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10

, 10 \ , ..
, .: , 2000 .




I
-
1

II
.
2

14

III
.
3

20

IV

4

33

V

5

41

VI

6...

48


VII

67

VIII

8. ..

73
3

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I

9

83



10.....
11......
12..

90
102
105


1 .
2..
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

112
115
117
119
121
123
124

...

126

4
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I.
-
1.
1.

0,02 3 ?
:

= 2,7 /
= 920 /3
N = 61023 -1
V = 0,02 3 =
= 210-8 3


d.
V
.
, V = Smaxd, Smax =
d
:
d = 3 V 0 , V0 ,
.

Smax - ?
V0 =

V
m
V M
, N = NA
,
; V0 =
N
M
NA m

d =3

V M
m
, =
NA m
V;

d =3

M
2,7 /
2,7
=
=3
=3
23
1
3
23

NA
6 10 920 /
6 10 9,2 10 2

= 1,7 10 9 ;
Smax =

NA
V ,
M
5
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S max = 3

6 10 23 1 920 / 3
6 10 23 9,2 10 2
2 10 8 3 = 3

2,7
2,7

2 10 8 2 = 11,8 2 , S max = 11,8 2 .


. 1
, Smax
V
S max = .
d
8 3
2 10
= 11,8 2 .
S max =
9
1,7 10

2.
.
:

:
,

.

2 - ?
- ?
Mr H 1, Mr H
= 4. 2,
Mr H2 = 21. ,
Mr H2 = 10-3. Mr H2 / = 10-232
/ = 0,002 /. ,
= 10-3Mr H / = 10-34 / = 0,004
/.

6
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3.
12
16 ?
:

mC = 12
MC = 12 / =
1,210-2 /
mO2 = 16
2 = 16 /
= 1,610-2 /

N = NA,
N
, ,
, NA
1 .
m
=
M,
m , .
m
m
;N C = N A C ,
N= NA
M
MC

NC
?
N O2

mO 2
.
M O2
2
: 2 = 2.
NC
m 2M O
;
= C
N O2
mO 2 M C
N O2 = N A

NC
2 12 1,6 10 2
=
,
N O2
16 1,2 10 2
NC
= 2.
N O2
12 2
16 .

7
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4.
( ), 1
?
:

M2 = 1 =
= 10-3
M = 1 / =
= 10-3 /
= 16 / =
= 1,610-2 /

m H 2O
M H 2O

2,
2 = 2 + .
m H 2O
=
2M + ,

-?

10 3
3

10 (2 + 16 )

1
0,056 .
18

5.
10 ?
:

= 16 / = =
1,610-2 /
NA = 61023-1
m = 10 = 0,01

1.8 2 .
m O2
N O2 = N A
;
M O2
M O = 2M O ,
2

N O2 =

6 10 23 10 2
2 1,6 10 2

N O2 1,88 10 23 .
N 2 - ?

8
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6.
0,028 /.
?
:

M N 2 = 0,028
/
NA = 61023-1

m
, m0 ,
N
m ,
N .

m ON 2 - ?

m
;
M
m M
,
m0 =
NA m

m0 =

N = NA

m0 =
m 0N 2 =
m 0N 2 =

M N2
NA

M
;
NA

0,028

6 10 23
m 0 = 4,65 10 26 .

2,8 10 2
6 10 23

= 0,465 10 25.

7.
1 3 .
= 0,0635 /, = 9000 /3.
:

:
3

VCu = 1
u = 0,0635 /
u = 9000 /
NA = 61023 -1

N = vN A ,
m
,
M
m = V ,

9
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NCu - ?

N Cu =

V
,
M
V
N =
N A;
M

CuV Cu
N A,
M Cu

9000 1
9 10 3
6 10 23 =
6 10 23 ;
2
0,0635
6,35 10
8,5 1028 .

N Cu =
N Cu

= [ ].


3

[N ] = 3

8.
3500 /3. 1022
?
:

= 3500 /3
N = 1022
NA = 61023-1
= 12 / =
0,012 /

:
m
,
V =

m = v M ,
m , -
, .

V-?

= ,
.

N
,
NA
NA , N .
v=

10
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m = MC

N
M N
, V = C
;
NA
N A

1,2 10 2 10 22
6 10 23 3500

1,2 10 2 10 22

3 =

6 10 23 3,5 10 3

3 = 5,7 10 8 3 ,

= 5,7 10 8 3 .

[ ] = 3 = [ 3 ].

9.
,
3 , 3
?
:

n = 3n1
1
2 = 1
3
p2
?
p1


.
1
m 0 n112 ,
3
1
p2 = m 0 n2 22 ,
3

p1 =

m0 ,
1 2 ,
n1 n2 ( ),
12 2-2 - .
1
m 0 n2 22
2
= 3
,
1
1
m 0 n112
3
p2 n2 22
.
=
p1
n112
11
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1
1
n2 = 3n1 , 2 = 1 22 = 12 ,
3
9
2 - .

p1
=
p2

1,

( )
;
n ( )

3n1

1
1
9

p2 1 p = 1 p .
= , 2
1
3
p1 3
3 .

10.
,
2 = 10 6 2 / 2 ,
n = 31025 -3, m0 = 510-26 ?
:

2 = 10 6 2 / 2
n = 31025 -3
m0 = 510-26 .

:
1
= m 0 n 2 ,
3
1
= 5 1026 31025 106 ,
3

-?

= 5 10 5 = 5.

[] = 32 2 = 2

1
= = []
2 2

12
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11.
1,2 31022 .
?
105 ?
:

V = 1,2 =
1,210-3 3
N = 31022
= 105
?

.
1.15 8 :

2
nE ,
3

N
.
V
3
=
,
2n
3 p V
E =
;
2 N
3 10 5 1,2 10 3
E =
,
2 3 10 22
= 6 10 21 .
n =

[ ] = [ 3 ] = 2 3 = [ ] = [ ].

12.
,
m = 6 , V = 4,9 3 = 200 .
:

m = 6
V = 4,9 3
= 200 =
2105

- :
1
= m 0 n 2 , n - .
3
13
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2 ?
N =

n=

2 =

m
- ;
m0

3 p V
m
,
2 =
V m0,
m

2 =

3 2 10 5 4 ,9 2
,
6
2

2 = 4,9 10 5

[ ]
2

3p
N
,n = ,
m0n
V

.
2
3 3 3 2
= 2 .
= 2
=
=
2
2

II. .

2.
1.
,
1 0, 2 0?
:
v =

:

2 , .. , 2
, 1

14
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k = 1,3810-23

kv - ?

. ,

2
,
3
= .
2
:
3
= vT v = const, , vTv = .
2
v =

= 2k ,

= k

K v = 2 1,38 10 23

= 2,76 10 23
.

2.
,
17 0?
:

t = 17 C
k = 1,3810

-23


2.9 11 :
3
= kT .
2

?
, = 273 + t,
3
= k (273 + t ).
2

15
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3 1,38 10 23 (273 + 17 )
3 1,38 10 23 2,9 10 2
=
;
2
2
= 6 10 21 .

3.

1,310-10 (10-12 ..).
1 3 27 0?
:
-10

= 1,310
V = 1 3 = 10-6 3
t = 27 0C

k = 1,3810-23

N-?
=
N =


2.10 11 :
p = nkT, n =
V,
T = 273 + t, T = 300 K.

N
pV
kT , N =
V
kT .
1,3 10 10 10 6
1,38 10 23 300

1,3 10 16
1,38 10 23 3 10 2

N = 3,14 10 4 .


3 2
=
[N ] = =
= [1].

4.
: 50 3
20 0
200 3?

16
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:
3

V1 = 50 3 = 510
= 20 0 =
= (273 + 20)= 293 =
= 2,93 102
1 = 1105
V2 = 200 3 = 210-4 3

k = 1,3810-23

= 1000 / 3

N 1 N2

N1 .
N
1 = 1 kT ,
V1
N1 =

p1V1
;
kT
1 10 5 5 10

1,24 10 27
1,38 10 23 2,93 10 2
N2
:
m
N2 = r
m0 ,
m0 .
N1 =

2. ,
r = 21+16 = 18.
= 10-318 / = 1,810-2 /.
M
;
m0 =
NA
m2 = V 2 ,
V2
N A,

2 10 4 10 3
N2 =
6,02 10 23 6,7 10 24
2
1,8 10
N2 =

N 2 < N 1.
, .

5.
,
100 0, 540 /.
.

17
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. . =

= 540/ =

= 5,4 10 /
= 20 0 =
= (273 + 20)= 293 =
= 2,93 102

k = 1,3810-23

m0 - ?

nkT =
kT =
m0 =
m0 =

- :
1
1
2
p = m 0 n 2 = m 0 n
. .
3
3


:
= nkT .

, :

1
2
m 0 n c
. . ,
3

1
2
m 0 c
. .
3
3kT
2
c
. .

3 1,38 10 23 3,73 10 2
(5,4 10 2 ) 2

m 0 = 5,3 10 26 .

[ 0 ] = 2

2 2
= 2 2 = [ ].

6.


37 40 0?

18
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T1 = 310 K
T2 = 313 K

. .

. .

100%,

. . = 2 . . 1. . ,

2 . .

=
1 100%.
1. .

1
2
m 0 n
. . = nkT ;
3

1
2
m 0 n
. . = nkT ,
3
3kT
. . =
;
m0

2 . . =

3kT 2
;
m0

1. . =

3kT 1
.
m0

1 100%,
3kT 1

m0

T2
1 100%,

T1

313
1 100%, 0,5%.
310
3kT 2
m0

19
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III.
.
3.
1.
V1 = 8 V2 = 6
. = 4 .
1?
:

= 4 = 4103
V1 = 8
V2 = 6
m = const
T = const
p1 - ?

-,
m = const
T = const

V pV = const.

1V1 = p2V 2 ,
p = p2 p1, p2 = p1 + p;
p1V1 = ( p1 + p )V 2 , p1V1 =
= p1V 2 + pV 2 ;
p1 (V1 V 2 ) = pV 2 ,
p1 =

pV 2
,
V1 V 2

p1 =

4 10 3 6
, 1 = 1,2 10 4 = 12 .
86

2.
, ,
V = 100 1 .
,
20
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V1 = 100 c3 1
= 5 ? 0 = 100 .
:

0 = 100 = 1105
V = 100 = 10-1 3
= 5 = 5106
V1 = 100 c3 = 10-4 3
m = const
T = const

1 V
. ,
1
nV1,
n .
,
(..
).

n-?

-.
pV
0V = pnV1 , n = 0 .
pV1
n=

1 10 5 10 1
5 10 6 10 4

; n = 20.

3.
2 0 0
, V; V, T , .
:

:
-3

m = 2 = 210
= 210-3 /
= (273+0) =
= 273 = 2,73102

R = 8,31

m = const
T = const

V, T ,

= 273 .

21
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- ?

, V pV
= const ( -).

39

58

324 V, 3

22
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-:
m
2 10 3
V =
RT , pV =
8,31 2,73 10 2 .
M
2 10 3
pV = 2,27 10 3 = 2,27 .

,
324,1
7
58,2
39

1
2
3
4

V, 3
7
324,1
39
58,2

4.
,
, 0,4%
1 .
:

T = 1 K

100% = 0,4%
1
V = const
m = const


, m = const V = const.
, .

= const.

p1
p
= 2
T1 T 2 .

T2 - ?

23
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: 2 = 1 + ,

0,4%
=
= 4 10 3.
1 100%

= 2 , 1 2 = 2 2 2 ,
2 2
2 =

2
,
2 1

1 +
1

=
=
,
1

1
1
1 +

2 =

1 1,004
4 10 3

= 250 .

5.

, .
?

24
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2 < 1
2 >1
m = const

-
1V1 p2V 2
m
=
=
R = const,
T1
T2
M

V 1 V2

V2
p T
= 1 2.
V1
p2 T 1

1>2 2>1,

1 1 1 , 2 1
2
2
1

V2
1 , V2 > V1.
V1
,
.

6.

?
:

= 1

: V = vRT ,


= 101325 =
= 1,01325105
= 273 = 2,73102

R = 8,31

V =
V =

vRT
;
p
1 8,31 2,73 10 2
1,01325 10 5

3 , V = 2,24 10 2 3

V-?

[V ] = = = = 3 .

[ ]

25
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7.
, ,
20 0 .
0,029 /.
:

:
2

= 273 = 2,7310
= 101325 =
= 1,01325105
= 0,029 / =
= 2,910-2 /

R = 8,31

: V = vRT ,
:
m M
,
=
=
V
R T
1,01325 10 5 2,9 10 2
= 1,21 / 3 .
=
8,31 2,93 10 2

m-?

[] = = 3 = 3 ,

[ ] = [ ], [ ] = [

].

.
.
100 2, 4 2. V = 400 3 = 4102 3

m = V = 4 10 2 3 1,21 3 = 484 .

8.
2,5 /3
10 0 .
.

26
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:
5


-:
V = vRT ,

= 1,0132510
= (273+10) =
=283 = 2,83102
= 2,5 /3

R = 8,31

M =

m
= :
V
RT
M =
,
p

-?

M =

2,5 8,31 2,83 10 2


1,01325 10 5

m
RT ,
Vp

/ = 5,8 10 2 / = 0,058 / .

3
=
=
.
3 3

[ ] =

9.
0,03 3
1,35106 455 0.
(t0 = 0 0C, 0 = 101325 )?
:

V1 = 0,03 3 = 310-2 3
1 = 1,35106
1 = (273+455) =
= 7,28102
2 = 1,01325105
2 = (273+0) =
= 2,73102
m = const


-:
m
V =
R = const,
M
p1V1 p2V 2
pT
, V 2 = 1 2 V1 ,
=
T1
T2
p2T 1
V2 =

1,35 10 6 2,73 10 2
1,01325 10 5 7,28 10 2

3 10 2 3 .

V2 - ?

V2 0,153.
27
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10.
7134 .
3,8104 .
0 0,
1,29 /3.
:

:
3

h = 7134 = 7,13410
1 = 3,8104
= 1 = 2 = 2,73102
2 = 1,29/3

R = 8,31

p2 = 1105
1 - ?

1 =

1
pM
, 2 = 2 ;
RT 1
RT 2

M =

1RT 2
;
p2

1 =

p1 T 1
2 .
p2 T 2


:
m
V =
RT ,
M
m pM
=
.
=
V
RT
1 = 3,8104

1 = 2, .. 1 =

1
2 ;
2

28
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1 =

3,8 10 4
10

1,29

, 1 0,49 / 3 .

11.

V, .
, V , .

:

-:
V
m
=
R = const (1).
T
M
1-2 ,
:
V = T , -
( ). , V
, (1), :
m T mR
p=
R =
= const.
M V M
, 1-2 , 2 = 1.
, V ,
.
V, : 2 > 1, V2 > V1,
.

29
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2-3, , , 3 = 2.
, ,
, V . , V3 < V2, ,
- (1), 3 > 2,
, V , .
3-1 , V3 = V1. , V
, , ( (1))
, .
, 3 > 1 , , 3 > 1.

30
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12.

.
:

R, T, M


-
-:

. . ?
1
2
m 0 n c
. .
3
m
V =
RT
M
:
1
m
2
V m 0 n
RT ,
. . =
3
M
N
n= ;
V
1
m
2
m 0 N
RT ,
. . =
3
M
m = m0N ;
=

1 2
RT
. . =
3
M.
3RT
. . =
.
M
R
,
.

31
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13.
15 0.
, 40 % ,
8 0?
:

:
0

T1 = 15 = 2,8810
m = 0,4 m1
T = 8 K

m1
RT 1 ,
M
m
p2V = 2 RT 2 ;
M
m = m1 m 2 ,
1V =

m 2 = m1 m;
T = T 1 T 2 ,
T2 = T 1 T ;
1
?
2

p1 m1 T 1
;
=

p2 m 2 T 2

m1 m
R (T 1 T ),
M
p1
m1
T1
T1
1
1
2,88 10 2
,

=
m T 1 T 1 0,4 2,88 10 2 8
p2 m1 m T 1 T
1
m1

p2V =

p1
1,7.
p2

32
www.5balls.ru

IV.

4.
1.
U-
. , ,
, ?

:


. U-
. ,
, , .

33
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2.
,
?
:

. ,
.

3.
,
, ?
:

:
5

. = 1,0132510

R = 8,31

= 1,810-2 /
= 373 = 3,73102



.
-
:
RT
,
M
m pM
= =
,
V
RT
p = p ;
V =

-?

34
www.5balls.ru

1,01325 10 5 1,8 10 2
8,31 3,73 10 2

/ 3 ,

0,59 / 3 .

[ ] = = 3 = 3 ,

[ ] = 3 .

: ,
.
, .
,
, :
= + gh, = 10 3
,
h

, g

gh :

10 5

10.
1000 10
g

35
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4.
.
. ,
?
:

, , .

,
,

,
, .. > .
,
.
, ,
, ,
.

5.
10,3
. ,
100 0, ?

36
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h = 10,3

. = 1,01105

2 = 373

= 1000 /

g = 9,8 /2


.

,


,
.

h2 - ?

,
vn : gh :
= + gh1
= + gh2
37
www.5balls.ru

,
.
100 0,
= 1,01105 .
:
= 1,01 10 5 10 3 9,8 10,3 (1,01 1,01)10 5 -

.
(, = ):

gh2 = 0, h2 = 0.
,
.

6.
V =120 3 t=15 0
= 60 %.
. 0
t=15 0 12,8 ..
:

V = 120 3 = 1,2102 3

R = 8,31

= 288 = 2,88102
= 60%
vn = 12,8 ... =
= 1,71103
= 0,018 /3=

= n 100% , n
pvn
, vn
;
pvn
.
pn =
100%

38
www.5balls.ru

= 1,810-2 /3

mn - ?
mn =
mn =

pnV =

pvn V M
,
100% R T
60 1,71 10 3 1,2 10 2 1,8 10 2
10 2 8,31 2,88 10 2

, m n 0,92 .

3
= [ ],
=
3

[m ] =

mn
p V M
RT , m n = n
;
M
RT

[ ] = [ 3 ].
7.

t=20

1 = 20%.
2 = 50%, V = 40
3? t = 20
0

0 = 1,7310-2 /3.
:

= 293 = 2,93102
1 = 20%
2 = 50%
V = 40 3
vn = 1,7310-2 /3
= const

1 =

n1

100% , 2 = n2 100% ,
pvn1
pvn 2

(pvn1 = vn2 = vn, .. T = const).


:

39
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vn RT
,
M
RT
pn = n
,
M
vn =

m - ?
pn

= n .
pvn vn
,
:

= n 100%,
vn
n - ,
vn - .

1 =
2 =

n1
vn

100% (1);

n2

100% (2);
vn
(2) (1)
.
( 2 1 )
= ;
100%
m
,
n =
V
( 1 ) n V
;
m = 2
100%
(50 20 ) 1,73 10 2 40
m =
, m 0,21 .
100

40
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V.
5.
1.
.
= 20 .
,
1,6105 ?
:

F = 1,6105
= 20 = 21010

:
F
F
= ,S= ;
S

S-?

S=

1,6 10 5
10

2 10

2 ,

S = 8 10 6 2 = 8 2 .

2.
,
, 1,5108 ?
0,4 .
:

d = 0,4 = 410-3
= 1,5108
41
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F-?

F
,
S

S=

d 2
;
4

4F

,
d 2
d 2
;
F=
4
3,14 1,6 10 5 1,5 10 8
F=
H,
4
F 1,9 10 3 H .

3.

20? 1800 /3.

?
:

= 1800 /3 =
= 1,8103 /3
g = 9,8 /2
h = 20

,
S
S ,
,
F.

-?
42
www.5balls.ru

= F = mg,
m = V ,
V = Sh ,
m = Sh ,
F = g S h,

g S h
,
S
= gh;

= 1,8 10 3 9,8 20 ,
3,53 10 5 .
,
, h1 g(h-h1)<gh1.

4.

,
? 3,2108
, 7800 /3.

43
www.5balls.ru

:
= 3,2108
= 7,8103 /3
g = 9,8 /2

l - ?

S:

,
S
F .

:
F = m g,
m = S l ,

= l g,
l =
l =

3,2 10 8
7,8 10 3 9,8

l 4,2 10 3 = 4200 .

44
www.5balls.ru

5.
100 5
2,5 2 1 .
, .
:

:
F = 100 H = 102 H
l=5
S = 2,5 2 = 2,510-6 2
l = 1 = 10-3

- ? - ?

=
=

F
;
S
10 2 H
2,5 10 6 2

= 4 10 7 .
: = , ,
-
l
= ,
l
l
=E ;
l
l
F
,
=E
S
l
F l
E=
;
S l

45
www.5balls.ru

E=

10 2 5
2,5 10 6 10 3

= 2 1011 .

6.
F. ,
1/10 ,
1/20
, ,
.
:

10
1
S =
S
20
=

F
?
F
F
= ,
S
F
= ;
S

=,
= .
46
www.5balls.ru


, .. = .
F = E S , F = S ,
F = E S .

, ,
, : F = F +
F. :
= 10 ,
1
S;
20
1
F = S ,
2
F = S ,

S =

F =

1
F ;
2

F = F + F =

1
3
F + F = F ,
2
2

F 2
= .
F 3

47
www.5balls.ru

VI.
6.
1.

, 3 ,
2 ?
:
2 = 31
1
V2 = V1
2

:
U
6.1 23 :
U=

3 m
RT .
2M

U2
?
U1

-:
pV =

m
RT ,
M

3
pV ;
2
3
U 1 = p1V1 ,
2
3
U 2 = p2V 2 ;
2
U 2 p2V 2
;
=
U1
p1V1
U=

p2 = 3 p1 ,
48
www.5balls.ru

1
V 2 = V1 ,
2
3
pV
U2 2 1 1
,
=
U1
p1V1
U2 3 U2
= ,
= 1,5.
U1 2 U1

1,5 .

2.
,

=105

, = 25 .
?
:

= 105
= 25
P = const

V - ?

= V ,

V =

, 6.4
23 :

A
,
p

25
,
10 5
V = 2,5 10 4 3 = 250 3 .
V =

[ ] = [ 3 ].

49
www.5balls.ru

3.

200 . ,
400 ?
:

Q = 200
= 400

:
Q = A + U .

U - ?
, ,

.
: ,
( = -), I
U = A + Q.
U = Q A; U = 200 400 = 200 .

200 .

4.

.
0,1 0,5 .
(27 0) ,
. =0,029 /.
50
www.5balls.ru

m2 = 0,5 = 510-4
m1 = 0,1 = 110-4
= 300 = 3102
p = const, T = const
M = 2,910-2 /

R = 8,31


, S,
S .
:
= S h = pV , h - ,


, V - .
-?

A = pV = p(V 2 V1 ).


:
m
pV =
RT ,
M
m RT
,
V2 = 2
M p
V1 =
A=
A=

V -

m1 RT
;
M p
( m 2 m1 )
RT ,
M
(5 1) 10 4 8,31 3 10 2
2,9 10 2

, 34,4 .

[ ] = = [ ].

51
www.5balls.ru

5.

1 .
, .
50 0? ?
:

V1 = V2 = V = 1 =
= 10-3 3
1 = 2 = = 323 =
= 3,23102
1 = 1000 /3 =
= 103 /3
2 = 2,910-2 /

1 = 4,2103

= 105


,

Q. V
,
. ,
, ,

.

t1 t2
Q = U 1 = c1 m1 T 1 ,
1 , m1 .
3 m2
Q = U 2 =
R T 2 ,
2 M2
m2 .
m2 , 0,
0 = .
m
V = 2 RT 0 ,
M2

52
www.5balls.ru

m2 =

M 2 p V
.
R T 0

: m1 = 1 V .

.
Q = c1 1V T 1 ,
Q=

3 pV
T 2 ;
2 T0

T 1 =

Q
,
c1 1V

T 2 =

2QT 0
.
3 pV

T 1 T 2 , , 0 = 20 0 = 293 =
2,93102 :

3 p
T 1
=
=
T 2 2 0 1 1

3 10 5

10 4

3
10 3
2 2,93 10 4,2 10


, . ,

1 1 1V 4,2 10 3 10 3 10 3
= 4,2 10 3

1
3 V 3 10 5 10 3


0,5
.
2 T0
2 2,93 10 2

: ,
2 = . , ,
104 (
), .

53
www.5balls.ru

6.
().

,
.
, .
.
,
. ?

54
www.5balls.ru

:

,

.

. ,

,
1,

2.

= 2 1 .

7.
1-2,
2-3 3-1 .
?

55
www.5balls.ru

:
11 3,
, V , .
1-2 , V2>V1.
= 1V = p1 (V 2 V1 ).
, 2>1, ..

3 m
3 m
R T =
R (T 2 T 1 ).
U =
2M
2M
m
RT
- pV =
M
3
U = p1 (V 2 V1 ). ,
2
5
Q12 = U + A = p1 (V 2 V1 ).
2

2-3 . ,

U = 0.

, .. < 0.
Q12 = A 0.

56
www.5balls.ru

3-1 , ,
=0.
3>1, .
3 m
R (T 1 T 3 )0.
2M
, :
3 m
Q 31 =
R (T 3 T 1 )0.
2M
U =

8.
m
,

V.

, ?
:

m, M, T
1) p = const
2) V = const

: 1-2
1-3 ,V.
,

.

Q - ?

57
www.5balls.ru

Q = Q12 Q13 ,
Q = U + A,
U - , ,
. 1-2 1-3
T , :
U 12 = U 13 = U =

3 m
R T ,
2M

T = T 2 T 1 .
1-3 ,
13 = 0.
1-2 ,
12 = 1 (V 2 V1 ).

-
m
pV =
RT .
M
m
R T .
, A12 =
M
5 m
R T .
, Q12 = U 12 + A12 =
2M
3 m
Q13 = U 13 =
R T .
2M

58
www.5balls.ru

m
R T .
M
, ,
.
Q = Q12 Q13 = A12 = p1 (V 2 V1 ) =

9.

4 100 ?

V = const
m = 4
T = 100 = 102
= 0,004 / =
= 410-3 /

R = 8,31


Q = U + A, U -
, .
V = const, =0, ..
. :
Q = U .
U =

3 m
RT ,
2M

Q-?
Q=

3 m
R T ,
2M

10 2

Q=
1,25 10 6 ,

2 4 10 3

Q 1246,5 1,25 .
3 4 8,31

10.
,
20 . ?

59
www.5balls.ru

= 20
= const


Q = A + U .
= const, T = 0. ,
:

Q-?
U = 0.
Q = A,
Q = 20 .

11.
2
10 . (
14 /()).
:

m = 2
p = const
T = 10 K

c = 14

M = 210-3 /

R = 8,31

U - ?

Q = U + A, U = Q A,
,

= V.
V
-:
m
m R T
V =
RT , V =
,
M
M p

m
R T .
M
Q = cm T ( c - ),
A=

U = ( c

R
)m T ,
M

60
www.5balls.ru

8,31

U = 1400
2 10 ,
2 10 3

U 2 10 5 = 200 .

12.

, 4 . ,
,
500 . .
:

= 500 =
= 5102
= 4

R = 8,31

Q=0

Q = A + U , ,

, U
.
- , ,
= -, Q = U - A, Q = 0.
, U = A.

- ?
:
3
3
U = vR T , vR T = A .
2
2
2A
2 5 10 2
=
, =
K , 10K .
3vR
3 4 8,31

13.

0,25

25 0, 10

61
www.5balls.ru

100

, 1000 /?
:

m1 = 0,25 = 2,510-1
m2 = 0,01 = 110-1
1 = 298 = 2,98102
2 = 373 = 3,73102

= 4,2103

r = 2,256106

C = 103

-?t-?



,

,
.

: Q1 + Q 2 + Q 3 = 0,
Q1 = c m1 (T T 1 ) - ,
,
Q 2 = C (T T 1 ) - ,
.

Q 3 = rm 2 + c m 2 (T T 2 ) - , .
rm2 , cm2(T-T2) ,
, .
m1 (T T 1 ) + C (T T 1 ) rm 2 + c m 2 (T T 2 ) = 0,
T ( c m1 + C + c m 2 ) = rm 2 + CT 1 + c m1T 1 + c m 2T 2
T =
T =

rm 2 + CT 1 + c ( m1T 1 + m 2T 2 )
,
c m1 + C + c m 2
2,256 10 6 10 2 + 10 3 298 + 4,2 10 3 (2,5 10 1 298 + 10 2 373 )

T 310,3K .

4,2 10 3 2,5 10 1 + 10 3 + 4,2 10 3 10 2

K;

t = (T 273 ) 0 C; t 37,3 0 C.

: ,
, . ,
, ,
62
www.5balls.ru

, 100 0.
-.
, ,
>100 0.

14.
0,4
0

10 . 0,6 40 0.
,
?
:

m1 = 0,4 = 410-1
m2 = 0,6 = 610-1
1 = (273+10) =
= 283 = 2,83102
2 = (273-40) =
=233 = 2,33102

1 = 4,2103

2 = 2,1103

5
= 3,3410

,

0 0 = 273 = 0:
Q1 = c1m1(T0-T1),
,
0 = 273 :
Q 2 = c2 m 2 (T 2 T 0 ).

-?

Q1 = 1,68 10 4 , Q 2 = 5,04 10 4 .
Q2>Q1. ,
0 = 0 0, ,
,
,
. , (
)
.

Q3 ,
, .
Q 3 = Q1 + m1 = 1,68 10 4 + 3,34 10 5 0,4 1,50 10 5 .

63
www.5balls.ru

Q 3 > Q 2 , .

= 273 =
= 0 0.
.
1m1 (T 0 T 1 ) + m x = c2 m 2 (T 2 T 0 ) ,
mx , .
c m (T T 1 ) + c1m1 (T 0 T 1 )
mx = 2 2 0
,

mx =

2,1 10 3 6 10 1 40 4,2 10 3 4 10 1 10
3,34 10 5

, m x = 10 1 = 0,1 .

m = m 2 + m x , m = 7 10 1 = 0,7 .
m = m1 m x , m = 3 10 1 = 0,3 .
0,3 , 0,7
0 0.

15.
, ,

80%, 27 0?
:

max = 80%
= 300 = 3102
- ?

64
www.5balls.ru


, .
.
,
, :
T
100%,

, .
max
T
=1 x ,
100%
T

max =

,
max
1
100%
100%
,
T =
100% max
=

T =

3 10 2 100
; = 1,5 10 3 = 1500 .
100 80

16.


Q1 = 1,5106 , Q2 =- 1,2106 .

,
250 0 30 0?

65
www.5balls.ru

Q1 = 1,5106
Q2 = -1,2106
= 523 = 5,23102
= 303 = 3,03102

=
100%,
Q1

,
, Q1 ,
.
- ? max - ?
Q2 , ,
= Q1 Q 2 .

Q 1 Q2

100%, =

(1,5 - 1,2) 10 6

100%,
Q1
1,5 10 6
= 20%.
,
, :
T
5,23 10 2 3,03 10 2
max =
100%, max =
100%;

5,23 10 2

max 42%.

66
www.5balls.ru


VII.
7.
1.
, , ,
.
, .
:

( )
.
, -, ,
+. ,
, -.

2.

, 0,510-8 .
:

:
-8

r = 0,510 =
= 510-11
q = - = -1,610-19
2
0 = 8,8510-12
2

1 1
, .


67
www.5balls.ru

:
q p = e = 1,6 10 19 .

F-?

:
q p qe

F =k

=k

e2

,
r2
r2
1
k =
- .
4 0
F=

(1,6 10 19 ) 2

4 8,85 10 12 (5 10 11 ) 2

H;

F = 9,2 10 8 H.

[F ] = H 2

2
= [ ]
2

,
.

3.


? me = 9,1110-31 ,
mp = 1,6710-27 . G =
6,6710-11 2/2.
:

me = 9,1110-31
mp = 1,6710-27

68
www.5balls.ru

G = 6,6710-11

2
2

q = -1,610-19
q = 1,610-19
2
1
= 9109
k=
4 0
2

Fm = G
F = k
F
=
Fm

m p me
r2
qe q

k
G

,
r2
qe q

r2
,
m p me

r2
k qe q

F
=
;
Fm G m p m e
F
-?
Fm
9 10 9 (1,6 10 19 ) 2
F
,
=
Fm 6,67 10 11 1,67 10 27 9,11 10 31
F
2,3 10 39 -
Fm
.

4.

1 , 1%
, 0,03 ?
:

= 1,610-19
r = 1 = 103
m = 0,03 = 310-5
= 1%
NA = 61023 -1
= 1,810-2 /

.
69
www.5balls.ru

k=

1
2
= 9 10 9
4 0
2

.
,

F - ?

: F = k

q2
r2

q n , q n -
100%
. (2) 10
: 8 , 2- . ,
m
- .
q n =10 e N , N = N A
M
10 e N A m
q=
,
100% M
: q =

F = k
F =

10 2 e 2 N A2 m 2

,
M 2 r2
100%

9 10 9 1 10 2 (1,6 10 19 ) 2 ( 6 10 23 ) 2 (3 10 5 ) 2
( 0,018) 2 10 6 10 4

F 2,3 10 6 .

2 2
= [ ].
2
2
2

2

[F ] = H 2

5.
40
. 910-9 , -210-9 .

.
.
70
www.5balls.ru

q1 = 910-9
q2 = -210-9
r = 40 = 410-1
1
2
= 9 10 9
k=
4 0
2


q1>0,
q2<0,
:
q1 q 2
F1 = k
.
r2

F - ?

F1 =

9 10 9 9 10 9 2 10 9
( 4 10 1 ) 2

; F1 1 10 6 .

.
,
q1 + q 2 = 2 q,

:
q1 + q 2
.
2

q2
F 2 = k 2 ,
r
q=

F 2 = k

( q1 + q 2 ) 2
4r 2

71
www.5balls.ru

F 2 =

9 10 9 (( 9 2 ) 10 9 ) 2
1 2

4 ( 4 10 )

; F 2 6,9 10 7 .

6.
1,010-8 2,010-8
1 . ,
,
, -310-9 .
, ?
:

q1 = 1,010-8
q2 = 2,010-8
l=1
q = -310-9
1
2
= 9 10 9
k=
4 0
2
q q2
:
4 q q2
F2 = k
.
l2
F-?

q1 :
4 q q1
F1 = k
,
l2
.
( q2>q1)
:
k 4 q
F = F2 F1 =
( q 2 q1 ),
l2
72
www.5balls.ru

9 10 9 4 3 10 9
((2 1) 10 8 )H;
1
F 1,1 10 6 H .
F=

VIII
8.
1.

1,3105 /
210-9 .
.
:

= 1,3105 /
m = 210-12
g = 9,8 /2
qe = - 1,610-19

q-?n-?
,
, , 0.
r
r
FT FK .
r
r
r r
FT = m g, FK = E g,
r
E - .
r
r
FT + FK = 0, FTx = mg , FKx = qE x = qE .
73
www.5balls.ru

FTx + FKx = 0, mg + qE = 0, q =
q=

2 10 12 9,8
1,3 10 5

mg
E;

q 1,5 10 16 .

n=
n=

q
mg
, n=
.
qe
E qe
2 10 12 9,8
1,3 10 5 1,6 10 19

; n 940 .

2.

?
:
,
( - ).

,
(.. ).

.

. ,
,
.

74
www.5balls.ru

3.

q1>0

q2>0 ().

? ? ?
?
?


q2>0 , .

75
www.5balls.ru

= k

q2
r2

. q1

, , q2
q1 ,
r
.
q1>0 q2>0
,
r
. .
:
= (W p W pA ) = q1 ( B A ),

Wp, WpA q1 q2 ,
, q2 .
q2 :

kq 2
,
r2

kq 2
r1
r1, r2 q2 .
q
1 1
kq
= q1 k 2 2 = kq 1q 2 ,
r
r
1
2
r1 r2

A =

r1<r2 AAB>0.
:
W pB = W pA A AB W pA .
D q2
. CD<0.
:
W pD = W pC ACD W pC

76
www.5balls.ru

DA
, :
=DA=0.
q2
.
,
.
0:
D = (W pA W pA ) = q1 ( A A ) = 0

1 1
, ACD = A AB = kq 1q 2 .
r1 r2

4.
,
, 1.
? ?
:

= 1 B
qe = - 1,610-19

= q e (1 2 ) = q e ,
= 2 1 .

W - ?
Wp - ?

W = , W = q e ,

W = 1,6 10 19 .
,
.
= W p .
W p = A, W p = q e ,

77
www.5balls.ru

W p = 1,6 10 19 .
.

5.
q1>0 q2<0
r.

.
:

q1>0, q2<0

:
r r
r
= 1 + 2 ,

r, , 0, E - ?

1 = k
q1.

2 = k

q2
2

q1

r
q1>0 E 1

r
q2<0 E 2 q2.

r
r
r
E 1 E 2 1200,

2 = 21 + 22 2 1 2 s120 0 , E 2 = E12 + E 22 + E 1E 2 ,

E2 = k2

q12
2 4

+k

q 22
2 4

+k

q1q 2

2r4

78
www.5balls.ru

E2 =
E =

k2
2 4

r
k
2

( q12 + q22 + q1q2 ),

q12 + q22 + q1q 2 ,

r
1
k=
,
4 0

12

0 = 8,85 10
=

- .

q12 + q 22 + q1q 2
4 0 r 2

6.

.
?
:

: 1>2.
,
.

1>2

2
r
1

79
www.5balls.ru

7.
,
3 , 120 .
,
, .
:

U = 120 B
d = 3 = 0,03

E-?
q .
q qU, U
.
,
r
E : A = qEd , qE ,
q.
d , .
qEd = qU ,
U
;
d
120
E =
/ ,
0,03

E =

= 400 / = 4 10 3 /.

80
www.5balls.ru

8.

.
:

,
.
.
,
.
, .
, ,
.
,
, .

81
www.5balls.ru

9.
, ,
v1 = 1107 / v23107 /.
.

11
= 1,76 10 /.
m
:



2 = 3 10 7 /
:
= W ,

11
= 1,76 10 /
m
W = W 2 W 1 ,
qe = -e
U = 1-2 = ?

1 = 1 10 7 /,

m 12
,
2
m 22
;
W 2 =
2
m
W = ( 22 12 ),
2
m 2
A = ( 2 12 ),
2
,

2 1.
A = qe U ,
W 1 =

m 2
( 2 12 ),
2
m
( 22 12 ),
U =
2q e
q eU =

82
www.5balls.ru

22 12
,
qe
2
m
22 12
;
U =
e
2
m

U =

U =

( 9 1) 1014
2 1,76 1011

B,

U 2,3 10 3 B.


=
= [ ].

2

[U ] = 2

IX
9.
1.

0,1 175 .
.
:

C = 0,1 =
= 110-7
U = 175 =
= 1,75102


q
= ,
U
q = CU .

q - ?

q1 = U 1C , q 2 = U 2 C ;
q =q 2 q1 ,
q = c(U 2 U 1 ) = cU ,
q = 1 10 7 1,75 10 2 , q = 1,75 10 5 .

83
www.5balls.ru

2.

2,710-4 . 0,23 ,
0,01 .
7.
.
:

q = 2,710-4
d = 0,23 = 2,310-4
= 0,01 = 110-8
=7

= 0 ,

0
.

- ?
U
q
q
,U = , E =
;
d
c
cd
2,7 104
E = 8
B/ ,
10 2,3 104 7
0 =

= 1,7 10 7 / = 1,7 10 7 /.

3.

2107

/,

.

,
0,05 200 ?

84
www.5balls.ru

0,02 .
1,761011 /.
:

0 = 2 10 7 /
l = 0,05 = 510-2
U = 200 B = 2102 B
d = 0,02 = 210-2

= 1,76 1011 /
m
qe = -e
d - ?


,

.
r
.
.
r
r
r
m a = q e E = eE ;
x : m ax = eE x = 0,
y : m ay = eE y = eE .
0 x = 0 ,
a y =

eE
.
m

eE
t 2 , x 0 = 0, y 0 = d .
2m
t ,
l
t = 0 t , t =
.
0
x = 0 t , y = d

y (t ) = 0 = d +
d =

ay l 2
2 02

ay t 2
2

, d =

eEl 2
2 m 02

85
www.5balls.ru

E =

d =
d =

Uel 2
2 dm 02

2 10 2 1,76 1011 2,5 10 3

2 2 10 2 4 1014
d = 5,5 = 5,5 10 3 .

2 2
= [ ],
=
2

[d ] =

U
,
d

[ ] = .

4.

U = 200 B.
. U1
,
d = 0,2 d1 = 0,7 ,
?
= 7.
:

U0 = 200 B = 2102 B
=7
d = 0,2 = 210-4
d1 = 0,7 = 710-4
U1 - ?

,
,
.
q
= ,
U
86
www.5balls.ru

q = C U - . :
q
C
U.
=
C 1 C1


. 7.28 ,
: U = E d .
,
:
C1
d
( C1 -
=
C
d1
d1 ). ,
C
1 = ,
C1
U1 =

C1 d
=
.
C
d1
, U 1 =
U1 =

7 10 7
2 10 7 7

Ud 1
;
d

200B = 100B .

:
r
, E ,
,
.

(
), ,
.
, , :
=

, - .
2 0
87
www.5balls.ru

7.34
.
,
( = 1),
(2 ) 2
.
= 0
2

( E )2
W p = p d S = 0
d S,
2
S .
(7.31):
qE d
Wp =
.
2
, :
q

E =
.
=
S 0 0
E =

.
2 0

5.
,
,

=3?
:

=3


,
,
.. q = const q1 = q2 = q.

W p2
W p1
W p1 =

?
q2
,
2C1

88
www.5balls.ru

W p2 =
W p2
W p1
W p2
W p1

q2
,
2C 2

C1
C
,= 2;
C2
C1

1 1
= .
3

3 .

6.

, 4, .
:
0 = 8,8510-12

:
C 7.34
2
, .. = 1,
= 0
2
2
,
= 0
2
U
= ,
d
U2
= 0 2 ,
2d

2
2


d = 0,2 = 210-4
U = 200 B = 2102 B
=1

p =

[ ]

8,85 10 12 (2 10 2 ) 2
8

/ 3 , 4,4 / 3 .

2 4 10
2 2 / 2/
= 3 ,
=
=
2
2
4/ 3

/


= , [ ] = [ ].

89
www.5balls.ru

VIII.
10.
1.
, ,
. ?
:

.

.
.

2.

, 0,2 , 0,2 .
8900 /3.

m = 0,2 = 210-1
R = 0,2 = 210-1
= 8,9103 /3
= 1,810-8



,
:
l
R= .
S

l-?S-?
90
www.5balls.ru

: V =
V = S l, l =
m

R=

S 2

m
,

V
m
, l=
;
S
S
,

m
;
R

S =

1,8 10 8 2 10 1

S =

2 10 1 8,9 10 3

2 ,

S 1,4 10 6 2 1,4 2 .

[ ]

O 4
2
= = .
3

/
V
m
S = ,S =
,
l
l

[S ] =

R=
l=

2
, l=
m

mR
;

2 10 1 2 10 1
1,8 10 8 8,9 10 3
3

[l ] =

, l 15,8 .

= 2 = [ ].

3.
300
36 .
,
8,51028 -3.

91
www.5balls.ru

:
U = 36 B = 3,610 B
l = 300 = 3102
= 1,810-8
n = 8,51028 -3
= 1,610-19

:
q
I =
,
t
q - , t
.

U
l
I = , R = ,
R
S
U S
I =
(1).
l
q = e N , , N - ,
t .
N = n V = n S c t ,

q = e n S c t ,

q
= e n S .
t
(1)
:
I =

=
c =

U
;
l en
3,6 10
1,6 10

19

8,5 10 28 1,8 10 8 3 10 2

/ ,

4,9 10 4 / .
92
www.5balls.ru


=
= ,
/

[ ] =

3/


1
= [ ], = .

4.
,
,
Q.
,
? ?
.
:

-
,
t,

Q1 - ? Q2 - ?

Q = I 2 Rt , I
:

I =

U2
U
, Q=
t.
R
R


:
R1 = R + R = 2 R ;
Q1 =

U2
t,
R1

Q1 =

U2
t,
2R
93
www.5balls.ru

Q1 =

Q
.
2

,
2
, .

:
1
1 1
R
= + , R2 = .
2
R2 R R
Q2 =

U2
t;
R2

2U 2
t;
R
Q2 = 2Q.

2 ,
.
Q2 =

94
www.5balls.ru

5.

, E, ?
:

, I = 0

U-?

.
R>>r, r
:

I =
R +r
R:
I =

U
R
,U =
.
R
R +r

r
- )
R
1
R
U

=
1 U=. I = 0 0 .
r
R +r
R

1+
R

R (

95
www.5balls.ru

6.

E = 12 r
= 0,01 ?
:

= 12
r = 0,01 = 10-2
R=0

I ,
r
R = 0,

12

I = ; I = 2 = 1200 A.
r
10

I - ?

7.
.
1,65 3,30
, 3,50 3,50 .
.
:

R1 = 1,65
U1 = 3,35
R2 = 3,5
U2 = 3,5

-?r-?
96
www.5balls.ru

I =
,
R +r
:
U

=
.
R R +r

:
U
= 1 ( R1 + r ),
R1
U2
( R 2 + r ),
R2
, :
U R (R + r)
,
I = 1 2 1
R1 U 2 ( R 2 + r )

U 1R 2 ( R1 + r ) = R1 U 2 ( R 2 + r ),
r=

U 2 R1 R 2 U 1 R 2 R1
,
U 1 R 2 U 2 R1

r=

R1 R 2 (U 2 U 1 )
,
U 1 R 2 U 2 R1

1,65 3,5(3,5 3,3 )


, r = 0,2 .
3,3 3,5 3,5 1,65
r :
U
R R (U U 1 )
,
= 1 R1 + 1 2 2
R1
U 1R 2 U 2 R1
r=

R (U U 1 )
,
= U 1 1 + 2 2
U 1R 2 U 2 R1

3,5(3,5 3,3 )
= 3,31 +
B.
3,3 3,5 3,5 1,65
= 3,7 B.

[r ] = = [ ],

97
www.5balls.ru

[ ] = = [ ].

8.
4,50 1,50
1,50 0,50 , ,
, .
, ,
23 ?

1 = 4,5
2 = 1,5
r1 = 1,5
r2 = 0,5
R = 23

-?

( ).
= 2 1.
:
I ( r1 + r2 + R ) = 2 1.
98
www.5balls.ru

I:
2 1
.
I =
r1 + r2 + R
-: Q = I 2 R t .
,
:
Q
P=
, P = I 2 R,
t
2

1
R ,
P = 2
r1 + r2 + R
2

4,5 1,5
P =
23 , 0,33.
1,5 + 0,5 + 23

2
=
=
= [ ].
2

[ ] =

9.
E = 6
0,1 .

.
:

=6
r = 0,1

I(R) - ? U(R) - ?
99
www.5balls.ru

, I =
, R .
R +r
0,1 + R
U = I R,
6R
R
U =
,U =
B.
R +r
0,1 + R
I =

10.
, 4,1
4 ,
, .
,
?
100
www.5balls.ru

= 4,1
r = 4

- ? r - ?
R
R:
U = I R.
U = I 1 r, U = I 2 r,
I1, I2 , :
I = I1 + I 2 .
I 1 r = I 2 r,
I
.
2

:
1

.
r = I R; I =
r
2
R+
2
,

r
= = 4,1 B, r = = 2.
2
I1 = I 2 =

101
www.5balls.ru

IX.
11.
1.
, ,
, , ,
.

I1 I2 ,
.
r
1

.
r
F21 ,
,
r
. , F12 ,
, .
,
r
r
F12 F21 ,
.
102
www.5balls.ru


I1 I2.
r

1
.
r
F21 , ,
r
. , F12 ,
,

.
,

2.

I1 I2.
?


r
1 , I1, ,
I1 , .
,
, 2 , 1 2
, I1, I2 .
2 1 .
, ,
(. ).
103
www.5balls.ru

:
, .
( ) ,
, .

3.
l = 0,15
,
= 0,4 . I = 8 .
,
0,025 .
:

:
l = 0,15 = 1,510-1
= 900
= 0,4 = 410-1
I=8A
S = 2,510-2

- ?

, ,
, .
S FA :
= FA S .
: FA = IBl sin .
= 90 0 , sin = 1. , A = IBl S .
A = 8 4 10 1 1,5 10 1 2,5 10 2 , = 0,021 .

[ ] = [ ] = /

/ /

2/


= [ ] = [ ]. [ ] =
.

104
www.5balls.ru

4.

.
:

r
F ,

. .

, ,
.
, .
, .

.

12.
1.
,
, .
105
www.5balls.ru

. ,
, ?
:


, .. R = R1+R2.

. R2, ,
, , R2<R2.

, (
):
U
U
I =
> I = , R = R1 + R 2 < R = R1 + R 2 .
R
R
, ,
.
. Q = I 2 R 1t > Q = I 2 R1t .
( ).
, ,
.

2.

.
, ?
:
R0.
, .
106
www.5balls.ru

,
R<R0.
.
U2
U2
t > Q 0 =
-: Q =
t .
R0
R
.

3.
0 0
5 .
,
60 0, ?
, ?
:

1) U = const.
-
,
, :
U2
.
=
R
2 - ?


R1 R2, :
PR
R1
U2
U2
, P2 = P1 (1 T ),
, P2 =
; P2 = 1 1 , R 2 =
P1 =
1 T
R1
R2
R2
= 60 = 610
1 = 5 = 5103
= 3,810-3 -1
1) U = const
2) I = const

P2 = 5 10 3 (1 6 10 3,8 10 3 ) , 2 3,9 10 3 3,9 .


.
2) I = const.
PR
R1
= I 2 R ; P1 = I 2 R1, P2 = I 2 R 2 ; P2 = 1 2 , R 2 =
,
1 T
R1

P1
5 10 3
, P2 =
, 2 6,4 10 3 6,4 .
1 T
1 6 10 3,8 10 3
.
P2 =

107
www.5balls.ru

4.

m =
0,01 . ,
?
k = 3,410-7 /.
:

m = 0,01 = 110-2
k = 3,410-7 /

:
m = k t , q = I t .

q-?

q=

m = kq , q =

1 10 2
3,4 10

m
k;

, q = 2,94 10 4 .

5.
1,6 10
0,316 .
.
:

I = 1,6
t = 10 = 6102
m = 0,316 = 3,1610-4

:
m
,
m = k t , k =
I t

k-?

k=

3,16 10 4
1,6 6 10 2

/,

k = 3,3 10 7 /.

108
www.5balls.ru

6.
,

?
:


, ,
.

7.
2 ,
, 25.

-7
k=310 /, = 8,9 10 3 /3.
, ,
S = 0,2 2?
:

t = 2 = 7,2103
I = 25 A = 2,510 A
k = 310-7 /
= 8,9103 /3
S = 0,2 = 210-1 2

:
m = k t , m = V = S d ,
S d = k t ,

109
www.5balls.ru

d-?

d=

d=

3 10 7 2,5 10 7,2 10 3
8,9 10 3 2 10 1

k t
;
S

, d 3 10 5 30 .


=
= [ ]. [ ] = [ ].

3

[d ] = 2
8.

r

.
?
.

:

. ,
.

.
, .

9.

500
5000 .
:

U1 = 500 = 5102
U2 = 5000 = 5103
e = 1,610-19
m = 910-31
U0 = 0

,
, = eU .
:
m 2
A= e
2

110
www.5balls.ru

1,2 - ?
=
1 =
2 =

m e 2
2
2eU 1
2 eU 2
; 2 =
;
me
me
eU =

2eU
; 1 =
me

2 1,6 10 19 5 10 2
9 10

31

2 1,6 10 19 5 10 3
9 10 31

/ c, 1 1,33 10 7 /c
/c, 2 4,19 10 7 /c

111
www.5balls.ru


1.
-
:
-

, .
V
= const p = const . ,
T
: V = const.T .
-,

V
T
: 1 = 1 .
V2 T 2
, .
:
3-5 (. ).
V1 ,
1.
,
, ,
.

(. ).
.
.
(. ) V2<V1 = . - gh.

,
(. ).
2
V
. 1
V 2
,

112
www.5balls.ru

V
Sl
l
1 = 1 = 1 .
V 2 Sl 2 l2
l


1 1 .
l2 2
: , .

l1

l2

t1

t2

ol

T1

T2

oT

0,5

1,5

333

303

274

273,5

547,5

l1

1
%

0,002

0,002

l2

600

550

60

30

1
2
1

2
%

3,5

3,85

l1 l2 .

T2.
:
1) 0l
0l = 0,5.
2)
:
l = l + o l = 1 + 0,5 = 1,5.
3) 1 = 273 + t1 = 273 + 60= 333.
113
www.5balls.ru

2 = 273 + t2 = 273 + 30= 303.


= 274
= 273,5
= 547,7
l
4) 1 1
l2
1 =
1 =
5)

l l
+
= 0,002%
l1
l2

l1
1 = 0,002
l2

T1
1
T2

2 =

547,5 547,5
T T
+

+
3,5%
333
303
T1
T2

2 =

T1
333
2 =
3,5 3,85
303
T2

: ,
-,
l1 T 1
=
.
l2 T 2
.

114
www.5balls.ru

2
( )

: .

.


Fl0
: =
, ; F ,
S ( l l0 )

;
S

; l0
(. ); l
(. ).
,
: S =

D 2
.
4
115
www.5balls.ru


4 Fl0
: E . =
.
2
D ( l l0 )
:

l0

ol

0D

12

0,001

0,0005

0,0015

0,00005

0,00005

0F

0F

0,001

0,05

0,05

0,1

0,9

,0,0254

0,023

,
, .
:
1) l
l = 0,001
0l
0l = 0,0005
l
l = l + 0 l = 0,0015
2) D = 0,00005
0D = 0,00005
D = D + 0 D = 0,0001
3) F = 0,05
0F = 0,05
F = F + 0 F = 0,05 + 0,05 = 0,1
4) =

4 Fl0
2

4 4 5
2

80
0,9
28 3,14

D ( l l 0 ) 2 (12 5 )
-
0,1 0,0005
0,0001
F l 0
D
l
=
+
+2
+2
=
+
+2
+
2
4
12
F
l
D
l l0
0,0015
= 0,02554
12 5
E -
= E = 0,9 0,02554 = 0,023
+2

116
www.5balls.ru

:
.

3


:
.
, ,
.


.
,
r.
,

0-6 R = 900 .
, R>> r.
E U ,

.

,
. ,
E = U + Ir, U = IR
E U
.
. r =
I
0-2 .
117
www.5balls.ru

E
r

0,05

I
A
2

E
B
1

U
B
0,1

0U
B
0,05

U
B
0,15

U
%
0,03

E
%
0,5

0,475

0,1

0I

0,05

0,15

I
r
%
%
0,075 2,335

1,1

0,05

0,1

0,05

0,15

0,03

0,5

0,475

0,1

0,05

0,15

0,075 2,335

1,1

, :
1) U ,
U = 0,1
0U ,
0U = 0,05
U
U = U + 0U = 0,1 + 0,05 = 0,15
2) I = 0,1
0I = 0,05
I = I + 0I = 0,1 + 0,05 = 0,15
E U
1 0,05
=
= 0,475.
3) r =
2
I
4) U =
5) I =

r =

0,15
U
=
= 0,03 , E = E/ E = 2/1 = 0,5
U 0,05

I 0,15
=
= 0,075,
I
2

E + U I 2 + 0,15 0,15
+
=
+
= 2,335
2
E U I 1 0,05

6) r = rr = 0,475 2,335 1,1.


:
,

.

118
www.5balls.ru


.
.
. l
S :
l
d 2
Rd 2
, S =
, =
,
S
4
4l
d .
, .
:
Ud 2
.
=
4 Il
R=

%
0,0013

0,001365

%
17

0,00065

0,25

0,1

0,015

0U

%
5

0,1

0,05

0,105

0I

%
0,5

0,0001

0,00005

0,00005

0d

%
0,3

0,0015

0,0005

0,001

0l

1,5

0,02

0,5

119
www.5balls.ru

1) l = 0,001
0l = 0,0005
l = l + 0l = 0,001 + 0,0005 = 0,0015.
l 0,0015
l =
=
= 0,3
l
0,5
2) d = 0,0005
0d = 0,0005
d = d + 0d = 0,00005 + 0,00005 = 0,0001
d
d =
= 0,5
d
3) I = 0,05
0I = 0,05
I = I + 0I = 0,05 + 0,05 = 0,1
I
I =
=5.
I
4) U = 0,15
0U = 0,1
U = U + 0U = 0,25
U
U =
= 17
U
Rd 2 3,14 0,02 2 0,1
5) =
=
= 0,000065
4l
4 0,5
U I
d
l 0,25 0,1
0,0015
+
+2
+2
=
+
+2
= 0,0013
=
U
I
d
l
1,5
2
0,5
= + = 0,000065 + 0,0013 = 0,001365 .

120
www.5balls.ru

5


: :
1) :
U
R
U = U 1 + U 2 , R = R1 + R 2 , 1 = 1
U 2 R2
2) :
I
R
1
1
1
I = I1 + I 2 ,
, 1 = 2
=
+
R R1 R 2 I 2 R1

.
,
:
U = U 1 + U 2 ,
: R = R1 + R 2

U1

U2

R1
.
R2

. .
.
, ,
1
1
1
.
, :
=
+
R R1 R 2

I1

I2

R2
.
R1

121
www.5balls.ru

U1
B
1

U2
B
2

I1
A
0,5

I2
A
1

R1

0,1

R2

0,2

0,3

1,5

U
%
-

R
%
-

I
%
-

:
.
1) U = U 1 + U 2 = 1 + 2 = 3

U =

U 1 + U 2
=
U1 + U 2

U 1 = U 1 + 0U 1 =
U 2 = U 2 + 0U 2 =
U = U U =
2) I = I 1 + I 2 = 0,5 + 1 = 1,5

I =

I 1 + I 2
=
I1 + I 2

I 1 = I 1 + 0 I 1 =
I 2 = I 2 + 0 I 2 =
I = I I =
3) R = R1 + R 2 = 0,1 + 0,2 = 0,3
.
R1 + R 2
R =
=
R1 + R 2
R1 = R1 + 0 R1 =
R 2 = R 2 + 0 R 2 =
R = R R =
4)

1
1
1
=
+

R R1 R 2

R=

R1 R 2
=
R1 + R 2

122
www.5balls.ru

R =

R1 R 2 R1 R 2
+
+
=
R1 R 2
R1
R2

R1 = R1 + 0 R 1 =
R 2 = R 2 + 0 R 2 =
R = R R =
:

.

6

:



.

, .
, ,
.
1 2 , 3
. ,
. ,
.
: ,
.

123
www.5balls.ru

7

:
.

.

(CuSO4),
.
:

=
It ,
mnN A
. m
,
, n , NA
, I , , t
.

. m=m2+m1,
:
M
=
It .
( m 2 m1 )nN A
,
.
.

124
www.5balls.ru

0I

1,5

0,05

0,025

0,075

8,3

1,0375

0,125

0t

0,000005

m t

0,5

m 0m

0,0001

I
A

30

0,2

0,000015

:
1) m
m = 0,00001
0m
0m = 0,000005
m
m = m + 0m = 0,00001 + 0,000005 = 0,000015
2) t = 1
0t = 0,5
t = t + 0t = 1 + 0,5 = 1,5
3) I = 0,05
0I = 0,025
I = I + 0I = 0,05 + 0,025 = 0,075
M
160
4) =
I t =
8,3
(m 2 - m1 )nN A
(1 0,2 ) 4 6,02

2 m
I t 2 0,000015 0,075 1,5
+
+
=
+
+
= 0,125
m 2 - m1
(1 0,2 )
1
30
I
t

e = e = 8,3 0,175 1,0375

:
.

125
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22600
22400
21500
19300
11300
10500
8900
8500

3
22,6
22,4
21,5
19,3
11,3
10,5
8,9
8,5

7800
7300
7100
7000
4000
2700

7,8
7,3
7,1
7,0
4,0
2,7

()
()

2700

3
2,7

2500
2300
2300
1800

2,5
2,3
2,3
1,8

1600
1200
1100
920
900
900
700
400
240

1,6
1,2
1,1
0,92
0,90
0,90
0,70
0,40
0,24

13600

13,60

1800
1350
1030

1,80
1,35
1,03

1030
1000

1,03
1,00

930

0,93

900

0,90

800

800

800

790

710

710

( t
6800
= 400 0)

( t
= -194 0)
860

126
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3
0,80
0,80
0,80
0,79
0,71
0,71
6,80
0,86

(IV)
( )

( 0 0)

3,210

0,00320

1,980
1,430

0,00198
0,00143

1,290
1,250

0,00129
0,00125

(II)
(
)

( t
= 100 0)

1,250

0,00125

0,800

0,0008

0,590
0,180
0,090

0,00059
0,00018
0,00009

= 2,998108 /
G = 6,6710-10 3/(3)
NA = 6,021023 -1
r = 1,3810-23 /
= 1,610-19
0 = 8,8510-12 /
m0 = 1,2610-6 /
h = 6,6210-34
m = 1,672610-27
mn = 1,674910-27

127
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