= U. ,
) R1=

Ki =

I 22 10,76
=
= 44,96
I
0,75 0,5

Ku =

U 15,61 11,33
=
= 713,3
U
0,005

K = K u K i = 3,2*104

) R2=R
Ki =

I 21,98 10,66
=
= 45,28
I
0,75 0,5

Ku =

U 14,95 12
=
= 461,7
U
0,005

K = K u K i = 2,1*104

16

U2= U./2
) R1=

Ki =

I
22 16,7
=
= 42,4
I 0,75 0,625

Ku =

U 13,3 11
=
= 766,3
U
0,002

K = K u K i = 3,3*104

) R2=R
Ki =

I 21,98 16,7
=
= 43,4
I 0,75 0,625

Ku =

U 13,3 12
=
= 650
U
0,002

K = K u K i = 2,8*104

2)
:
i = H21/(1+22R~) , R =
R~ R;
u = H21R~/H11 , R =
R~ R ;
2
p = 21 R~ 11 (1 + 22 R~ ) - ,

R = R~ R;
) R1 =
i = H21/(1+22R) = 45,28/(1+390*0,66*10-4) = 44,14

u = H21R/H11 =45,28*390/25=706,4
2
p = 21 R 11 (1 + 22 R ) = 2050,3*390/25*(1+390*0,66*10-4)=3,12*104

) R2 = R
i =44,55
u =434,7
p =1,9*104
12.

K =

U 22 + U 32 + U 42 +
U1

U1, U2, U3 ..
.

,
.

K K 2 2 + K 2 3 ,

K 2 - ; K 3 -

, .
18

(. . 10),
( ),
U.

( ),

, .. (1/2)U. ( ).
a , , ,
a=12, =10,5, =10

K 2

3 ( )
3 (12 10,5)
=
= 0,035
4 ( + + )
4 32,5

K 3

+ 2 12 + 10,5 20
=
= 0,038
2 ( + + )
2 32,5

K K 2 2 + K 2 3 = (0,035 2 + 0,038 2 = 0,056 5,6%

U2= U./2
a=6,2, =6, =5,5

K 2

K 3

3 ( )
3 1,5
=
= 0,037
4 ( + + ) 4 17 ,

+ 2
1,2
=
= 0,034
2 ( + + ) 2 17,7

K K 2 2 + K 2 3 = 0,037 2 + 0,034 2 = 0,031 3,1%

13.

.

, ( U1 =U
R1 = R Ki=45,28,
Ki=461,7), , ,
.
U1 =U ; R1 = R 5,6

.

,
,
.

, ..

.

,
.

20


1. : /
.. , .. . : -, 2002. 37
2.

/ . .. . 2- ., . .:
, . "-", 1994. 384 .

1.
.
-

R1

-0,125-2 10%

R2

-0,125-82 10%

-0,125-390 10%

-0,125-680 10%

VT

330

..

..

-
-224
.
.

22

2.

-E
R
R1

VT
U

R2

. .

...

-
-224
.
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