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A form of digital modulation similar to PSK except that the information is contained both in amplitude and phase of the

transmitted carrier Amplitude and phase shift keying combined in such a way that the positions of the signaling elements on the constellation diagrams are optimized to achieve the greatest distance between elements Reduces occurrence of errors

Similar to 8-PSK where M=8 except that the amplitude is not constant

Sample: For a tribit input of QIC=000 , determine the output amplitude and phase for an 8-QAM transmitter

Input bit rate in the I and Q channel(fbQ = fbI), highest fundamental frequency (fa), and minimum bandwidth same as in 8-PSK

Almost identical to 8-PSK except for the PAM levels at the output of the product detectors and the binary signals at the output of the ADC Also with 8-QAM, the binary output signals from the I channel ADC are the I and C bits, and the binary output signals from the Q channel ADC are the Q and C bits

Similar to 16-PSK ( n=4, M=16), except that both phase and amplitude of the transmitted carrier are varied.

Sample: For a quadbit input of IIQQ = 0000, determine the output amplitude and phase of the 16-QAM modulator

Sample For a 16-QAM modulator with an input bit rate of 10 Mbps and carrier frequency of 70 MHz, determine the minimum double sided Nyquist bandwidth and the baud.