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Ass 3&4

1. Illustrate briefly the functions of each layer of OSI model.

1. The Physical Layer

Transmission of raw bits over a communication channel (how to transfer bits correctly).

2. The Data Link Layer Transfer data frames correctly and successfully. Provide an error-free communication link. Error control and flow control. 3. The Network Layer Move packet inside the network and send it to the destination. Path selection between end-systems (routing). Fragmentation & reassembly. Translation between different network types.

4.The Transport Layer Delivery of the data between two peer processes.

Connection establishment, management, termination, error control and flow control.

5. The Session Layer Enables two applications on the network to have an ongoing conversation or dialog. Allows users to establish, manages, and terminate session.

6. The Presentation Layer Data translation. Data formatting. Data encryption. Data compression. Data syntax restructuring.

7. The Application Layer Providing services to applications. Enable the user to access the network. Variety of protocols that are commonly used. Anything not provided by any of the other layers

2. State briefly the differences between datagram and virtual circuit networks

There are a number of important differences between virtual circuit and datagram networks. The choice strongly impacts complexity of the different types of node. Use of datagram between intermediate nodes allows relatively simple protocols at this level, but at the expense of making the end (user) nodes more complex when end-to-end virtual circuit service is desired. The Internet transmits datagram between intermediate nodes using IP. Most Internet users need additional functions such as end-to-end error and sequence control to give a reliable service (equivalent to that provided by virtual circuits). This reliability may be provided by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) which is used end-to-end across the Internet, or by applications such as the trivial file transfer protocol (tftp) running on top of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).