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. . , . .

II

. . , . .


II

2005

313 73-4
537+338
M 473
. ., . . . : . : 2 ./ . . -.
, 2005. . 2. 221.
,
, ,
. , , , . . , . .
.
, , ,
. .
, , - , .
(2-
).
- 2016.

, 2005


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1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. ,
2.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8
8
9
10
11
12
14
17
19
22
24
25
57
60
61
63
64
66

3. , .
94
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.3. . . . . . . . . . 109
3.4. .
113

3.5. -. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119
124

4.
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . .
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139
143
149
153
157

5. 166
5.1. . . . . . . 170
5.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
,

186

1. 186
2. , 190

3. , .
195
4.

207

5.

215

222

- . , ,
, , .
. ,
, , , ; , : . , ,
,
- ,
. , , . ,
. , , , . , ,
: , (
, ).
, .
: I) ,
; 2) , ; 3) -

, ;
4) , ,
.
, , .

. , , ,
, . , , .
.
,
.

. . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . ,
. , , .
. . , . . , . . , . . , . . , ;
. . .
, .

,
.

`
m
t
F
E, W
p
J
e, q
E

C
R
H
B

L

1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 / ( )
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()
1 / ( )
1 ()
1 ()
1 ()


102
103
1
105
107
10 /2
3 109 3/2 1/2 /2
3 109 3/2 1/2 /
1
104 1/2 /(1/2 )
3
1
102 1/2 1/2 /
3
9 1011
1
1011 /
9
4 103 ()
104 ()
108 ()
109

, 1-

. 9.
3-
4 103
4 103
. 12.
 
~ = ...
~ = 1 Ar 1 (rA )
4-
rot A
rot A
r sin
r r
32 ~
32 ~
~
~
. 74.
E1 = 1 +22 E0
E1 = 1 +22 E0
. 106.
9-
E/x = d
E|x=d
. 214.
5- Az = Hr sin /2
A = Hr sin /2
. 220.

0 sin
2-
F = Jc20Rsin
F = QJ
2
c2 R2

(q1, q2, q3)


dl2 = h21dq12 + h22dq22 + h23dq32, h1, h2, h3 . dV = h1h2h3dq1dq2dq3. ~ 1, q2, q3) A(q

h1dq1 h2dq2 h3dq3
=
=
.
Aq 1
Aq 2
Aq 3

~ = 1 ~e1 + 1 ~e2 + 1 ~e3,
grad =
h1 q1
h2 q2
h3 q3
~e1, ~e2, ~e3 , ~
(q1, q2, q3). A


~
~
~
div A = A =



1
(h2h3Aq1 ) +
(h3h1Aq2 ) +
(h1h2Aq3 ) .
=
h1h2h3 q1
q2
q3
~
A
h
i
~=
~ A
~ =
rot A


h ~e

1 1 h2~e2 h3~e3

1

.
=


q
q
q
1
2
3
h1h2h3

h1Aq1 h2Aq2 h3Aq3

()
~2=
4=







1
h2h3
h3h1
h1h2
=
+
+
.
h1h2h3 q1
h1 q1
q2
h2 q2
q3
h3 q3

(q1 = R, q2 = , q3 = z) h1 = 1,
h2 = R, h3 = 1, dl2 = dR2 + R2d2 + dz 2, dV = RdRddz.
~
A
dR Rd dz
=
=
.
AR
A
Az
(R, , z)

gradR =
; grad =
; gradz =
.
R
R
z
~
A(R,
, z)
~ = 1 (RAR ) + 1 A + Az .
div A
R R
R
z
~
A(R,
, z)
~ = 1 Az A , rot A
~ = AR Az ,
rotR A
R
z
z
R
~ = 1 (RA ) 1 AR .
rotz A
R R
R



1

1 2
2
2
~
4= =
R
+ 2 2 + 2.
R R
R
R
z

10

(q1 = r, q2 = , q3 = ) h1 = 1,
h2 = r, h3 = r sin , dl2 = dr2 + r2d2 + r2 sin2 d2,
dV = r2dr sin dd = r2drd, d = sin()dd
.
~ , )
A(r,
dr rd r sin d
=
=
.
Ar
A
A
~ , )
A(r,

~ = 1 r2Ar + 1 (sin A ) + 1 A .
div A
r2 r
r sin
r sin
(r, , )

1
1
gradr =
, grad =
, grad =
.
r
r
r sin
~ , )
A(r,


1
A

(sin A )
,
r sin



A
1
1
r
~=
(rA ) ,

rot A
r sin
r r

~=
rotr A

~ = 1 (rA ) 1 Ar .
rot A
r r
r

~2= 1
4=
r2 r

r2
r

+ 2
r sin

sin

1
2
+ 2 2
.
r sin 2

11

grad() = grad() + grad();


~ = div A
~+A
~ grad ;
div(A)
~ = rot A
~ + grad A;
~
rot(A)
rot grad = 0;
~ = 0;
div rot A
h
i
~B
~ =B
~ rot A
~A
~ rot B;
~
div A
~ = grad div A
~ 2A;
~
rot rot A
div ~r = 3;
rot ~r = 0;
~r
grad r = ;
r
grad(1/r) = ~r/r3.

Z
I
~
div AdV
= AndS,
V

n S, V .

I

Z
Al dl =

~
rotn AdS,

S , S, n , .

12

, .
~
1 B
~
rot E =
;
c t

~
4~ 1 D
~
;
rot H = j +
c
c t
,
~ = 4%,
div D

~ = 0,
div B
~ H
~ , D
~
E
~ ,
B
~ =E
~ + 4 P~ = E,
~ B
~ =H
~ + 4 M
~ = H.
~
D
P~ , ~ ,
, M
, % , ~j = %~v
, .

. .
:
%
= div ~j,
t

13


"
#
nc
o
~
~
~
~
(E D) (H B)
~ + div
~ H]
~ = 0,
+
+ (~j E)
[E
t
8
8
4

Z
I
W
~
~ s),

= (~j E)dV
+ (Sd~
t
W ,
Z n
o
1
~D
~ +H
~B
~ dV,
W =
E
8
~ ,
S
i
h
c
~=
~ H
~ ;
S
E
4
R
~
p~ = c12 SdV.

I
ZZ
1
El dl =
Bnds,
c
t
ZZ
ZZ
I
1
4
jnds +
Dnds,
Hl dl =
c ZZ
c
t
Z
4 %dV ,
ZZ
Bnds = 0,

E1 | = E2 |, D1n| D2n| = 4,
4
B1n| = B2n|, H1 | H2 | = I.
c
~ A
:
~
1 A
~
~ = rot A.
~
E = grad
, B
c t

14

1.

, (. ):
~ r, t) 2
E(~
c

2 E(~
~ r,t)

t2

= 0,
(1)

~ r, t) 2
H(~
c

2 H(~
~ r,t)

t2

= 0.

~ B
~
, E
( ~k) 0:
~ ~k) = (B
~ ~k) = 0, E
~ B;
~
(E
,

E =

(2)

~ = |H|,
~
H, |B|

(3)


~
E.

i
c h~
c E 2
~
~
EH =
S=
.
(4)
4
4
~v =
% =

dW
dV

E 2
4 .

~c ,

E 2
dV,
W =
4
Z ~
Z h
i
S
1
~ H
~ dV,
E
P~ =
dV =
(5)
2
c
4cZ
h
i
h
h
ii
1
~
~
~
~
M = ~r P =
~r E H dV .
4c
Z

15

|~k| k

n 2 P
k=
=
= =
= ,
(6)
v
c
c

~
, P~ , ~ = h/2 .
:
~ =E
~ 0 exp [i(~k~r t)],
E

(7)

:
~0
E
~
E=
exp [i(kr t)].
r
:
  2  2
Ex
Ey
+
= 1.
E1
E2

(8)

(9)

(E1 = E2 = E0):
Ez = 0, Ex = E0 cos t, Ey = E0 sin t.
Ex = 0 Ey = 0, . ~ ~k,
, E
.
n1 n2 0,
1 2 0 = 1
( ):

1 v 2
sin 2 n1
=
= = , ( = 1).
(10)
sin 0 n2
2 v 1
~ 0 . E
~0 = E
~ 0 + E
~ q , E
~ q
E
0

16

~
, , E
0
, .

E1q = E0 tg (0 2) / tg (0 +2) , E1 = E0 sin (0 2) / sin (0 +2) ,
(11)

2 cos 0 sin 2
sin 0 sin 2
, E2 = E0
. (12)
E2q = E0q
sin (0 + 2) cos (0 2)
sin (0 + 2)

E1 = E0 (n1 n2) / (n1 + n2) , E2 = 2E0n1/ (n1 + n2) .

(13)

0 +2 = /2 (11) , E1q = 0, . . . 0B ,
tg 0B = n2/n1, .

n2 < n1 2 > 0. 0,

n2
2 = /2, sin 0 = .
(14)
n1
, 1 = 0, ,
,

s
s



2
sin2 0
x sin 0

sin
0
Ex = E0 1 2 exp i t
expz
1 2 ,
n12
v2n12
c
n12
(15)
n12 = n2/n1.
,
1 d ln n
=
,
(16)

dN

1.1

17

, n , N
.
1.1.

1.1. 1)
,



~ =E
~0 t x
E
.
,

E
=
H.
c
2) , . 3)
: ) ; ) ; ) .
1.2. ~ = (E, 0, 0). ,
E
. .
.
1.3. , 1 2
(1 = 4, 2 107).
1.4. ,


k02  1
(

~ div E
~ = k 2,
~ = E~ k 2A;
rot
H
0
0
c
t
~
A, :

~
~ = H ; div H
~ = 0,
rot E
c t

Ez = E0 ei(kz zt).
, k02 0 Ez 0.
1.5. ,
, () .

18

1.6.
Z. a X, b Y ,
. ? .
1.7.
, ,
. , E/E .
1.8. (N+1) .
, = N .
,
I0, . , .
= 90 N = 50.
1.9. (
~k )
~v .
1.10. , ( ) ?
1.11. , ( , , ).
, ?
1.12. , ,

1.2

19

0. : ) ) .
1.13. ,
0 = 10, ,
n . v = 6104 /.
0 = 10 .
n, .
1.14. , ,
T . (, , , ,
0. )
1.15. , 0 ,
d v ( ). I0 ( ). I
v. = 0,
= 0? 0 0 0 ?
() I () vc = = 31 = 45 . 1 ?
1.2.

1.16.
. , ,

20

.
1.17. ,

.
1.18. , .
1.19. n
.
.
( ).
1.20. 2,
z = 0 z = a, 1 3 (1 = 2 = 3 = 1).
z < 0 .
?
1, 2, 3 ( ).
1.21.

n = . d  . .
1.22.

1.2

21

n . .
1.23.
?
1.24. , . ?
1.25. n
d, , n n
. n
, .
.

<

1.26. 1, 2 .
1.27. . ~
rq, E
~ , r, E
. 4 
I 4 = (I Ik)/(I + Ik) ; .
1.28. ,
I = E, I , .
.

22

1.29.
( : N N0Z).
(. = 1 4e2N/m 2,
, m ).
1.3.

1.30. : )
n1 n2 ; )
R1 R2 n R.
1.31.
f
f
. n
, R
R
,
h 1
h2
x = dx
dz , d
. (x1, 1) (x2, 2),
( ),
M12 , DetM12 = nn12


 1, 2. , 1 d
d

0 1


1 0
, n = 1, Mf =
.
f1 1
: 1)
; 2) , , a1 + 1b = f1 , a, b
2

1.3

23

.
1.32. n
? .
1.33. R2. R1.
,
n.
1.34. (n = 1, 5)
R = 4 ,
6 . .
1.35. f1 f2 l ,
. , .
1.36. n0 = 1, 504
n =1,501
n =1 ( ). n
,
(n1 = 1, 501)? , , .
1

1.37. N
|f | .
, d. :
) . d/f ? ) .

24

1.4.

1.38.
n .
1.39.
3 1010 1. , . , ,
, ?
1.40. , ,
, ,
?
1.41. x > 0 ,
n = n0 + ky.

( y = 0). .
Y

1.42. , n

M
. O
( ,
) 0 (0
).

1.43. , n 1 ,
( ).
1.44. -

1.5

25

( n0 = 1, 003; h = 8 )?
1.5.

.1. . , , .
~ D,
~ H,
~ B:
~
E,
~ , D
~ E
~ , B
~ , H
~ D,
~ H,
~ B
~ . E,

~ = E,
~ B
~ = H.
~ D
, . ,
.
~ D,
~ H,
~ B
~ ,
E,
.
.
I
Z Z
1

~
~ ~` =
Ed
BdS,
c t
I
~ S
~ = 0,
Bd
I
Z Z
Z Z
4
1

~ ~` =
~+
~ S,
~
~jdS
Hd
Dd
c
c t
I
Z Z Z
~ S
~ = 4
Dd
dv,
~
, ~j (~j = E,
), c .

26

~j = 0,
( = 0)
I
Z I
1

~ ~` =
~ S;
~
Ed
Bd
(1)
c t
I
~ S
~ = 0;
Bd
(2)
I

Z Z

1
~ S;
~
~ ~` =
Dd
Hd
c t
I
~ S
~ = 0.
Dd

(3)
(4)

, .
1 1,
r
Z
E
2 2, Z = 0.
Y
l
(1) , S
l
l
Sx, X
r
.
l
E
.
.
~ d`
~ , ~ d`,
E
~
d`,
.
~
~
~ d`E
E
x d`, . .
~ = E xd`. Sx
~ d`)
(E
`0. `2 `1
, ` ,
. ` : ` 0, `1 `2 `0, Sx .
1

1.5

27

(1) ` H 0 (
~ ~` = (E1 x E2 x) `0, E1 x E2 x
) Ed
~
E
Sx. `0 , E
.
(1), ~ Sx,
B
Sx Sx 0, B .
(E1 x E2 x) `0 = 0, E1 x |= E2 x |. (1) Sy , , , ,
E1 y |= E2 y |, E1 y | E2 y | ~
, E
, Sy . ,
~ ,
, E,
~ , . . E
~ 1 |= E
~ 2 |.
, E
, (3)
~ H
(
~ 1 |= H
~ 2 |.
): H
, (4)
ur
uur
n
D
S
~ S
l
D.
uur
S uur D
`, n
. S0 ,
. S1 S2
~
. D
Z

28

:
I

[
[
~ S
~ = D1 cos(D
~ 1n~1)S1 + D2 cos(D
~ 2n~2)S2 + ,
Dd

~
D1 D2 D
; n~1 n~2 ;
. `, S0, ~
D
. ,
[
~ 1n~1) = D1n,
D1 cos(D

[
~ 2n~2) = D2n,
D2 cos(D

~ 0
D

I
~ S
~ = (D1n| D2n|)S0,
lim
Dd
`0

~
D1n D2n D
, D1n|, D2n|
~ . (4)
D
, (D1n|D2n|)S0 = 0, D1n| = D2n|.
(2),
B1n| = B2n|.
,
~ 1 | = E
~ 2 |, H
~ 1 | = H
~ 2 |;
E

(5)

D1n| = D2n|, B1n| = B2n|.

(6)


. = const,

1.5

29

= const ,
~ H:
~
, E
2 ~
2 ~
~
~
E 2 2 E = 0, H 2 2 H = 0.
c t
c t


~ = E~0ei(t~k~r), H
~ =H
~ 0ei(t~k~r),
E

(7)

~ 0 , ; E~0, H

; |~k| = c = 2
, ~k
~ H
~
. ~k, E,
,
~
~ = c [~k E].
(8)
H

, (7)
(6) , (5). ~ H
~ (8). , E
(8)
(5) , ,
.
, . ~ 1. ,
E~1 H
~ 1,
(5) E~1 H
, . . E1 = E2 p
= E, H1 = H2 =
p H.
, (8), H1 = 1/1E1, H2 = 2/1E2,
H1 = H1.
, , .

30

z = 0
~ (`) = E~0(`)ei(t~k~r),
E
, ,

~ (r) = Re
~ i(r tk~10 ~r),
E
~ (d) = De
~ i(dtk~20 ~r).
E

(9)

(5) . (5) ~r = r~0,


A(~
r0)eit + B(~
r0)eir t + C(~
r0)eidt = 0.

(10)

A(~
r0), B(~
r0), C(~
r0) , .
t , = r = d.

r

k1
k1
k~1, k~10 k~2
X . z ,
,
. z = 0 r
k2
XY . X
. , ,
k~1
, z. (9) ~k~r, ,
~k~r = kxx + ky y. (5)
y = y0
1

A(y0)eik1xx + B(y0)eik1xx + C(y0)eik2xx = 0,

1.5

31

A(y0), B(y0), C(y0) , . x,



0
k1x = k1x
= k2x.
X, Y , x- z- k1x, k1z ,
0
k1y = 0. , k1y
= k2y = 0. (5)
x = x0,
0

A(x0) + B(x0)eik1y y + C(x0)eik2y y = 0;


A(x0), B(x0), C(x0) . 0
y, k1y
= k2y = 0. ,
, k~10 k~2
, .
, .
, , k1 = k10 ,
k = k10 = 11/c.
0
, k1x = k1x
, , 0 (. .
. 30) .
q
q
q
2 = k2 k2 , k = k2 k2 .
k2z = k22 k2x
1z
2
1x
1
1x
k1z , 2
z. k22 > k1x
, k2z , ,
z.
, , ,

k1x = k1 sin = 11 sin ,


c

32

k2x = k2 sin =

2 2

sin ,
c

k1x = k2x,

sin / sin =

22/ 11 = n2/n1,

ni = ii i- .
2
k22 < k1x
, k2z
2z |z . ,
z, e|kp
2 k 2 ,
, . . k2z = i k1x
2

, - . :
~ (d) = De
~ z|k2z |ei(tk1xx).
E

.2. ,

.
z = 0 Z, , .

~ H
~ Z. E
~k, X ~
E.
Ex` = E0`ei(tk1z), Ey` = 0, Ez` = 0;
r
1 ` i(tk1z)
E0 e
, Hx` = 0, Hy` = 0,
Hy` =
1

1.5

33

1 1 .
c


~ = c [~k E].
~
H
(1)

k1 =


Exr = Rei(t+k1z), Eyr = Ezr = 0,
r
1 i(t+k1z)
Re
, Hzr = Hyr = 0.
Hyr =
1

Exd = Dei(tk2z), Eyd = Ezd = 0
r
2 i(tk2z)
Hyd =
De
, Hzd = Hyd = 0,
2

k2 =
2 2 .
c
, ,
(. .1). ~ H.
~
E
, , , z = 0,
E0` + R = D,

1 `
(E R) =
1 0

q
R= q

1
1

1
1

2
2

q E0`,
2
2

2
D.
2

34

q
2 11
q E0`.
D=q
1
2
1 +
2
(r) , , (d) . . ,
~` H
~ ` 1(E `)2 1(H `)2
~ ` E~ ` B
D
+
=
+
.
W =
8
8
8
8
E ` H ` :
E ` = E0` cos(t k1z), H ` = H0` cos(t k1z).
(1), , ,
1(H `)2/8 = 1(E `)2/8,
1
(2)
W = (E0`)2 cos2(t k1z).
4
, (2) .

v = c/ 11, , . , , , , W (2) z, , , . . z = 1 = 2/k1.


1
hW i =
1

zZ
0 +1

1
W (z)dz =
2

z0

1(E0`)2

tkz
Z 0

4
tkz0 2

1 1(E0`)2
cos d =
.
2 4
2

1.5

35


( , ` 2
1 1 (E0 )
W = 2 4 ).
, . , , ,
, v = c/ 11
, , . .
r
c
1 1(E0`)2
1 ` 2
v=
(E ) .
=
2 4
8 1 0
S`
~ H
~ ,
. E

r
c
1
c
c
2
~ H]|
~ = Re [E
~ H
~ ] =
S = |[E
E .
4
2 4
8 0

q
q 2

2
1
r

2
c
2 1
~r H
~ r] = c
q |S`|,
|Sr | = Re[E
R = q
1
8
8
+ 2
1

q q
4 11 22

|Sd| = q
q 2 |S `|.
1
2
1 +
2

q

(r)

1
1

q 2
2
2

Sr
= = q
, (d)

q
2
1
2
S`
1 +
2

q q
4 11 22
= q
q 2 .
1
2
1 +
2

36

, 1 = 1 = 1 , 2 = , 2 = ,

p
p
2
(1

4
/)
/
p
p
(r) =
, (d) =
.
2
2
(1 + /)
(1 + /)
= ,
(r) = 0 : (d) = 1.
.3.
n .
.

(
).
~k
, , ~ ~k.
E
,
,
.
, , , E~ `
~ ~k, E
, k, ,

Ek = E sin , E = E cos .
(1)
E1d, ,
Ekd = E d sin 1, Ed = E d cos 1,

(2)

1.5

37

1
. , , (2)
() Ekd Ek, Ed E
:
Ekd

2 cos sin
Ed
2 cos sin
=
,
=
,
Ek sin( + ) cos( ) E
sin( + )

(3)

.
(1)(3) ,
tg 1 =

Ekd
Ed

Ek
tg
1
=
.
cos( ) E cos( )

(4)

E d , .
tg =

tg 1
,
cos( )

(5)

. ,
tg =

tg
.
cos2( )
q

cos( ). sin = sin /n, cos = 1 ( sinn )2,

q
1
cos() = cos cos +sin sin = (cos n2 sin2 +sin2 )
n

n2 tg

p
tg =
.
2
2
2
2
(sin + cos n sin )

38

.4.

. n = ,
d  . .
Z , z = 0,
z = d. ,
. ,
, z 0, 0 z d, z > d, z = 0 z = d
(. . 1). . ,
z < 0
~` = E
~ 0`ei(tk1z), z 0
E
,
,
~ r = Re
~ i(t+k1z), z 0.
E
0 z d E~2 , z 0,
,
,

0 i(t+k2 z)
~ 20ei(tk2z) + E
~ 20
E~2 = E
e
, 0 z d.
z d
.
~ i(tk1z), z d.
E~ d = De
, Z,

1.5

39

~k .

~ = c [~k E].
~
H
(1)

X , ,
, , ~ ` X, E
X,
Y . (. .
)
(. . 1).
, . ,
z = 0 (1) :
0
E0` + R = E20 + E20
;

(2)

0
k1(E0` R) = k2(E20 E20
).

(3)

z = d
0 ik2 d
E20eik2d + E20
e
= Deik1d;

(4)

0 ik2 d
k2(E20eik2d E20
e
) = k1Deik1d.

(5)

(2)(5) , = 1.

40

r ,
,
, . (. .2).
, :
c
S` =
1(E0`)2,
8
E0` .
R , :

c
~ H
~ ]| = 1c RR = c 1|R|2.
|Sr | = |Re[E
8
8
8

, H r = c 1Rei(t+k1z).
, :
|Sr |
|R|2
r
= = ` 2.
(6)
`
|S | (E )
0

(2)(5) R E0`. , R:
(k22 k12)[ei2k2d 1]E0`
.
R=
(k2 + k1)2 (k2 k1)2ei2k2d

i = n i ,
c
c
i , ni i- , ,
n = n2/n1,
ki =

(n2 1)(ei2k2d 1)E0`


;
R=
(n + 1)2 (n 1)2ei2k2d

1.5

41

R .
,
|(n2 1)(ei2k2d 1)|2 = (n2 1)24 sin2 k2d

|(n + 1)2 (n 1)2ei2k2d|2 = (4n)2 + 4(n2 1)2 sin2 k2d,

(n2 1)2 sin2 k2d


` 2
(E
).
|R| = 2
0
2
4n + (n2 1)2 sin k2d

2

(n2 1)2 sin2 k2d


.
= 2
4n + (n2 1)2 sin2 k2d
,
, . k2d =
m d = (2/2)m, m , 2
, = 0, . , k2d  1, 2
n2 d  1,
2
2
sin k2d (k2d) , ,
r

2
(n2 1)2 4 2n2d2
2 2
2d
=

= (n 1) 2 .
4n2
2

.5.
?
: ~ H
~ .
E

42

. ,
. k .
R E , ,
R n1 cos n2 cos Rk n2 cos n1 cos
=
,
=
,
E
n1 cos + n2 cos Ek
n2 cos + n1 cos
n1, n2 , , . ,
. n1 sin = n2 sin (. . 1),
sin( ) Rk tg( )
R
=
,
=
.
E
sin( + ) Ek
tg( + )
+ = 2 tg( + ) . Rk = 0. ,
, . Rp
/E ,
tg = 2(E21 E12)/1(E11 E22), 6= 1.
B ( ), Rk = 0. B + B = 2 , cos B = sin B = n1 sin B /n2,
tg B = n2/n1.
B , Ek
. R, . .

.
.6. (N + 1) .
, = N .

1.5

43

,
I0 E~0 . , .
= 900 N = 50.
, .
, . ,
,
~
, E
.
, E~0
. k
k
E0, E1 = E0, E1 . ~k
E1 .
~k
~
E1 , E,
~k
E2 , E~2, ,

k

E2 = E2 = E1 cos = E0 cos .
Ei

Ei 1

Ei

i = N + 1, EN +1

,

cos . i- Ei = E0(cos )i1.
= E0(cos )N .

44

I0 =
,

1
c
2
4 E0 ,

, -

c 2
EN +1 = I0(cos )2N .
4
0
= 90 N = 50 = /N = 1, 80 3 102 .
, << 1,
.
100
I51 = I0(cos(3102))100 I0[1
(3102)2] = I0(10, 05) = 0, 95I0.
2
IN +1 =

.7. ,
. ?
R/E Rk/Ek
p
p
2
2
2
R cos + i sin n Rk n cos + i sin2 n2
p
p
=
=
,
,
2
2
2
2
2
E
E
k
cos i sin n
n cos i sin n
(1)
n = n2/n1 ,
, sin > n. (1) ,
.
,
R/E = Aei/2/Aei/2 = ei ,
Rk/Ek = Beik/2/Beik/2 = eik ,
A, B, , k ,
p
p
2
2
k
sin n
sin2 n2

=
, tg =
.
tg
2
cos
2
n2 cos

(2)

1.5

45

~ r
E
~
E~ r = (Rke~ + Re~ )ei(k~rt),

e~ , e~ , ,
~k R~,
R
~
~
E~ r = Ekei(k~rt+k)e~ + Eei(k~rt+)e~ .

(3)

Ek, E , . , (3)
= k
. , ,
e~ , e~ .
Er = Ek cos(~k~r t + k),
(4)
Er = E cos(~k~r t + ).
, . ,
E~ r , (4)
t. (4)
Er /Ek = cos(~k~r t) cos k sin(~k~r t) sin k;

(5)

Er /E = cos(~k~r t) cos sin(~k~r t) sin .

(6)

(5) cos , (6) cos k,

46


Er
Er
cos
cos k = sin(~k~r t) sin(k ).
Ek
E

(7)

, sin(~k~r t) (5) (6),


Er
Er
sin
sin k = cos(~k~r t) sin(k ).
Ek
E

(8)

(7), (8) ,
 r  2  r 2
E
Er Er
E
+
2
cos(k ) = sin2(k ). (9)
Ek
E
EkE
, , . , , , .
.
= k = 2 Ek = E = E,
 r 2  r 2
E
E
+
=1
E
E
. ,
, = 2 .
(2)
p
cos sin2 n2
tg =
.
(10)
2
sin2
0, sin 0 = n, /2. (10) ,

1.5

47

= 0, . , [ = 0, = /2] tg 2 ,
.
m

/2 2
/2
m
.
1
(. , 1). , m > /2,

/2 1, 2 , /2 ( 2).
(10) = m,
m, , cos m sin m
m /2, n.
m, (10)
. , :
1/2

m 1 n2
n2
1 n2
,
tg
=
,
n
=
,
cos m =
1 + n2
2
2n
n1

(1 n2)/2n = tg(/4) = 1 , , n = 2 1 = 0, 414.


2 n2 < n1. , , n0 . , n01 n01 = 1/n1 > 1/0, 414 = 2, 41.
0
1

m 2

.8. d ,
. , .
.
-

48

, ,
n <n
Y (. ), . .

, n

(z, x).
Z
1 2. 1 = 2 = 1. `, r d
:
n1

E ` = E0`ei(tk1x sin k1z cos ), z 0,


E r = Rei(tk1x sin +k1z cos ), z 0,
E d = Rei(tk1x sin k1z cos ), z 0.
(. . 1, . 4)
E2 = A1ei(tk2x sin k2z cos )+A2ei(tk2x sin +k2z cos ), 0 z d.
~ k1
~ = c [~k E],
H

, k2 . .
~ H
~ z = 0
E,

E0`ei(tk1x sin )+Rei(tk1x sin ) = A1ei(tk2x sin )+A2ei(tk2x sin ),


k1 sin = k2 sin
E0` + R = A1 + A2;

(1)

k1 cos (E0` R) = k2 cos (A1 A2).

(2)

z = d
A1eik2d cos + A2eik2d cos = Deik1d cos ;

(3)

k2 cos (A1eik2d cos A2eik2d cos ) = k1D cos eik1d cos . (4)

1.5

49

(3), (4) = ,
k1 sin = k2 sin = k1 sin . (1)(4)
D
2ideid
=
.
E0` ( 2 2) sh d + 2i ch d

= k1 cos =

n1 cos ,
c

=
n21 sin2 n22.
c
n2 < n1,
s
 2
q
n1

2
sin = i
n21 sin2 n22,
k2 cos = n2 1
c
n2
c
. . k2 cos = i. ,
, n21 = , n22 = 1
q

=
sin2 1, =
cos .
c
c
, , (. . 4)

I
|D|2
|2ieid|2
=
=
=
I0 |E0`|2 |( 2 2) sh d + 2i ch d|2
4 22
=
.
2
2
2
2
2
2
4 ch d + ( ) sh d

2 2 2 2
I = I0/[ch d + (
) sh d].
2
2

50

.9.
,
~ ~j
~j = E,
, .
.
(X, Y ). ,
~ (X, Y ) , , X
E
~
E.
Y . :
, ~ (
H
. 1) H1y |H2y | = 4c j, X j = E.
`, r, d , , (. . 2,
. 4)
E ` + E r = E d,
4 `
E` Er Ed =
(E + E r ),
c

|E d|2
1
=
.
|E `|2 (1 + 2/c)2
.10. n.
, n,

1.5

51

, . , , ,
.
, , ,
.
,
, , . , .
, , .
. , , ,
= 105 .
S ,
~ ,
, S
dn ~
= S grad n.
dS
~
S
~
~
dn d(nS)
dS
~
S
=
n ,
dS
dS
dS

~ d(nS)
~
dS
~ grad n)S.
~
n
=
(S
(1)
dS
dS

52

~
~ /,
, dS/dS
= N
~ ,
N
~ ,
. (1) N
~ S,
~
, N
~
n
d(nS)
~
=N
.
(2)

dS
~
, d(nS)/dS
= grad n. ,
RB
, , A ndS,
. R .
B
A ndS + ndS ~ r, ~r
n = ~n grad n, dS = Sd~
,
Z
Z
B

~ r.
nSd~

~r grad dS +
A

,
~r = 0 , ,
Z B
~
d(nS)
(grad n
)~r dS = 0.
dS
A
~
d(nS)/dS
= grad n, (2)
n
~ gradn = dn
=N

dN

1 d ln n
=
.

dN
.
.11. 0 , , n 1 , ,

1.5

53

( ); ,
, 0
, n .
. , - , , . S 0
S (. ). 0
. ,
M . Z
S
S

n
dr

+ d r , AM

N
r

M
,
.

d
S ,
0
M, M Z
( ).

1 d d
=
=
cos .
(1)
dS
dr
, . 10 n/ = N ~gradn.

n r,
1
~ e~r ) dr = sin dn = sin d ln n ,
= (N

ndr
ndr
dr
e~r - ~r. (1)

d/ tg = d ln n.
(2)
,
r r. = + , d = d + d.

54

d = tg drr , tg drr +d = d (2)


drr + tgd = d ln n tgd = d ln(nr).
nr sin = const .
M = 0, r = r0, n = n0 , , const = n0r0 sin 0,
r0 .
nr sin = n0r0 sin 0.

(3)

tg = p

n0r0 sin 0
n2 r 2

n20r02 sin2 0

tg (2),
Z

0 = n0r0 sin 0
r0

d ln n
dr
p
.
dr
n2r2 n20r02 sin2 0

(4)

. n
n0 = 1, 000293 1, r n
1  1 ln n = ln(1 (n 1)) n 1.
n 1 = const 0e

g(rr0 )
RT

; R ; T
; 0 .
g(rr )
g(rr )
d ln n d(n 1)
g
g
RT 0
RT 0
=
const 0e
= (n01)
0 e
dr
dr
RT
RT

g(rr0 )
Z
g
e RT dr
p
0 =
n0r0 sin 0(n01)
. (5)
2
2
2
2
2
RT
n r n0r0 sin 0
r0

1.5

55

r r0. n,
n2r2 n20r02 sin2 2 = n20(r r0 sin 0)(r r0 sin 0)
h20(1 + sin 0)(r r0 sin 0).
p g
x =
RT (r r0 sin 0 )
,
Z
2
2
0 = 2(n0 1)x0 tg 0
e(x x0)dx,
x0

gr0
(1 sin 0).
RT
, ,
, , z.
x20 =

1 d d
=
=
cos
dS
dz

~
1 N
~ e~r ) dn = sin d ln n .
= gradn = (N

n
ndz
dz
, dn/n = d sin / sin , n sin =
const , ,
sin = n0 sin 0, (n = 1).

(6)

sin 0,
sin sin 0 = (n0 1) sin 0.

+ 0
0
2 cos
sin
.
2
2

(7)

56

n0 , (6) , 0 , , 0  1.
sin 20 20 , cos 2+0 cos 0, (7)
0 (n0 1) tg 0.
, ,
n0 0.
.12. -
(n0 1 = 3 104, T = 273K, g = 981 /2, = 29 /,
R = 8, 3 107 /(K), r0 = 6, 367 103) ?
Z
dS

dZ

N
r

ur
ez

.
0 = 900, (5)

Z g (rr0)
e RT
g
dr
n0r0(n01) p
0 =
=
RT
n2r2 n20r2
r0

Z g(rr0)


1/2
g(n0 1) r0
e

=
dr.
RT
2
r r0
r0

g
(r r0)]1/2,
RT
dr
1  g 1/2

x=[

dx =

2 RT

(r r0)1/2


4 = 0 =

2gr0
RT

1/2

Z
(n0 1)
0

ex dx =

57

 gr 1/2
0

(n0 1) = 3503000.

2RT
t, , , ,
35, 50 24 60 60
t =
=
c = 142c,

360 60
.

2.

,
-

:
Z
1
i(~k~rt) 3
f (~r, t) =
f
e
d k d,
(1)
~
k,
2
(2)

Z
1
i(~k~rt) 3
f~k, =
f
(~
r
,
t)e
d r dt.
2
(2)
( ):
Z
1
f ()eitd,
(2)
f (t) =
2

Z
1
f (t)eitdt .
f () =
2
:
Z
1
~k)ei~k~r d3k.
f (~r) =
f
(
(3)
3/2
(2)

58

, -

~v = k2 ~k, ~v = d/d~k.
:
t
kxx
ky y
kz z

&
&
&
&

2,
2,
2,
2.

(4)

:
= /d  1.
a b a z. E- (Hz = 0)
Ez
2Ez + 2Ez = 0,
2

(5)
2 2 2

2
2 = x
= v2 k 2 = c2 k 2.
2 + y 2 ,
Bn| = 0 E | = 0. (5)

m
n
Ez = E0 sin
x sin y ei(kzt), m, n = 1, 2, 3...
(6)
a
b

min

c 2
c
=
a + b2 , =
ab

r
k2

 m 2
a

 n 2
b

E- (T H-)
Ex =

ik Ez
ik Ez
,
E
=
,
y
2 x
2 y
(7)

Hx =
2 = ( 2/c2) k 2.

i Ez
i Ez
,
H
=

,
y
c 2 y
c 2 x

59

H- (T E-)
2Hz + 2Hz = 0.

(8)

Hz = H0 cos

min

m
n
x cos y ei(kzt), m, n = 1, 2, 3...
a
b

c
c
= , =
a

r
k2 +

 m 2
a

 n 2
b

(9)


Hx =

ik Hz
ik Hz
,
H
=
,
y
2 x
2 y
(10)

Ex =

i Hz
i Hz
,
E
=

.
y
c 2 y
c 2 x

- a b d

m
n
l
x sin y cos z eit,
a
b
d
m
n
l
Ey = E2 sin
x cos y sin z eit,
(11)
a
b
d
m
n
l
x sin y sin z eit,
Ez = E3 cos
a
b
d
q
 2

2
2
2
m
n
l
n, m, l = 0, 1, 2... , c2 = 2 a2 + b2 + d2 , min = c a12 + b12 .
,
.
Ex = E1 sin

60

2.1.

, -

2.1. , :
1)y1 = sin(t) y2 = 2 sin(3t) 2) y1 = sin(t) y2 = 2 sin(3t+ 4 ).
2.2. :
)f (t) = cos(0t)1;
)f (t) = exp( 2t2);
) f (t) = 0 |t| > 2 f (t) = 1 |t| 2 ;

|t|

) f (t) = 0 t > 2 f (t) = cos( t

2;
) f (t) = 0 |t| > 2 , 1 + 2 t 2 t 0 1 2 t
t 2 .
2.3.
( , ).
2.4. ( , ).
2.5. )
; )
J ( J = j(x)(y) ).
~ 2.6. ) E
~ J .
; ) H
2.7. . .
2.8.
:
1

+
+
R
R
1
: f = 2
f (t) eit dt, f (t) =
f eit d.

2.2

. .
+
R

f (t)dt = 4

2.2.

+
R

|f | d,

+
R

~ = (2)3
f 2(~r, t)dr

61

~
|f~k |2dk.

. .

2.9. ,
0 , .
2.10. t = 0,

( 
2 )
k k0
a(k) = a0 exp
.
k
2.11. , , |k~0 ~k| q. :
~ ~

(k) = (k0) + d
dk k=k (|k k0 |).
0

2.12. t = 0 ,


1 0 0,
(k) = (k k0)
0
> 0
[0, 2]
2.13. a(k) = a0exp{(k k0)2},
.
2.14. x0
a2
(k) = 0 + g (k k0) + (k k0)2.
2
d.

62

, -
2

x2

2.15. E(x, 0) = E0e

l0

eikx

l1 x < 0,
l2 x > 0
(k) = 0 + (k k0) + a2(k0 k)2.
l1 < l2 l1 > l2.
l0 =

2.16. . . ?
2.17.
dv
d
, dn
d .
2.18. (v
): ) v = const ;
) v = a
; ) v = a/ ; ) v = c2 + b22
(cp
; );
) v = c/ 2 c22 , = ()
= (); c ,
.
2.19. , p2
() = 1+ (2
2 ) p
0
0 .  0  0, ( = 1).
2

2.20. , n = 1 + ( )2+ 2 .
0
14
15
) = 10 , 10 , 1016
0 = = 1016, = 106 ( ). ) ,
x = 1012 , ,
.

2.3

2.3.

63

2.21. t f
2.2.
2.22. ,
.
2.23. ,
l, ?
2.24. , , .
2.25. - `,
( ).
2.26. d, . ,
, ` . .
2.27.
, ( = 5 103
A).
2.28. , ,
( F ) d, ,
.
2.29.
d, :
(` 6 109).
' 0, 01,
` = 1, 5 108 . = 5 105.

64

, -

2.30. , :
) ; ) .
2.4.

2.31. ,
,
.
2.32.
Ez - ( TM-), .
Ez . H- ( -).
2.33. , - (-), ,
~ H
~ , Ez = 0 ( Hz = 0).
E
n
2.34. - (-), a b.
() .
2.35. a b, E11-
(H10-).
2.36. , a = 5 , b = 3 ?
2.37. ( H10-
).
2

( ) .

2.4

65

2.38. , , a x a, . ,
( , y).
2.39. E(t) cos(t), E(t) (0, 0), . .
2.40. ,
, .

=3

2.41.
109 , b=5
3 52.

2.42. - = 1, 21011c1 (. )
1 ' 109 2 ' 5 109 .
t
H10-

ab = 12.
, ?
1

2.43. E11-
= 1, 4 1011 c1 (a = 1 ).
= 5 1017c1.
2.44. ( = = 1) , a b c.
2.45.

66

, -

2.44 1 10 20 3.
2.46. ,
.
2.47. , a, , x-
. , , W .
2.5.

.13. ,
0 , .
Z
, E0
1 = 0 , 2 = 0 + .
k1 k2 .

E = E0 cos(1t + k1z) + E0 cos(2t k2z + ) =





2 1
k2 k1

2 + 1
k2 + k1

= 2E0 cos
t
z+
cos
t
z+
.
2
2
2
2
2
2
(1)
, k = c n, n . , n , n1 = n0 n1, n2 = n0 + n2

2.5

67

(n0 0), n1 n2 = n,
n << n0, << 0. ,
1 +2
k1 +k2
n0 0
1
, 2
=
,
=

,
=
0
2
2
2
2 =
0
1
n0c + n
= k (1)
k0, k2k
2
c

 

E = 2E0 cos t kz +
0t k0z +
. (2)
2
2
0 k0, A = 2E0 cos(t kz + 2 ). (2), , , << 0
k << k0 A TA = 2/
A = 2/k, T0 = 2/0
0 = 2/k0 . (2) - ,

0t k0z + = const .
(3)
2
(3)
2 const + 0
+ t,
z=
2k0
k0
, , ,
v = 0/k0.
? A ,
A, . .

t k z + = const,
2

2 const
z=
t+
.
k
2k
, , , v = /k,
.

68

, -

.14. t = 0,

" 
2 #
k k0
a(k) = a0 exp
.
k
,

~k. k a(k),
Z
E(z, t) =
a(k)ei(tkz)dk.

t = 0
Z

a(k)eikz dk = a0

E(z, 0) =



kk 2
k0 ikz

dk.

(1)

(1)
=

kz
k k0
+i
,
k
2

ik0 z z 2 k 2 /4

E(z, 0) = a0e

d = a0k e

z 2 k 2
4

eik0z .

.15. ,
a0 ,
|~k k~0| q.


(~k) = 0(k~0) +
(~k k~0),

~k ~k=k~0
k~0, q .

2.5





~k ~

k=k~0

69




k
,
x




ky ,




kz .

~k
(~k)
= 0 + ux(kx k0x) + uy (ky k0y ) + uz (kz k0z ),

(1)

0 = (k0). k
, , n k.
ck
= n(k)
. . ,
. , a0
, (1), :
Z
Z
~
~ ~
~
E(~r, t) = E0 ei(tk~r)d~k = a0 ei{[0+~u(kk0)]t(k~r)}dkxdky dkz .
(2)
(2) |~k k~0| q. ,
(~u~k) = uxkx + uy ky + uz kz ~ = ~r ~ut,
Z
~
~ ~
E(~r, t) = a0ei(0t~rk0) ei~(kk0)dkxdky dkz .
(3)
~k

~ k~0.
Z qZ
0
~
2
eik cos 2k 0 dk 0 sin d,
(4)
E(~r, t) = a0ei(0t~rk0)
0

k~0 = ~k k~0. (4) ,


Z q
1
~
E(~r, t) = 4a0ei(0tk0~r)
sin k 0 k 0dk 0.
0

70

, -

4a0q
E(~r, t) =
2


sin q
~
cos q ei(0tk0~r).
q

(5)

(5), , :


4a0q sin q
i(0 tk~0~r)
A(~r, t) =

e
.
2
q
, 0 k~0. A(~r, t) , q 1 q. , q = 0, . .
= 0, 2a0q 3. = |~r ~ut|
~r = 0 t = 0
, ~r = ~ut.
, , . . ,
.
~u = d
d~k
.16.
a(k) = a0 exp{(k k0)2}, .
(. 15) ,
. , , .
,
,

. .


d
1 d2
2
(k) = 0 +u(k k0)+(k k0) , u = dk
, = 2 dk2
.
(k=k0 )

(k=k0 )

2.5

71


Z
E(~r, t) =
a(k)ei(tkz)dk =

Z
2
= a0ei(0t0kz) e[(kk0) (it)+i(kk0)(zt)]dk.
= it, = z ut. k1 = k k0
,
Z

i 2
2
(k1 + 2
i(0 t0 kz) 4
)
e
dk 0 =
E(z, t) = a0ae

2
4

= a0e

ei(0t0kz) .

r
E(z, t) = a0

(zut)2

4(it) i(0 t0 kz)


e
.
e
it


r
E(z, t) = a0

(zut)2

4(it)
e
it
, z
t, ,
:


2
2
a
(z

ut)
0
|E(z, t)|2 = |E0(z, t)|2 = p
. (1)
exp
2 + 2 t2 )
2
2
2
2(
+ t

,
p
2
2 2

p z = 2( + t )/, 1/ 2 + 2t2. ,
t << / ,


d
,
u=
dk (k=k0)

72

, -

.
.17. ` (k) =
u(k k0) + (k k0)2.
d.
. 16 ( 1),



2
a0
(z ut)
|E0(z, t)| = 2
exp

.
4(2 + 2t2)
( + 2t2)1/4
, (, e )
,
p
z(t) 4(2 + 2t2)/,
u. t = 0

z(0) = 2 = `/2, t, d, t = d/u,


"
"

2#1/2

2#1/2
16d
16d
S = `2 +
=` 1+
.
u`
u`2
,
S 16d/(u`).
.18. (v ):
) v = const
;
;
)v = a
) v =
a/ ;
) v = c2 + b22 (c
, );

2.5

) v =

c
2 c2 2

73

, = ()
= (); c , .
d
) v = k u = d
=
dk
dk (vk) = v,
v = const.
q

2
) = vk = ka = ka k = 2a k; v = 2a/ k,

d
u = dk = /
pv/2.
p
p
2k =
3
) v = a/ = a k/2, = a k /2, u = (3/2)a k/2 =
3v/2.
q

d
dv
2
) = vk, u = dk = v +k dk , v = c2 + b22 = c2 + b2( 2
k ) .

2
1 2b
= c2/v.
u=v
v
k
p

2
2
2
) v = c/ c , = kv = k 2c2 + 2c2/,
1 2 2
d()
d
kc2
d
+ ( ) k c + 2c2
=

.
dk
2
()3/2d dk
k 2c2 + 2c2

d
1
c2
u=
=
.
dk [1 + (/2) d()/d]v
.19. , () = 1+p2/(02 2),
p 0 .  0  0,
( = 1).

"

v=

p2

c
= =c 1+ 2
k
(0 2)

# 12
.

(1)

74

, -

(1)
k 2c2 = 2(1 + p2/(02 2))
k.

"
#1
2 2
2
p 0
d kc
1+ 2
.
=
dk

(0 2)2

(2)

(2) k
(1), u = d
dk





1/2
u = c 1 + p2/(02 2)
1 + p202/(02 2)2 . (3)
<< 0 (3)
h
i1/2
p2 /02
1 + 12/2
0
u=c
2
p /02
1+
2
(12/02)
2/02.
,
!
2 2
3 p
c
u=
1
, << 0,
0
2 004
0 = ( = 0) = 1 + p2/02.
, <<
0 (1)
!
2 2
c
1 p
v=
1
, << 0.
0
2 004

2.5

75

>> 0 (3)

[1 +

p2 02 02
/(
02 2 2

1+

p2 02 2 02
( ) /( 2
02 2

u=c

1)]1/2
1)2

02/ 2. ,
, ,
#
"
2
p
u=c 1 2 .
2
 0,
v = c (1 + p2/2 2).
.20. , , .
(. . 10). . .

.
. , , , `,
~k,
, k,

` k 1.
(1)
,

76

, -

~k,
k  k.

(2)

k 1/, k 1/` ( (1)),


(2) `  . ,
.
.21. - `,
( ).
-
.
A
, C
. , A
C
AC, , ,
. , A A0,
C C 0 . . , , . ,
. , ,
. (,
) ,
: kd 2,
k 2
d . k 2/d d >> ,
k << k ' kk = d .
:

2.5

77

, . .

D = d + ` = d + ` ,
d
` .
d ,
, d,
.
d
D
dD/dd ,
, D .

l
, d `.
, , , . ,

2 D = 2 `.
2 ,
D ' `.
`, .
. 22.
.22. d0, 0 . ,
0
, `
d
. .
0

0
l

, d0, d = d0 cos 0.
(. . 21)

78

, -

k , , kd 2 k 2/d.

k
k d0 cos 0

`
`

=
.
cos 0 cos 0
d cos3
0

D = d0 + `/(d0 cos3 0).


.23.
A).
, ( = 5 103

(. . 21)

D L, L 4 105
. L, D 10 .
, , ,
10 (. . 21).
d 1 ,
D L
d = 20 .
.24. ,
, ( F , d), ,
.
, ,
F
.

d
D
k 2
d .
, ,
kk d , D F d
(d  F ).
, , , -

2.5

79

, ,
,
F /d.
.25.
d, :
(` 6 109).
J 102, `J
1, 5 108. 5 105.
,
, .

d
` : d/`.
2R

L
, -
,
D F d (. l
. 21, . 24). F
,
, L F 0,
0 , :
0

2RJ
0 =
, 0  .
`
L , , ,
, . . 0F > d F . , :
0 > /d.

(1)

d 1 0 = 2RJ/` = `JJ/`,
/d = 5 105, `JJ/` = 2, 5 104. (1)
. .

80

, -

.26. , :
) ; ) .
) 2020 000
. 100 . ,
4 000 .
- . ,
. , . 4. , , . , ,
, , 1 000 ` = c/ 300 .
. ,
, ,
. ,
. , , .

105 108 .
E = E0(1 + A sin(t)) sin(t),
105 108 ,
.
, , + (. . 13).
 , ,
, , . 105,

2.5

81

= (3 108/)/105 1/c = 3 103 .


) , . 50 50
1 250 000 .
1
, 25
25 . ,
25 250 000 , , ( )
107. ,
1 107 , 1.
40 200 .

3 108 /
= 10 .

(40 30) 106

.27. , .
.
. a b,
Z , , , .

.
,
-

82

, -

:
E | = 0;

(1)

Hn| = 0;

(2)

4
j;
c

(3)

En| = 4/,

(4)

H | =

n ~ H,
~ j E
.
( z = 0) , , Z , E
H z eikz z kz , . .
~ = E~0ei(tkz z), H
~ =H
~ 0(x, y)ei(tkz z).
E

(5)

E H
~
1 2E
~
E = 2 2 ;
v t

(6)

~
1 2H
~
H = 2 2 ,
(7)
v t

v = c/ . (5) (6), (7),

2E~0 2E~0
2~
+
=

E0;
(8)
x2
y 2
~ 0 2H
~0
2H
~ 0,
+
= 2H
2
2
x
y

(9)

2.5

2 =

2
v2

83

kz2. E H -

~
~
E
H
~
~
, rotH =
.
(10)
rotE =
c t
c t
(5),
Ez0
i
Hx0 = ikz Ey0
;
c
y

(11)

Ez0
i
Hy0 = ikz Ex0 +
;
c
x

(12)

Exo Ey0
i
Hz0 =

;
c
y
x

(13)

i
Hz0
Ex0 = ikz Hy0 +
;
c
y

(14)

i
Hz0
Ey0 = ikz Hx0
;
c
x

(15)

i
Hxo Hy0
Ez0 =

.
(16)
c
y
x
(11)(16) Ex0,
Ey0, Hx0, Hy0 Ez0 Hz0:


Ez0 i Hz0
1
+
;
(17)
Ex0 = 2 ikz

x
c y


1
Ez0 i Hz0
Ey0 = 2 ikz

;
(18)

y
c x


1 i Ez0
Hz0
Hx0 = 2
ikz
;
(19)

c y
z

84

Hy0

, -

1
= 2

i xEz0
Hz0

ikz
c y
y


.

(20)

~ H
~ , E
, . . Z, , Ez = 0
Hz = 0. (17)(20) , Ez0 Hz0 ,
~ H
~ , 6= 0.
E
= 0, 2 = v 2kz2 , (9)

~0
~ 0 2H
2H
+
= 0.
x2
y 2
, x = 0, a; y = 0, b . ~ = 0. , , H
, .
,
. ,
, , .
.28. Ez E-,
. Ez .
H-. ,

2.5

85

.
(17)(20) , :
1) Ez 6= 0, Hz = 0;
2) Ez = 0, Hz 6= 0.
, Hz = 0, Hz 6= 0, Hy 6= 0. E- T M . , . H- T E-.
E- ( = = 1) (17)(20)

ikz Ez0
ikz Ez0
, Ey0 = 2
,
(1)
Ex0 = 2
x
y
Hx0 =

i Ez0
i Ez0
,
H
=

,
y0
c 2 y
c 2 x

(2)

2 = ( 2/c) kz2.
~
, E- E
~ H
Ez0, (. (8) ):
2Ez0 2Ez0
2
+
+

Ez0 = 0.
x2
y 2

(3)

~
H- E
~
H
Hz0 :
ikz Hz0
ikz Hz0
Hx0 = 2
, Hy0 = 2
;
(4)
x
y

86

, -

i Hz0
i Hz0
,
E
=

.
y0
c 2 y
c 2 x
Hz0
Ex0 =

2Hz0 2Hz0
+
+ 2Hz0 = 0.
2
2
x
y

(5)

(6)

(3), (. (1) ), Ez0 = 0 . (6), , (1)(2)


~ , H,
z0
H
n = 0 .
(3)

Ez0 = A sin(kxx) sin(ky y),
kx = m, ky = b n, a, b
X Y , m n , ,
kx2 + ky2 + kz2 = 2/c2.
Ez
Ez = A sin(kxx) sin(ky y)ei(tkz z).

(7)

~ m
E
n. Emn-. , Z z = const.

uz =

= c2kz /.
kz

2.5

87

~ H
~
E
(1) (2). , .
, H-
Hz = B cos(kxx) cos(ky y)ei(tkz z),

(8)

kx = a m, ky = b n. m n , , , . (4), (5).
m n,
Hmn.
.29. a b, H10(E11).
, ,
~ H,
c/4 (. (3) . 27).
(3) . ~j ~ ~n H

~
~j = c [~n H].
(1)
4
H10 (8), (4), (5) . 28

Hz = B cos x cos(t kz z),


a

Hx =

kz a

kz aB
sin xcos(tkz + ) =
B sin x sin(tkz z),

a
2

a
(2)

88

, -

Hy = 0, Ez = Ex = 0;
Ey =

aB

a
sin x cos(t kz + ) =
B sin(t kz z), (3)
c
a
2
c
2

kz2 = c2 a2 , B .
H10 , y = const,
Hz2
Hx2
2
+
=
B
.
x
cos2( a ) ( kz a sin a x)2
Y , Z
= 2/kz . (1) :
 
cB
c
cos x cos (t kz z) ,
jx(y = 0) = Hz =
4
4
a
 
c
ckz a
jz (y = 0) = Hx =
B sin x sin (t kz z) ,
4
4 2
a

c
cB

cos x cos (t kz z) ,
jx(y = b) = Hz =
4
4
a

ckz a

c
jz (y = b) = Hx = 2 B sin x sin (t kz z) .
4
4
a
y- :
c
c
jy (x = 0) = Hz |x=0 = B cos(t kz z),
4
4
c
c
jy (x = a) = Hz |x=a = B cos(t kz z).
4
4
(4) . 27 (3) Ey ,

:
 
a
|y=0 = 2 B sin x sin (t kz z) ,
4 c
a

2.5

89

 
a
|y=b = 2 B sin x sin (t kz z) .
4 c
a
E11
 
 
Ez = A sin x sin y cos(t kz z),
a
b


 

Hx = 2 A sin x cos y sin (t kz z) ,


c b   a   b

Hy = 2 A cos x sin y sin (t kz z) , Hz = 0,


c a
a
b
2
2
2 = a2 + b2 .
z- . ,

c
jz = Hx|y=a,b,
4

c
jz = Hy |x=0,a.
4
.30. , a, , x-
. , , W .
,
,
~
E
2

~ =0
~+ E
E
2
c

(1)

~ =0
divE

(2)

90

, -

E = 0 .

~
1 H
~
rot E =
.
(3)
c t
X, Y, Z .
(1), (2) E = 0
Ex = A cos kz x sin ky y sin kz zeit.
kx = an 1 , ky = an 2 , kz = an 3 , n1, n2, n3
2 = c2(kx2 + ky2 + kz3).
(

), kx = 0, ky = kz = a , = c a 2
   
Ex = A sin y sin z eit.
(4)
a
a
~ (3).
H

c
A cos z sin y eit,
a
a
a
c

Hz = i
A sin z cos y eit.
a
a
a
dV

1
dW = (E 2 + H 2)dV,
8

Hy = i

E2

Ez2

A2 2

2
2
= A sin y sin z cos t =
sin y sin2 z,
a
a
2
a
a
2

H 2 = Hy2 + Hz2 =

2

2
cA 1 2

cA
1 2

=
cos z sin2 y +
sin z cos2 y.
a
2
a
a
a
2
a
a

2.5

91

Y
a

Y
a

ur
E3

ur
E2

ur
E1

a
Z

Y
a

ur
E4
a Z

,
Z aZ a
a
W =
(E 2 + H 2)dydz =
8 0 0
"
#

2
2
a 3 A2
a a
a A a a 1 cA
+
,
2 =
=
8 2 2 2 2 a
2 2
32
A2 = 32
W.
a3
Ex

ei a y ei a y ei a z ei a z it
Ex = A

e = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4,
2i
2i

E1 = A4 ei(t a y a z), E2 = A4 ei(t+ a y+ a z), E3 = A4 ei(t a y+ a z),

E4 = A4 ei(t+ a y a z).
E1 E2, E3 E4 .
Y, Z.
E~1, E~2, E~3, E~4 X.
, Z Y ,
. , E1 E4,
z = a, E2 E3.
, ,
z = a,

92

, -

, E1,
.
Y
,
Z
E1,
a
Y
Z 0, , X 0 X.
k z

a
Z

A i(t 2z 0)
a
,
E1 = e
4

A c 0 i(t 2z 0)
A
0 0
a
kz e
Hy 0 =
= ei(tkz z ),
4
4

kz0 = a 2. Z 0 , . ,
, Z 0, pz 0 = 1c Sz 0 , Sz 0
,
1 c ~
c A2

~
~
Sz 0 =
[E1 Hy0 ] =
.
2 4
8 16
z = a , S = a a2 , Z 0.
450 . ,
S z 0 a2
cos 450 = Sz a2/2c.
pz =
c 2
, ,
A2 a2
W
Fz = 4pz =
= .
32 8 2a
z = 0 y = 0, y = a, .
. Fy = W
2a . Fx = 0, x = 0, x = a
.

2.5

93

.31. , , a,
.
,
a/2, ? = 4.
Y

(. )

E
(x)
=
E
sin
k
x,

k
=

/c,
1y
1
1
1
a/2
0
a
X
E2y (x) = E2 sin k2(a x), k2 = /c,
1
2
, Ex 0.
, Hz Ey /x.
k2 a
k1 a
= E2 sin
,
E1 sin
2
2
k1 a
k2 a
k1E1 cos
= k2E2 cos
2
2
(E1y |x=a/2 = E2y |x=a/2, H1z |x=a/2 = H2z |x=a/2).

=1

,
(1/k1) tg(k1a/2) = (1/k2) tg(k2a/2),

k1/k2 = = 2.

a
tg( a/2c) = tg(a/2c) tg(a/2c) = 2 tg .
2c
tg 2 = 2 tg /(1 tg2 ) = 2 tg , = a/2c. 2 tg 6= 0, 1 = 1 + tg2 , tg2 = 2, = a/2c =
arctg 2 ' 0, 95.

(0)

min = c/a = 3, 14c/a


.

()
min = (2c/a) arctg 2 = 1, 91c/a.

94

, .

,
4 = (3, 14 1, 91)c/a = 1, 23c/a.

3.

, .


Z
1
I = |u|2 =
|u|2dt = Re u Im u.
T

(1)

lq, , , ,
, t
.
lq = ct c/ 2/,
(2)
+ .
l, , ,
:
l / R/L,

(3)

; L ; R
.
, ,

2 I1I2
Imax Imin
= |(~r1, ~r2)|2
,
(4)
V =
Imax + Imin
I1 + I2

95

(~r1, ~r2) ;
0 |(~r1, ~r2)| 1.

(5)

:
arg ((~r1, ~r2, )) = 2n, n = 0, 1, 2...
(6)
p
(~r1, ~r2, ) = u(~r1, t)u(~r2, t + ) I1(~r)I2(~r) .
, d n
= 2dn cos 0.

(7)

rm = Rm,

(8)

R , m = 0, 1, 2...
(,
n1 = 4/3 , n2 = 1 )
.

I=

I0
,
1 + 4 sin2(/2)/(1 )2

(9)

, = k =
(4/) d cos 0.

2d
=
.
(10)

1

S1
R=
=
S0

E1
E0

2
,

(11)

96

, .

R =

n1 n2
n1 +n2

S2 n 2
=
D=
S0 n 1

2

E2
E0

2
,

(12)

1 n2
D = (n4n+n
2 , D + R = 1.
1
2)
d
2

4n1n3n22
n1n3 n22
, T =
(13)
R=
n1n3 + n22
(n1n3 + n22)2

nL = (q 12 )0/2, q = 1, 2, 3
. n2 = n1n3 R = 0
. n22  n1n3 n22  n1n2 R = 1
.
,
:
Z Z
1
eikr
c~r)dS.
cos(~n
(14)
E(r0) =
E(S)
i
r

,



2

. z 3  4 (x0 x1)2 + (y0 y1)2 max


Z Z
ik
eikz
2
2
E(r0) =
U (x1, y1)e 2z [(x0x1) +(y0y1) ]dx1dy1. (15)
izp
P
Z
1
eika1 eikr
E(P ) =
E0

cos dS
i
a1
r
, . P rn = a2 + n/2, n = 1, 2, ..., , a2
. S = Sn Sn1 = 2hna1 = aa11+a
,
2

97

(  a1, a2),
a2n
hn =
, n =
a(a1 + a2)

a1a2n
.
a1 + a2

(16)

n-
Z
1
eika1
eikr 2
En =
E0
cos n
a 2 sin d =
i
a1
r 1
n+1

= 2 (1)

E0eik(a1+a2)
cos n;
a1 + a2

E(P ) =

E1 En

;
2
2

(17)
(18)

E0eik(a1+a2)
E(P ) =
, E1 = 2E(P ), E1(P ) = E1/2.
a1 + a2
(19)

2
rm
f=
, m = 0, 1, 2, ...
(m + 1)

(20)

z  k(x21 + y12)/2 .
x2 +y 2
ik z+ 02z 0

E(x0, y0, z) =

Z Z

E(x, y) eikz

x0 x1 +y0 y1
z

Z Z iz
v
E(x, y)ei(kxx1+ky y1)dx1dy1.

sin2 a sin

I() = I0
2 .
a sin

dx1dy1 v
(21)

(22)

98

, .

N ( )

2 
2
sin u
sin N v
I() = I0
,
u
N sin v

(23)

d sin

u = a sin
,v =
, d = a + b .
: d sin max = m.
d sin min = (m + q/N ), m = 0, 1... q =
0, 1....



1
1
=
d sin = m +
= m0.
(24)
mN
N



2
2J1(u)
2a sin
;
I() = I0
, u =
u

(25)

J1(u0) = 0 u0 = 3, 83,
sin 1min = 0, 61/a.

(26)

. = (n 1) = k0 + kxx.
ei = ek00 eikxx, k0 = 2/0,
kx = 2/.

i

=e

(x2 +y 2 )
F

(27)

(28)

F
i

=e

(x2 +y 2 )
F

3.1

. . .

3.1.

99

. .
3

3.1.
X
( )
r
d
L 2d
.
r
Y
-d
.
1

3.2.
.
3.3. , x
h
, d.
3.4.
X
. , ,
.
r
r
1

Y
L

3.5. ( 3.4)
L = 100 . x = 0, 25 ,
h = 0, 6 ,
= 1, 5 . .
3.6. (. 3.4) ( + ). , x
. ()
.
3

, , z,
z = const.

100

, .

3.7. (. 3.2) ( ), ,
a . h ?
.
3.8. ( d) ,
l . h
a . V (a) .
3.9. , , a,
d. ,
a
, d
, a
8 .
d/a ( V 0, 5)?
3.10. G
.
ACB 2d E
O
C B
,
F
A

a
H

(OC = a, OE = OF = L2 ;d,L  a).
V
? ?

3.11. N
d. a
(N d  a) l
, . a

3.1

. . .

101

l.
b . , d V
.
3.12.
.
3.13.
b = 1 . = 5 105 .
d = 0, 5 .
,
?
3.14. = 5 105 . , d
L = 25 . l = 1 . .
3.15.
,
d . a  d
d


( ),
. , a
b
0(, 0  1).
b  d. V
d.
0

3.16.  1, X
n a

S, n
b
O

102

, .

.
( + ).
O
- ?
3.17.
, = 5 000
A = 100 .
D = 5 .
3.18. , d . : ) ( ,
); )
( , ).
3.19. : ) ( 44,6 ) ) (- 652
)
D = D0
. : ) 0
(D0 = 70, 8 , = 5 000
A) )
(D0 = 720 , = 6 000
A).
: J1(x) x1 = 3, 83...,
R
1
J1(x) = cos(t x sin t)dt.
0

3.20. ( = 0, 01 ;

3.1

. . .

103

)
( 1/f = 1 ) (
). d
a = 0, 1 . ?
3.21. , r
r
r
k
k k
,
r
P
k

r r
r t r t

c

. , ,

M
(

k~1 k~2),
. , .
1

P2

3.22.
yi(t) = ai(t)ei[t+i(t)] (i = 1, 2)

eit 1
( ) = q
T
a21 a22

ZT

a1(t)a2(t + )ei[2(t+ )1(t)]dt;

a2i = 1
T

ZT

a2i (t)dt ,

T  1/  ai i.
( ) = Re{( )}

104

, .

,
() yi.
3.23.
: ) ,
tk = kT0
(k = 0, 1, 2...); ) Nk ,
T ; ) dN , T T + dT ,
R
T
T
T
: dN = 2 e dt ( dN = 1);
T

) ,
tk = kT0 (k = 0, 1, 2...),
a a2.
3.24.
, T . ) . )
, T0.
: T0 T0 .
3.25.
, I( ), .
3.26. ( ),
.
. .
3.27. (. 1.14).
3.28. ,
.

3.2

. .

105

3.29. (~r, ~r, ) =


u(~r, t)u(~r, t + ) I() . R

I = u (t)u(t) = I()d .
0

3.30. ,

0. I0.
3.31. T0, : ) ,
; ) E0, E20 , 0; )
ei0t.
3.32. 3.23.
3.2.

. .

3.33. d n ( ). .
n

3.34. , ( ).
3.35. 1.20,
.
3.36. n

106

, .

. ) . ) ,
.
3.37. ( )
() ()
( R  h ). .
R

3.38. - R, , ,
,
+ ,
. , .
R

3.39. , , ( ). , , (n 1, 50)
. ? ?
3.40. c ( ;  ). ( d = 5 ) L = 25 (
). : ) N ,
, ( ); )
/, .

3.2

. .

107

3.41. : ( ) E
L
S
S, M
E, h
l
M
. )
d
F
.
) d,
.
3.42. .
O

d = OO0 OO00.
O
m m + 1 AB,
O

L f , : ) (
M , ); ) ( M1
,
).
2

3.43. M1

,
P
( = 0),

F
. ,
F , P : ) ;
) ; )
( 0, ).
2

3.44. , ,

108

, .


, , , , .

. ) ? ) , , h?
3.45.
( n = 1, 5)?
3.46. .
,
a = 2, 5 , 2 = 0, 2 2 = 0, 8 ( = 5 105, = 6 1010).
3.47. (n = 1, 35). ,
= 5, 6 105 (
(4 7, 5) 105 )? ?
3.48. ( h, n), .

3.3

109

. , = 490
= 5 103
A x = 3, 84 .
3.49.
(
m+1
m+1
,
m
m
m
)
m+1
. ) ? ) , , ?
3.50. ,
(n0 = 1, 50), (n1 = 1, 75)?
3.51. : ) ; ) ;
) ; ) .
3.52. . B D P
2
, A C (1) P
C
. AB = CD = f, BC = AD = 2f .
O2
B
X
1
1 2 . S, (2) D
S
A
1, O1
= 5 105. D = 20. , CO2 = f .
3.3.

3.53. rm m- . ,

110

a
rm
B

A
a

, .

? ,
.
B
m- .

3.54. B (. 3.53)
. , : ) , ;
) ; ) .
3.55. , m- rm (m = 5,
= 5 105 ; r5 = 1, 5 ). ,

n (n > 1)?
3.56. I
, , : ) ? ) ? I0.
3.57.
,
k 0
-
R1 R2.
.
0

3.58. R,
f .
d. .
?

3.3

111

3.59. , ,
:
R R E0eikr
E =
ir cos ds, . .
, 2 ,
, , , ,
.
3.60. ,
.
3.61. , .
A

3.62. n
vt B
v > nc = v.
, D
, C
.

3.63. ,
a . (  a)
P .
3.64. .
3.65.
S l
S
P
. l
l
? ,
?

112

, .

3.66.
, l
.
3.67. R.
R
O
S
, a
a
. O
. . O ?
?
3.68.
a d. , d
O
A
, a
b
. x
, , .
OA?
3.69. ().
3.70. . , ,
. ,
. .

3.4

3.4.

113

3.71. , , , ,
, ,
. d, r.
3.72. : ) b; )
b a .
, .
3.73.
N
d. b (d = a + b).
3.74. , d b
(d = nb), ,
n.
3.75. ,
3.73 ?
?
3.76. , , .

,
d
?
( )
?
3.77. () N ,

114
a

, .

a , ( ), .

.

3.78. a x b

H10 . (a) N a
b
N  1 d.
.
3.79. a x b (a > b)
H10 .
d. I() . ?
3.80. N  1 .
k = 2
, ,
= . .
d. .
.
, , I0.
3.81.
. .
?
3.82.

3.4

115

. 2N .
a. I(). I0
.
3.83. , a
(. ) b
.
3.84.
. .
3.85.

.
3.86. ,
1 2
?
3.87. 1, 3 104 .
?
1, 5 108 .
3.88. ,
15 %- (
, 15 %).
3.89. , 15 %-

116

, .

: ) , ; )
; ) .
3.90. ) , 5 500
A, ( d = 4 ); )
, ,
(L = 25 ).
3.91.
,
6 ?
3.92. m- :
) (2N ); ) 3.82,
. .
3.93. L = 4
n = 2 000 /
, (A = 40) T = 10
. m ?
3.94. L = 2107 .
T = 6103K. ,
N ,
L

.
.

3.4

117

3.95. D
+
. h
. :
) ; )

; )
; ) 0
.
3.96.
(. 3.70).
.
( D = 3 470 )?
3.97.

,
.
.
3.98. d
.
L d
I. ) L
I(). ) ,
0 .
3.99. a . .

a
0
,
x
-

118

, .

E = E0 sin( x
a ), x . I() , .
3.100. .
3.101. n
, a
h
a
. h ,
.
?
3.102. ( a = 2 , F = 10 ),
( = 5 105 , 0 = 5 103,
I0 = 0, 14 /2). , l, .
3.103. F , d0 d1 < d0. . ) ,
. )
? ) ,
W = 500 .
3.104. d , ( ).
P . d
l.
P
,
l

3.5

-.

119

P ,
, . , , P . .
3.105. ,

d/f = 0, 2 ?
3.106.
.
3.5.

-.

3.107. ( )
A
B


 1 n
n. x ,
C
D
ABCD,
x
.
3.108.
, y ,
Y

y2
n
: n(y) = n0(1 2L
2 ). d.
X
d
?
3.109. X
X
R1 R2
A B
A B
n.
O
O
, .
D
C
D C
0

120

, .

X ,
ABCD, .
3.110. , ( ), ,
a ( f ;
b, 1/a + 1/b = 1/f ).
3.111. , ,
- . , , .
3.112. , (
).
3.113. .
a , . ,
f ?
3.114. I
X
X
,
(n 1)
(n 1)


( Z
Z

0
0
 1
f
n), )

, f
; ) .

3.5

-.

121

3.115. T , ( = 2, T I /2; , ).

( ).
3.116.
,

2
( 2 ).
p

= 2. , p
0. . , : ) q
0
, , p1 + 1q = f
; )
q
M = 2
=
1
+
2
p.
3.117. .
,


2h l
2h
(. ).

,
f (. ). f
.

3.118. .
3.119.

122

3
n
A

, .

, B
. A B
.
Y

3.120. S
l
. &
( ).
S

Z
, Y
X
( ) ? ? I(x, y).
3.121. -
,
0. ,
.
.
3.122. d(x) = d0 x2.
?
3.123. ( , 3.112
3.118).
3.124.
( ),
( ), i
(i = 1, 2) . )
? )
?

3.5

-.

123

) ,
?
3.125. (. ) ( ).
, .
3.126. , a , ,
T  2/.
, .
3.127. P ( G0(x, y))

C, D
C
D
P
( ).
f
f
. ,
(
, ). : 3.107 3.111.
3.128. C1
T
T
F0(x0, y0);
C M
S
C
S,
G0(x0, y0) f
f (.f
f

). .
C2, , S .
2

3.129.
T (x) = T0 + cos(x), (T0 + . 1).

124

, .

3.130. 2,
X
2
1
T (x) =

T0+ cos(x),
d
1 d < f /.
f
f
f
f
, 1 2
T
f .
x0

3.131. , , , . d,
2? ?
3.132.
(. ) ,
T T1(x) = T00 + 0cos(1x0) , ( 0  T00 , 1 + T 0 1).
1, ? ?
3.133. , 3.130, d a . 1
.
2 ? (
.)
3.6.

.32.
S : n-
.

3.6

r
n

dS

a1
S

a1

a2

125


P SP = a1 + a2.

Z
1
eika1 eikr
E(P ) =
E0

cos dS.
iL
a1
r


P rn = a2n 2 ,
n = 1, 2, ... .
A

a +n
a
4Sn = Sn Sn1, Sn
2

S
h
(Sn =
P

B
2a1hn).
a
2n 4SAB 4BAP :

2

(a2 + hn)2.
a21 (a1 hn)2 = a2 + n
2
2

,
a21

a21

h2n

+ 2a1hn =

a22

2
+ n + na2 a22 h2n 2a2hn.
4

n2 4 (a1,2  ),
hn =

a2 n
a1 a2
Sn = 2hna1 =
n = nS1.
a1 + a2 2
a1 + a2


4Sn = Sn Sn1 =

a1a2

a1 + a2

n ( ).
q
p
p
2

2
n = a1 (a1 hn) = (2a1 hn)hn = 2a1hn =

126

, .

a1 a2
n = n1.
a1 + a2

a1 n a2n, a1 = a2 = a n = 2an. , a2 = a1 = 1 , = 5 105 = 5 107


1 = 2 102 5 105 = 0, 1 . a1 a2 = 1
0,1
1 = 5 105 102 =
0, 07 0, 7 . 2
.
R R E0eikr
.33. E =
ir cos dS, n- , E0.
r

r
n
dS

a1
S

a2 + (n 1) 2 a2 + n 2 .

SP = a1 + a2. n- :

r
r

a1 + a2

E0
En =
i

eika1
eikr
2a21 sin d,
cos n
a1
r

r2 = a21 + (a1 + a2) 2a1(a1 + a2) cos .


: 2rdr = 2a1(a1+a2) sin d,

rdr
sin d =
.
a1(a1 + a2)
:
Z
E0 a2+n/2 eika1
eikr
rdr
En =
cos n
2a21
=
i a2+(n1) 1 a1
r
a1(a1 + a2)
Z a2+n/2
eika1 2
= E0
cos neikr dr.
i(a1 + a2) a2+(n1) 1
: r = r0 + a2, -
eika2 .

3.6

127

, cos n
, cos n cos n
- :
Z
E0eik(a1+a2) cos n2 n/2
En =
eikr dr,
(a1 + a2)
i
(n1)//2
Z n/2

2 (n1)
 i 2 n
i 2
r
i
2
Jn =
e dr =
e 2 e
,
2i
(n1)/2
 2(1)n
 in
i(n1)
e e
=
,
Jn =
2
2i

ein ei(n1) = 2(1)n.
,
2E0eik(a1+a2)
En =
(1)n+1cos n.
(a1 + a2)
, E1 =

2E0 eik(a1 +a2 )


,
a1 +a2

. . 2
ik(a1 +a2 )

E = E0ea1+a2 . , ,
,
n n,
cos n.
.34. I0 . , , I , : ) 1- ; ) 1- ; ) 1- ,
; ) ; ) 1- ?
, .33, -

128

, .

M1

M
M

,
O (. ).
, ,
( )
( ; ). ,
, , , ,
, . ,
, , .
,
. ,
OM1.
, , M1 O. , , ,

3.6

129

OM1
. n ( n ), n, , .
OM , , (.
).
(
, ). , , ,
; ,

OM (.
)4. , M
,

. OM .
:
2 U 4 I U 2
. n 6= 1. ,
, 4

, , , , , , . ,
,
, - .

130

, .

, = knL
ei ( L , ;
).
,

OM , ,
( ).

2 OM (.. e2 = 1), ..
2. ,

OM ( 2) :
= ( mod 2).
) .
M1
M1 ,
, (. ), M

, OM 1,

. ,
o
I = 4I0.
) M1/2, 1- , , , M1/2
O M1(.
), OM 1/2 2 RF , I = 2I0.
o
) n- ,
( 0 2). , . ,
,

3.6

131

12 OM 1 = MM1
.. . , I = I0.
) , M3/2
, M3/2
M1 M2,
, . . (. ).

o
OM 3/2 2 RF
I = 2I0.
) M1/3
OM 1/3 30 (. ).

M1/3
30
OM 1/3 RF ,
o
I = I0.
o

.35. I0 , 1- . a) I ? ) ( ); ) ( ) 1-
?
,
, ,

OM ( ) OM
( ). .

) , M1M (. ) RF , I = I0.
M1
) ( )
M

132

, .

( 1- ).

M1M
, .
, .34, MM1. , I = 0.
M1
) , M M1/2
( ) 1- .
1-

OM 1/2 (. ); o

, M1/2M1
1- .
,

M1M 21 M1/2M1 ( 1/2 ,

1-
). ,


2


I M1M + 21 M1/2M1 . (,
) : I = I0/2.
.36. I0 , h n,
.
? ?
, , ,
M3/2M , M3/2, .

3.6

133

M3/2 OM 3/2,
, n 1.
n > 1
= k(n 1)h = 2(n 1)h/, M
M

OM 3/2
o
M
= mod 2 .
,
,
, OM 3/2

M3/2M .

, OM 3/2

.
= 225 = 5/4 (. ). , hmin = 85 n1

, . . M3/2M
2

OM 3/2 RF 2RF , Imax = 1 + 2 I0 =


(3 + 2 2)I0.
3/2

3/2

225

.37. ,
I0, , 90?
, (1- ),
, ,
(2- ), ,
. , , I0, ..
RF .

134

, .

2-
, 2RF .
2I0 , , 3I0.

I0 n.
h
r
,
P

P (. ). h
) ; ) ; )
? ?
.38.

3/2

, M3/2M ,
45 M3/2,
. M3/2 OM 3/2, , .
, n > 1. = k(n 1)h = 2(n 1)h/,

OM 3/2 = mod 2
, , . . . ,
, , .
.

3.6

135

)
M
, OM 3/2 - M

o
M3/2M . ,
M

OM 3/2
= 135+360m = 3
4 + 2m (. ).
3

, h = 8 + m n1
.
, . .

M3/2M OM 3/2 RF
2RF ,
Imax = (1 + 2)2I0 = (3 + 2 2)I0.
)
M
, OM 3/2
M3/2M , .. M3/2

OM 3/2
o
M3/2
= 315+360m = 7
4 + 2m (. 315
). ,


,

Imin = (1 2)2I0 = (3 2 2)I0.


h = 78 + m n1
)

I0, OM 3/2  = 270+360m =


3

= 3
2 + 2m. , h = 8 + m n1 .
3/2

3/2

225o

.39. a . .
, E = E0 cos(x/a), x
. I() ,
.

E0
E() =
a

a/2

x
E0
cos eikxxdx =
a
2a
a/2

a/2 

a/2

i x
a

i x
a

+e

2 sin x

ei

dx =

136

E0
=
a

, .

sin + a sin

2 sin

a +

I() = I0

sin a sin

2 sin

!

E0 4asin cos a sin

=
,
2
2a
2
sin


a sin

2

sin cos2

h
i
2 1 2
a
sin

I() 1,2 = arcsin( 2a


).

.40. N  1 . 2 ,
, = . a .
d  a. . , , I0.

.

N 1 Z nd+a

E0 X
E =
a n=0

E0
eikxxdx =
a

nd

ikx a/2

= E0e

sin u 1 eikxN d

,
u
1 eikxd

kxa sin
=
.
2

,
N
1
X

dx

u=

ikx x

1 qN
q =
,
1

q
n=0
n

N
1
X
n=0

eikxnd =

3.6

137

q = eikxd.

2 
2
sin u
sin v
I() = I0

,
u
v
kxd d sin
=
.
2

- u 0

v=

sin u
u 1,

1
ei ikxd
e
= eikxd.
q=
2
2
N  1,
1 qn
1
1

=
.
1q
1 q 1 + eikxd/2

I() = I0

1
1 + eikxd
2

I() =



1 ikxd
1+ e
,
2

I0
.
d sin
5
2
4 + cos

.41. I(1, 2),


a1 a2.
. .
Z a1 Z a2
E0
E1,2 =
dx
dyei(kxx+ky y),
a1 a2 0
0
, ,
2 
2

sin u1
sin u2
I(1, 2) = I0

,
u1
u2

138

, .

u1,2 =

a1,2 sin 1,2


.

.42.
Y`
Y
, d
d/2
. Z

a  d -d/2
0  1 (.
), .
b
a
b  d, .
V = (Imax Imin)/(Imax + Imin) d
.
0

P y 0
( Z) ,
S y ( Z).

y, y 0  a, b r1, r10 r2, r20 :
r1 a d/2; r10 a + d/2; r2 b d/2; r20 b + d/2.

ik(r1+r10 )

Ep = E0 e

ik(r2+r20 )

+e

ik(a+b)

= E0e

ik(+)/2

ik(+)/2

+e

= 2E0eik(a+b) cos[kd( + )/2].


, :
dIp = |Ep|2d/0 = 4E02 cos2[kd( + )/2]d/0 =

139

= 2I0(1 + cos[kd( + )])d/0,


Z 0/2

h 
i
0
Ip =
dIp = 2I0 1+sin kd
+
2
0 /2
i 

h 
0
k0d =
sin kd +
2


sin u
= 2I0 1 +
cos kd ,
u
u = kd0/2 = d0/.
Y`
cos kd = +1,
Y
P
r
cos kd = 1.
d/2
1

r1
S

r2

IP max = 2I0(1 + sin u/u),

r2

IP min = 2I0(1 sin u/u).

-d/2
a

,






Imax Imin sin u sin d0/
=
.
V =
=
Imax + Imin u d0/
b

, V = 0 u = , . . 0 = /d.
.

4.

~ = rot A,
~
B
~ r, t) = 4~j/c,
A(~

~ = grad 1 A~ ,
E
c t
(~r, t) = 4(~r, t)/.


~+
divA


= 0.
c t

(1)

140

R ~j(x0,y0,z 0,t c R) 0 0 0

~ y, z, t) =
A(x,
dx dy dz ,
c
R
R (x0,y0,z 0,t c R) 0 0 0
1
(x, y, z, t) =
dx dy dz ,
R


0 2
0 2
0 2 1/2
R = (x x ) + (y y ) + (z z )
.
( )
R P~ (x0,y0,z 0,tR/c)dV 0
~

Ze(x, y, z, t) =
R
R
p~(t rc )
1
0 0 0
0
~
r P (x , y , z , t r/c)dV = r ,

(2)

(3)

p~ , P~ .

~ e), E
~ = rot(rot Z
~ e).
~ = 1 (rot Z
(4)
H
c t
m(~
~ r, t)
r
m(t
~

c)
~
Zm =
.
r

(5)


~ = rot(rot Z
~ m), E
~ = 1 (rot Z
~ e).
H
(6)
c t
,

~ e = (Z cos , Z sin , 0),
p~ = (p cos , p sin , 0), Z
Z =

(7)

p0 ei(tr/c)
;
r


~e r~e r sin ~e

r


1

~e =
rot Z

r

r2 sin


Zr rZ r sin Z

(8)

141

i
cr

2
c2

Hr H 0, H = Z sin

.
~ = rot(rot Z
~ e)
E


1 i
,
Er = 2Z cos 2 +
r
cr


2
1 i
E = Z sin 2 +
2 ,
r
cr
c
E = 0.

(9)

~ H)
~ = 0, . . .
, (E
() l  r  , = cT =

1r  2c
.

2c
,

Er = 2p(t) cos /r3, E = p(t) sin /r3, E = 0,


(10)
p(t)r

sin
cr3

~
J |[~rdl]|
.
c
r3

() l   r,

1
r

Hr = 0, H = 0, H =

i p(t) sin
c
r2

2c .

sin
, Er = 0, E = 0,
E = c2 p(tr/c)
r

(11)
2

sin
H = 0, Hr = 0, H = c2 p(tr/c)
= E .
r
~ H~
~ r, |E|
~ = |H|.
~
E

2


p
~
(t

r/c)

sin2
c
~ =
|S|
.
4
c4 r 2

c 2
1 2 3
2
dI = Sr d = E 2r sin d = 3 p~ sin d;
4
2c
Z
d 2 e2~a2
I=
dI() =
=
.
3
dt
3
c
0
2

(12)
(13)

142

I m(t)
~

Q (t)

2

2
2 (m)
1
Q .
I=
+
(14)
3 c3
180c5

S0:
d =

I
1 d
dI
, =
=
.
S0
S0 S0 dt

(15)

; 1 =1024 2.

 2 2
8 2
8
e
=
0 =
r,
3 m0 c2
3 e

(16)

re = me c2 .
0


2
8 2
4
2
= re 2
= 0
.
3 (0 2)2
02 2
1.  0, = 0.
 4
2.  0, = 0 0 = 0


0 4

(17)

1
.
4

, ,
Z
= 2

W ()d,

(18)

W () ,
, .

4.1

. .

143

d~n
Z
d~n
d[W~n()]
= 2
d,
(19)
d
d
0
~n ()]
, ~n d[W
d

, , .
d~n
1
=
[A + BP2(cos ))] ,
(20)
d
4c3
P2(cos ) , ~n z ,
Z+
Z
2
2d
p~ 2 dt,
A=
3

2
B=
3

Z
0

4.1.

Z+

2
2
2d
~p 3pz dt.

. .

4.1.
~j , ~ = 4~j ,  = 4, div A
~ + ( 1 ) = 0.
: A
c
c t
4.2. ~
~ e,
~j = tP Z
~ e = 4 P~ ,
Z
Z
~ (x0, y 0, z 0, t r0 )dx0, dy 0, dz 0
P
c
~e =
p
Z

0
2
0
2
0
2
(x x ) + (y y ) + (z z )

144

p~(t rc )
r0
0
0
~
P (~r , t )dV =
c
r
~ e = rot rot Z
~ e; H
~e =
l  , l  r, , E
( = = 1).
1

1
~
c t (rot Ze ),

4.3. ~ , = 0 , , = 0 ~j = c rot M
~ m,
Z
~ m = 4 M
~ ,
Z
Z
~ (x0, y 0, z 0, t r0 )dx0, dy 0, dz 0
M
c
~m = p
Z

(x x0)2 + (y y 0)2 + (z z 0)2


Z
~ rc )
r0
1
0
0 m(t
~
M (~r , t )dV =

r
c
r
~ m = 1 (rot Z
~ m);H
~ m = rot rot Z
~ m.
l  , l  r, , E
ct


.
~ H
~ 4.4. E
Z
p

p, m

r
pr

:
) p~ = p~oeit;
) m
~ =m
~ oeit.
: .

4.5. () r  . , ,
.
4.6. 4.4 ()
(  r).

4.1

dI
d

. .

145

4.7. : )
; ) dE
dt .
4.8. ~v ~v -

a.
, r  a. .
4.9.
.

dI
d

4.10. ( r)
,
.
4.11. ,

R = 4R/ 3.
4.12. r = 0, 5
R = 2 . .
` = 1 ; d = 0, 1 . .
4.13. , ,
, .
4.14. R
Z
r
= 0 cos ,

R
0
.
t = 0 . : ) ; )
. : ,
p~ .
~ 0 4.15. H

146

R0. t = 0 R = R0evot/R0 ,
0
v0 . )
(H0 = 1 , v0 = 100 /, R0 = 10 ).
) 10 ?

H0

h
k
k q
q.
h
h m.
4.16.

4.17. E
R,
x
~ x = a(1 cos t),
E,
E
~ . E
. , a  R.

4.18. , , a e (v  c).
4.19. , ,
- .
. a = 0, 5108, e = 4, 81010 CGSE, m = 0, 91027 .
4.20. ) ()
. 2a = 108. ) ,

4.1

. .

147

.
4.21. a . Q, J.  2.
. , ,
?
4.22. , (
~ = (0, 0, H). (0) H
.)
4.23. ( p~),
.
4.24. a ~ , M

~ . E,
~ H
~ M
dI
. d
I .
4.25. (e, m)
R, +Q. E0.
E  E0, . .
4.26. . M , S, Q.
d0, d.
4.27. ,
ei/mi

148

.
4.28. q1, q2 m1, m2, ( mq11 6= mq22 ) .
.
4.29.
( mq11 6= mq22 ).
4.30. dtdE
0 d
dI
.
d
4.31. ,
Ze (v  c).
4.32.
; ~v X XY .
, v  c.
)
4.33. d(W
d
( q1, m )
( q2).

4.34. ,
R.
4.35. E

v
.

v
,
L
L.

4.36. T
. a, d  a, -

4.2

149

U . .
(a = 10 , d = 1 , U = 10 ,
T = 50 ).
4.2.

4.37. .
4.38. ) , , , . )
, , ,
: 1) a = 2 , ; 2) a = 2 , ;
3) a = , ; 4) a = 4 , 2 .
4.39. . h 
l=?
. h
, l, .
4.40. , p~0,
/2.
4.41. ,
, a
.
4.42. ,
,

150

. a  .
4.43. ( l, m)
q h
l
.
g
q

h
, h  . 2?
4.44. , . ,
.
4.45. , ; ,
, ( a = /4). /2.
4.46. l l 2
1 2,
1
a
b
a b,
H10- ?
4.47. , /2 .
4.48. -

4.2

151


d~ = d~0eit. Z

,
. dI
d r .

d0

4.49.
,
h
r

I() , 2
2
, h  2 .
4.50. , B
r

ABCD
A
C
AC = BD = 2 . B
D , A
D
/2, C /2 B
D. dI
d
. .
4.51. , , ?
4.52. N
a
a
a
(. ). a
.
4.53. N
p~,
a = 2 ,

152

p~.
4.54. . ,

( ) ?
4.55. , J = J0ei(kxt), |x| a.
4.56.
l,
( J0,
m).
4.57. ,
R
I = I0 sin neit. .
4.58. , a
J = J0 cos t.  a.
4.59.
, h . .
4.60.
Z
( p
p~0, ),
h
0
a/2

4.3

153

(a  , p~0 ).
4.61.
p~ ( h, ). .
4.62. , , q.
,
+2q ?
4.63. ( q) , :
4R2() = 4R02[1 + a(3 cos2 1) cos(t)]2, a  1.
.
4.64. I(t) q, ,
,
.
4.65. N . .
4.3.

4.66. : ) ; ) ; ) .
4.67. . v  c. d/d .
4.68. , T . ,
.

154

4.69.
(  a). ~ m
~ .
d~ = E
~ = H
4.70.
E
, .
q

d
d . q
d ?
4.71. ,
/4 . , .
.
4.72. ( e, m)

.
E
e

: d = 2 . d

e
. d/d,
,

4.73.
2

2 , 2 ( ).

~ , E
, . r  .

4.3

155

? d/d ?
4.74. , , a. , N , , : )  a )  a.
.
4.75. c 0
, AB = l . c . A
B
l
E~0 ,
AB, . , .
4.76. ( , I)
a (a  c/). : = 0 + E 2.
(E 2  0), (3) .
4.77. , .
4.78. m
, . , , : ) ) .

156

~n
4.79. d
d
( q1, m1, v0)
( q2, m2)

4.80. 100
6 328 A.
.
4.81. , , ( R)
.
4.82. ,
v c, I . R = 1.
, .
4.83.
0. d, n.
, S.
4.84. a = 1 R = 0, 1
I = 2 /2. , , .
4.85. ,
F0, x I0, . .
. a  x, F0.

4.4

157

4.86. , .
4.87.
( T 10 ).
4.4.

.43.
~j , ~ = 4~j/c,  = 4/, (divA
~ + /t) = 0;
: A
c
~
1 A
~
~
~
H = rotA, E = grad c t , , .
:
~
~
4~ 1 D
1 B
~
~
; rotH = j +
;
rotE =
c t
c
c t
~ = 4; divB
~ = 0; B
~ = H,
~ D
~ = E.
~
divD


~
1 A
~
~
~
B = rotA , rot E + c t = 0,
~ + 1 A~ . . . E
c t
~ + 1 A~ = grad, E
~ = grad 1 A~ .
. E
c t
c t
1
~
~
~
~ =
E H = rotA rotH
~
4~
E
j
+
c
c t .
!
~
1
~ = 4 j grad + 1 A .
rot rotA

c
c t
c t
~ 4A,
~
rot rotA = grad divA
~ 4A
~ = 4 ~j
grad divA
c
c t

~
1 A
grad +
c t

!
.

158




2

~
~ = 4 ~j + grad divA
~+
4A
A
.
2
2
c t
c
c t
~ + = 0,
divA
c t
~ = 4 ~j,
A
c
2

 = 4
.
c2 t2
~ = 4 E
~ = grad ,
divE

div grad 4,
~ = ,
divA
c t

4
2
=

.
 4
c t2

~e = rot rotZ~e,
.44. , E
~ e = 1 (rotZ~e), ( = = 1), Z~e = p~(t r/c)/r
H
c
`  r, ~
~
j = P/t,
= divP,
~
Z~e = 4 P,
Z
Z ~ ~0
P(
r
,
t

R/c)
1
p(t ~ r/c)
0
0
0
~
~
~
dV
P(r , t r/c)dV =
Ze =
R
r
r
`  r.
, = 1:
~ = 4~j/c,  = 4, divA
~ + 1 = 0,
A
c t
~
1 A
~
~ = rotA.
~
E = grad
, H
c t

4.4

159

~
~ = 1 Z~e , ~j tP , , A
c t
~
~
Ze = 4 P.
~ = divZ~e.
= divP
~ + 1 = 0 divA
c t
.
~ = rotA
~ = 1 rotZ~e.
~ = 1 Z~e , H
A
c t
c
= divZ~e,

~
1 2Z~e
1 A
~
~
= grad divZe 2 2 =
E = grad
c t
c t
1 2Z~e
~
~ + rot rotZ~e.
= 4Ze 2 2 + rot rotZ~e = 4 P
c t
~ = 0,
P
~ = rot rotZ~e.
E

~
.45. ~j = c rotM
, , 0 , , 0, Z~m,
~ Z~m = 4 M
~ ,
M
Z ~ ~0
Z
0
0
Z
(
r
,
t

R
/c)dV
1
m
~m =
~ (r~0, tr/c)dV 0 = m(tr/c)/r
Z

M
~
R
r

e  , e  r, , E~m = 1c t
rot Zm H~m =
rot rot Z~m. .

:
~
1 A
~
~
~
~
~
A = 4 j/c, div A = 0, Em =
, H~m = rot A.
c t

160

~ ,
~j = c rot M
~:
Z~m = 4 M
~ = 4~j/c = 4 rot M
~.
A
~ = rot Z~m. div A
~ = div Z~m = 0 :
, A
~
1
1 A
~ = rot rot Z~m.
=
rot Z~m, H~m = rot A
Em =
c t
c t
Z~m = m(t
~ r/c)/r.
E~m, H~m
~e H
~ m,
E
~ m H
~ e, p~e m
E
~ m.
~ H
~ .46. E
: ) p~ = p~0eit; ) m
~ =m
~ 0eit. : .

ur ur
p, m Pr

r
r
X

) r, ,
p~ ( Z) : p~ = (pr , p , p ) =
(p cos , p sin , 0).
Z, Z,

X, Y .

r
Z~e = p~(t r/c)/r = p~0ei( c t)/r

:
Ze = (Zer , Ze , Ze ) = (Ze cos , Ze sin , 0).

4.4

161

~ e:
H
~ e = 1 rot Z~e.
H
c t
rot Z~e:

e~r
re~
r sin e~

1


rot Z~e = 2
0

r sin r
Ze cos r Ze sin
0

(
0, -
).
rotr Z~e = 0; rot Z~e = 0, , Hr = H = 0.

r sin

(Ze cos ) =
rot Z~e = 2
(r Ze sin )
r sin
r



Ze
1
Ze
+ Ze sin = sin
;
=
Ze sin r sin
r
r
r
 i(tr/c) 
p0 e
Ze
p0 i i(tr/c) p0 i(tr/c)
=
e
2e
=
=
r
r
r
r c
r


p0 i(tr/c) i 1
= e

.
r
c
r



1
i
i
1
He =
rot Z~e =

sin p0ei(tr/c).
c t
cr c
c
Her = He = 0.
:

e~ re~
r sin e~

z
1

0
Ee = rot rot Z~e = 2

r sin r
0 0 r sin rot Z~e

162

Z~e
rot Ze = sin
.
r
, Ee = rot rot Z~e = 0 :
!
~
1
2 sin cos r Z~e

2 Ze
Eer = 2
r sin
=
=
r sin
r
r2 sin
r


cos
i 1
=2 2
+
p0ei(tr/c),
r
c
r
!



~e
i
1

r
p0ei(tr/c)
+
=
r sin2
= sin
Ee = 2
r sin r
r
r
c
r


1
i 2 p0ei(tr/c)
= sin 2
2
.
r
cr
c
r
() : `  r 

1
= cT = 2c
, . . c << r .
2p0eit cos 2p(t) cos

,
Eer
r3
r3
p0eit sin p(t) sin
Ee

, Ee = 0.
r3
r3
~e (
, E
t ) ,
.
.
He =

i
1 p(t)
it
p
e
sin

sin ,
0
cr2
cr2 t

dp = qd`; dp = Jd`; dH =

Jd` r sin
.
cr3

4.4

163

. () : `   r, . . c  1r .
Er = E = 0, Hr = H = 0,
2
1 2
i(tr/c)
E = H = 2 p0e
p(t r/c).
sin = 2
cr
c r t2
:
~ H
~ ~k.
|E| = |H|; E

c 2
p~ 2(t r/c) 3
2
sin d.
dI = Sds = E 2r sin d =
4
2c3
R
0 , , 0 sin3 d =
4/3,
d
2 p~ 2(t r/c)
=I=
.
dt
3
c3
p~ = q~r, p~ = q~r q~a.
d
2 q 2~a2
=I=
.
dt
3 c3
) .40.
.47. , N
qi/mi
.
PN
p~ = i=1 qir~i .
mi/mi
qi/mi:
p~ = (qi/mi)

N
X
i=1

mir~i.

164

, -
~ =
R

N
X
i=1

mir~i/

N
X

mi .

i=1

~ = 0, p~ 0, . . I = 0.
R
.48. , ,
- ? . ( a
=
0, 5 108,
e = 4, 8 1010 CGSE, m = 0, 9 1027 .)
( )
dE
2 e2~a 2
=
.
dt
3 c3
m|~a| = e2/r2, . . |~a| = e2/mr2.
mv 2
e2
, r 2,
=
r
r2
2
e2
r mv2 = 2r
.

mv 2 e2 e2 e2
e2
E=
=
= .
2
r
2r
r
2r
dE = e2dr/2r.
dE dr, , ~a,
4e4
r dr = 2 3 dt,
3m c
r a 0.

2

a3m2c3
11
t=
=
1,
3

10
.
4e4

4.4

165

.49. ,
Ze.
v , v  c.
0

x=vt
e,m

dE
2 e2a2 2 e2Z 2e4
=
.
=
dt
3 c3
3 m2 c3 r 4

Z
2 z 2e6 +
2 Z 2e6
dt
Ze
E=
=
J,
3 m2c3 (2 + v 2t2)2 3 m2c3
Z +
Z +
Z 4
dt

d(vt/)
1
sin d
=
=
J=
.
2
2 + v 2 t2 )2
4v
2 )2
3v
(

(1
+
(vt/)

sin

0
vt/ = ctg .
r

1/(1 + ctg2 )2 = sin4 ; d(ctg ) = d/ sin2 .


Z

1
1 cos 2
d = 3 .
J= 3
v 0
2
2 v

2 Z 2e6

Z 2e6
Ze2
E=

<< 1.
3 m2c3 23v
3 m 2 c 3 3 v
mv 2
.50. , a
J = J0 cos t.  a.

m(t) = JS/c = (a2J0 cos t)/c = m0 cos t.

166


dE
2 4 2 2 
r
= 3 m0 cos t
.
dt
3c
c

dE
m20 4
=
= R J 2.
3
dt
3c
J 2, m2:
c2 2
m20 c2
J02
2
J = 2m =
= .
S
2(a2)2
2
:
dE/dt m20 4
,
R = 2 =
3
3c
J
2 4
2
m0 2 2a4 2 2 4a4
J0
=
2 2 =
.
2
3c3
m0 c
3 c5
c = k = 2
,


4
4

4
2 2 2a
2a
2
2a
R =
=
CGSE = 200
.
3c

9 109

5.

4- xi = (x0, x1, x2, x3),


xi = (ct, x, y, z). A0 x0, x, v.

0
ct
0 0
ct
0

x 0 0 x
(1)
0 =
,
0 1 0 y
y 0
z0
0
0 0 1
z

167

p
= 1/ 1 2, = v/c. x0i = i.k xk , (
, ) . , ,
3
X
0i
x =
i.k xk .
(2)
k=0

()1 = ().
4-:
~
Ai = (, A1, A2, A3) = (, A);
j i = (c, j 1, j 2, j 3) = (c, ~j);
k i = ( c , k 1, k 2, k 3) = ( c , ~k);
- pi = ( Ec , p1, p2, p3).

0
gik =
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
1

(3)

.
1
g ik = gik = gik
.


Ai = gik Ak ; Ai = g ik Ak .
2- 4- a b
ab = gik aibk = ak bk = aibi = g ik aibk .

(4)


.
(ds)2 = gik dxidxk = dxk dxk .

(5)

168

p
ds = cdt 1 2 = cdt/ = cd,
.
:



i
k =
, cos , sin , 0 ,
c
c

 0c 0
0

, cos 0, sin 0, 0 ,
k 0i =
c c
c
i
k 0 = i.k k k .

(6)

(7)


1 cos
0 = (1 cos ) = p
1 2

(8)

tg 0 =

sin
.
(cos )

(9)

:
0 = 0 0 = sin 0 = sin = 0.
s
0 = (1 ) =

1
.
1+

:
0 = /2,
p


0
2
= 1 = = 1 2.

(10)

(11)

4- 5
dxi
~
u =
= (c, ~v ) = c(1, ).
d
i

(12)

, ..
 4-
dxi
~v
i
~
u = ds = 1, c = (1, ).

169

4-
2 i
dui
dui
i
2d x
2
i
a =
=
=
=

(0,
~
a
);
u
a
= 0.
(13)
i
d
dt
dt2
.
2
p~ = m~v 2 , E = mc 2 = mc2, Ep~ = c~v2 ,
1

2 2

2 4

E =p c +m c .
.
~
d~p
q ~
1 A
~
~
~ = rot A.
~
= q E + [~v H], E =
, H
(14)
dt
c
c t

dui q ik
= F uk .
(15)
m
ds
c

Ak Ai
ik

.
(16)
F =
xi
xk
F ik , F ik = F ki :

0 Ex Ey Hz

Ex 0 Hz Hy
ik
F =
(17)
.
0 Hx
Ey Hz
Ez Hy Hx
0
F ik :
F 0ik = i.mk.nF mn.

Hx = Hx 0 ,
Ex = Ex0,
Hy = (Hy 0 Ez 0), Ey = (Ey 0 + Hz 0),
Hz = (Hz 0 + Ey 0), Ez = (Ez 0 Hy 0).
:

(18)

170

1. Fik F ik = 2E 2 + 2H 2 = inv E 2 H 2 = inv .


~H
~ = inv E
~ H
~ = inv .
2. Fik Fik = 4E
:
F ik
4 i
=

j.
(19)
xk
c
F ik
= 0.
xk
4-:
4 Z
 km  i
2
e
l
pi =
F
u
F um dx ,
kl
3 m 2 c5
,
n
o2
1
Z
~
~
~ v )2
E + [~
c12 (E~
c v H]
2 e4
dt.
E =
3 m2c3
1 v 2/c2

2
2
e
F~ = 3 ~v,
3c

2

4
e
2

2 ~
~ H]
~ .
E
+
[

F~ =

3 m2 c4
5.1.

(20)

(21)

(22)

5.1. ,
X, t = t0 = 0 O O0 . , i.k , x0i = i.k xk6.

4-: xi = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) (~r, ict).

i = 1, x4 = ict,
, , . ik .
6

5.1

171

5.2. i.k ,
, 4-: pi = ( Ec , p~) (4- -),
~ (4- k i = ( c , ~k) ( 4-), Ai = (, A)
), j i = (c, ~j) (4- ).
5.3.
: p2 = pipi; k 2 = kik i; j 2 = j k jk ; x2 = xk xk ; pixi;
k i x i ; Ai j i .
5.4. q K 0 ~r0 = (x0, y 0z 0).
K 0 K ~v X.
: ) K; ) , . K 0 K.
5.5. ) 0 , ~v
. . )
, ~v ( ). .
5.6. ~ 4- Ai = (A0, A),
~v .
5.7. 4- 16 F ik , 4-
Ai, Ak , .. F 0ik = i.mk.nF mn. ) , 4- ; ) ,
(. . ,

172

F ik = F ki) .
~
5.8. E
~ 4- Ai = (, A),
~
H
4- .
ik

4 i
5.9. , F
=
k
c j x
~ = 4,
~ = 4~j + 1 E~ , div E
rot H
c
c t
~
F ik
1 H
~
~ = 0.
=
0.

rot
E
=

div H
k
x

c t

5.10. 4- (
5.7), , ~ H,
~ E
4- ,
0
~k = H
~ k0, E~ = (E~0 [~ H~0]) H~ = (H~0+
E~k = E~k , H
0
+[~ E~ ]), k . ~ H.
~
E
5.11. F ik Fik . ~ H,
~
E
~ H)
~
, (E
.
~ H
~ K, E
~ 0H
~ 0 K 0;
5.12. , : ) E
~ H
~
) E > H K, E 0 > H 0 K 0; ) E
~ H
~ K,
() K, () K 0; ) E
~ 0 = 0 ( |E|
~ < |H|)
~ H
~0 =0
K 0, E
~ < |E|),
~ (K K 0 ).
( |H|
~ H
~ 5.13. E
. ,

5.1

173

, ?
5.14.
~ H
~ . , E
. ?
~ H.
~ K 0,
5.15. K E
?
5.16.
Te = 100 Te+ = 300 .
,
, , .
5.17. () , , J. , ( ). .
~
5.18. , E
~ q. H
.
0
E~k = E~k ?
5.19. ,
~ d,
v.
~ 5.20. H
v ( a,
). l  a.
.
5.21. ~ ~v , H

174

~ H.
~ . E
.

. .
5.22. E H, . . , . , c d
ln(
N d = 2

bmin ) ,
1
~
E
d
= e~c 137
, bmin mc
, . . N d = 2
ln( ~ )

5.2.

. .
. .

T = 300
(mec2 = 511 ) d

.
-
d = 1, 67 104 . : ) ,
; ) ; ) ,
= 15.
5.23.

5.24. , ,
~a, , v c,
4-:
2 e4
i
p =
3 m 2 c5

Fkl ul


F kmum dxi.

5.2

175

,
2

2e
E = 3
3c

Z+

a2 c12 [~v ~a]2


(1

v2 3
)
c2

dt

E =

2 e
3 m2 c3

Z+ ~
~ 2 12 (E~
~ v )2
{E + [ ~vc H]}
c
2

1 vc2

dt.

5.25. , ~v ~a ,
[~a ~n]
~ = e
,
H
c2R (1 1c (~n~v ))3
:
e2
a2 sin2
d.
dI =
4c3 (1 vc cos )6
5.26.
dI/d, I
( ) (dE/dt0)
, ~v ~v ( t0 = t r/c). ,

1/.
5.27. , ,
~v ~v .
5.28. v c
~
E.
~ : ) d; ~v k E.
; ) ; ) , mc2  U (U = Ed).

176

5.29. v ~ > |H|.


~
, |E|
.
5.30. ) ,
v c.
) ,
2
, 0 3 = e H
mc .
5.31. ( -), H, ,
( = 6 105 )? H = 17 103 , e = 4, 8 1010 CGSE,
m = 0, 9 1027 , c = 3 1010 /, 1 = 1, 6 1012 .
5.32. ,
R = 10 , E = 250 ? (
~ = 6 1016 .)
5.33. )
,
. ) ,
e2 E 4 v 3
, , E = 4
3 R ( mc2 ) ( c ) .
) ,
.
H ( e H
~
e+) ~v H,

v
e , m
, . ,
.
5.34.

5.2

177

dI

5.35. d
(
~ v H),
.

5.36. m
,
q,m
q . r(t)
0
E0,
-q,m
E(t) r(t).
5.37. E = 300 H = 10 .
h.
h
H
e
e
,
? h1 = 0, 5 h2 = 1
/.

5.38. y 0,
Y
H0e~z , H0
R
, Y , v ' c.
X

0
R. , Y y > 0. , ~ 0 2R?
X H
5.39. , p = 300 /, l = 10 , (H = 18 ,

178

e+ = 5 1010CGSE, mc2 = 0, 5 ).
~
5.40. , H
R, (. 5.30). ,
~
Z H
~ H.

~ 0 ~ H
~ 0) (~H
~ 0 (H
). ( : -3 R = 8 , E = 2 ).

5.41.
e,
: ) Ze; )
g ' 70 e; ) p~,
; ) J, . . .
5.42. , ,
Z
Y .
e,m
Y
vc

J, ,
0
X
i
J
.
X
( e, m, v c). ~v , ,
.
5.43. , X v
Hz = H0 sin( 2x
L ). -

5.2

179

?
5.44.
R. ,
.
5.45. , H = 1, 5 104 R =
50 , . .
5.46.
E = 400 ,
H = 2 104 ?
p 0, 5 /.
5.47. , , v c (-). ,
.
5.48.
: ) ; )
R, < R, ( 
1).
5.49. ) ,
. - . )

1 = 1 2 =
( ).
5.50. )

180

, . ,
. )

a.
5.51. R C0 (C0 = R/ln 8R
r ), r )
(
e, m),
v. .
5.52. v > nc
( n) .
, .
5.53. ) , , c . ) , , , , : ,
,
. .
5.54. , (v c):
2
2
4
e2 2 (Ey Hz ) +(Ez +Hy )
.
fx = 23 me2c5 (Fkl ul )2vx = 23 ( mc
)
2
v2
1 2
c

5.55. , . ,
E,

5.3


1
E

2 1
e2 2
(
2
4
3 m c mc2 )

181
+
R 


(Ey Hz )2 + (Ez + Hy )2 dx.

5.56. , ?
5.3.

.. Synchrotron Radiation Without Special Functions


, 1995, 3,
.
, , .
The synchrotron radiation (SR), i.e. the radiation of a charged particle
in an external magnetic field, is discussed in numerous textbooks, some of
them being truly excellent. However, as a rule, the essential features of the
ultrarelativistic SR are derived in a rather formal, mathematical way, the
treatment lacking the intuitive, physical element. The aim of the present
article is to fill in this gap. It justifies perhaps the publication, though an
essential part of the paper is in fact a kind of folklore, well-known at least
among my colleagues at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.
.51. We will start with the total intensity of radiation. In the comoving
(with electron) inertial frame (CIF) it is
e4
2
(1)
I e (a ) 2 (E 0) .
m
Here e and m are the electron charge and mass, a is its acceleration, E is
the electric field strength; I, a and E are supplied with primes to indicate
that they refer to the CIF. E 0 is obtained from the laboratory frame (LF)
magnetic field B by the Lorentz transformation
0

0 2

E 0 B,

(2)

182

where
=p

.
(1 v 2)
Here and below we use the units where the velocity of light c = 1, and omit
in our qualitative treatment numerical factors.
Let us recall now that I is an invariant. Rather unusual demonstration of
this fact is as follows. The radiation intensity is obviously expressed through
the emission probability W and the photon energy ~ as
I = W ~.
Then, the probability W in the laboratory frame is related to that in the
CIF, W , in the following way:
W = W 0/.
(just recall that the life-time of an unstable particle in the LF is times
larger than that in the CIF). On the other hand, it is well-known that
= 0.
Therefore, indeed
I = I 0.
Now, substituting into formula (P.51.1) expression (P.51.2) for the CIF
electric field E 0, we obtain the well-known result:
e4 2 2
I 2B .
(3)
m
If instead of the magnetic field B, we fix the curvature radius r0 of the
electron trajectory, related to as
eB = m/r0,
the expression for the total intensity becomes
e2 4
I 2.
r0

(4)

5.3

183

.52. Let us go over to the radiation angular distribution. In the CIF it


is a simple dipole one, mere trigonometry. In other, words, typical-angles in
the CIF are
0 = kt0/kl 0 1.
0
Here kt(l)
is the transverse (longitudinal) component of the photon wave
vector. In the LF those components are:

kt = kt0 ,

kl = kl0

Therefore, in the LF ultrarelativistic electron radiates into a cone with the


characteristic angle
c kt/kl 1.
(1)

.53. An observer receives the radiation only while staying inside the
radiation cone which rotates together with the electron. Then a simple consideration demonstrates that the electron radiates at the observer only from
a trajectory arc of the same angular size as the cone itself. In the present
case it means that the size of the arc is c 1. In other words, the
radiation formation length which coincides in our ultrarelativistic problem
(v c = 1) with the radiation formation time, is
t r0c r0 1.

(1)

Then the duration of the signal receiving is, taking into account the longitudinal
Doppler effect,
t = (1 ~n~v )t (2 + 2)t,
where ~n = ~k/k. At c 1 we obtain
tc r0 3.

(2)

184

It means that the characteristic radiation frequency is 3 larger than the


electron revolution frequency 0:
3 1
3
c t1
c r0 0 .

(3)

.54. We turn now to the spectral distribution of the synchrotron radiation.


Its intensity falls off rapidly at >> s. Let us assume for it a power law
at << c:
I() .
Then, comparing the total intensity as given by the integral
Z c
dI() c+1 3(+1)
with formula (P.51.4), we obtain = 1/3. In other words,
I() 1/3 at c,

(1)

In n1/3 at n 3,

(2)

or
for the discrete spectrum.
.55. And at last we will find characteristic radiation angles for the
spectral region
0 << << c, or 1 << n << 3.
One may expect here that theta is larger than 1. Now, with a radiation
cone of the angle << 1, the electron radiates at the observer only from a
trajectory arc of the same angular size . Then relation (P.53.2) transforms
to
t 1 2t 3r0 301.
(1)
Therefore
(/0)1/3 n1/3.

(2)

5.3

185

In conclusion let us emphasize that the results obtained apply to the classical
radiation not only at the finite motion of an ultrarelativistic particle in magnetic
field, but in the more general case as well, that of scattering in external
electromagnetic fields, if the deflection angle exceeds 1.

186

,
1.

1.2. t , t0,


  2
eE 02
2
x
t
+ y 2 + z 2 = c2 (t t0) ,
2m
x , (
X x = 0) t0.
1.3. E ' 7, 2 /; H ' 2, 4 102 .
~ 0 = Ex cos(t~k~r +)~e0 , E
~ 0 = Ey sin(t~k~r +)~e0 ,
1.6. E
1

~ex, ~ey ~ex, ~ey


cos
. Ex Ey
, , tg2 = 2ab
2
(a b2)
Ex = a cos + bei sin ; Ey = a sin bei cos
1.7. E = E ; E < E ; E > E ; E = 0
; E = 0 .
1.8. IN = I0 cos2N , I50 ' 0, 95 I0.
~ = 0
1.9. = 0(1 + ~n0)
~k = (~k 0 + ~ 0 ) +
c

~
(1~n)
~k
1
,

~
n
=
n0
~ ]
~
k, ~
2 [[~k 0 ]

~0

= kk , k = c , k 0 =

0
c.

1.10. v ' 7, 5 104 /.


1.11. 0 , ,

, p
= 0 1 2 ( ). ,
, , , cos = .

187

1.12. a) = 0
1.13. n =

/0

p
(1 )/(1 + ); ) = 0 (1 + )/(1 ).

' 0, 5.

0 2
I0exp[(
/2 ) ],

0
c

1.14. I() =
2RT /.
/2 =
, R .

1 2
(1 2 )3/2
1.15. = 0 1 cos , I = I0 (1
; = 0 0, ,
cos )2
p
cos 0 = 1 (1
1 2). 0 0
N1 = 2I0(1 2)1/2(1 + cos 0) 0
N2 = 2I0(1 2)1/2(1 cos 0).


4n
n1 2
1.17. R = n+1 , D = (n+1)
2 , n =
.
1.19. tg =

(cos

n2 tg
n2 sin2 +sin2 )2

1.20. a = n4 2 , n = 1, 2, ...; 2 2.
2 = 13.
2

1.21. R ' 2(n2 1)2 d2 .


1.22. E (1 , 2 ; k ,
):

cos n2 sin2

E1 = sin()
E
=
E0 ;
sin(+) 0
2
cos +

E2 =

2 sin cos
sin(+) E0

n2 sin
2
cos

E
.
0
cos + n2 sin2

n2 sin2 n2 cos k
k
k
tg()

Ek-: E1 = tg(+) E0 =
E0 ;
2
2
2

n sin +n cos
k
k
k
2 sin cos
2n
cos
E2 = sin(+)
E
=
E
.
0
0
cos()
n2 cos + n2 sin2
(sin = sinn ). R
 2
 2
E1
2
T R = E0 , T = n E
,
E0

R +T

cos
cos

= 1, .

188

1.23. = ,
tg = nn12 ( 1).
k

1.24. k E1, E0 E1 , E0


tg


=

sin
cos

n2

  p 2
k
sin n2
tg
=
.
2
n cos
k

. E0 = E0 k = 2
; , 2n 1 n2,
n . 0, 414.
 2 h
i1
p
E2
2
2
2 k 2 2

1.25. T = E0 = ch a + ( 2k ) sh a
; = c sin2 1,
k =
c cos .
1.26. 1.22:

p
p
2
cos + sin2 k
cos sin
k

p
p
E0 E1 =
E0 ;
E1 =
2
2
cos + sin
cos + sin

2
cos
2
cos

k
k
p
p
E2 =
E0 E2 =
E0 .
cos + sin2
cos + sin2
= 2/1, = 2/1.
1.27. = (rq r)/(1 rq r).
2
1.28. T = 1/(1 + 2
c ) , ( = = 1 !).
 2 1/3
R
3
A
u
(z z1),
1.29. E() = 0 cos( 3 u)du, = c2z
1

2
,
4e2 N0 /m

(z1 =
= 1 z/z1).

A
 1 E () = 1/4
sin 23 3/2 + 4 ,  1


3/4
A
2
E () = 1/4 exp 3 ||
.
2||

189

1.30. ) sin / sin = n2/n1 (


 
1
1
1
n1); ) f = (n 1) R1 R2
f = R/2 .
1.31. 2)  
d(n1)2
1
1
1
h1,2 = f (n1)d
,
f
=
f
=
f
,
f
=
(n

1)

+
1
2
nR2,1
R1
R2
nR1 R2 .
1.32. d =

n
n1

1.33. f =

R1 R2 /2
nR1 +(n1)R2 .

(|R1| + |R2|).

1.34. ` '15,3 ; ' 1, 6.


1.35. f 1 = 1/f1 + 1/f2 `/f1f2. 1(2)
`f
() `f11,2
f2 ,

`2f f1f2.
1.36. ( 500 ) .
1.37. ) n- xn = A sin (n+), cos = 1 2fd , A
; d < 4f . ) xn = A sin (n + ),
2
cos 2 = 1 12 fd2 , A
.
~ .
1.38. 1 = d ln n , N

dN

' 1, 6 109 1.

1.40. M = M3/R3 dn
dz 3 = 4M3 . . , .


n0
kx
1.41. y = k ch n0 1 .
1.39. ' 33 000 ;

dn
dz

1.42. 0 = n0R sin 0

R d ln n
R

dr

dr
n2 r2 n20 R2 sin2 0

190

, -

1.43. 0 = 2 (n0 1) x0tg0

e(x

2 x2
0

)dx,

x0
mgR
T

(1 sin 0) (m , R
x20 =
, T ).
1.44. ' 142 .
2.

,
-
2.1. .
1
2 [ (
sin( /2)
2 /2

2.2. ) f =
) f

) f =

sin( /4)
/4

2

0) + ( + 0)]; ) f =

2 sinc( 2 );

) f

2
2
1 e /4 ;
2
cos( /2)
;
2 2 1( 2 )2
2

~ = i H
~ , div E
~ = 4 , rot H
~ = i E
~ + 4~j ,
2.3. ) rot E
c
c
c
~
div Hh = 0. i


1 ~
~
~
~
~
) i k E~k = c B~k , i k D~k = 4~k ,
i
h



1
4
~~
~~ = D
~
i ~k H
k
c ~k + c j~k , k B~k = 0.
h
i



~~ = H
~ ~ , i ~k D
~ ~ = 4~ ,
) ~k E
k
k
k
c
h
i
 k 
4~
~~
~
~ ~ = i D
i ~k H
k
c ~k + c j~k , k B~k = 0.
~ (r) = grad (~r) + i A
~ r), H
~ (~r) = rot A
~
2.4. ) E
c (~
h
i (~r).
~ ~ (t) = i~k~ (t) 1 A
~ ~ (t), H
~ ~ (t) = i ~k A
~~ (t) .
) E
k
k
k
k
c k
h
i
~
~
~
~
~ ~ = i~k~ + i A
) E
k
k
c ~k , H~k = i k A~k .

2.5. ) ~k = 2e2k2 , ) (Az )~k = J/ ck 2 .
h
i
~
ie~k
iJ [k~ez ]
~
~
~
~
~
2.6. ) E~k = ik~k = 22k2 , ) H~k = i k A~k = c
.
k2

191
~
~
e (k~v ) ~
e~v (k~v )
2.7. ~k = 22 k22/c2 , A~k = 22c k22/c2 ;


(~k~v )
e

~
~
v
~ ~ = i 2 2 2 2 ~k + 2 , H
~ ~ = i e2
E
k
k
2 k /c
c
2 c

h
i ~k~v
~k ~v 2( 2 )2 .
k /c

2.9. v = /k, k
.

2 2
2.10. (x, 0) = a0 kek x /4 eik0x.
q
3
i(~k~r0 t)
(q)
e
, J3/2
J
2.11. (r, t) = 4a0 q
23 3/2
d
dk
k0 r2 ik0 r
.
4 e

, = |~r ~vg t| , ~vg =


2.12. (r, ) =

4k0
r

2.13. (x, t) = a0

sin
q



2
xv
t
(
)
g

+it exp 4(+it) + i (k0 x t)

Aei(k0x0t),
(k) = 0 + vg (k k0) + (k k0)2.
( ); +
R

|A (x, t)|2 dx .

2.14. x ' a2d/vg x0.


2.15. : 2.13.

dv
2.17. u = v d
; u = v 1 + n dn
d , ,
u , v .
2.18. ) u = v; ) u
) u =

2
c
c2 +b2 2

2.19. v =

c
0

c2
v;

) u =

2 2
1 p
2 0 04

2

 0; v = c 1 + 21 p2 >

a
= 2 = v2 ;
1 h
c2
i
/2
d() .
1+
d v

) u =

< c, u = c0 1

2
1 p
c, u = c 1 2 2

3 a
2

2 2
3 p
2 0 04

3
2 v;

< c

< c  0.

2.20. ) v = 0, 495c v = 1, 01v = 1014 ,


v = 0.448c v = 1, 246v = 1015 , v = v. = 0

192

, -

= 1016 ;  
x2 d2 1
) = 2 3 2 dk2
' 7 1010 ` = d
dk ' 8, 5
= 1015 .
2.21. ) tf ' 0, 3; ) tf ' 2; ) tf ' 1; )tf ' 4.
2.22. xmin ' / (2 sin ), 2 ,
.

2.23. x `.
2.24. d  .

2.25. d ' `.
`/d
2.26. x ' d + cos
3 .

2.27. d ' L ' 14 .

2.28. d ' F/d.


`
>
2.29. , `

d 1 .

2.30. ) . 3000 ; ) . 10 .
2.31. , , E = Bn =
0. : .
2.32. E-
ik Ez
i Ez
i Ez
ik Ez
,
E
=
,
H
=

,
H
=

.
y
x
y
2 x
2 y
c 2 y
c 2 x

2
2
2
Ez 2Ez + Ez = 0, = v k 2,
2
2
v 2 = c2/ (), 2 = x
+
. H-
2
y 2
E H .
Ex =

2.34. E-:
mx
ny i(kzt)
Ez = Amn sin
sin
e
; (m, n = 1, 2...)
a
b

193

c
=

r
k2

 m 2
a

 n 2
b

, min


c  2
2
=
a + b /ab .

H-:
mx
ny i(kzt)
cos
e
; (m, n = 0, 1...)
a
b
( m n 6= 0!). , min = c
a ( a b).
Hz = Amn cos

2.35. H10-: x = z = 0
z (x)
|y=0,b,
y = Hz |x=0,a; y = 0, x = cH4
z = 4c Hx (x) |y=0,b, Hx, Hz .
E11-: x = y = 0 z = 4c Hy (y) |x=0,a;
x = y = 0, z = 4c Hx (x) |y=0,b, Hx,
Hy ,
.
2.36. H10-,
min 1, 67min, min = 1, 9 1010c1.
2.37. : H10-
.
2.38. :
)
(Ex (x) = Ex (x) = Hy (x) , Ez (x) = Ez (x)) :
|x| > a Ez = Asignx exp (s |x|), Ex = A iks exp (s |x|),
Hy = A i
cs exp (s |x|) ; |x| a Ez = B sin x exp (x),
i
sa
Ex = B ik
cos (x), Hy = B c cos (x), A = Be sin (a),
2 2
, s : (a)2 + (sa)2 = c2a ( 1) (1),
sa = 1 atg (a) (2).
)
(Ex (x) = Ex (x) , Hy (x) = Hy (x) , Ez (x) = Ez (x)) :

194

, -

|x| > a Ez = A exp (s (x)), Ex = iks signx exp (s |x|),


Hy = A i
cs signx exp (s |x|); |x| a Ez = B cos (x),
i
sa
Ex = B ik
sin (x), Hy = B c sin (x), A = Be cos (a),
, s (1) sa = 1 actg (a) (3). . , , , .
2.39. + 0.
2.40. E 2ab = const.
2.41. '

1 a4 3
3 c4

102 12

2a
c

= 3 109, ' 76 '

c
a.

2 2 2
1 10 /c k0
2
k0 c 2

2.42. l '
' 10 , =
' 4 1023 2/,
q
02
2
k0 =
2 + a2 ' 5 -
.

2.43. l ' 2ckz a / 3/2 ' 150 . : .


2.44.
~ : Ax = N1 cos (k1x) sin (k2y) sin (k3z) eit,
A
Ay = N2 sin (k1x) cos (k2y) sin (k3z) eit,
Az = N3 sin (k1x) sin (k2y) cos (k3z) eit,
i
ki = n
ai , n1 , n2 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, ...; k1 N1 + k2 N2 + k3 N3 = 0;
a1, a2, a3 a, b, c.
p
c
2.45. min = a2a3 a22 + a23 ' 1010c1. (
(a1 < a2 < a3.)

195

~ 0 2.46. : E
~ 0
H
h
i
~ = ~n E
~ 0 = 0 .
E
2.47. Fx = 0, Fy = Fz = W/2a.
3.

, .

3.1. x = L/ (2d).

3.2. I (x) = 4I0 cos2 (kxd/L), I0


.
d
3.3. n = 1 + x
h L.

3.4. I (x) = 4I0 sin2 kxh


L , I0 .
. .

3.5. =

xh
2 L(1)

' 6 10 A.

3.6. x

2 L
h , lk

hx
L

2
.

3.7. h a/d; l a/h ' /, ,


.


kad

3.8. V = sinc
. h .
2l

3.9. d/a 4/3. . , .


3.10. V = 32 cos2 kLd2acos ; Vmax = 2/3 = /2, . .
.
a
d, , d  2l
.



, 2l , 2b 3.12. V = sinc 4bl
L
, L
. .

3.11. d =

am
l ,

196

, .

, .
3.13. L
3.14. d

bd
' 1 .
d l
'2
L



3.15. V = sinc
3.16. x '

.




k
d
kd
0

cos
.
2
2

(2/)

(a+b)
4b(n1) .

c
3.17. lk
' 3108 ; l ' D l1 ' lk D ' 3103
.
d

1
d

3.18. ) V = cos
; ) V =
J1
, J1

2 d

.
3.19. ) 1, 6 106 ; ) 6, 2 108 .
3.20. L af / = 20 .


2

3.21. I (~r1, ~r2) = I1 (~r1, t) I2 (~r2, t) = |A1| + |A2|


+
h

i
+2 |A1|2 |A2|2 cos ~k1 ~k2 (~r1 ~r2) , Ii (~ri, t)
~ri t,  . ~k1 ~k2
= 2/ (kr), r , I (~r1, ~r2) .

1 I2
3.22. V = 2 I1I+I
( ) = ( ) I1 = I2. Ii 2
i- .

3.23. ) ( ) = eit (1 | | /T0) | | < T0 ( ) = 0


| | > T0;
P
Nk (1 | | /Tk ),
) ( ) = ei N1
k
P
N = Nk | | < Tk ;
k

) ( ) = ei | |/T ;

197
i

) ( ) = e
( ) =

a2
a2

+ 1

| |
T0



a2
a2

o

| | < T0;

a2 it
e .
a2

3.25.
( ) = eit [c ( ) + is ( )] ,
R
c ( ) = (1/IR0) I ( ) cos ( ) d
s ( ) R= (1/I0) I ( ) sin ( ) d;
I0 = I ( ) d p
.
( ) = c2 ( ) + s2 ( ) = | ( )|.
3.26. .

.
o
n
2
3.27. ( ) = exp ( /0) , 0 = 2c/ ( v T );
, v T .
3.28. ( ) = |sinc (4bl/ (L))|, 2b ,
2l, L . .
3.12 3.22.
R
1
3.29. (~r, ~r, ) = 2 I () (1 + cos )d.
3.30. (~r, ~r, ) =

I sin2
2

cos 0 .

3.31. ) ) ( ) = a (1 /T0). . ( )
G()
R
R
1
( ) = G () cos d G () = () cos d .
0
0
 
3.32. ) G () = T20 sinc2 T2 0 ;
 
P
P
1
2 Tk
) G () = 2N
Tk sinc
, N = Nk ;
2
k

) G () =

T
2;
1+ 2 T

198

, .

) G () = T0 1

a2
a2



1
2

sinc (T0) + sinc


p
3.33.
2d n2 sin2 =
m = 0, 1, 2, ...

T0
2



+ T20 .

(m 1/2) ,

2R(1cos(m))
,
I
=
,
3.34. I = 12R(1R)

2
cos(m)+R
12R cos(m)+R2

m , R
. .
-.

.

3.35. . 1.20.
3.36. ) x =

n2 sin2

; ) x '

2n .

3.37. ) rm ' Rm; ) .


p
3.38. r ' R2/.
3.39. h (n 1) > /2, h . .
.
3.40. ) N ' (L/d)2 ' 2500; ) / ' 1/N = 4 104.
3.41. ) x ' F /2h; ) d 2h2/m2, m .
3.42. ) ; ) x ' /2.




20

2 0
3.43. a) I = 4I0 cos
; ) I = 4I0 1 + cos c cos c ,
c
h
i
20

2
1,2 = 0 2 ; ) I = I0 cos c exp c
.
= vt, v .

199

3.44. ) m = 2h cos ,
, . . m ;
) = / (2h sin ), . .
, h.
3.45. tg/tg,
sin / sin = n. . .
2

3.46. I (x) = 1/(1 + 4 2 sin2 2ax


), |x| , I () = 1,
2
I ( + ) = 0, 1436.
0
' 2, 1 105 .
3.47. dmin = 2n

dmin = 2n cos
, . . dmin .
3/2

3.48. x =

2(n2 sin2 )
f

h 4 cos 2 n2 sin2 +sin2 2 ;


2

'

2f (n2 sin2 )
hx

3/2

' 10.

1/2

3.49. ) m = h 2 n cos
, ;
. . m
; ) = n2 1/ (2hn), . .
.
3.50.
3.51. ) ; ) ) ; )
.
3.52. = /2 = 0, 42 .
q

ab
3.53. rm = m a+b ; rm = mb.
3.54. E B ,
n
P

) E1 ' 2E; ) En '


E2i1 > E1, n
; ) En '

n
P
i=1

i=1

E1 ' 2En, n .

200

, .

2
3.55. f = rm
/ (m) =
.

ab
a+b

= 90 . n > 1 -

3.56. ) I ' 4I0; ) I ' I0.


3.57. f =

0 k 2 R 1 R 2
2(R1 +R2 ) .

f d
3.58. y 0 = f y/d. y <
f +d ,
y(y 0) ( ) .
d
R

3.60. : , ; , , () ,
.
3.62. cos = v/v. v > v = nc .
3.63. I (z) ' I0 

z02

a2 +z 2 +

a2 +z02

2 ,

z0 (z)

( ). z = z0 (
) I ' 0, 25I0.
2

2 (z+z )
2z0
0
( 3.64. I (z) = I0 z+z0 sin2 ka 4zz
0
 2 2
2 ka2
). z0 I = 4I0 sin 4z ' I0 ka
.
2z
p
3.65. rmin ' l/2, I ' 4I0.

3.66. dmin ' l.


p
p
3.67. rmin ' a/6; R ' a (n 1/3), n = 0, 1, 2, ...
( n = 0 +).
2 2

2
1
b
+ d4  1. 3.68. x ' b
d 2b2
d2
d2/8a  1.
a4
I0 a4+(z/k)
2

2
ar02

3.69. I (r) '


exp
, a02 = a2 +(z/ka)2. .

201

f (r) =

r2
2a
2

I0 exp
.
p

3.70. ' /L ' 0, 007500; h L ' 14 .


3.71. d2/ (r)  1.
2

bk sin
2

bk
2

' I0 sinc
,

2 ka
; ) I () = 4I0 sinc2 bk
cos
2
2 .
  
2
sin N
kd
2 bk
3.73. I () = I0 sinc

'
2
sin
2 .
  
.
2
N kpd
kpd
2 bkp
3.75. I() = I0 = sinc
sin 2
sin 2 ,
2
p = sin sin .
= .
  
.
2
kpd
N
kp
d
kp
d
3.76. I () = I0 sinc2 2 sin 2 1 sin 21 ,
p1 = sin ( ) sin ( + ) , p = sin sin .

2
' [2d sin ( + 2)].
3.72. ) I () ' I0 sinc

m = 2d/
' + 2.
3.77. max = (n 1) , m = (a/) (n 1), n
.
q
3.78. sin max = 1 (/2a)2.
3.79. I =

I0
2

(1e ) +4e sin2


2

, = /d
q
, = kz dkd sin . kz = k 2 (/a)2
H10; k = /c. N ' d/
.
2

3.80. I = I0 k2+12kk cos(+) =


2

I0
5/4+cos ,

3.81. I (z) = I0 4 sin2 ka


4z . z =

d sin
.

a2
2m

(m = 1, 2, ...).

202

, .

3.82. I () = 2I0 sinc2 (sin N / sin )2, = ak/2.

2 kb sin

sinc
3.83. I (, ) = I0 sinc2 ka sin
2
2 .

3.84. I () I02 [aJ1 (ka) bJ1 (kb)]2, a(b)


() , J1(x) . .
+
P
ia cos x
Jn (a) einx.
e
=
dI()
d



J12 ka 1sin2 cos2 0

n=

, , 0
 
0
~q = ~k ~k , (~k ~k 0
( ) ),
.
3.85.

I0

2 (1sin2 cos2 0 )

3.86. x ' D h ' 5 , D , h


.
3.87. .
3.88. , ' 20 %.
3.89. ) . ) ) . . , , , .
3.90. ) 30"; ) 0,04 .
3.91. ) ' 40 ; ) ' 20 .
3.92. / = 2mN . (.
3.82) / = mN .
. q

2T
3.93. m & 1 ln AM c2 1, AM Ar.
p
3.94. < L/ 2T /M ' 0, 2 , M 1
; N 2m/
' c
' 7 103.
2m

2T /M

203

3.95. ) ' / (4h cos ). )


h > D/4. ) hmax ' D/ (4). ) 0 ' /4h.
p

0
3.96. ' /D ' 2 ' 1 ; h  hmax ' D ' 2
' 1 .
3.97. ' /D ' 0, 0600 ' 1 ; h  b
D ' hmax , b
. hmax ' 10 ' 1 b ' 100 .
2

3.98. ' dL : I ' I0


 2 2

d
 d2/L, I = 4I0 sin2 d2/2L ' d2/L, I ' I0 2L


d2
L.

3.99. I () ' I0
3.100. I

cos2 (a/)

2.
(1/4a22/2)
+
P 2 m
0)
= I0
, Jn
Jn 2 sinc2 b(kn
2

n=

. . T (x)
T (x) = exp [im sin (0x) /2]. b;
exp (ia sin 0x), 3.84.
3.101. h = (2m 1) /2 (n 1), m = 1, 2, 3, ... .

 2
2
l
a
2
3.102. I = 4I0 0F ' 900 / . l 20a '
4 105, l .
 2
F
3.103. ) d ' d1 ; ) IF = I0 dd1 ; ) p = 4 W/c
' 4 106
d2
' 5 105 , F = 5 S = d21 ' 1 2.

2
 2
2

d 2 1+l/d
3.104. I2 ' I1 l
' I1 d l .
d +/d
3.105. In ' I0

d
f

2

' 1600 I0.

204

, .

N I0J12 (ka) /

2 2 2

3.106. I ()
k a , I0
; a ; N .
. , , , .
3.107. = k (n 1) x, x ,
.
3.108. f = L2/ (n0d).
2

2
3.109. = x
f = kx / (2f ), f
: f 1 = (n 1) (1/R1 + 1/R2); + () () .

3.110. : .
J 2 (D/)

3.112. I () = I0 1 2 , I0 ; D ; J1 . . 3.84.
q
3.113. R = maf
|af | : m.


2
3.114. ) I (x) = A20 + A2 (x) + 2A0A (x) cos x + kx
2f ,
A0 (A (x)) ( )
, = k (n 1); ) I (x) = A20 + A2 + 2A0A cos kx,
A0(A) ( ) ,
.
3.115. ) :

2

U (x) ' A20 + A eikz +A0



kx2
x+
i
2f +A
Aeikz e



kx2
i
x+
2f ;
Aeikz e

, () , (),
() f , . .

205

; )
U (x) = A0aeikz + A0ei(kz+x) + A0bei(kzx),
a = A20 + 2 A2, b = 2A0A; , () ,
().


2kx
3.116. U (x) = A20 + A2 1 + cos f +




ik(x)2
ik(x+)2
ik(x)2
ik(x+)2
+A0Aeix e 2f + e 2f
+A0Aeix e 2f + e 2f
.
3.117. l0 = lf / (l + f ); l0/l.
3.118. f .
3.119. . 3.117.
3.120. R l/.

: x = 0, y = l sin .

2
I (x, y) = I0 + I0 cos2 kR
2l + , = kl ky sin
R2 = x2 + (y l sin )2 l2 sin2 .
3.121. . .
3.122. 1/(2 )
.
3.123. , .
3.124. ) , ( );
. ) i ( ) . . ,

206

, .



i
h
 ,
i
.
di = / 2 sin +
2
3.125. .
3.126. ) T (x) J02 (ka), = x/l  1, l
, J0 . . ,
t.
3.127. T (x) g 2 +a0geikx +a0g eikx, g(x) -
G0; a0 ;
.
3.128. M
T ; G , . . .
3.129. F (k) T0 (k) + 2 [ (k + ) + (k )], . .
, / (2) .
3.130. .
3.131. d < f / (a), a
, xmin & a. .
1
1/a.
d
d
1
< 1 < a1 + f
, xmin |11/a|
< a. .
3.132. a1 f
T1 1 : ( 1), .

3.133. d . f / (a), ,
, .

207

4.


n


o

2

1
i
1
i
~e = 2 2 +
4.4. ) E
cr cos Ze , r2 + cr c2 sin Ze , 0 ,
r
~e =
H


0, 0,

i
2
cr
c


sin Ze ;

~m = E
~ e, E
~ m = H
~ e.
) H
n
o
2p
cos

p
sin

~e =
4.5. E
, r3 , 0 = rp~3 + 3(~pr~5r)~r ;
r3
h
i


~r d~l
sin

J
~
p
ip
~ e = 0, 0,
sin = 3
=
.
H
cr2
cr t
c
r3
n
o
o
n
2 i(tkr)
2 i(tkr)
sin

sin

~ e = 0,
~ e = 0, 0,
4.6. E
;
,0 , H
r c2 e
r c2 e
~ eH
~ e.
E
4.7. )

dI
d

) I =

dE
dt

sin3
|~p(t
c3
2
2 |p~|
3 c3 .

r/c)|2.

=



e
~
r

~
r

~
v
~ = e~r3 + 3e~r(~4r~v) e~v2 + [ 2[ 3 ]] 0
4.8. E
r
cr
cr
c r
t =tr/c


e[~v ~r]
e[~v ~r]
~
+ c2r2 t0=tr/c.
H=
cr3
()
re2 ' c2erv .

h
i2
2
dI
e
4.9. d
= 4c
v ~n , ~n .
3 ~
2
I = 2 e3 ~v 2.
3c

4.11. . ,
E |r=R = 0.
q

2
2
rR
4.12. = c LC ' c l ln dl r+R
' 1010 .

208

4
ct
2R

4.14. ) p = p0e

cos

3 ct
2 R

1
3

sin

3 ct
2 R

) Er (r, t) =hr22 [p ( ) /r + p (i) /c] cos ,


p( )
p(
)
p( )
+
+
2
2
cr
hr
i c
)
p( )
1 p(
+
sin
r
cr
c2

1
r

E (r, t) =

H (r, t) =

sin ,

R r R + ct; t rc .

3
4.15. ) E = 94 vc0  H02R03 ' 2, 5 104 ;
) E = cr1 mr + mc sin , m = m0et , m0 = 12 H0R03, = Rv00 ; Emax ' 12 H0R03 rv20R/c ' 1, 5 102 /.
0


2
q2
8 q 2 a2 k
4.16. I = 3 c3 m 2mh3 , a . .
.
4.17. I = E 2R4a2 4/48c3.


 
ea 2
r
r
~
4.18. H (~r, t) = c2r cos cos t c ~e + sin t c ~e ,

e2 a2 4
dI
2 e2 a2 4
2
=
1
+
cos

,
I
=
d
3 c3 . (8c3
) () ; ; = 0() ().

4.19. = m2c3a30/ 4e4 . ' 1, 3 1011 .

re 3/2

7
4.20. )
'
'
5

10
.
)
mN
'

a
, m ' 2
N ' 106.
4.21. I =

8 2 a2 J 4
3 c3 Q2 ;

4.22. 0 >>

E'

eH
2mc

Q
.
r2

L
i(0 +L )t

~r = A1ei0t ~ez +A2ei(0L)t (~ex + i~ey )+A3e

(~ex i~ey ) .

0 0 L ,
~ , ; H

209

, ,
, .

2 4
p20 4
dI
2 p0
2
4.23. d = 8c3 1 + cos , I = 3 c3 .
~ =
4.24. H

m 2 sin
c2 r

(cos ~e + i~e ) ei(tkr),

2
m
sin
4 3~
i(tkr)
~ =
(
cos
~
e
)
e
E
+
i~
e
,
m
~
=
a M .

c2 r
3

dI
m2 4 sin2
2 m2 4 sin2
2
=
1 + cos , I =
.
d
8c3
3
c3

3/2 2 n
o
2 |Qe|/R
1
e
0R

4.25. E = 3 mc2
k , k = 2E
R (k + 1) arcsin k+1
|Qe| .
 2 3/2

8 Q2
4.26. E = 3 c3 d0 d 2Q
.
MS

2 

2|E|M 2
(2E)3/2 |q1 q2 |3 5/2
q1
q2
3 q2q2 ,
4.28. I =
m1 m2
3M 5 c3
1 2

m2
= mm11+m
, M = r2 = const E 2
. .

. q1/m1 = q2/m2 4.27.

2
83 v05
q1
q2
4.29. = 45c3|q q | m1 m2 .
1 2
 dI
2E
4.30. dtd0d
= 1 ~nc~v d
.
2 6

Ze
4.31. E ' 3 mZ2c3e3v ; mv
2  1. . , ( ). (
/3 1).

2

e21 e22
e1
e2
dI
2
2
2
2
4.32. d ' 32c33v m1 m2
4 sin cos 3 sin sin .

4.33.

dW
d

'

8q14 q22
.
3c3 m2 2 v 2
6 2

. , 4.31.

R
4.34. E ' 4ce
2 m2 5 v . . ,
. ( /4 1.)

210

4.35. E =

2 e4 E 2 L
3 m2 c3 2E/m .

2 e3 U 2mT
3 m2 c3 d

q

4.36. E =
E ' (d/) E.

1+

eU
T


1 ' 1, 3 1016 ;

4.37. R ' 72 .
4.38.

a)

I () cos2 2 + dl cos ,
, l .


4.39. l = (2m + 1) /4, m = 0, 1, 2, ....


r
2
4.40. H = p0 [sin +i sin ()]ei(t c )

c2 r

r
H = c2r0 [cos +i cos ()] cos ei(t c ), X
, ; XY .
 2
 2
2 4
4 p20 
dI
2 p0
2
(
=
2

cos

+
cos

)
sin

,
I
=
d
3 c3 . 8c3
, , .
, |cos | = tg 2 = 2
= 2 + |cos | = ctg 2 = 2 2 .
~ = 4ea323 [cos 2 (t0 ) ~e + cos sin 2 (t0 ) ~e ] sin ,
4.41. H

2p

c r

2 4 6


dI
2e a
32 e2a4 6
r
2
2
0
sin

1
+
cos

,
,
(t
=
t

=
I
=
).
d
c5
5 c5
c
. , ; 4.18.
3
p20 a2 6
dI
2
~ = p0a
sin

cos

sin
(t

kr)
~
e
;
=
sin
cos2 ,
4.42. H

3
5
d
c r 
8c
I = p20a2 6/ 15c5 .

211
4e2 a2 h2 6
15c5
8 e2 a4 4
2
3 c3 l 2

4.43. I =

, =

e2
4mlh2

. .
. I =
.

2 a2 6 h2
dI
e2 a2 6 h2
2
2
4.44. d = 2c5 cos 1 + cos , I = 8e 15c
. .
5
( )
,
/2.
 2 2 
p20 4
dI
2
2
4.45. d = 2c3 1 sin cos cos 2 cos 2 . Z ( ), X. 4.38, 4.
q
(2m+1)
4.46. l = 2kz , m = 0, 1, 2, ... kz = (/c)2 (/a)2
H10. = n 2 , n = 1, 2, ...
4.47. H

sin(4 cos )
.
sin( 2 cos )

, -

.
' 300 & 5 .
d2 4
4c3

sin3 [1 + 2 cos (2 cos )]2.



4
4.49. I () cos 2 cos .


2

4.50. dI

cos
sin

+
sin
cos

, max = 0.
d
2
2
4.48.

dI
d

4.52.
, ,
4 cos2 (a cos /) ,
.

2
N sin cos
24
sin
(
)
p
2
dI
2
0
4.53. d
= 8c
, Z
3 sin

sin( 2 sin cos )


, XZ.
4.47.

212

4.54. = 2d
sin (t + ) + 2m, m = 0, 1, ..., d .
t + .
sin[ka(1cos )]
0
sin

exp {i (t kr)} .
4.55. H = 2J
cr
1cos

J02 sin2 sin2 [ka (1 cos )]


dI
=
,
d 2c
(1 cos )2



8a
8a
8a
J02
C 1+
+ sinc
Ci
,
I=
c

C = 0, 577 , Ci(x) . .
dp = qdx, q , J (x) /i (J(x)
).
4.56. H =

2iJei(tkr)
f
cr sin

() ;


 m

i sin
cos m ,
2
 m

f () =

cos
cos m ;
2
dI
J02f 2 ()
=
;
d 2c sin2
J02
[ln (2m) + C Ci (2m)] ,
I=
2c
C Ci . .
, .

2
a
2
2
2
2
Jn ( c sin )
J n a
dI
4.57. d
= 2 0 c
cos2 n
.
a tg
c

4.58. R =

2 2 a4 4
3c5
2

4.59. I () sin

' 200


2a 4


h sin

, .

213

~ = i33p0a (sin ~e + cos cos ~e ) cos ei(tkr). 4.60. H


c r
XY ,

6 p 2 a2
dI
= 8c05 sin2 + cos2 cos2 cos2 . . X. d
.
~ = 2i22p0 [sin sin ~e +(sin cos +cos ) sin ~e ] sin (kh cos )
4.61. H
c r

( XY ,
ZX). = /2 . .
, .
4.62. .
4.63.

dI
d

4.64.

dI
d

4.65.

dI
d
2

6 2 4 2
9 q R0 a
800
c5

9 e2 8 a6
8 256c7

n=0

sin2 cos2 , I =

1 + cos2 sin4 .

6 2 4 2
3 q R0 a
.
500
c5

n
Sn dI
d ; Sn = 0, n/N

Sn = N n/N . n
0, dIn/d
.
 2 2
d
e
sin2 ,
4.66. ) d = mc
2
~ ;
E
 2 2 A~
2
~ n]2
[ ~ n] +[B~
e
d
~ ,
) ) d = mc2
, E
A2 +B 2
~ = A
~ cos (t + ) + B
~
~
E

sin (t + ), A
~ . A
~ = B
~ ,
B
.
 2 2
2 2
e
4
8
2 e 0
,

=
4.67. = 3 mc
2
2
3 mc3 , (022) +2 2
, F~ = m~r .

2 4
4.68. f = 16
3 0 T , , 0 . .

214

T , .
4
d
= ( + )2 c sin2 , 4.69. d
.
 2 2
e
d
= 4 mc
4.70. d
sin2 cos2 (kd cos ), ,
2
. d  4 ,
; d  /
cos
, .
4.71. Ik/I = 4. , .
 2 2

d
e
2
4.72. d = 4 mc
cos
sin

.
2
2
 2 2


d
e
2
2
sin

sin
cos

.
4.73. d = 16 mc
cos
2
2
2
= 0, .
 2 2  2 2

d1
e

2
2
2
4.74. ) d = 4 mc
sin

+
cos

sin

2
02 2

2 ka
~ cos 2 cos E,
, , ~n = ~k/k.
i
 2 2  2 2 h
2
d1
e

2
2
2
cos sin +sin (cos cos sin )
d = 4 mc2
02 2

~ cos2 ka cos E,
2

,   ~n . N = N 1;
)

d
d

= 2N

e2
mc2

sin2 .

kl(1cos )
0 )
4.75. E () E0 sinc (
cos
.
2
2

4.76. P3 =

3 3
27 a E0
4 (0 +2)4 ;
6 4
7 e E0
20 m4 c5 2

3 =

39 2 4 a6 E04
.
2c4 (0 +2)8

E  mc
e .
 2 2
16
e
4.78. ) = 3 mc
0  ;
2
4.77. I2 =

215
8
3

e2
mc2

2


0 4

e
) =
0  , 2 = 4mR
3 .
2

d~n
e2
m2
e1
2 e1 e2
v0 .
4.79. d = 9 c3 m1 m2 mm11+m
2
h
 2 2
i
(1+)2
2
1
d
e
2
2
4.80. d = mc2 2(1 cos )6 (1 cos ) 2 sin cos ;

0/ 2
16
'
4

10
.
'
2
(1 + )
4.81. FN = W (1 + R) cos2 , W ,
.
 



4.82. p = I 2 1 + 2 cos + 2 + cos .



2
4R sin
n1 2
,
R
=
, = 2nd
4.83. W = Sc 1 +
2
n+1
.
2
2
2
(1R ) +4R sin
4.84. F = a2RW ' 2 104 . W = Ic
.
4

a
4.85. F = I0 8cx
3 (x 2F0 ) .
2

Sa R
4.86. a . 34 M
, Sa c
(2 /2), R
(1, 5 108 ), M (2 1030 ), ( 5 /3), . a . 105 .
(a )?

4.87. p =
5.

4 T 4
3 c

' 5 1011 .

0 0

0 0
i
5.1. .k =
.
0 1 0
0
0
0 0 1

216

5
00


01

00

01

5.2. A = A + A , A = A + A , A2 = A02,
A3 = A03, Ai .
~ = e~ ;
5.4. ) = Re , A
hR
i

2
2

~
eR
~
~
~
~
) E = 2 3 , H = E , R2 = x vt2 + y +z
2 .
0

1
1+ 0 .

00

(1+ 2) cos 2

) cos = 1+ 22 cos .
i
i


hh
1
0
0
0
~
~ + A
~ ~ ~ ,
~= A
A
5.6. A
0 + 2


0
0
~ .
A0 = A0 + ~ A
5.5. ) =

5.7. ) , 3-
.
5.8.

0 Ex Ey Hz

Ex 0 Hz Hy
ik
(3)
F =
.
0 Hx
Ey Hz
Ez Hy Hx
0
h
i

~ 0)
~ (~ E
0
0
~
~
~
~
( 1) 2 ,
5.10. E = E H


~0

h
i
~ ~ H
~ = H
~ 0 + ~ E
~ 0 ( 1)
H
.
2
 2

ik
2
5.11. Fik F = 2 H E .


~ H
~]
[E
~ ~
~ ~
5.13. ~v = c H 2 E < H . E
> H ?
h
i 2 2
~ H
~ E +H A
.
5.14. ~ = E
~ H
~ ]2
2[E


E 02 = 12 E 2 H 2 + A H 02 = 21 H 2 E 2 + A ,

217

r
A=

(E 2

H 2 )2

~H
~
+4 E

2

?


~ H
~]
[E
~
~
~ v =
5.15. E > H
~
v
=
c
~v E

E2

cH
E sin ,


~
~ < H
~ E
~ (H/E 6 sin 6 1) . E
~v H
~ E
~]
[H
~ H
~
~ v = cE , ~v E
~v = c H 2 ~v H
H sin
(E/H 6 sin 6 1) .
2 2
c(+
T
)
5.16. v = 4 2 2 ' 0, 17 /, = mce2 = 2 105,
+

+ =

Te+
= 6 105.
2
mc
q

5.17. E > H ( > J/c) H = 0, E =


1 (J/c)2
q
v = J/.
0

2
r

1 (c/J)2, v = c2/J.
h
i
~ 2
~ (d~r~ )dr
3R
d~r~ ~
~
~
~
~
~
5.19. = r3 , A = , E =
, H = E ,
2 r 5
~ = (x vt, y, z) , r~ = (x vt, y/, z/). R
X t
- ~v t.

2 2 a6 2 1 2
5.20. F = H0 l4 +2 .
E < H, E 0 = 0, H 0 =

2J
cr

~ = 0, = 0, E
~ = E
~ 0 p~3 + 3(~p~5r)~r ,
5.21. E
r
r
3
3
~
~
E0 = (0, 0, H0 sin ), p~ = E0R , = 4 E0cos 0.



d 1
5.23. ) = c cos ; ) ' c ; ) ' 5260 A.
5.26.

dI
d

) . I

e2 v 2 sin2
, ~v ~n (
4c3 (1 cos )6
2
2 2
= 32 e cv3 1+ 2/54 .
(1 )

218

5
E 2 v 2
2
3 c3 1 2 3 .
(
)

dE
dt
0 =

. dE/dt0 ,

dt/dt0 = 1 cos .
5.27. ~v Z, ~v X,

2 (1 cos )2 v 2 1 2 v 2 sin2 cos2
dI
e
.
=
6
d 4c3
(1 cos )
3.5

3.5

Y Z
XZ . -
[(1 + ) / (1 )]4 ' 28 8.
 2 2 2
sin2
dI
1
e
cE
~ ~n;
, E
5.28. ) d = 4 mc
2
6
(1 cos )6


2 0
dE~n
cE 2 sin ( d/2c)
sin2
d, 0 = 1 ~n~ ;
d = 6
2 02
(1 cos )6
 2 2 2
e
E d
2
) E = 3 mc
2
;


 2 2
E/e
2
e
1

) p = eEd
2
c
3 mc
. . 3

2.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

0.5
2

0.5
1

0.5

0.5


- R
1
~v 0 = 2
~v eitdt.
2
2
2
dE
dE 0
2 e (E H )
5.29. dt0 = dt = 3 m2c3 .
 2 2

2e4 H 2 v 2
2
e
E 2
dE
2
5.30. ) I = dt0 = 3m2c3 1 2 = 3 c mc2 H mc2 .
(
)
q
mc2
' 100, E ' 50 .
5.31. ' 2 eH

1/3
E R
5.32. ' ~c
' 2400, E ' 1, 2 .
 4 2

E0 +mc2
2e H
1
2
5.33. ) E (t) = mc cth 3m3c5 t + 2 ln E mc2 ;
0
q
1
) r (t) = eH
(E(t))2 m2c4.
5.34. Ee =

4 e2 3
3 mc2 eH,

Ee+ =

4 e2 3
3 mc2 eH

( ).

219

5.35.

dI
d

e4 H 2 (1 2 ) 1+cos2 41 2 (1+3 2 ) sin4


.
7/2
8m2 c3
1 2 sin2

,
(
)
1/. . 5.27
5.26.


1/3
 2 2 1/3
3
128E
e
ct
5.36. E (t) = E0 1 + e2m2c03 t
.
, r (t) = r0 1 2 mc
2
r3
0

5.37. l . R/ 3, h . R/ 2, l

, R . R = E/0, 3H = 102 , l . 50 A,
h . 3 . h1 = 5 I ' 4I0, h2 = 3 I ' 2I0,
I0
  :
I0 =

2
3c

e2
mc2

2H 2 ' 3, 5 1010 /.

5.38. =
x '

e2 3 3

mc2

4 e3 H0 v 2
3 m2 c6 (1 2 ) .

X:

e2 3
.
mc2

. ,
 2 2 2 2 2
v H
dE
2
e
dE/dt : dt = 3 mc
.
2
c
 2 2
2
e
4
2 Hl
5.39. x ' 3 mc
.
2
e ' 5 10
5.40. ~ , M = ~ , g = 2.02 e .
~ = g M
2
2mc
0
= gH = gH.
4 4 4
I = 2 3cg 3H H
0 .
5 c8
eH
R = v c, = 3 e5m
mc
=
~ 2 H 3
3

= 3 e2m/~R
= 5 103 .
/mc2 5
2

2 2 2
2
Z e (e /mc ) 4 2
5.41. ) E = 12
;
3
1 2
2 6
(  1) E = 3 mZ2c3e3v ;
 2 2 2 2
g v

e
) E = 4 mc2
; ( ' 1);
c3

220

) E =

2

2 p2
2
7 15
8
5
 2 2 2 2
J
e
4
.
3
mc2
c2
1
8

e2
mc2

' 1 E =

7
8

e2
mc2

2

p2 c
;
v5

) E =

E/mc2, E .
h

i
5.42. E =

8 e4 2 2
3 m2 c3

1 + 2

4
2

J2
c2 2

2c
dE
1 (H0 )
5.43. dt
, max '
0 = 3
3
L
c
.

1/3
2

5.44. E = mc2 3 e2/mc


.

4 2 c
L ,

5.45. d R/ 2 ' 3 104 .


5.46. . . , .


1+
dE
e2 1
2 e2 2
5.47. d = c ln 1 2 .  1 dE
=
d
3 c . : ,
( ).
dE
8 e2 v 2 sin2
dE
8 e2 v 2 2
=
;
)
=
d
3
d
3 c3 R2 .
c3
e2 v 2
sin2
) dE/d
=
. .
2
3
d
c 1 2 cos2 2

5.48. )
5.49.

, -

(
)

;
2
dE/d
e2 v 2 (1) sin2 cos2
) d = 2c3 

2 .
cos +

5.50. )
2

dI
d

sin2

e2 v 2
sin2
,I
2
3
c (1 2 cos2 )2

E
2
I ' 2e
c ln mc2 E  mc ; I '
2
) E ' ea .

4e2 2
3c

4 e2 v 2
3 2 c3

3 2 +1
8 3

ln

1+
1

 1;

3
4 2

221

5.51. E =

6 2

e C0
24 m2 c3 vR5 .
l
2
v tg , I =

Wvctg2, cos = c/nv, W


5.52. =





Z
c2
e2
1 2 2
d .
W =
2
()
c
v
n
n()>1
5.56. . .

222


. . . .: , 1955.
. . . .: , 1959.
. -. .: , 1970.
. . .: , 1965.
. . .: . ., 1958; . .: . .,1953.
. . . .: , 1971.
. . . .: , 1957.
. ., . . . .: , 1973;
. .: , 1982.
. . ,
. .: , 1972.
. . . .: . ., 1983;
. .: . ., 1985.
. ., . . . .: , 1987.
., . . .:
, 1963.
. .: , 19711974. . 2: . . .: , 1971; . 3:
. . .: , 1974.
. . . .: , 1977. . 3: .
. . .: . .,
1954.
. . . .: , 1971.
. . . .: , 1948.

223

. . . .: , 1966.
. . / . , . , . . .: , 1966. . 5, 6.
. . .: , 1972.
. . . .: , 1937.
. ., . . . .: , 1970.
. . . .: .
., 1966.
/ . . , . .
, . . , . . . .: . . 1972.
. . / .
, . , . . .: , 1971.
. . . . .: , 1985.
. ., . . :
/ , , 1997.
. .: , 1977.
. 3. . . . / . . , . . , . . , . . .
.4. . . . / . . , . . ,
. . .
., . . . .: , 1976.

250 .

60 84/16
.-. . 5.5

- ;
; 630090, -90,
. , 2.

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