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30.

30.1. ,
, .

? = 55,9 /; = 7,87 /3.
[2 ]
30.2. ,
, .

? : = 27 / = 2,7
/3.
3
2M
3
2,5 1010 ]
[ d min =
3
NA
30.3. .
4 p A N A R32
1044 ]
[N =
Mg
30.4. , 1
. ,
,
1 3 ?
244 /. [700]
30.5. 1 3.
,
R = 380000 ?
[7000 ]
30.6. ; ?
: 18 / 200,6 /. [ ]
30.7. 1 3 1010
27 o? [24]
30.8. 0 o 460 /.
? [490 /]
30.9. 0 460 /.
100 ? [2190 /]
30.10.
20 %? [ 44 %]
30.11. T1 = 150 K
v1 = 400 / v2 = 500 /.
,
v32 v22
v3 = 600 /? [ T2 = T1 2 2 183 K]
v2 v2
30.12. , ,
.

v1 = 400 /, v2 = 500 /.
1 2
, ? . [ v =
(v1 + v22 ) 453 /]
2
30.13. 400 /. 1
1? [0,54 3]
30.14. ,
2 2 3 1,5 105 ? [10,5 1021 ]
30.15. , 6 ,
4,9 3 200 . [700 /]
30.16. N1 M1 N2
M2. .
N1M 1 + N 2 M 2
[M =
]
N1 + N 2
30.17. , , .
p1 p2, N1 N2 .
p1 p2 ( N1 + N 2 )
, . . [ p =
]
N1 p2 + N 2 p1
30.18. . po.
,
? [3po/4]
30.19. ,
T, Tc.
:
( > ) ( < )? [
. 30.1
]
30.20. ,
(
). p
T, p 2T (. 30.1).
. [
p 2 +1
Tx = T 2; px =
p]
4
2 2
30.21. .
, .
.

. [ 2 ]
30.22. .
10 .
, , ,
? [30 c]

31.
31.1. 7 4 .
1,2 . , T = const. [1,6 ]
31.2. ,
3 ? T = const. [20 ]
31.3. , ,
. , 68
. ? 75 ,
750 . . . [870 ]
31.4. . V1 =
1 p1 = 1 . V2 = 3
p2 = 0,6 . , ? T = const. [
p V + p2V2
p= 1 1
= 0,7 ]
V1 + V2
31.5. , ,
l = 15 . ,
, V1 = 240 3.
, V2 = 200 3. .
[99750 ]
31.6.
l = 3 . ,
. , .
4
? [ p = gl = 5400 ]
3
31.7. ,
, l = 20 . L = 1 .
, l = 10 .
gl ( ( L l ) 2 4l 2 )
? [ p =
5 104 ]
4l ( L l )
31.8. U- , , .
,
l1 = 20 (. 31.1). 76 . .
58 .
? [20 ]
31.9. S
. T
V. .
S RT

pA ]
pA, . [ m =
. 31.1
g V

31.10. .
t1 = 700 v1 = 5 /.
T2
, t2 = 200 ? [ v2 = v1 2,4 /]
T1

31.11. , , .
5 .
50 .
, .
17 . . [51,5 K]
31.12.
. 0
. 200 3,
20 2. ,
2 , 2 ? [ 7,3 ]
31.13. .
p1, p2. n
n + 2
. , ? [ = 1
]
n +1
31.14.
m .
k. T1 h1
. h2? [
h kMh2 ( h2 h1 )
T2 = T1 2 +
]
h1
mR
31.15. .
.
,
.
l/2 (l ).
7
, ? . [ l ]
8
31.16.
200 400 . ,
.
40 .
? [10]
31.17.
2 1 .
. .
? [8/3]
31.18. Vo To p ,
O3.
O2
2 p ( VTo VoT )
T, V. . [ =
]
RTTo
31.19. m
, .
, ?

S, pA. [

V1
p A S mg
=
V 2 ( p A S + mg )

]
31.20.

. 31.2

. ,
? PA = 105 , = 103 /3.
pA
= 10 ]
. [ H =
g
31.21. L
.
To (. 31.2). ,
T,
2 T To
1
; x2 = x1 ]
To. . [ x1 = L
3 T + 2To
2
31.22.
S , .
.
(. 31.3).
?
pA, , . [
. 31.3
pAS
m
]
3g
31.23. . 31.4 ,
. 1 3 : T1 = 300 T3
= 400 . 2?
. [ T2 = TT
1 3 346 K ]
31.24. , ,
.
29 /.
M k (M M A )
. 31.4
0, 276 ; x A = 1 xk 0,724 ]
[ xk =
M (M k M A )
31.25. ,
p > 1,1 .
, t1 = 27
p1 = 1 . t2 = 107 o.

1 pT
, . [ p = 1 2 p = 10 ]
2 T1

31.26. V = 20
t = 20 p = 2 . m = 5 .
. [0,5]

31.27. : m1 = 7 m2 = 11
= 290 p = 1 . . [
p( m1 + m2 )
=
= 1,5
m1 m2
/3]
RT
+

M1 M 2
31.28. V = 7,5 T = 300 K
: 1 = 0,1 , 2 = 0,2 3 = 0,3
. . [p = 2 105; M
= 36,7 /]
31.29.
.
. To,
1:2. ,
.
? . [T = 3To]
31.30.
. 1 = 300 K
1 = 4.
1 1/ 1
420 K ]
2 = 3? . [ T2 = T1
2 1/ 2
31.31. ,
S1 S2, .
(. 31.5).
po,
Vo.
. 31.5
p1, .
. , . [
Vo S1 ( p po )
x=
]
( S1 S2 )( pS1 po S 2 )
31.32.
, .
. S = 10 2
, . m = 5 .
pA = 1 . (. 31.6).
, l = 5 ?
( mg + p AS )l
= 0,9 K ]
. [ T =
R
. 31.6
31.33. V = 10
t = 20 p = 107 .
, m = 50
pVM H 2 mM H 2

77 ]
? [ m =
RT
M H 2O
31.34. to =
27 . .

.
8
. ? [ T = To = 800 K ]
3
31.35. V =
p ( = const).
p
T
T1 = 450 2 = 200 ? [ 1 = 1 = 1,5 ]
p2
T2
31.36. r m ,
M.
, h? [ T = GMmh / Rr 2 ]
31.37.
= 1 /2 . .
.
3 RT
2,7 ]
? [ rmin =
p A ( M B M He )
31.38. .
po.
, p?
T
p
. [ =
]
To 2 po p
31.39. .
, n ,
m. , ?
k 1
, . [ m1 = m
]
n 1
31.40. , n
, m.
n( k 1)
, ? . [ m1 = m
]
n 1
2.41. l
S m.
p. .
ml
, . [ T =
]
pS
31.42. h = 120 t = 59 .
h = 1 = 7 %,
1
= 350 K ]
= 12 %. h1 = 121 . [ T1 = T
1
31.43. S
m . .
,
. 31.7

, .
pS

po. [ m1 = 3 o + m ]
g

31.44. V = 30
. m1 = 30 , m2 =
160 , m3 = 70 (. 31.7).
, .
T = 300 K? [p1 1,3 109 ; p2
4,5 109 ; p3 2 109 ]
31.45.
. ,
.
? ,
. [ , ,
, ]
31.46. V
T.
F. ? [
RT F
p=
]
MgV
31.47. ,
V1 = 2 p1 = 105 p2 =
ln ( p1 / p2 )
= 465 ]
10 , V2 = 40 3? [ n =
ln ( 1 + V2 / V1 )
31.48. 1 2 .
T1 = 300 K, ,
105 . T2 = 3000 K 1,5 106 .
? [0,75]
31.49.
. m,
M. - .
M

? . [ ao = g + 1 ]
m

32. .
32.1. ,
T V,
3
n? [ U = nkTV ]
2
32.2. S = 100 2
t = 27 . h = 30
. 1
m = 60 .

, t = 50 ?
mg ShT

79,4 ]
po = 105 . [ A = po +

S T

32.3. m = 0,1
1 2 3 1 (. 1).
m
1 2, 1 = 300 K, a V2 = 3V1. [ A = 2 RT1 = 2,5 105
M
]
32.4. m = 20 M
= 28 / (. 2).
1 2 : T1 = 300 ; 2 = 496 .
. 2
mR(T2 T1 )
= 1162 ]
. [ A =
M
32.5. v : =
2
p ( = const). V1
V 2 V12
V2. ? [ A = 2
;
2 R
]
32.6. .
. p1, V1
1
p2, V2. . [ A = ( p1 + p2 )(V2 V1 ) ]
2
32.7. .
, .
, T1
T2? ?
1
. [ W = R (T2 T1 ); c = 2 R
]
2
32.8.
1000 .
,
, ,
? [2000 ]
. 3
32.9. ,
1 2 (. 3). [ Q = 3 pV / 4 ]
32.10. 1 2 3 (. 4).
: p1, p2 V1, V2.
1
. [ Q = (V2 V1 )(2 p1 + p2 ) ]
2
32.11.
. 10 .
, .
? [4 ]

. 4

32.12. m = 1 T1 = 300 K
, = 3 .
.
mRT ( 1)
= 8,3 105 ]
. [ A =
M
32.13.
1 4 ,
. 5.
1
, T = 4 T1 = 100 K? [ Q = RT = 415 ]
2
32.14.
T. m,
. 5
S, V.
T Q.
V T
(mg + po S ) ]
. po, . [ U = Q
ST
32.15. M = 28
/ T = 14 K p = const Q = 10 .
T V = const Q = 8 .
M (Q1 Q2 )
0, 48 ]
. [ m =
RT
32.16. h .
. m.

.
,
. . [ Q = 5mgh / 2 ]
32.17.
. Vo, 3po (po
). (. 6).

. 6
Vo/2. . [ Q = 17 poVo / 4 ]
32.18. = 0,5
T = 300 K.
Q = 13,2 ?
Q
= 4]
cV = 21 / . [ n = 1 +
To (cV + R)
32.19. V = 22,4
. m1 = 11,2
t1 = 20 , m2 = 16,8
t2 = 15 .
?
2m1R (m1T1 + m2T2 )
86 ]
. [ p =
MV (m1 + m2 )

. 7

32.20. V1 1 T1,
V2, 2
T2. .
1T1 + 2T2
R( 1T1 + 2T2 )
; p=
. [ T =
]
1 + 2
V1 + V2
32.21.
(. 7). 1 3 T1 T3.
, 2 4 . [ A = R

T3 T1 ]

32.22. (.
8). A = 200 .
T = 60 . 2.
RT A
3]
. [
RT + A
32.23.
m p.
S, .
h1,
(. 9). .
.
. 8
? .
1
pS
. [ h2 = h1 2 + 3
]
5
mg
32.24. m
.
v 3v (. 10),
. 9
To. .
2 mv 2
. [ Tmax = To +
]
3 R
32.25. ,
m,
. 10
. . , ,
v. , .
, . [
Q = 5mv 2 / 4 ]
32.26. , ,
v = 100 /. ,
? [ T = Mv 2 / 5R ]
32.27. m 3m.
po. Vo (.
11). ,

. 11

. . ,
1
1 poVo
. [ v2 = v1 =
]
3
2 m
32.28. T = 72 K,
Q = 1,6 . = cp/cV. [
Q
=
= 1,6 ]
Q RT
32.29. = cp/cV , 1 = 2
2 = 3 . [ 1,6]
32.30. .

300 .
. ? [500 K]
32.31.
. T = 1000 K,
5RT
. [ v =
3,3 103 /]
M
32.32.
.
: po; Vo; To, (.
12). ,
.
. 12
.
. . [ C = 2 poVo / To ]
32.33. p = V ( =
const). ? [c = 3R]
32.34. : p = po
V, . ,
5 po
, . . [ V <

8
5 po
, V >
]
8
32.35. 2 %,
1 %. , ,
? cV = 745 / . [
A
0,02
=
0,44 ]
Q 0,02 + 0,01cV M / R
32.36.
.
.
, .
, . [C = 2R]
32.37.
S m 1 .
. 13

, N.
. po,
2
N
, . [ v =
]
5 po S + mg
32.38. .
. . [C =
3 R]
32.39. , ,
(. 13). ,
= 5 , = 720 /.
cp = 29,3 / ,
c T
M = 29 /. [ N = p
1,01 ]
M
32.40.
v.
.
,
. 14
. [ T = Mv 2 / 5R ]
32.41. m = 5
M = 10 (. 14).
. , M
H = 10 , .
m ? ,
MH
= 20 ]
. [ h =
m
32.42. S
m M.
l,
po.
, .

. 15
? [ Q = po Sl ]
32.43. 1 2 3 1,
1 2 , p
V (. 15). , : T1, 2 =
41 2 = 3. 3 1 . [ A = 3RT1 / 2]
33.
33.1. , ,
n = 1,6
. A =

. 1

12 . ? [
A
A1 =
= 20 ]
n 1
33.2. :
T
T? [ ]
33.3.
4
(. 1). . [ 17,4 % ]
23
33.4. ,
,
. 2
1 2, 2 3 3 1 (. 2). ,
2 3 A,
2A
T. [ = 1
]
3 RT
33.5. 1 2 4 1 1, 2 3

4 2 2 (. 3). 1 2 3 4 1. [
= 1 + 2 1 2 ]
33.6. . ,
. 3
: )
2 ; ) 2 . [) = 1 21 0,25 ; )
1
1

= 1 2 0,18 ]
33.7. ,
, n .
1

. [ = 1 n ]
33.8. ,
, t2 = 10
. 4
t1 = 20 .
,
Q = 140 ? [
T

A = Q 1 1 = 16 ]
T2

33.9. ,
= 10 %,
.
. 5
1
. [ = 1 = 9 ]

33.10. , ,
t1 = 0
t2 = 100 . ,
mLT1
5 ]
m = 1 ? [ m1 =
m

33.11. 1 2 3 1 (.
1
4). . [ = ]
13
33.12. 1 2 3 4 1 (. 5). 1
2 3 4 , 1 3 . 1 2 3 1 1,
1 3 4 1 2. 1 2 3 4 1? [
+
= 1 2 1 2]
2 1
33.13.
= 10 %. ,
, = 15 %.

=6 %]
... ? [ =
+
34.
34.1. 18 , 10 .
18 . 18 15,4
/3, 10 9,4 /3. [60 %]
34.2. 25 70 %.
3 16 ?
25 23 /3, 16 13,6 /3. [2,5
/3]
34.3. 100
3,5 %. ,
29 . 29
30 . . [72 %]
34.4. 10 8
4,5 3, 22 , 70 %.
22 o 19,4 /3. [2,1 ]
34.5. V = 20000 t1 = 18
1 = 50 %. ,
t2 = 10 , 2 = 60%.
? 18 15,4 /3, 10 9,4
/3. [41,2 ]
34.6. V = 1,1 m = 100
t = 100 o. . . [0,6 ]
34.7. V = 2
. m1 = 2 ,
m2 = 1 .
V2 m2 RT
0,55 ]
t = 100 . [ =
V
p AVM

34.8. t = 20 p = 105
100 %.
? 20 p = 2330 . [
p ( M B M H 2O )
0,88 % ]
pM B
34.9. V = 0,4 p = 60 . .
t1 = 150 o.
t2 = 22 ? 22 p = 19
MV p p
3
. . [ m =
8,9 10 ]
R T1 T2

34.10. V1 = 1 3 1 = 20% V2 = 2 3
2 = 30 %. , V = 3 3.
V + 2V2
27 % ]
. [ = 1 1
V
34.11. t1 = 100 oC
= 40 %. V1 = 100 3.
t2 = 20 .
, ? 20 p =
p T
17,5 . . [ V = V1 A 2 1 1300 3]
p T1

34.12. V = 10 , p
= 1 . t = 0 , m = 3 .
T mRT1
1,88 .]
t1 = 100 . [ p1 = p 1 +
T
MV
34.13. 20
1 , 100
60 ? 20 17,5 . . [72 %]
34.14. 1 3 20 %
20 2 3 30 %
50 . 3 3.
, . [21 %]
34.15. . 1
.
. 1
A, B C. [ A = B = 100 %; C = 67 % ]
34.16. m = 9
T = 373 K 3 ,
2mRT
3,1 102 3]
2 . . [V1 =
Mp A
34.17. V = 5 m = 2,2
(38) 16 . t = 27 .
,

80 % ? 27
0,8 mV
pM
0, 42 , = ]
p = 16 . [ m1 =
m V
RT
34.18. t = 100
.
m = 0,7 .
mRT
= 1,2 ]
? . [ A =
M
34.19.
= 50 % t = 100 .
V1 = 5 V2 =
p M
1 ? [ m A ( 0,5V1 V2 ) 0,87 ]
RT
34.20.
. , .

. 1:3.
.
mB
= 2]
. [
mn
34.21.
.
po 2po/3 .
. . [ p = po / 3 ]
35.
35.1. U r1 =
0,5 , r2 = 1 .
. =
2 ( r2 r1 )
14,6 ]
0,073 /. . [ h =
gr1r2
. 1
35.2. d = 1

h = 5 . (. 1).
: pm =
ghd
o
13,6 /3 p = 0,47 /. [ = arccos
68,8 ]
4
35.3. r = 1 ,
. ,
(. 2)?
. 2

= 0,073 /,
2
= 14,6 ]
= 0,9 /3. . [ h =
gr ( )
35.4. ,
h1 = 2,6 . ,
h2 = 1 .
, 1 = 0,073 /,
2 h2
0,022 /]
2 = 0,8 /3. . [ 2 = 1
1h1
35.5. ,
,
r. h/3, h
. . [ p = 2 / 3r ]
35.6.


(. 3),
. 3
(. 3).
? [) ; ) ]
35.7.
d = 0,59 , h : ) 2,5
; ) 5 ; ) 10 . (. 4). [) 0,6 ; )
; ) 0,3 ]
35.8. r

. . 4
,
2 2
. [ Q =
]
g
35.9. .
d = 0,5 , l = 10 .
,
2
3 ;
. [ h =
gd
2 2l
F=
]
gd 2
35.10. m = 1
. ,
r = 5 ?
2 2 r 4
. [ F =
780 H ]
m
35.11.
.
. 5

(. 5). ,
,
2
. x . [ y =
]
g x
35.12. d = 1
. ? [ Q = 16 r 2 6 106 ]
35.13. ,
, d = 0,4 , m = 0,01
mg
0,079 /]
? [ =
d
35.14. ,
r = 4 ?
= 0,04 /. [ A = 8 r 2 1,61 103 ]
35.15.
r = 1 h = 5 . [
3
ghr
n = 1 +
200 ]
3

35.16. d = 1.

6 m
= 438 /]
? [ Q =
d
35.17. ,
= 1,1 , r = 1 .
pA = 105 . .
p Ar ( 3 1) + 2 ( 2 1)
6,7 ]
[h =
gr
35.18. R1 R2
R3. ,
1
R33 R13 R23
pA. [ = p A 2
]
4 R1 + R22 R32
35.19. (. 6). R1 R2.
,
R1R2
; = 120o ]
. [ R3 =
R2 R1
35.20.
R1 R2 (. 7). ,
, . ,
. [ R3 = R12 + R22 ]
. 6
35.21. po
d. n .

. 7

.
po d ( n 3 )
. [ =
]
8n( 2 1)
35.22. d = 0,5 ,
h = 25 . .
2
0,6 ]
. [ r =
gh
35.23. , ,
. l = 110 , d =
20 . .
, ? [
4 l
x=
1, 4 ]
p Ad + 4
35.24. .
8
1,5 ]
? [ d max =
g
35.25. m . h,
, ,
a. , ,
2
. [ R =
]
mg / a 2 gh
35.26. m = 1 ,
, . .

m
5, 4 ; R =
7,7 ]
. [ h = 2
g
h
35.27. R1
R2. : ) , ; )
, . ,
R
. [) R3 = R2 1 + 2 ; ) R3 = R12 + R22 ]
R1
35.28. S = 100 2,
4 S
300 ]
a2 = 1 1 2. . [ m =
ag
35.29.
4 r
23 ]
r = 0,25 ? . [ m =
g
35.30. r = 10
2
t = 27 .
M
4
= 0,04 /, . [ =
pA +
1,35
RT
r
/3]

35.31. m = 0,2 .
mg + 4 l
4,9 ]
l = 1 . ? [ h =
gl 2
35.32. .
3

2
. . [ m = 2 3 0,2
3 g
]
35.33. .

2
3,8 /2]
. [
g
35.34. d1 = 2
d2 = 1,5 .
.
4
5,8 ]
. . [ h =
g (d1 d 2 )
35.35. m = 5
.
R1 = 5 , R2 = 10 .
, ?
. 8
[ F = mg + 2 ( R1 + R2 ) 0,119 H ]
35.36. ?
2 (1 sin )
(. 8). [ h =
]
g

36. .
36.1. , m = 10 t1 = 10 ,
t2 = 100 .
c t1
+ 1 113 ]
, ? [ m1 = m
L
+
c
t
2

36.2. R = 2
. t = 10 ,
,
gt gR
0,25 K]
Fc = 0, 24 R 2v 2 ? (v ). [ T =
c 0,18
36.3. , m = 200 ,
N = 50 .
t1 = 55 . t = 1
?

20 %. to = 20 . [
cmt
=
16,8 c; t2 = to + 1, 44(t1 to ) 70 oC]
N
36.4. S = 100 2 m =
1 0 o. N =
500 . = 15 ? [
( N cmto ) RTo
h=
= 2, 2 , to = 0 oC; To = 273 K]
MLp A S
36.5. 0 . , .
m

1
]
? [ n =
m L+ 7
36.6. m = 1 t = 10 o
? . [
c mt
m = 124 ]

36.7.
t.
c1 c2. [ =| c1 c2 | ]
36.8. T1 T2
c1 c2 .

T .
m1 c2
= ]
. [
m2 c1
36.9. ty1 = 20 ,
tk1 = +20 . ty2 = 40 ,
tk2 = +10 . ,
. [ t = 60 oC]
36.10. N = 1 .
. S = 1 2,
NRT
= 7,5 /]
. [ v =
LMp A S
36.11. .
100 .
? . [100 oC]
36.12.
T1 = 300 K m = 0,2 2 =
500 K. po = 105 , V = 1000 3.
.
, ? = 450 / .
2c mT2 + 3 poV
; 1,66 105 ;
. [ p = po
3 poV + 2c mT1
]

36.13.
.
.
? []
36.14. 36.13
, .
? [ , ]
36.15. ,
, ?
37. .
37.1. t1 = 20
. t2 = 20 ,
lCu = 60 ?
: al = 23,8 106 1; Cu = 16,5 106 1.
37.2. 0 o,
l = 5 ?
: Cu = 16,5 106 1;
= 11,7 106 1.
37.3. 98 %
0 . ?
Hg = 0,181 103 1.
37.4. U .
h1 = 20 , t1 = 15 .
, h = 1,5 ?
k = 0,96 103 1.
37.5. a = 0,2
1 = 293 K
. 2 = 393 ?
: =
2 105 K1; = 1,1 105 K1.
37.6.
t1 = 0 o.
, t2 = 50 ? S = 10 2.
= 11,7 106 1;
E = 20,6 1010 /2.
37.7. S,
L/2.
1 2, E1 E2
.
. ,
T?
?

37.8. m = 0,5 .
, T1 = 273 K
2 = 323 K.
: al = 23,8 106 1; al = 2,71 /3;
: k = 0,96 103 1; k = 0,8 /3.
37.9. R .
,
, ?
37.10.
d = 1,82 , = 0,01 ?
= 3 105 /2; .
37.11. l = 2 d = 1 .
m = 1
h = 4 . .
37.12. , 0
o
, 0 o 100 o
V = 3 3. Hg = 0,181 103 1.
37.13. .
30 oC +30 oC.
10 .
= 1,25 105 1. E = 20,6 1010 .
:

1 + Al (t2 t1 )
= 59,98 .
1 + Cu (t2 t1 )
lcm
lCu =
= 12 ; lcm = 17 .
Cu cm
t 110,5 .
h
t2 = t1 +
= 94 .
k h1
1

1 + ( + cm ) ( T2 T1 )
2
22,3 .
R
( T2 T1 ) ( cm )

37.1. l Al = lCu
37.2.
37.3.
37.4.
37.5.

37.6. F ES cm (t2 t1 ) = 1, 21 105 .


E1E2 S T ( 1 + 2 )
1
| 1E1 2 E2 |
37.7. F
; L LT
.
2
E1 + E2
E1 + E2
mg k T
( k 3 Al ) 0,065 .
37.8. F
Al
37.9. =

1 np
.
R

37.10. p = p A +

4 np

1,066 105 .

d
37.11. E 2 10 /2.
V
166 3.
37.12. V =
pm T
5

37.13. 0,5 108 108 .