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ibr@verizon.net, http://www.i-b-r.org
http://www.magnegas.com

.. ..

2002

00.00
00

..
.
: . . 2002. 554 ., .
ISBN 1-4020-0087-1 (.)
R.M. Santilli, Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry. With Applications to New
Clean Energies and Fuels. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston-DordrechtLondon, 2001. Russian translation by V.V. Arkhipov.

c Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This book was originally published

in the English language by Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston-DordrechtLondon, 2001.


, .. .. , 2002.

ISBN 1-4020-0087-1 (.)


. (T. Nejat Veziroglu),

lean Energy Research Institute,


University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida,


International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,
Elsevier Science, Oxford, England,


,

, .

iii

iv

1
1.1 .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
1.5 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 ... . . . . . . . . .
1.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2 -, - -
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.8 , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.9 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v

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1
1
3
6
12
13
20
24
33
55

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73
73
75
75
79
80
85
87
89
91

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93
95
99
99

vi

2.3.2 . . . .
2.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.6 . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.8 ,
2.3.9 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 . . .
3.2.2 . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 . . . . . . .
3.2.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 - . . . . . . . . .
3.2.6 - . . . . . . . . .
3.2.7 . . . . . . . . .
3.2.8 -- . . . .
3.2.9 . . . . . . . .
3.2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.11 -, - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.12 . . .
3.2.13 . . . . . .
3.2.14 . .
3.2.15 . . . . .
3.2.16 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 -, -, - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

101
108
109
111
113
113
114
116
118
120

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129
129
133
133
135
136

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137
139
142
145
146
147

. 147
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149
152
154
155
156

. 156
. 156
. 156
. 157

vii

3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
3.3.8

. . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . . .
. . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.9 -, -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.10 -, -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.11 -, - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.12 . . . . . . . . . .

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159
161
163
167
170

. 171
. 173
. 177
. 178
. 179

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . .
4.3 . .
4.4 . . . . . . .
4.5 . . . . .
4.6 ... . . . . . .
4.7 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.A H2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.B H2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. . . 235
. . . 237

5
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . .
5.3 ... . . . . . . . .
5.4 ... . . . . . .
5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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185
. 185
. 190
. 202
. 210
. 212
. 216
. 220
. 226
. 230

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247
247
255
259
264
269
272
274

viii

6 ...
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 -... . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

283
. 283
. 284
. 290

7 ...
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 ... . . . . . . .
7.3 ... . . . . . . .
7.4 ... . . . . . . .
7.5 ... . . . . .
7.6 ... . . . . . . .
7.7 ... . . . . . .
7.8 PlasmaArcFlow ... . .
7.9 EPA...
7.10 . .
7.11 ... . . . . .
7.12 . . . . . . . . . .
7.A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

305
. 305
. 309
. 313
. 314
. 318
. 319
. 321
. 344
. 347
. 352
. 354
. 362
. 365

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8 :
373
8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
8.3 . . . . . . . . . 379
8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
8.5 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
8.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
8.7 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
8.8 ... . . . . . . . . . . . 396
8.8.1 . . . . . . . . . 396
8.8.2 . . . . . . . . 398
8.8.3 . . . . . . . . 401
8.8.4 H3 O3 . . 405
8.8.5 . . . 407
8.9 . . . . . . . 409
8.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
8.9.2 GC-MS/IRD McClellan410


GC-MS/IRD
Pinellas County Forensic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10 . . . . . . . . .
8.10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10.2 . .
8.10.3 , Tekmar-Dohrmann Corporation .
8.10.4 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.11 ... . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.A . . . . .

ix

8.9.3

.
.
.
.

412
414
415
418

. 418
. 419
. 439

. 445
. 447
. 461
. 462
486


,

, , 1950- . , -,
.
, ( , ),
( .
).
, , ,
. (Caccioppoli), , .

, , .
, (Enrico Fermi)
( 1954 . 1950- ), . 111 " "
(University of Chicago Press, 1950):
" , (

xi

)."
,
,
,
.
(Emilio Segre),
(Victor Weisskopf)
,
, (
), - "" (
) ,
.
,
(Blatt) " " (John Wiley
& Sons, , 1952 .), (. 31, 1963 .):
", ,
."
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
, , (. 1 6
. III [9]).
" " , (Einstein), (Podolsky) (Rosen) (Phys. Rev. 47, 777, 1935), , . ,
,

xii

"" . ,
, , , , .
,
, , ( ,
1955 .),
.
, , ,
.
,
.

,
. ,
-.
, , , , , ,

. , ,
,
, ,
, , .
, 20- ,
, -
, . , 20- . ,

. 1 . ,
,
. , , , ,
. ,
1

xiii

, , , -, (Lagrange), (Hamilton) (Jacobi) ,


, , , ,
(. ).
, 1960- , ,
. .
, 3.8%
, .
,
, . 1%
, . ,
,
( , ) , : 1)

, , ; 2)

- , ; 3)
,
, . , , (
) , ,
, , ? , ,
, , , ,
.
, , , . (. [12]), , ,
,
, .

xiv


H C
,
:
A(t) = U A(0) U = eiHt A(0) eitH ,
i

(1a)

dA
= [A, B]operator = A H H A,
dt
U = eiHt , U U = U U = I,

(1b)
(1c)


H(r, p) | i = E | i,

(2a)

pk | i = i h k | i,

(2b)

, :
A(t) = et( H/ r

k )( / p

k)

A(0) et( / r

k )( H/ p

k)

(3a)

drk H(t, r, p)
=
,
dt
pk

d pk
H(t, r, p)
=
.
(3b)
dt
rk
dA
A H H A
= [A, H]classical = k

.
(3c)
dt
pk r k pk
r
.
, - (1a) (3a), [A, B]
.
, , [A, B]
, :
i

dH
= [H, H] = H H H H = 0.
dt

(4)

(
) , , - ,

xv

, , , .. 2 .
[1] 1967 ( , . [2]), (
"" ("") :
A(t) = U A(0) W = eiHqt A(0) eitpH , H = H ,

(5a)

i dA/dt = (A, B)operator = p A H q H A =


= m (A B B A) + n (A B + B A) =

(5b)

= m [A, B] + n {A, B},


U, W , p = m+n, q = mn
pq ,
, " " , 20- . ,
. , H = p2 /2m + i V 6= H ; : A(t) =

{eiHt } A(0) {eitH }; (1b)


: idA/dt = [A, H, H ] = A H H A. , " "
, ( , ,
,
). , , "" "", - , -: SU(2) , ; ,
; . , ,
, H,
(- ). , , , ,
, , ,
(. 1.7, 1,
2.10, 1, ).
2

xvi

[3]:
h
i
k
A(t) = etq( H/ r )( / pk )

h
i
k )( H/ p )
tp(

r
k
A(0) e
,

drk
H(t, r, p)
= p
,
dt
pk

H(t, r, p)
d pk
= q
dt
rk

A H
H A
dA
= (A, H)classical = p k
q k
.
dt
pk
pk
r
r

(6a)

(6b)
(6c)

(A, B) ,
( ) :
i

dH
= (H, H) = (p q) H H 6= 0.
dt

(7)

, [1-3] ,
, ,
.
, .
, (A, B) , ,
- , .. (A.A. Albert), . (A, B)
-, :
[A,B] = (A, B) (B, A) = Lie,

(8)

(. 1.7 1).
, ,
,
. ,

xvii

(Jordan), :
{A,B} = (A, B) + (B, A) = Jordan.

(9)

, , ,
. , [1, 2, 3] (p, q)- , 1967 , , ,
, q-.


DOE
1967 ,
,
, ,
. , ,
.
1978 , ,
, ,
(U.S. Department of Energy),
. ,
1978 [4] , ,
: , ,
,
.
" ",
, , , , , ,
( , ,
, ..).

xviii

, , : . (S. Okubo),
. (S. Adler), . (T. Gill), . (L. Lindesay), .
(C. Wolf) ; . (J. Ellis), .. (M.E. Mavromatos), . (N. Nanopoulos) (CERN) ;
.. (J.V. Kadeisvili), . (Yu. Arestov) .. (A.K. Aringazin) ; . (R. Mignani), .
(M. Gasperini), . (F. Cardone) ; .
(A. Jannussis), . (F. Brodimas), .. (C.N. Ktorides)
; . (J. Lohmus), . (E. Paal), . (L. Sorgsepp) ; . (D. Schuch), ... (C.A.C. Dreismann) ; .
(N. Ntibashirakandi), .. (D.K. Callebaut) ; . (E. Trell) ; . -
(D. Rapoport-Campodonico) ; . (M. Nishioka)
; ... (A.O.E. Animalu) ;
. (M. Mijatovic), . (B. Veljanovski)
; ( . II
[9]) 3 .
1978
:
I) - , [4]:
A(t) = U A(0) W = eiHQt A(0) eitPH ,

(10a)

dA
= (A,H)operator = A < H H > A = APH HQA =
dt
= (AT H HT A) + (AW H + HW A) =

(10b)

= [A,H] + {A,H},
H = H , P = Q ,

(10c)

2000 , 20 40 ,
10000 , , .
3

xix

P = T +W , Q = T W P Q ( ), [5],
H(r, p) > | i = H(r, p) Q | i = E | i,

(11a)

h | < H = h | Q H(r, p) = h | E 0 , E 0 6= E,

(11b)

[4],
h
i
j )Q j ( / p )
t(

H/

r
i
i
A(t) = e

h
i
j
j
A(0) et( / r )Pi ( H/ pi ) ,
drk
H(t, r, p)
= Pik (t, r, p)
,
dt
pi
d pk
H(t, r, p)
= Qik (t, r, p)
,
dt
ri
dA
A
H H
A
= (A,H)classical = i Pji
i Qij
,
dt
r
pj r
pj

(12a)

(12b)

(12c)

, [A,B] = (A,B) (B,A) {A,B} = (A,B) +


(B,A) .
- . , - (5),
, , (10)
(11).
, (5a), , :
U = eiHpt ,

W = eitqH ,

U W 6= I.

(13)

, , , (5a)
(10). ,
- (
P Q).
, (A,B)

xx

( , (10b)).
, (10) " ",
,
.
,
, :
i

dH
= (H,H) = H < H H > H = HPH HQH 6= 0.
dt

(14)

, - (10)-(14) ,
, .
II) - . (10)-(14) 1978 . ,

[A, B] = A B B A, :
[A,B] = (A, B) (B, A) = A T B B T A,

(15a)

T = P + Q = P + Q = Q + P = T ,

(15b)

,
.
, , " " [4]. - (10)-(13) [4],
" ".
, , , ,
.
, [4] 1978
- :
A(t) = U A(0) U = [eiHT t ]A(0)[eitT H ],
i

T = T ,

dA
H A
= AT H HT A,
= [A,H]operator = AH
dt

(16a)
(16b)

xxi

T ( ), :
H(r, p) T | i = E | i, h | T H(r, p) = h | E,

(17)

:
A(t) = et( H/ r

j )T j ( / p )
i
i

A(0) et( / r

j )T j ( H/ p )
i
i

(18a)

drk
H(t, r, p) d pk
H(t, r, p)
= Tik (t, r, p)
,
= Tki (t, r, p)
,
dt
pi
dt
ri

(18b)

dA
A
H H
A
= [A,H]classical = i T ji
i T ji
.
dt
r
pj r
pj

(18c)

, ,
,
i

dH
H H
= H T H H T H 0.
= H H
dt

(19)

, - , .
, . , ,
H = p2 /2m +V , T . ,
, , T
, .
,
, , .
, , ,
, .
( ), , , , ,

xxii

. ,
Springer-Verlag [14], ,
.
- , [9],
, , , , .
, . , ,
, ,
[12].
III) , - - . , ,
, , (10)(14) ,
, ,
, , .
- [6]:
A(t) = U A(0)U = eiH{Q}t A(0)eit{P}H , P = Q ,

(20a)

i dA/dt = (A,H)operator = A{<}H H{>}A =


= A {P} H H {Q} A =
= (A {T } H H {T } A)+

(20b)

+(A {W } H + H {W } A) = [A,H] + {A,H},


{P} = {P1 , P2 , P3 , . . .},

{Q} = {Q1 , Q2 , Q3 , . . .},

(20c)

{P}, {Q} and {P Q} () ( ), :


H(r, p) {P} |{ }i = {E} |{ }i,

(21a)

xxiii
h{ }| {Q} H(r, p) = h{ }| {E},

[loc. cit.]:
h
i
j
j
A(t) = et( H/ r ){Q}i ( / pi )
h
i
j
j
A(0) et( / r ){P}i ( H/ pi ) ,
drk
H(t, r, p)
= {P}ki (t, r, p)
,
dt
pi

(21b)

(22a)
(22a)

(22b)

d pk
H(t, r, p)
= {Q}ik (t, r, p)
,
dt
ri
dA
A
H H
A
= (A,H)classical = i {P}ij
i {Q}ij
.
dt
r
pj r
pj

(22c)

, -, ( ) () , .
-
.

,
, ,
, .
,
, , , . ,
, . ,
, ,
, .

xxiv

, , ,
.
.
, 20-
.
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
. , , (
, ), " ".
,
. ,
.
, "" , , , , ,
( )
, vice versa,
.
.
, ( ),
. 20- " ",

xxv

, ,
.
, , 20-
,
,
, , , ,
.

. 20- "
", , , .
, . , , ,
, ,
,
.
. 4 .
20- (
, , ), ,
(,
, , ,
).
, , 20-
- , H =
p2 /2m+V (r)+V 0 (t, . . .) , " " . , ,
, , , , , .
4

p2 /2m+V (r) H 0 =

xxvi

.
,
, 1970-, , "
", , ,
(12) 5 ,
d L(r, v) L(r, v)

= Fk (t, r, v),
dt rk
vk
drk H(r, p)
=
,
dt
pi
Pji = ji ,

d pk
H(r, p)
+ Fk (t, r, p),
=
dt
rk

fj
j
j
Qi = i 1 +
.
H/ r j

(23a)
(23b)
(23c)

, (23b) , - , .
- , (. 2.10 1). , P Q ,
(12).
[14] ,
. , ,
, , .
r r0 (r, p), p p0 (r, p), , , -
, . ,
- ,
, , r0 = A exp[B r p],
p0 = C p log(D p2 ); A, B, C, D .
5

xxvii


. , ,
, .
, 2.10, 1,

(12) (10), ,
.
, , ,
,
. , ,
. , , ,
.

,
, . , ,

, , ,
,
. 1.7 1, " ,
".
, , , , , .

xxviii

, " "
, 20- .
, (2b)
, , , ,
.


, : , . . , "" "" .
, , , , ,
(. 1.7 1). ,

, . ,
,
, , .
, : .. (H.C. Myung), .. (D.B. Lin), . (M. Tomber) ; .
(Gr. Tsagas), .. (D.S. Sourlas), . (T. Vougiouklis)
; . (R. Miron), . (S. Vacaru), .. (J.V. Kadeisvili) ; . (R. Aslaner),
. (S. Keles) ; .-. (C.-X. Jiang)

xxix

; . (N. Kamiya) ;
(. I [9]).
,
[6]:
A) ,
- ;
B) , - ;
C) , - ;
[8], - .
, , ,
, , , ..,
-, - -, .
[4] , I, , , ,
, ,
( . 1)
I = 1/T = I ,
I> = 1/P,
{I> } = {1}/{P},

<

I = 1/Q,

(24a)
,
I> = (<I)

= {1}/{Q},
{<I}

.
{I> } = ({<I})

(24b)
(24c)


,
.
, -, - -, -,
- -, -, - - ..
,
, . , -

xxx

. .
, , (, , ) - ,
. ,
H = p2 /2m + V , .
,
(
[14]).
, , ,
, ,
, - " ", ,
.
, ,
, ( ) (, ). , ,
. , , , .
1967 . [1], , ,
[6] 1996 .
,
, ..,
,
.
- ,

xxxi

. ,
[6]
, , ,
.
,
[6]:
k = Iik (t, r, p, , . . .)dri ,
dr

= Tki (t, r, p, , . . .) i ,
r
rk

(25)

-
.
, , [6] 1996 ., ,
pk T | i = ih k | i = ih Tki (t, r, p, , . . .)i | i,

(26)

.
, , [7] 1997 . , , , , ,

1997 !
,

( , , ..). , ,
" ", " "
.
,
. - ,

xxxii

- . , ,
, ,
- ,
,
, .
, , 1996 , .


, ,
, , ,
:
1) ( H = p2/2m+
V I) , , , ;
2) ( , H T ), , ,
H, , , ,
T , ;
3) ( , H, P Q),
, , , H,
-- , P, , Q,
;
4) (, , :
{H}, {P} {Q}),
-

xxxiii

, ,
, ;
5) -
, "" (8), , ,
20- , ,
( ),
.


[7].
:
1) , , U U 6= I .
,
I I = U I U = 1/T ,

B = U (AB) U =
A B A

= (U AU ) (U U )1 (U BU ) = A T B,

n n = U n U = n (U U ) = n I,
m,
n

U H | i = (U HU ) (U U )1 (U | i) = H T | i,

xxxiv


i = U (h || iI) U =
h | | i I h ||
= (h |U (U U )1 (U | i) (U IU ),
.. , , , , I I> = U I W , U U 6=
I, W W 6= I, (
) , I <I =
W U = (I> ) 6= I> . , , .
2) ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . , ,

, , Z Z 6= I, I I0 = Z IZ 6= I.
, . , .

Z = Z
Z = I,
, Z = Z T 1 , Z Z Z
0
, : I I =
,
I
Z I.
Z
.
3) , , . , ,
.
, , : ,

,
I;

xxxv

, I. , , ,
, , , ,
, , .
, , .

,
, .
,
.
/ .


,
, ,
... [10] 1994 .,
[11], -, - .
, ( )
[4], 0 ,

, . , , ,
,
, - .
, [loc. cit.] -

xxxvi

, , ,
, "" . , , ,
. ,
, .
, [11]: ;
; , - ;
.

, 20-
, ,
, , , "" . , , -
. ,
, , .
[4] 1978 , , ,

.
, ,
. , ,

xxxvii

, .
, . - ,
, , . ,
, ,
, , .
,

, .
- , , [4], ab initio.
.
[4] ,
( ), ( ) . , , , " " ,
, ,
,
- ,
.. , ,
, , ,
, , . ,
- .

xxxviii


[4] " ",
, ,
, ,
.
,
, ,

, "" ( ,
,
).
, , :
1)
, - ; 2) , , , ,
; 3) ,

, ; 4) ,
, 0 = (e+ , e )HM ; 5) ,
, , ,
,
, , ,
.
, , , , ,
, , , . ,

xxxix

- 20- (-
)
, . ,
,
" ", , , .
, [4],
, -
. 1994 , ... ,
,
.
[11].
, , . ,

, .
, [10],
( 108 ). , [10].
, , ,
,
, , . ,
, , , .
, , , (- ). , (

xl

). ,
, , ,
,
( ) , ,
,
.

, .
, 1990- ,

,
. , ,

.


[7], 1997 ,
1950- .
, .. ...
[11]. . ,
[10b] , . , , .

, , 1.
, , , 40 , , ,
. , ,
, :

xli

i) , " ", - ,
-- . , , --
, , ,
,
. ,
.
ii) , , ,
. , .
,
,
,
.
iii) , , , , . ,
, ,

. ,
,
, . , , ,
, , , ,
.
iv)

xlii

, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
U U = U U = I.
, , U U 6= I.
, , , . ,

.
,
" ", , . , , - , , , ,

, ad
hoc . , .
, H+
2 : 1)
; 2) ; 3)

.
,
,
; "" .
, , 20- ,

xliii

ad hoc
.
v) , , ,
, , , (. 1 1
[11]).
vi) "-"
,
. - , ,
.

, .
vii) . , ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
. , , ,
, .
, .
.


,
,
,
,

xliv

. , :
I) ( , ) , - , , , , . , , H =
p2 /2m +V , ,
,
T (, , I = 1/T ). , , , (
, ) , 1 .
(2), ,
U U = I 6= I,
(27a)
U H | i = (U H U ) (U U )1 (U | i) =
= H T | i = U E | i = E | i,
H = U H U ,

| i = U | i,

T = (U U )1 .

(27b)
(27c)

h = 1
(. 1)
p) T (t, r, p, , . . .) | i =
t| i = H |
i = H(r,
i
i = E | i,
= E |

(28a)

i = pk T | i = i k | i = iTki i | i,
pk |

(28b)

, .
,

xlv

, , , . ,
= A T B , AB
IA
= A
I = A, "2 2"
I,
4,
, I.
.
II) ( ), , ,
, . , , , , -
" ", Q
, P = Q
. ,

,
W U = <I,

(29a)

U H | i = (U H W ) (U W )1 (U | i) =
= H > Q | > i,

(29b)

h | H W = h | W (W U )1 (U H W ) =

= h< | P <H,

(29c)

H > = U H W ,

(29d)

U U 6= I,

W W 6= I,

U W = I> ,

Q = (U W )1 ,

| > i = U | i,

, , :
H > > | > i = H > Q | > i = E > > | > i,

> i = p>
> i = i k> | i = iQ ik i | i,
p>
k > |
k Q |

(30a)
(30b)

. : , ,
; , ,
,

xlvi

, A > B = A Q B A < B = A P B 6= A > B, , I> = 1/Q <I = 1/P;


"2 2" ,
, , ,
2 < 2 6= 2 > 2.
III) ( , ), , , .
, ,
{W } {W } 6= I, {U} {W } = {I> },
{W } {U } = {<I}, {H > } > | > i = {E} | > i,

{U} {U } 6= I,

> i = i {k> }| i.
{ p>
k } > |

(31a)
(31b)

, "2 2" , ,
. , , ,
.


,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
,
.
, , , , -
, " " . ,

xlvii

""
.
,
, "H | i"
| i. , , H | i,
H1 (H2 | i) = (H1 H2 ) | i = H1 H2 | i.
. , i (= H T | i, T H |
,
2 |
i) = (H1 H
2 )|
i = H1 H
2 |
i. , T H1 (H
, . , i"
, , "H | i" "H |
, .

-, -
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
-, -
- , (28), (30a), (31),
, ,
( ).
, , -

xlviii

, , , ,
1 ( ),
(
I
for r > 1 fm,
U U =
(32)
R 3
e / d r (r) (r) for r 1 fm,
;
; (32)
r > 1 ; ;
.
, , ,
.
, ,
. 6 - - .

, , , ,
U U = I = Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 ),
nk , , n4 .
[9]. ,
"", , ,
"" "" , , . , . "" "" , , 1, . ,
6

xlix

, , , , . , ,
,
:
U U = AeBr ,

U(1/r)U = AeBr /r,

A, B = const.

(33)

, , , , , .
, ,
, , , .
.
,
, , ,
per se,
.
, " " , , ,
,
. , ( ) , ( ""
[1]), ,
, . , ,
- ()
. , (. III [9]
).

, ,
.

: ""
, ,
20- , , , : "" ; ;
; ; .
, .
, ,
, .
, , "" "", , , , , , .
"", , ,
, ,
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e , e , , , .
, . ,

li

. ,

, , . ,
, .

, .
, , (32)
, , .
, , ,
, , , . "
", , .
, , ab initio
H- .

. , ,
, .
. ,

.

.
, . ,
, .
, ,

lii

1016 . , ,
,
1013 .
,
, , , , . , ,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
.
Mutatis mutandae, , ,
, , ,
.
, , , , ,
, , ,
.


,
. ,
,
, . 1978 .,
, [4].

, ... [10].

liii

Sanibel Symposium 1996 ,


,
.
,
, . , 4 5.
, ,
:
;
, , , , ;
, (. 7).
, ,

.


,
. , . , ,
, .
, ,
, .

liv

, , 4 5.
, ,
.
,
, ,
, . ,
,
, , ; ; ,
; , , ;
.
,
, , , , , .
,
. , ,
.


, : ,
,

lv

74 .
7.
, ,
, ,

, .
, :
, ,
, , , .

, , , 1800
, , / , /
,
.
,
,
, , .
,
,
,
, ..

lvi

, ,

, ,
.
Ruggero Maria Santilli
The Institute For Basic Research
Palm Harbor, Florida, USA
November 10, 2000


[1] Santilli, R.M.: Nuovo Cimento 51, 570 (1967).
[2] Santilli, R.M.: Suppl. Nuovo Cimento 6, 1225 (1968).
[3] Santilli, R.M.: Meccanica 1, 3 (1968).
[4] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 1, 224, 574 and 1267 (1978).
[5] Myung, H.C. and Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 5, 1277 and 1367 (1983).
[6] Santilli, R.M.: Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. 42, 7
(1996).
[7] Santilli, R.M.: Found. Phys. 27, 625 and 1159 (1997).
[8] Santilli, R.M.: Hyperfine Interactions 109, 63 (1997).
[9] Santilli, R.M.: Elements of Hadronic Mechanics, Vols. I and II (1995),
and III (in preparation), Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kiev.
[10] Animalu, A.O.E.: Hadronic J. 17, 379 (1994).
[11] Animalu, A.O.E. and Santilli, R.M.: Int. J. Quantum Chemistry 29, 175
(1995).
[12] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 21, 789 (1998).
[13] Santilli, R.M.: J. New Energy 4, issue 1 (1999).
[14] Santilli, R.M.: Foundations of Theoretical Mechanics, Vol. I (1978) and
II (1978), Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg.
[15] Aringazin, A.K.: Hadronic J. 23, 57 (2000).
lvii

lviii

[16] Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 24, 943
(1999). Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 24,
173 (2000).

lix

. (T. Nejat Veziroglu)


, , , International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (Elsevier Science, Oxford,
England),
,
(. [16] ).
. . (M. van der Merwe),
Foundations of Physics Foundations of
Physics Letters,
,
(. [7] ).
.. (D.V. Ahluwalia),
International Journal of Modern Physics A B
Modern Physics Letters, ,
(. 2).
. .. (D.D. Shillady),
.. .. ,
.
- (Leon Toups), USMagnegas, Inc., - (John Stanton), EarthFirst Technologies, Inc., , ,
,
.
- . (J. Herskee), -, - (Thomas McGee),
-, - . (Kenneth L.
Purzycki), Givaudan-Roure Corporation, Teaneck, New Jersey, ,
. -
(Konrad Lerch), Givaudan-Roure Research

lx
Laboratory, Dubendorf, Switzerland, (. 8.19).
, National Technical Systems, McClellan Air Force
Base, Sacramento, California; Pinellas County Forensic Laboratory, Largo,
Florida; Givaudan-Roure Research Laboratory, Dubendorf, Switzerland; Marine Science Laboratory, University of South Florida in St. Petersburg; Chemistry Laboratory of Florida International University, Miami; SGS U.S. Testing Company, Fairfield, New Jersey; Spectra Laboratory, Largo, Florida;
.
- (David Hamilton),
, ... (A.O.E.
Animalu) .. (J.V. Kadeisvili), Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, Florida, .
- . (D. Zuckerman)
, , , ,
.. LATEX .
- (Sabine Freisem) Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands, .
, ,
.

1.1

(., , [1]) , ,
.
, , , H, | i
h | | i C(c, +, ) c,
"+" "", 0 1,
A(t) = U(t) A(0) U (t) = eiHt A(0) eitH ,

(1.1a)

| (t)i = U | (t0 )i = eiHt | (t0 )i,

(1.1b)

U U = U U = I.

(1.1c)

dA
= [A, H] = A H H A,
dt
1

(1.2a)

1.
[ri , p j ] | i = ji | i,
H | i = E | i,

H = H ,

E R(n, +, ),

pk | i = ihk | i,

(1.2b)
(1.2c)

: H , , ; R(n, +, ) n [A, B] = A B B A .
, , 20- . , ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
U H | i = U H U U | i =
= H 0 | 0 i = E 0 | i, E 0 E,
U {eiHt } U = U {I + i H t/1!+
0

+(i H t)2 /2! + . . .} U = eiH t ,


U (A B) U = A0 + B0 ,

K 0 = U K U ,

K = A, B,

(1.3a)

(1.3b)
(1.3c)

U [A, B] U = A0 B0 B0 A0 ,

(1.3d)

U [ri , p j ] | i = [r0i , p0j ] | 0 i = ji | 0 i.

(1.3e)

,
.
, : , , .., ;
, ; .
,
ad hoc , .

1.2.

, . , .

1.2

20- ,
,
, .
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20- , -
ad hoc
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,
f (r), V (r) = e2 /r f (r) e2 /r, .
ad hoc ,
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e2
e2
0 0
0
0
0
V (r) = V (r ) = U(r (r)) V (r) U (r (r)) = V (r ) = 0 ,
r
r
U U = U U = I.
, V (r) = e2 /r f (r)e2 /r U U = f (r).

1.

. , " ", 1.7


.
, "" , , , . Ad hoc
f (r) e2 /r , . ,

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1.3. ...

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H- . , ( ) . , ,
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[1],

h 2 2 h 2 2 e2
e2
e2
e2 e2 e2

+ +
| i = E| i, (1.4)
21 1 22 2 r1a r2a r1b r2b R r12
, , . , ,
, (1.1) ,

1.

. 1.2: ,
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. 1.1,

h 2 2 e2
h 2 2 e2


+

| i = E| i.
21 1 r1a
22 2 r2a

(1.5)

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[1]. , ,
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10

1.

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,
e2
e2
e2

F = U ( ) U = , U U = I,
r
r
r
2

(1.6a)

F = er W ( er ) W = eAr er ,

(1.6b)

W W = eAr 6= I.
,
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11

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12

1.4

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(1.8)

, i dH/dt = H H
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14

1.

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19

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20

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23

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10 ) , -
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h 2 2 e2
h 2 2 e2
er12 /R


+

V0
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21 1 r1a
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1 er12 /R
,
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20 ) , . , . 1.8,
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30 ) , (sic), 4 5.
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70 )
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(sic).

24

1.

90 ) ,
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1.3.1)1.3.9) , 1.3.

1.7

, , , , , ,
[4].
,
(. [5] [6],
[7], [8], [9, 10] [11]). , ,
,
, .
, ( ).
, , ,

H -

1.7. ...

25

C = C(c, +, ),
U U 6= I.

(1.10)

, , , (1.10),
(1.1c).
() , [5a, 5b] 1967
(1.1), (
"q-"
[5a]),
A(t) = eiHqt A(0) eitpH ,

(1.11a)

i dA/dt = (A, B)operator = pAH qHA =


= m(AB BA) + n(AB + BA) =

(1.11b)

= m [A, B] + n {A, B},


p = m + n, q = m n p + q ( ""
,
AB A B, A (B C) (A B) C).
, , (A, B) = p A B q B A - , (A, B) (B, A) = (p + q) [A, B] . (1967 .)
.
, , ,
, - [. [5e], (4.15.34) (4.18.11)],
A(t) = U A(0)U = eiHQt A(0)eitPH , P = Q ,

(1.12a)

i dA/dt = (A,B)operator = A < B B > A =


= APH H QA =
= (AT B BT A) + (AW B + BW A) =
= [A,B] + {A,B}.

(1.12b)

26

1.

, . , :
1)
(1.11) (1.12) , U U 6= I;
2) RR 6= I (1.11) (1.12) p q P = p (R R )1 Q = q (R
R )1 ;
3)
S S 6= I (1.12) - ,
P Q. , ,
:
1.1: - (1.12) " "
- ("")
(" ")
(
).
, (A,B) ""
"" ( , , ). , (A,B)
, , ,
- ,
, , , , , -
..
, (1.11)
(1.12) [4]:
1.2: , H

1.7. ...

27

C(c, +, ) , :
1) , ,
.., ;
2) , ;
3) ;
4) , ;
5)
.
[4g].
.
,
,
. , I = Diag.(1, 1, 1)
,
, I = Diag.(1 cm, 1 cm, 1 cm). , , U U 6= I ,
, :
I = Diag.(1 cm, 1 cm, 1 cm)
I 0 = U I U = Diag.(7 cm, 9.2 cm, 2 cm).

(1.13)


, , .
, , (h | H ) | i h | (H | i) , H C. ( [4b]),
:
[h | U (U U )1 U H U ] U| i =

28

1.
= h | U [(U H U ) (U U )1 U| i] =

= (h T H ) | i = h | (H T | i),

(1.14)

| i = U | i, T = (U U )1 = T ,

H = T 1 HT
6= H.

, .
,
,
. , .
, ,

U U[t=0]
= 1 U U[t=15min]
= 15, t = 0, , 2 .
, , ,
30 t = 15 ,
. ,
U U [t = 0] = I, U U [t = 15 ] = 15,

(1.15a)

U H| i = (U HU )(U U )1 (U | i) =
= H 0 T | i = U E | i = E (U | i) = E | i,
H0

= U HU ,

(1.15b)

= (U U )1 ,

H 0 | i |t=0 = 2 eV | i |t=0 , T = 1 |t=0 ,

(1.15c)

H 0 | i |t=15 = 2 eV (U U )| i |t=15 =
= 30 eV | i |t=15 .

(1.15d)

, , . . , , , .

1.7. ...

29

, .

.
-
(1.12), , , . , U U 6= I , , ,
U (A,B)U = U (A < B B > A)U = (U AU )
[(U U 1 )(U PU )(U U )1 ](U BU )
(U BU )[(U U 1 )(U QU )(U U )1 ]

(1.16)

(U AU ) = A0 P0 B0 B0 Q0 A0 =
= A0 <0 B0 B0 >0 A0 .
-
, (1.12), 1.1. , ,

P0 = (U U 1 ) (U Q U ) (U U )1 6= P,
(1.17a)
Q0 = (U U 1 ) (U Q U ) (U U )1 6= Q.

(1.17b)

, "" (1.3c). , "<" ">" (1.12) ,


.
,
.
, ,
, [4g].

,
..

30

1.


. . , , , ,
, .
. ,
, , .
, , . ,
, .
, , , , , .
,
, .
1.3 : , , , , , , ..
- ,
[14](. [6c, 6d]),
" " . , ,
, .

, [6b]. , -

1.7. ...

31

, ( ). ,
, 1.3.
, (1.12),
, (1.12). , ,
(
. [4g]):
1) [12a], H = H0 = iV 6= H , (1.1). ( ), , i dA/dt = A H H A = [A, H, H ].
" "
, (,
)
.
2) C [12b],
, i d /dt = H =
[ , H] + C, H = H , H - , (1.1a), .
3) "q-" ABqBA,
q - [12c],
(p, q)- (1.11).
4) "k-" [12d] q-,
(1.11).
5) " " [12e] A?B = AT B, T - , A ? B B ? A,
(1.1) - .
6) -
[12f, 12g].

32

1.

7) [12h].
8) -
(1.16) [12i].
9) [12j].
10) [12k] (A, B) = [A, B]+{A, B} = (ABBA)+(AB+BA), , , -
(1.12b) T = 1 W = I.
11) - [121],
- (1.12b) T = I
W .
12) [12m], , .
13) [12m],
,
.
, , 1.2
[4]. , , H(t, r, p, | i)
| i = E | i ( H ).

, , : ,
; ,
; [4],
.

[12n]. ,
A B [A, B] = A B B A
A B, A
(B C) 6= (A B) C.

1.8.

33

[4a],
- , (
, , ).
, [4d], : - ,
(- - E ,
E A A E = A, A), ;
(- ); .
- [4].

R
" " V = d ( , . . .) .
,
. , , , , -, .
, ,
.
, 1980- ,
[5, 6], , . ,
,
.

1.8


(DOE), 1978 . [5c, 5d, 5e]
,

34

1.

, :
I) , 1.1 H
C, [5e], (4.15.49),

A(t) = U A(0) U = eiHT t A(0) eitT H ,

(1.18a)

dA
HA
= AT H HT A,
= [A,H]operator = AH
dt

(1.18b)

T = T > 0,

U U 6= I,

(1.18c)

T ( ), [5d]
j

A(t) = etTi ( H/ r )( / p j ) A(0) etTi ( / r )( H/ r j ) ,

(1.19a)

drk
H(t, r, p) d pk
H(t, r, p)
= Tik (t, r, p)
,
= Tki (t, r, p)
,
dt
pi
dt
ri

(1.19b)

dA
A
H H
A
= [a,H]classical = i T ji
i T ji
,
dt
r
pj r
pj

(1.19c)

"" [5d],
, " BA
=
" . , [A,B] = AB
A T B B T A ,
.
(1.18)
(1.18c), H T . , .
, (1.18) - , T , . , , T = T > 0,
(1.18) , T = T (r, v, , , . . .). , T
,
, .

1.8.

35

(1.18)
, ,
. -
,
T = T (t, . . .) 6= T (t, . . .).
,
, , , , ,
i

dH
H H
= H T H H T H 0.
= H H
dt

(1.20)

, , ,
- , , .
, (1.18) (1.19) , ,
, H,

, .
II) ,

1.1, [5e], (4.15.34) (4.18.11):
A(t) = U A(0)U = eiHQt A(0)eitPH ,

P = Q ,

(1.21a)

i dA
dt = (A,B)operator = A < B B > A =
= APH H QA =

(1.21b)

= (AT B BT A) + (AW B + BW A) =
= [A,B] + {A,B},
P = Q ,

P 6= Q,

U U 6= I,

(1.21c)

P = T +W, Q = T W P + Q
( ), [5d, 5f],
A(t) = et( H/ p j )Pj ( / r ) A(0)et( / p j )Q j ( H/ r ) ,
i

(1.22a)

36

1.
drk
H(t, r, p) d pk
H(t, r, p)
= Pik (t, r, p)
,
= Qik (t, r, p)
,
dt
pi
dt
ri

(1.22b)

dA
A
H H
A
= (A,B)classical = i Pji
i Qij
,
dt
r
pj r
pj

(1.22c)

, ,
, [A,B] = (A,B) (B,A), -.
"" [5d], , "
" . , - , -.
, (1.21) , (1.18),
,
, . ,
P Q, , .
,
(, ),
, .


i

dH
= (H,H) = H < H H > H = HPH HQH 6= 0.
dt

(1.23)

, (1.21) (1.22) ,
- H,
P Q, .
III) , ,
[5k]
A(t) = U A(0)U = eiH{Q}t A(0)eit{P}H ,
P = Q ,

(1.24a)

1.8.

37

i dA
dt = (A,H)operator = A < H H > A =
= A {P} H H {Q} A =
(1.24b)

= (A {T } H H {T } A)+
+(A {W } H + H {W } A) =
= [A,H] + {A,H},
{P} = {P1 , P2 , P3 , . . .} 6= {Q} = {Q1 , Q2 , Q3 , . . .},

(1.24c)

{P} = {T } + {W }, {Q} = {T } {W } {P Q}
( ), [5k]
A(t) = et( H/ p j ){P} j ( / r )
i

(1.25a)

A(0) et( / p j ){Q} j ( H/ r ) ,


i

drk
H(t, r, p) d pk
H(t, r, p)
= {P}ki (t, r, p)
,
= {Q}ik (t, r, p)
,
dt
pi
dt
ri
dA
A
H H
A
= (A,H)classical = i {P}ij
i {Q}ij
.
dt
r
pj r
pj

(1.25b)
(1.25c)

,
-, .
"" [5k] "". , , , , , , , , .
,
, [5d, 5k]
-, - -.
.
. I
A B (= AB), I A = A I = A,
A.

38

1.

= AT
AB
B, ( ) T , , I = T A 6= A,
, I A
, ,
.
, , , ,
, , ,
, ..
1990- . , . ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
[5k] 1996 , . [5l, 5n]. ,
,
[5k, 5l, 5n] 1996-1997 , , , , .
, , , -, - - , -, - - , .
, , -,
-. , 1.1.
,
, , , ,
..

1.8.

39

, "" -- [3a], " " [3c],


= T .
[3e] .
, , [5k], [5o]. , ( , -, - -
, ), ( , -, - ).
,
, . , , , . , ,
.
, , , ,
, , , . [6k] . . 1.91.20 .

40

1.

. 1.8: , ,
, . , , , . ,
.
, .
,
, ,
. ,
,
, .
3 4, ,
, .

1.8.

41

. 1.9: [6k]
, . -
- ( ) ( ). ( " "). , -
, .
T .

42

1.

. 1.10: [6k] . () , .

0 100 , 0 400 .
, , ,
, - , ,
.

1.8.

43

. 1.11: [6k] .
.
. O(3). ,
, ( )
. , ,
1% ,
( ). , , , .
I = Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 ), where n21 , n22 , n23
( ), n24
(
).

. ,
( , , 1% ).
, , :

.

44

1.

. 1.12: [6k] .
4 -
, ,
.
. , , . ,
,
. ,

, SU(2) .

1.8.

45

. 1.13: [6k] . (
Mark 205) ( MGC 4319),
, -.
. , .
,
, . , , ,
.
, , .

46

1.

. 1.14: [6k] : . ,
, , ( )
(
) .
, ,
, . .
:
, -
; ; ( , ..)
( ), ;
" "; .

1.8.

47

. 1.15: [6k] , 7. , , , ,
, .

.
. ,
, 7.

48

1.

. 1.16: [6k] .
, ,
, , ..
, , , m = Diag.(1, 1, 1, c2 )
m = Diag.(1, 1, 1, c2 /n2 ), n
. ,
(
) , n = 1.
() ,
,
, ,
. , , , .

1.8.

49

. 1.17: [6k] , :
0 1 .
- . ,
, , , ,
, 0 , ,
1 , 0 138 .
,
,
0 , , , , , , ,
0 e+ + e ,
. ,
0 ,
, , , -. , indexPoincareSantilli isosymmetry , .

, ,
, , (

).

50

1.

. 1.18: [6k] ,
, , , , , , " "
( 1
). , : "" (
); 1/2
,
1/2 ; , ; .. .
,
, . , ,
, .
,
, . ,
,
(. 7).

1.8.

51

. 1.19: [6k] , 20- , .



1/2 .
. ,
,
, , , ,
-. , , ,
, . ,
, . ,
,
, ,
- .
,
.

52

1.

. 1.20: [6k] , ( ), ().


. , 50 1 , : 1)
, ; 2)
,
, ; 3)
. - ,
. ,
, .

1.8.

53

, ,
, , (. 7.7). .
(.
[6k]),
.
, , SU(3)
,
.
, , SU(3)
, , . , ,

. ,
, ,
-.
, .
. ,
, ,
, ,
-.
, , () , ,
, .
, , - .
, ,

54

1.

, ,
,
SU(n)
, , -, .
, . ,
, 0 , 0 e+ + e . , , 0 . , ""
. , , , ,
, [6k].
, , . , ,
,
(" "). , , . , "" , "" .
,
[6k].
, , , , 7.7. , ,

[6k]. , , (
), -

1.9.

55

.
.
, , "" , , , , ,
, . "" ,
.

1.9

, ,
.
.
( )
, -,

.
"", . ,
, .
, ,
.
, 20- . ,
, - .

56

1.

() .
[10a], , , ,
.
()
[10b] Sanibel Symposium 1995 ,

CP = (e
, e )HM ,

(1.26)

e , , .
.
(1.26) . , ,
0 , , ( [5e],
5)

0 = (e+
(1.27)
, e )HM ,
,
, , .
= (e
, e )HM , ,

0 = (e+
, e )HM , .
e,
, ,
, .

1
e2
k
pk p +
(1.28a)
HCoul. (t, r) =
(t, r) = E0 (t, r),
2m
r

1.9.
pk (t, r) = i k (t, r),

57
(1.28b)

m .
(t, r) ,
. ,
, , (t, r).
, -
,
= U , U U = U U =
I 6= I, I (. ). ab
initio 1.8.
, ,
(1.28), , , = U , U ,
U HCoulomb U (U U )1 U (t, r) =
= H Coulomb T (t, r) =

1
e2
k
= 2m pk T p + r I T (t, r) = E (t, r),
pk T (t, r) = iTki i (t, r).

(1.29a)

(1.29b)

(1.29) , Cuz+ ,
ze2 /r [10].
( -) ,
, (1.29).

= (e
, e )HM , ,

1
e2 e2
k
pk T p + I z
T (t, r) =
2m
r
r

1
e2
e2
pk T pk T + z T (t, r) =
2m
r
r

= E (t, r),

(1.30)

pk T (t, r) = iTki i (t, r).

, ,

58

1.

, [10]
I.
, , ,

I = eh | i / 1 h | i / + . . . ,
(1.31)
T = e+h | i / 1 + h | i / + . . . ,
(1.30)
1
e2
pk T pk T (z 1)
2m
r

(1.32)

e2
z h | i( / ) (t, r) = E .
r
,
(L = 0)

(r) Aer/R ,

(1.33)

A () R . , ,
(5.1.21), . 837, [5e],

1 er/R
,
r

(1.34)

B .
(1.34) (Hulten)
V0

er/R
,
1 er/R

V0 = e2 h | i.

(1.35)

!
e2
er/R
I 2 d 2 d
r
r
(z 1) V0

(r) = E (r), (1.36)


2m dr dr
r
1 er/R
m .

1.9.

59

[5e], 5.1.

,
er/R
R
VHulten = V0

.
(1.37)
0
r
1 er/R
, , (1.36)

!

1 2d 2d
er/R

r
r
V
(r) = E (r),
(1.38a)
2 m dr dr
1 er/R
V = V0 R + (z 1) e2 ,

(1.38b)

,
(. [5c], . 837-838)

(r) = 2 F1 (2 +1+n, 1 , 2 +1, er/R )er/R

1 er/R
,
r

(1.39a)

= ( 2 n2 )/2n > 0, 2 = m V R2 /h2 > n2 ,


(1.39b)

2
m V R2 1
h 2
E =
n , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
(1.39c)
4 m R2
n
h 2
h .
[5e] (1.39)
0 = (e+
, e )HM ( , ,
- V ),
k1 = h /2 m R c0 ,

k2 = m V R2 /h,

(1.40)

c0 . ,
V = 2 k1 k22 h c0 /R,

(1.41)

0 = (e+
, e )HM (
n = 1 )

Etot, 0 = 2 k1 [1 (k2 1)2 /4] h c0 /R =


= 2 k1 (1 2 ) h c0 /R.

(1.42)

60

1.

0 (135 ),
(R 1013 ) ( 1016 )
(. [5e], . 840, (5.1.33))
k1 = 0.34,

= 4.27 102 ,

k2 = 1 + 8.54 102 > 1.

(1.43a)
(1.43b)

[10a] (1.39)
k1 = F R/h c0 ,

k2 = KR/F ,

(1.44)

F - ( )
, , ,
ETot, Cooper pair = 2k1 [1 (k2 1)2 /4]h c0 /R k2 Tc /D ,

(1.45)

D .
[10]. ,

D = 4280 K, F = 11.6 eV, Tc = 1.180 K,



k1 = 94,

k2 = 1.6 103 < 1.

(1.46)
(1.47)

YBa2 Cu3 O6 [loc. cit.]


k1 = 1.3z1/2 104 , k2 = 1.0 z1/2 ,

(1.48)

z = 2(7 )/3 z = 4.66 YBa2 Cu3 O6.96 (Tc = 910 K) z = 4.33


YBa2 Cu3 O6.5 (Tc = 200 K). , YBa2 Cu3 O6 ([10a], . 373, . (5.15))
Tc = 367.3 z e13.6/z ,

(1.49)

(.
. 1.211.23).

1.9.

61

. - ,
. , (1.31).
h | i,
, ,
,
H.
( , ), - - .
, ,
h | i = 0, I I,
, .
, -,
, , - -
,
, , . ,
, , , , .
, , , ,
. , 0 .
, , , .
,
, , ,
, "" . , ,
. [5e]

62

1.

0 ""
, 135 0 k2 > 1. , [10],
.
, , R, -- . , -, , 0 . ,
.
, , , -, ,

, 0 = (e+
, e )HM ,

= (e
, e )HM .
.
(, ), (, , ,
). ,
-- , .
[5e] " ", ,

.
,
4 5.
-

1.9.

63

.

V0 = h ,
(1.50)
() .
ETot = 2 F E 2 k1 k2 h c0 /R(e1/NV 1),

(1.51)

N V () - .
, [10] ,
"" ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
[10] .

64

1.

. 1.21: . 10 [10a], Tc z ( )
" "
( ).

1.9.

65

. 1.22: . 5 [10a], . 380, 1:2:3 .

66

1.

. 1.23: [10a], . 379,


.


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Structure of Molecules, A New Approach, Methuen Press, London and
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[2] Illert, C. and Santilli, R.M.: Foundations of Conchology, Hadronic Press
(1996).
[3] Einstein, A. Podolsky, B. and Rosen, N.: Phys. Rev. 47, 777
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R.M.: Modern Phys. Letters 13, 327 (1998) [4f]. Santilli, R.M.: Intern.
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574 [5e] and 1267 (1978) [5f]. Hadronic J. 3, 440 (1979) [5g]. Lett. Nuovo
67

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Cimento 37, 509, (1983) [5h]. Hadronic J. 8, 25 and 36 (1985) [5i].


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72

2
-, -
-

2.1

, ,
, ,
, ,
: U U = U U = I.
,
,
, U U 6= I.
,
, , ,
. , , [2a],
.
, , 73

74

2. -, - -

, .
, - . , , . ,
H = p2 /2 m +V (r, p) = H , U = exp[i H t], U U = U U = I.
,

, , , , . :
, - -
,
.
, ,
() , , , , , .. , () , , ,
. ,
, , .
, , () .
1978- [1a]
- -,
- , (. [1e]). -

2.2.

75

,
. -, - -
.
-,
- - , ,
, .
, , ,
, .. .
,
,
() , ,
.

2.2
2.2.1

, U U 6= I
I = U U , .
I, , I,
.
3, , , , . -
, ,
, , , ,
, , .
, , n- I = (I ij ) =
= Diag(1, 1, 1,. . .), i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, -

76

2. -, - -

( e I = Diag.(1, 1, 1)),
, , - ,
, n n- I,
,
t, r, p, ,
[1a],
r, p, , , . . .) = 1/T > 0.
I = Diag.(1, 1, 1) > 0 I = (Ii ) = I(t,
j

(2.1)

, , 0, n n + 0 = 0 + n = n
I, n
n I = I n = n. , () (2.1)
.
, , A B = AB, A, B
( , , ..). ,
I A B, A I 6= A. , ,
A B , [1a],
= A T B,
A B AB

T ,
(2.2)

I ,
= A
I = A,
I A = A I = A IA

(2.3)

A . ( )
I T .
(2.1), (2.2) (2.3) [1a], ,
. , I I,
, ,

AB
C)
= (AB)
C,
, A(B

AB .

2.2.

77

, ,
T A B A B T ,
(
[loc. cit.]).
1.
. , , , -, n n- . , I =
= Diag.(A, B,C, . . .), A, B, C, . . . - , .
, , I,
,
A = n21 , B = n22 C = n23 n1 , n2 , n3 (. 2.3). I .
, , I , I = Diag.(A, B,C, D) , A, B, C D .

I = Diag.(A, B,C, D) (t, r, , . . .),
A, B, C , D =
exp F(t, r, , . . .) , (. ).
,
, . ,
e , I = Diag.(1, 1, 1), 1, 1, 1 - .
I = Diag.(1, 1, 1) I = Diag.(A, B,C) ,
.
, ,

78

2. -, - -

, 1 4-
I = Diag.(1, 1, 1, 1) = Diag.(1, 1, 1, 1).
I = Diag.(1, 1, 1, 1) I = Diag.(A, B,C, D) D , . D
D = n24 , n4 c0 /n4 , n4 = 1
c0 . ,

, (
. [1d]).
, .
- , H = p2 /2 m +V (r, p).
,
V . , ,
H ,
.
,
I = 1 I = (t, r, p, , . . .). ,

, , ,
.

: ,

,
.
, , , (sic),
- 2% (

2.2.

79

1.2).
,
, , , .
,
, .
,
= A T B.
I I = 1/T > 0 A B AB

2.2.2

F = F(a, +, ) a = n,
F = R(n, +, ), a = c, F = C(c, +, ), a,

),
a = q, F = Q(q, +, ). F = F(
+,
[1b] (. [4a]), , a F I
a = a I,
b = (a + b) I F, a+
, F
b = a T b = (a b) I.
a
, . ,
F F .
F , , , , .. [1b],

a
...
a = (an ) I,
an = a

(2.4a)

a/ b = (a/b)

I = (a/b) I,

(2.4b)

a 2 = a 2 I,

a 2 = a I,
a 2

|a| = |a| I.

(2.4c)
(2.4c)

80

2. -, - -

+1, ,
, , .
, , n
[1b] n = n I,
I , , m = (n + m) I
.., n +

n m = (nm) I, ,
n.
, , [4a]. , , . , 4 ,
I = 3.
, , 2
2 = 4, ,

.
= 12.
, I = 3 22
,
. , , I.

, ,
.

2.2.3

, ( ) S = S(r, m, R) r m R = R(n, +, ). , E = E(r, , R) r = {rk } =


{x, y, z}, k = 1, 2, 3, = {i j } = Diag.(1, 1, 1)
I = (I ij ) = Diag.(1, 1, 1). R R

2.2.

81

( ) .
r, , R),,
E = E(
[1c] (. [1d]), r = r I = {rk } I = {i j } = {Tik k j }
= I,

rk = ri
i j
rj =
r2 = rk
T (i j I)
T (r j I)
=
(2.5)
= (ri I)

= (ri i j r j ) I R.
[loc. cit.], E E , , E E .
, ,
, = (t, r, p, , , . . .). ,
,
, . , .
[1c] ,
.
, , - , ,
[1d, 1e], , - r. ,
.
, [1d, 1e],

,
, , .
-, [1d, 1e], ,

82

2. -, - -

, 20- .
, ,
. ,
,
.
, "", r, H .. ,
"", r, H ..
. , r
T A
= (r I)
A , rA
r A. , , r , . (2.5), r .
rk , rk

( ),
i j ri r j Tki rk
( ).
. ,
I = Diag.(1, 1, 1) , , , ,
I = Diag.(1 cm, 1 cm, 1 cm).
2 2
I = Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 ), T = Diag.(n2
1 , n2 , n3 ), nk > 0.

(2.6)

,
n2k , , ,
, .
E t ) E(r, , R),

t, R
E(
, , , -

ITot = Ispace Itime = {Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 )} {n24 }.


(2.7)

2.2.

83

, -, r = {rk } I t = t It , .
, (2.6) [1c, 1d]

(r1x r2x )2 (r1y r2y )2 (r1z r2z )2

D=
+
+
n21
n22
n23

1/2

I.

(2.8)

, "" . ,
,
[loc. cit.]

= n2 ,

I I = n2 I,

(2.9)

n , [loc. cit.],
r2 = (ri i j r j ) I [ri (n2 i j ) r j ] (n2 I) =

= (ri i j r j ) I = r2 .

(2.10)

n 3 3 I.
""
.
,
[]2 []2 = ,

(2.11)

I = I.
I I = I I
,
, .
, I = Diag.(1, 1, 1) I =
Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 ), = Diag.(1, 1, 1)

84

2. -, - -

2 2
= Diag.(n2
1 , n2 , n3 ). , ,
2.2.2, r2 = ri i j r2 = (x2 + y2 + z2 ) I r2 = ri i j r j I =

(x2 /n21 + y2 /n22 + z2 /n23 ) I.

, r2 = ri i j
r j I = (x2 /n21 + y2 /n22 + z2 /n23 ) I ,
, ,
. - ,
1k n2k , 1k 1/n2k . (2.11),
1.

4- 4 I =Diag.(1,1,1,1) I = Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 ), n > 0, = Diag.(1, 1, 1, c20 ) =
Diag.(1/n21 , 1/n22 , 1/n23 , c20 /n24 )
, x2 + y2 + z2 c20 t 2 = 0 x2 /n21 + y2 /n22 + z2 /n23 c20 t 2 /n24 = 0.

c = c0 /n4
(. [1d] ).
, . ,
" " , c0 /n4
,
, ,
.. " " , ,
,
, . ,
, .
, , -

2.2.

85

, ,

, , 1 [2e]. ,
,
. , ( )
, , ,
.
, , .
, - . ,
,
(, ),

- (2.11);
- - (2.8); ,
, , (.
[2e] . 2.1).
,
:
, . , ,

.

2.2.4


1978 . ,

86

2. -, - -


, . , , , .
[1e] 1996 ,

drk = Iik d ri ,
(2.12a)
drk = T i d ri ,
(2.12b)
k


Ik ri ) = T i / ri =
k = / rk = /(
i
k
i
= (T / ri ) I = T i / ri ,

(2.13a)

T i ri ) = Ik / ri =
k = / rk = /(
i
k
= (Iik / ri ) I = Tik / ri ,

(2.13b)

ri / r j = ji = ji I,

(2.14)

, (2.13b),

k k = i i j j = i i j T jk k .

(2.15)

, ,
, i j = j i ,
. , E R -
T r, (Tim m ) (T jn n ) 6= (T jm m ) (Tin n ). ,
: ( )

( ).
() It = 1/Tt
dt = It dt,

t = Tt t = Tt / t.

(2.16)

2.2.
()

87
R

= T ,

dr =

T I d r = r.

(2.17)

2.7.

2.2.5

, H, ,
| i, | i, . . .,R h | | i = 1
h | | i = dr3 (r) (r) C = C(c, +, ).
c,
),
, C(c, +, ) C(
+,

H H | i, | i, . . .,

R 3

i I = dr (r) T (r) I C,
h ||
(2.18)

h || i = 1,
1982 . [3a] (
. [2c, 2d]).
,
H H

( T > 0). , H
. , . , ,
,
, .
, H | i = E | i [3a]
i = H T | i = E |
i =
H |
T | i = E | i,
= (E I)

(2.19)

, , i,
. H |

88

2. -, - -

, H | i. , I
i = T 1 T | i | i.
, I|
, ,
E R(n, +, ). , E = E I,
- .
, C,

U H

U = U
U = I.
U

(2.20)

U U .
C

H H


= h |H | i .
hHi
i
h ||

(2.21)

,
, .
,
= I,
, , , hIi
= I).
( hIi
, ,
[1f], n :

i I.
h | | i I h | n2 | i (n2 I) = h ||

(2.22)

,
" ",
, = T , (2.19). ,
E, ,
"" = T H.

.

2.2.

89

,
, " ", 1, , ,
"
".
, 4 5, , , "" ,
. ""
, , . [1g] [2d].
, (2.10) (2.22) 20- , .

2.2.6

. , , ( ), (
)
( ),
|T | 1,

1.
|I|

(2.23)

[3b] [2d] .
H C
H(k) = H0 + k V,

H0 | i = E0 | i,

H(k) | (k)i = E(k) | (k)i,

k 1.

(2.24a)
(2.24b)

, H0 . , , . -

90

2. -, - -

, E(k) H(k)
E(k) = E0 + k E1 + k2 E2 =
= E0 + k h | V | i + k2

p6=n

|h p |V |n i|2
,
E0n E0p

(2.25)


H(k) = H0 + k V,

H0 T | i = E0 | i,

| (k)i,
H(k) T | (k)i = E(k)

E 6= E,

E0 6= E0 ,

(2.26a)

k > 1.

(2.26b)


2) =

E(k)
= E0 + k E1 + k2 E2 + O(k
= E0 + k h | T V T | i+

(2.27)

|h p | T V T | n i|2
+k
,
E0n E0p
p6=n
2

, , ,
, , |T | k.
, T k1 , (2.27)

E(k)
= E0 + k T 2 h | V | i + k2 T 5

p6=n

|h p |V |n i|2
.
E0n E0p

(2.28)

, 1, k, k2 , . . .
1, k T 2 , k2 T 5 , . . .,
k > 1 T 1/k, T k V .
,
2.9.
,
A(k) = A(0) + k [A, H]/1!+
k > 1,

+k2 [[A, H], H]/2! + . . . ,

(2.29)

2.2.

91

[A, H] = A H H A - A
H . ,
:

+ k [A,H]/1! + k2 [[A,H],H]/2! + . . . |N| < ,


A(k)
= A(0)
[A,H] = A T H H T A,

(2.30a)
(2.30b)

, , T = k1 ,
.
, , ( )
, , , , ( ).
4 5, (2.23),
, , , , .

2.2.7

, [3c], .
, , I .
, , , .. ,
. ,
, , ..

92

2. -, - -


, , [2c].
, [2c],

r, , R),
I = Diag.(n21 , n22 ), nk > 0,
E(
r = {x, y} I,

r2 = (x2 /n21 + y2 /n22 ) I R.

(2.31a)
(2.31b)

, I = n1 n2 .
.
R = I = (n1 n2 ) R

[2c]

isocos = [n1 cos( n1 n2 )] I,

(2.32a)

isosin = [n2 sin( n1 n2 )] I,

(2.32b)

2 + isosin2 /n
2=
isocos2 /n
1
2
2
2

= (cos ( n1 n2 ) + sin ( n1 n2 ) I = I.

(2.33)

(2.33) ,
[loc. cit.]

x = risocos
, y = risosin
.

(2.34)

, E E
1k n2
k , . ,
, 1k n2k ,
(2.11).
[2c]

isocos
,
x = risosin

y = risosin
isosin
,

z = risocos
,
= n3 .

(2.35)

2.2.

93

, , .
.

2.2.8

, ,

, ,
,
. , , () .
,
( ), r, p)
T (r, p,
H(

, , . . .)
| i = E | i. ,
. ,
| i, | i H,
a,
b C
a|
i + b |
i) = a
A |
i + b
A |
i.
A (

(2.36)

.
1.7,
- ( ). ,
,
. , , -

.
. , -,
,

94

2. -, - -

. , ,
. ,
-, . ,
- ,
[3d] (. [1e]).
, -,
, - , .
, , .
,
, , U U = U U = I. , , , , , . ,
, . , [2c]
W W = I = 1/T 6= I, W = W T 1/2 ,

(2.37a)

W = W
W = I.
W W W

(2.37b)

,
. , ,
.
, ,
, , ,

2.2.

95

,
.

2.2.9

, , , - , (., , [6]).
, ()
.
, 1978 ., [1a] (.
[2b]) (
, , ,
..). -. [4].
, -
,
. , (
) . ,

, () .
,
() , () ,
.
- . (L) n- L X =
{Xk } = {Xk }, I = Diag.(1, 1, 1, . . .), Xi X j , I, Xk , Xi X j , i j, Xi X j Xk , i
j k, . . ., ( --)
eiXw = I + (i X w)/1! + (i X w) (i X w)/2! + . . ., w R.

96

2. -, - -

(L), [1a], Xk = Xk , (L) I,


X j ,
, Xi
( -- [loc. cit.])
Xk , Xi
X j , i j,
I,

X j
Xk , i j k, . . . ,
Xi

(2.38)

( X = X)

eiXw eiX w = {eiXT w } I,

(2.39)

.
w = {wk } R w = w I R
L [ (L)]
(L) F(a, +, ) , [Xi , X j ] = Xi X j X j Xi =
Cikj Xk . -, [1a], F,
L Xk = Xk = Xk H

X j X j
Xi = Cikj
Xk ,
[Xi,X j ] = Xi

(2.40)


,B] = [B

,A],
[A

(2.41a)

,[B
+ [B
,A]]
+ [C
,[A
,B]]
,C]]
,[C
= 0,
[A

(2.41b)


= A [
+ [A
,C]

,C]
,C]

B
B
B.
[A

(2.42)

G () , "" G U(w) = eiXw


U(w)U(w0 ) = U(w+w0 ), U(w)U(w) = U(0) = I. ()
- G,
[1a], "" L (2.39)

w)
x = ei X w
x =
x0 = U(

w

iX
T
iX
= {e
} I T x = {e T w } x,

(2.43a)

2.2.

97

= I.
w)
w 0 ) = U(
w + w 0 ), U(
w)
w)
0)

U(
U(
U(


= U(

(2.43b)

--
[1a]:

U 2 = {eX1 }{e
X2 } = U 3 = eX 3 ,
U 1
(2.44a)

X3 = X1 + X2 + [X1,X2 ]/2 + [(X1 X2 ),[X1,X2 ]]/12 + . . . ,


(2.44b)
, L ,
( L ) T .
( . 3)
- b =
{b } = {rk , pk }, = 1, 2, . . . , 6, [1a, 2c],

0)
= U(
t)
b = {ei t H / b / b }
b(0),
b(

(2.45)

= I .
H / b .
db / dt =

(2.46)


.
( . 3)
C
[1a, 2c]:
- H
0)
t) = {ei H t}
{
A(
ei t H } =
A(

{eitT H },
= {eiHT t } A(0)

(2.47)


,H]

= A
H
H
A = A T H H T A.
i dA / dt = [A

(2.48)

.
- T (2.44). ,
, , - , , .

98

2. -, - -

(2.44) , , , L G L
G . ,
I > 0 ,

, L L, G G.
. , . ,
SU(2) , ,
( . 4).
- ,
, , (. [2c, 2d] ).
, -, , - , , .
, SO(2), ,
(2.33), , ,
, , (2.33)
E R.
E R,
, E R,

SO(2).
,
,
, ,
.
, - . ,

(. 3), , (.
3). -

2.3.

99

.
, , . , - :

.
,
,
, . [2f]
(. [3f] [4c] ).
, , ( ,
), .

2.3
2.3.1

, 20- , ,
, ( ,

).
, , , , , , , ,
, .
, , , ,
, i dH/dt =
[H, H] = H H H H 0.
, -

100

2. -, - -

, ,
. ,
, ( ),
. ,
, , .
, . , ,
-,
. ,
.

,
, . , , , ,
, .

[5a, 5b, 5c] 1967 . : [1a] 1978 .; [5d]
1979 .; [1c] 1983 .; [1b] 1993 .
[1e] 1996 ,
, , 1.7,
[5e] 1997 . , .
, , , , ,
.
-

2.3.

101

, ,
.
, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
"" 1978 ., , " ". ,
, ,
.

2.3.2


, .

, ,
,
.
,
. X = X
F H
( -
[1d]).
, U > <U

A(w) = U > > A(0) < <U =
= {eiX

> w

<

} > A(0) < {eiw X } =

= (I > + i X > w + . . .) > A(0) < (<I i w <X + . . .),

(2.49a)

102

2. -, - -
U > = (<U) = U,

X > = (<X) = X,

I > = <I = I,

(2.49b)

w > < , .

i dA/dw = i [A(dw) A(0)]/dw =
= A < X X > A = A X X A,

(2.50)

, AX = A < X
(X A = X > A), X ().
, ,
- {<U,U > }, {<H, H> }
- {<F, F> }, <U = (U > ) = U, <H = H> = H, <F = F> .
, ,
. (., , [6a] [6b]),

X > > = X = < < <X = X,
(2.51)
> H> , < <H, X >
> (L) L [ > (L)]
<X < (L) .
H> = <H = H, > (L) = < (L) = (L),
{< (L), > (L)} {<H, H> } , , , (L) H, [6].
, ,
.
- - [1a] , (2.51)
, > < ,
, . ,

2.3.

103

U > > A(0) , > , ,


A(0) < <U.
, . () U > A(0) = U > T A(0)
A(0) < <U = A(0) T <U, T = T ,
, ( )
, .
I = T 1 , ,
A> > I = I < <A = A A
.
(2.49) , ,
A(w) = U > > A(0) < <U =
= {eiX
= {eiX

> w

<

} > A(0) < {eiw X } =

> T w

<

iwT X },
}A(0)
{e
X = X , T = T ,

(2.52)


i dA/dw = i [A(dw) A(0)]/dw = A T X X T A.

(2.53)

, , = A T B,, :
I A > B = A < B = AB
; ; ;
; ; ..
, ,

(2.51).
, [1a]
, , (2.49)

104

2. -, - -

( , ),
A > B = A P B, A < B = A Q B,

(2.54a)

I> = P1 , I > > A = A > I> = A,

(2.54b)

<

(2.54c)

I = Q1 ,

<

I < A = A < <I = A,

= (Q1 ) ,
I> = P1 = (<I)

(2.54d)

P 6= Q , , , . , P + Q P Q
, , .
(2.54)
(2.49), [5a, 1a] -
A(t) = U > > A(0) < <A =
} > A(0) < {< eiwX } =
= {eiXw
>
= {eiXPw } A(0) {eiwQX } =

(2.55a)

= (I > + iX w + . . .) > A(0) < (<I iw<X + . . .),


U > = (<U) ,
X > = (<X) = <X = X,
P> = P = (<Q) = Q ,

(2.55b)

I> = P1 = (<I) = (Q1 ) ,

(2.55c)

, - [loc. cit.]
i [A(dw) A(0)]/dw = (A, B) =
= A < X X > A = APX X QA =
= (A T B B T A)+
+(A W B + B W A) =
= [A,B] + {A,B},

(2.56)

2.3.

105

P = T + W, Q = W T ,

eiXw
= I > + i X w/1! + (i X w) > (i X w)/2! + . . . =
>
= {eiXPw } I > ,
eiwX
= <I + i X w/1! + (i X w) > (i X w)/2! + . . . =
<
= <I {eiwQX }.

(2.57a)

(2.57b)

, (2.49)
, . ,
(2.55) , {<H, H> } - {<F, F> } ( ). , <H H> . , -
,
.
, ()
(A, B) = A P B B Q A (2.56) , ..
[7] (. [5]). , A a, b, c, . . . ( ) ab -, U ,
, U, [a, b]U = abba,
.
- n n- A, B, C, . . .
A B, A (B C) = (A B) C. , L
[A, B]A = A B B A.
A (2.56) - , -, [A, B]A = (A, B) (B, A) =
[A, B]A = A T B B T A.
, - (A, B), [1a] 1978 ,

106

2. -, - -

,
( ,
). , (A, B),
, P Q, , : , , , ,
- ..
)
U > = (<U) ( I> = (<I)
, , . , ,
,
, 1.7.
, (2.55), :
> , < ; H = p2 /2m +V (r)
; w = t . ,

, , ,
. , , H(t) H(t).
, ,
, .
, (2.49) . , A p = m v = m
dr/dt, , , , p(t) =
p. , (2.50) ,
i d p(t)/d(t) = p(t) H H p(t) =
= i d p/dt = (p H H p).

(2.58)

, T ,
w =
t = t It , - ,

2.3.

107

t t,

i d p (t)/d(t) =
= p (t) T H H T p (t) =

(2.59)

= i d p/dt = (p T H H T p).
, T , T = T (t, . . .) 6= T (t, . . .), ,
- , T , , i dH/dt = H T H H
T H 0. -, ,
- , ,
,
[2b].
, . , , (2.56)
i d p (t)/d(t) =
= p (t) P H H Q p (t) =

(2.60)

= i d p/dt = (p Q H H P p),
, , P Q,
.
, , i dH/dt = H P H H Q H 6= 0,
, ,
.

, ,
. ,
,

108

2. -, - -

, .
, , , - . .

2.3.3

:
1) , ,
: I> = 1/Q
, <I , (2.54);
2) , , : A > B = A Q B, Q ,
, A < B = A > P > B, ,
I> <I , ,
(2.54);
= (Q1 ) .
3) I> = P1 = (<I)
,
,
1.7.
.
2.2, ,
, I = Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 ),
n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 .
,
I> <I,
, ,
n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 I,
F(t, r, p, , . . .) .
,
. ,

2.3.

109

.
. ,
. - ,
2 > 3 ( , 2 3 )
, 2 < 3 ( , 3
2 ).
- ,
.
, ,
, 2 > 3 2 <
3, . ,

, ,
, .
, , ,
, > , <
.
, ,
.

2.3.4

F = F(a, +, ) R, C Q a 0, I = 1, a + b a b. , F> = F> (a> , +> , > ),


[1b] 1993 ., a> = a I >
, a F, I > = P1
, , F, ,
, -

110

2. -, - -

..
a> +> b> = (a + b) I > ,
a> > b> = a> > b> = a> Q b> = (a b) I > ,

(2.61a)
(2.61b)

0> = 0 I > .
, <F = <F(<a, <+, <) [1b], <a = <I a, , <a< + <b = <I (a + b), <a <
<b = <a Q <b = <I (a b) .., , <0 = 0, ,
<I = Q1 .
{<F, F> } , , ..,
I> = (<I) .
, , , F> , , <F, F. , F F> , F <F {F, F} {<F, F> } .
, ( ) , ,
a > b = a < b ( ,
).
, , ,
, ,
a > b = b > a a < b = b < a,

(2.62a)

a > b = a P b 6= a < b = a Q b.

(2.62b)

, [1b], ,
, ,
, . , , .
.

2.3.

2.3.5

111

S = S(r, g, R) n- r = {rk }, k = 1, 2, . . . , n,
, g = g(r, . . .)
r2 = (rt g r) I ( t ) R = R(a, +, ).
n- S> = S> (r> , G> , R> ),
[1c, 2c, 1e],
r> = r I > , G> = Q g I > = (g> ) I > , g> = Q g

(r> )2> = (r> )t > (G> ) > r> = [rt (g> ) r] I > R> ,

(2.63)

, , , , n I > R> . , , , , I >= Q1 , Q , , n n .


n- , , <S = <S(<r, <+, <F)
[loc. cit.] n n- , <I = P1 ,
, P = Q .
{<S, S> } .. {<R, R> }
I > = (<I) .
, , S> ,
, <S ( {<S, S> })
S({S, S}).
, g g>
Q g, I I > = P1 , ( ()2 (unit)2
), .
,

112

2. -, - -

( Q)
rt grI rt grQQ1 (rt g> r)I >
P1 P(rt grI) <I(r <grt ).

(2.64)

(2.11)
.
[1d, 1e] .
2.2, ,
, .
.
, . , , .
.

, = Diag.(1, 1, . . . , 1)
.
. , , > = Q
< = P
. > 6= < , .
, , 20- ,
. , [1e]
, . , I =Diag.(1,1,. . .,1). ,
, , , ,
, .

2.3.

113

, , .

2.3.6


R> , [1e], ,
( I > ),
(2.65a)
drk d > rk = (I > )ki dri ,
S> (r> , R> )

drk d > rk = Pki dri ,

(2.65b)

/ rk > / > rk = Pki / ri ,

(2.65c)

/ rk > / > rk = (I > )ki / ri ,

(2.65d)

> ri / > > r j = ji I> ,

> ri / > > r j = ij I> , etc.

(2.66)


, , <I 6= I > . {<S, S> } {<R, R> } I > = (<I) .
, , , ,
..

2.3.7

H | i, | i, . . .,
h | | i C = C(c, +, ) h | | i = 1.
, , H> [1e]
| > i, | > i, . . .,
h > | > | > i = h > | Q | > i I > C> (c> , +> , > ),

(2.67a)

114

2. -, - -
h > | > | > i = I> ,

(2.67b)

, ,
C> (c> , +> , > ) I> = Q1 .
, , <H [loc. cit.]
H> <I = P1 ,
I > . {<H, H> }
{<C, C> } I > = (<I) .
, , -
H. , : h| |i
h|P|i, , 1
P1 , .
[2c]
( P Q, ,
)
h | | i h | | i P P1
h | P | i P1 = h | < | i <I

(2.68)

h | | i Q Q1 h | > | i I > .
, (2.64) . ,
(2.64) (2.68)
, , , ,
.
, , , , .

[1g].

2.3.8

, , A,

2.3.

115

B, . . . , , , > , , H> C> ;


.
.
, , ,
U > > U > = U > > U = I > ,

(2.69a)

<

(2.69b)

U < <U = <U < <U = <I.

, X, H C, H> C> ,
<H <C. .
, H> X > = Q Q1 X Q Q1 = X ,
.

, . ,
( ) , .
, , U H
C, U U 6= I,
, , [11f]
U = (U > ) Q1/2 or P1/2 (<U).

(2.70)

,

. , ,
, TrX, DetX .. .
. ,
[2c].

116

2.3.9

2. -, - -

, ,
[1a] (. [1e,
2], -) [4].
N- X = {Xk }, w = {wk }, = (L),
L [ (L)] , () G S(r, , F)
r = {rk } F.
- , :
1) , , > (L) N- L X > X =
{Xk }, k = 1, 2, . . . , N, I> = Q1 , Xi > X j = Xi Q X j --,
I > = Q1 , Xk , Xi > X j (i j),
Xi > X j > Xk (i j k), . . . ,

(2.71)

(2.57a);
, , < (L) <I = P1 Xi < X j = Xi P X j , ,
-,
<I = P1 , X , X < X (i j),
i
j
k
(2.72)
Xi < X j < Xk (i j k), . . . ,
(2.57b); - {< , > },
.
I> = (<I)
2) - {< , > } {<F, F> } -
(Xi , X j ) = Xi < X j X j > Xi =
= Xi P X j X j Q Xi .

(2.73)

2.3.

117

3) () - -
{<G, G> } {<S, S> } {<F, F> } <I = (I> )
r>0 = (U > ) > r> = (U > ) Q > r I > = V r I> ,
U > = V I> ,
<r 0

W,
= <r < (<U) = <I r P (<U) = <I r
<U = <I W,

(2.74a)
(2.74b)

: G> > S> S> <S <S < <G,


, U > = exp> (i w X) <U = exp< (i
w X),
U > (w> ) > U > (w>0 ) = U > (w> + w>0 ),
U > (w> ) > U > (w> ) = U > (0> ) = I > ,

(2.75)

I> }.
- (2.56) {<I,
2.2, , [A, B] = A B B A - [A,B] =
BA
= A T B B T A , AB
,
. , , , -
(A, B) = A < B B > A = A P B B Q A
{< , > } {<F, F> },
.
, < >
, <I(A, B) = (A, B)I > , A < B =
A P B, <I = P1 ,
A > B = A Q B, I > = Q1 .
, , -
.
,
, , , , , ..

118

2. -, - -

, . ,
P = Q , . , , P Q
, . ,
. , ,
[1f]. , ,
, , .
.
,
, , .

2.4

2.2,
. ,
[1e, 2e]. ,
, ;
,
; .

, ,
{I> } = {I1> , I2> , . . .} = {1/Q1 , 1/Q2 , . . .},

(2.76a)

= {<I1 , <I2 , . . .} = {1/P1 , 1/P2 , . . .},


{<I}

(2.76b)

,
A{>}B = {A Q1 B, A Q2 B, . . .},
(2.77a)

2.4.
A{<}B = {A P1 B, A P2 B, . . .},

119
(2.77b)


, {I> } {<I}
.
, , , ..
, , 2 < 3 (3 2 ) 2 > 3 (2 3 )
6 . , 2 < 3 2 > 3 , ,
2 < 3 2 > 3 275.65.
, 2 < 3 2 > 3
,
, 2 <
3 31.37 6= 2 > 3 27.81.
, 2{<}3 2{>}3
, , 2 < 3 {5.23, 72.45, 0.67, . . .} 6= 2 > 3 {1.24, 45.43, 137.42, . . .}.
,
. , [2e].
,
, . ,
.
,
.
1, . 1.6,
.
,
.

120

2. -, - -

, .
,
. , 32- - .
, . 1.6
. .
,
, , +1,
. ,
,
, - 1040 .
, " ", , , .
, , [8]. ,
.

2.5

20- . , 20- ,
,
. , 20-
, ,

, - .
[9] -

2.5.

121

,
,
. , 20-
, .
, ,
, .
,
-, - -. , ,
, .
[loc. cit.] , , : 1) , -, -, ; 2) ; 3) , -
.
[9a] 1985 . +1 ,
I = +1 I d = 1,

(2.78)

, d,
1, +1,
.
Fd (nd , +d , d )
[1b], nd = n I d = n, n , , , ..
nd +d md = (n + m) I d = n m,

(2.79a)

nd d md = nd (1) md = n m,

(2.79b)

|n|d = |n| I d = |n|,

(2.79c)

+, |...| - F(n, +, ).

122

2. -, - -

, . ,
, , , , ..,
, . ,
t d = t I d = t,
I d = 1 . ,
, , , ,
.
, ..
,
, , , ,
(. [9b] ). [9] ,
, , .
, (2.78)
- -, -
,
A = A(r, p, , . . .) Ad = A (r , p , , . . .),
(2.80)
,
A > B = A Q B A >d B = A (Q ) B,

(2.81)

-, - .
, [9] [2e].
,
. 2.1 .
, .
,
.

2.5.

123


t d>
t >
-

0
<t <t d

. 2.1: , ,
, .
, "
" :
. [9] ,

. , . , ,
, - ( , ,
, ). ,
" " ( , vice versa)
: t > = t <t = t,

(2.82)

( ) , [9], , ,
,
: It> = t It>d = It> = t.

(2.83)

It = +1, , t> = t I > =


t, I > = 1, I >d t. ,

124

2. -, - -

+1 . ,
, , ,
. , ,

, , ,
,
()2 ()2 = .

(2.84)

, , ,
:
1), ,
t> = t It> , It> = It> (t, r, p, . . .) = 1/Tt > 0
, (, It> = 187 ., , ,
), ;
2) , ,
,
<t = <I (t), <I = I> ;
t
t
t
3) , , , t>d = t = I> t;
4) , , , <td = <It (t).
,
,
,
(t2 t1 )2 1 [(t2 t1 ) T d (t2 t1 )] Id ,
,

2.5.

125

. ,
, ,
,
,
.
, , , It> > 1 .
It> < 1 . , , , . ,
It> 1 ., ,
, .

, ,
,
.
,
( )
. , , . ,
, ( . [2e]). ,
2.4,
. , .
,
, ,
( , ),
. , , -

126

2. -, - -

, , .
, ,

, , , ,
, .


[1] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J.1, 224, 574, and 1267 (1978) [1a]; Algebras,
Groups and Geometries 10, 273 (1993) [1b]; Lett. Nuovo Cimento 37,
545, (1983) [1c]; Intern. J. Modern Phys. D7, 351 (1998) [1d]; Rendiconti
Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. 42, 7 (1996) [1e]; Found. Phys. 27
625 (1997) [1f]; Acta Appl. Math. 50, 177 (1998) [1g].
[2] Santilli, R.M.: Foundations of Theoretical Mechanics, Vol. I (1978) [2a]
and II (1983) [2b], Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York; Elements of
Hadronic Mechanics, Vol.I [2c] and II [2d] (1995), Ukraine Academy
of Sciences, Kiev; Isotopic, Genotopic and Hyperstructural Method in
Theoretical Biology, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kiev (1996) [2e];
Isotopic Generalization of Galileis and Einsteins Relativities, Vols. I
and bf II, Hadronic Press (1991) [2f].
[3] Myung, H.C., and Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 5, 1120 (1982) [3a].
Jannussis, A. and Mignani, R.: Physica A187, 575 (1992) [3b]. Kadeisvili,
J.V.: Algebras, Groups and Geometries 9, 283 and 319 (1992) [3c]. Tsagas,
Gr.T. and Sourlas, D.S.: Algebras, Groups and Geometries 12, 1 and 67
(1995) and 13, 129 (1996) [3d]. Kamiya, N. and Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic
J. 16, 168 (1993) [3e]. Kadeisvili, J.V.: Math. Methods in Applied
Sciences 19, 1349 (1996) [3f]. Illert, C. and Santilli, R.M., Foundations
of Conchology, Hadronic Press (1996) [3g].
[4] Jiang, C.X.: An Introduction to Santillis Isonumber Theory, Hadronic
Press, in press [4a]. Tsagas, Gr.R. and Sourlas, D.: Mathematical
Foundations of the Lie-Santilli Theory, Ukraine Academy of Sciences,
Kiev (1992) [4b]. Kadeisvili, J.V.: Santillis Isotopies of Contemporary
Algebras, Geometries and Relativities, Ukraine Academy of Sciences,
Kiev, 2nd edition (1997) [4c].
127

128

[5] Santilli, R.M.: Nuovo Cimento 51, 570 (1967) [5a]; Suppl. Nuovo Cimento
6, 1225 (1968) [5b]; Meccanica 1, 3 (1968) [5c]; Hadronic J. 3, 440 (1979)
[5d]; Found. Phys. 27, 1159 (1997) [5e]; Lie-Admissible Approach to the
Hadronic Structure, Vol. I (1978) and II (1982) [6d], Hadronic Press [5f].
[6] Gilmore, R.: Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Some of their Representations,
Wiley, New York (1974) [6a]. Jacobson, N.: Lie Algebras, Interscience,
New York (1962) [6b].
[7] Albert, A.A.: Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 64, 552 (1948).
[8] Santilli, R.M. and Vougiouklis, T.: in Frontiers in Hyperstructures,
Vougiouklis, T,. Editor, Hadronic Press, Florida (1996).
[9] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 8, 25 and 36 (1985) [9a]; Intern. J. Modern
Phys., A14, 2205 (1999) [9b]; Hyperfine Interactions 109, 63 (1997) [9c].

3

3.1

, ,
" " , , [2] "".
""
, [3]. "" , - , .
,
-, - - .
, ,
-, - -,
, , .
, ,
,
1 , , 129

130

3.

. , ,
, ,
, 1.3.
. , ,
, .
, . , " " [4a] ,
,
4.
.. [4b], . . [4c] 2 He, 8 Ne, 8 Ar, 18 Kr, 18 Xe, 32 Ra.
,
. . [4d, 4e] " " -, , . ,


(. 4 5).
" ", [4] "" .
, (" "),
.
, , , [4],
. , ( ),

, .

3.1.

131

, , "
", , . , "" ,

.
, 1.7,
, , , .

, , ,
.
, , ,
() ( ). , I U U = I,
.
,
limr1fm (U U ) = I.

,

,
, ,
. 1.7.
, "" , , . ,

132

3.

. , ,
,
, (.
7 8).
( ), , , , .
,
. - ,
H = p2 /2
m +V (r, p), ( , , )
- . ,
,
, . ,
.
,
,
. ,
. ,
, , .
. ,
, ,
, , , ( ).
-

3.2.

133

,
.
,
, ,
. , , , . ,
.
, , , .

.
,

[2]. , :

. ,

.

3.2
3.2.1

[5],
, 20 , ,
,
d L(t, r, r ) L(t, r, r )

= F(t, r, r ),
dt
r
r

(3.1a)

134

3.

dr H(t, r, p)
dp
H(t, r, p)
=
,
=
+ F(t, r, p, . . .),
(3.1b)
dt
p
dt
r
r = {rk }, r = {rk }, p = {pk }, F = {F k }.
, [5c],
.

20- , .
d L(t, r, r ) L(t, r, r )

= 0,
(3.2a)
dt
r
r
dp
H(t, r, p)
dr H(t, r, p)
=
,
=
,
(3.2b)
dt
p
dt
r
.
20- ,
,
.
, , ,
, , , .
,
F(t, r, p, . . .).

, ,
, , H
, ,
F
, .
, ,
20- , , , ,
, , ,
3.1.

3.2.

135

,
, . , , .

,
.

3.2.2

, [6a] ( ), [5] ,
.
, ,
, ( ) . , ( , , [6a])
- , ,
- , .

, ,
, , .
, ,

136

3.

, ,
, , r0 = exp[Nrp].
,
[6a, 6b],
, ,
. ,
.

3.2.3

(3.1) , . ,
(3.2), ,
,
dA
A H H A
= [A, H] = k

,
(3.3)
dt
r pk rk pk
[A, H], , -, ( ) ,
. , (3.1) ,
dA
A H H A
A k
= (A, H) = k
k
+
F ,
dt
r pk r pk pk

(3.4)

(A, H) - ,
( ). ,
(3.1) , , - .
, , (3.1b) .
, ,
(3.2b)
( , , ),

3.2.

137

(3.1),
. , (3.1)
, 1.7.

(3.1) , :
1)
;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ; ,
,
5)
( ).
, -, - - (3.1), [7] -, - -.
.

3.2.4

20-
, ,
( , ,
)
.
[6b]
(. 6.3, . 236). , , , , F k
(3.1), ,

F k (t, r, p) = 0,
k

(3.5a)

138

3.

rk F k (t, r, p) = 0,

(3.5b)

pk F k (t, r, p) = 0.

(3.5c)


, ( ) [6b], ,
(), ( ).
, ,
, .
, ,
,
(3.5) , , .
, [6b]
,
, :
1) , .
. .
2) ,
, , (3.5).
,
. ,
. ,
, , .
3) ,
( ) , (3.5). ,

3.2.

139

, . ,
.
, 20- , [6], ,
, ,
. ( -),
, . ,
,
,
, . , ,
, .

3.2.5

(3.5), 3.2.3 , 2.2, - [7].


(3.1b) ( 2.2.3
r, , R)
6- T E(
, , [7]) b = {b } = {b } I6 = {rk , pk } I6 ,
6- [loc. cit.]
I6 = Diag.(I3 , T3 ), I3 = 1/T3 > 0.

(3.6)

, rk , pk ,
drk = Iik d ri dpk = Tki d pi .
,
, (3.1b) -

140

3.

[7]

033 I33
drk /dt
dr /dt
( )
=

=
I33 033
d pk /dt
d pk /dt

ri
rk
d pk /dt
Tk H/
H/
=
=
pi ,
pk
drk /dt
Iik H/
H/

(3.7a)

pk /2
m + V (r) = [pk pk /2 m +V (r)] I3 ,
H = pk

(3.7b)

T3 = Diag.[I F/( H/ r)],

(3.7c)

, = A T3 B , AB
k-
> = T3 ; r = {rk }, r = {rk }, p = {pk }, F = {F k }.
, (3.7)
F T3 . , (3.7), ,

.
, , . , , (3.1) (3.7) .
, T3 , (3.7c), ,
. ,
T ,
--
[7] (, - ,
).
, - ,
, , , ,
F(t, . . .) 6= F(t, . . .),

or

(3.8a)

T (t, . . .) = Diag.[I F(t, . . .)/( H/ t)] 6=


6= T (t, . . .) = Diag.[I F(t, . . .)/( H/ r)].

(3.8b)

r)|t 6= ( H/
r)|t , ( H/
p)|
p)|
t 6= ( H/
t ,
( H/

(3.8c)

3.2.

141

, ,
(. ).
, (3.7)

b)
b)
H(t,
d b
H(t,
=
= T6
,
dt
b
b

T6 = Diag.(I3 , T3 ).
= I6 , b = (r, p),

(3.9a)
(3.9b)

(3.7) [6a, 6b]


R = {R } = (pk , 0),

b = {b } = (rk , pk )

(3.10a)

R R
(3.10b)
= .
b
b
,
(3.9)

R R
H(b)
d b
H(b)

=
= T6
.
(3.11)
dt
b
b b
b
, -
. , 2.2,
,
.., . , I I,
, ,

, , , .
" "
(3.7), (3.9) (3.2b). , (3.7)
( ) , (),

142

3.

( ). ,
- F, .
(3.7c). , , , [6a, 6b].
, (3.7) , , t
d/dt, t = t I (. .
2.1) d/ dt. , ,
( ),
.
(3.7)
[7] -.

3.2.6

, (3.7) (3.9) , 3.2.3.


, (3.7)
[7]
H H A
d A
,H]
= A

= [A

=
dt
rk pk rk pk
(3.12)

A H H A

I,
=
rk pk rk pk
.
H , T
,
H H H
d H
,H]
= H

= [H

0,
dt
rk pk rk pk

(3.13)

3.2.

143

dH H H H H H
H
= k

k+
Fk =
F k 0,
dt
pk pk r
pk
pk
r

(3.14)

, (3.5c).
, ,
(3.1b), (3.7).
, , , (3.7)
"", , , (3.5) . (3.13)
,
,
.
, , . , , ,
. , .
,
I.
- (3.7)
[A,B] =

A j
B B j
A
Ti (t, r, p, . . .)

Ti (t, r, p, . . .)
,
rj
p j ri
pj

(3.15)

(3.9) b [7]
,B]
=
[A

A B

b
b

= ( bA T T bB ) I = ( bA bB ) I,

(3.16)

144

3.

, (3.9),

} = {(| | )

}=

033 I33
I33 033

(3.17)

, (. [loc. cit.], (2.67))

T T = .

(3.18)

,
, 3.2.3. (3.4), ,B]

[A
, () .
,B],
, , [A
, -, 2.2.9.
,B]

[A
. ,
, , (3.13), , .
(3.9)
[7], . ,
. ,
,
. , ,
.

3.2.

3.2.7

145

, (3.7) [7]
R
drk H dt) =
A = ( pk
t2

t1

Rt2

(3.19)

= (pk Iik (t, r, p, d p/dt, . . .) dri H dt) = 0.


t1

(3.10), ,
R
R
drk H dt) (R
db H dt)

A = ( pk
=
t2

t1

t2

Rt2

t1

= (R I6 db H dt) = 0,

(3.20)

t1

(3.11), , , .
, ,
.

.
( 2.2.8), ,
drk H dt. , pk
[7],
.
, , . , . , (3.1b) 20-
.
, (3.1b) -

146

3.

. , ,
.


(3.6), .
(3.19) , . ,
dr/dt. ,

(3.20).
, .
, , ,


. ,
, , ,
. , -
.

3.2.8

--

-- [7]

A
+ H = 0,
t

A
pk = 0,
rk

A
0,
pk

(3.21)

3.2.

3.2.9

147

- , r, V (r), , , ,
F( , r, p, . . .),
dp
H
m
=
+ Fnsa ,
dt
r

Fnsa =

d F( , r, p, . . .),

(3.22)

nsa (nonselfadjointness), , [6a].



(3.7) H = p2 /2m +V (r) T = 1 F/( V / r). .
,
, , . -
.
.

3.2.10

[6b] (
),
(Birkhoffian mechanics).


Zt2

A =

(R db H dt) = 0,

(3.23a)

t1

R = R(b) = {R } = {Ak (r, p), Bk (r, p)},

(3.23b)

148

3.
k = 1, 2, 3,

, = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

(3.23c)

, ,
R = (p, 0), (3.10),
R = R(r, p), ()
r p.

(3.23)
db
H(b)
(b)
=
,
(3.24a)
dt
b
db
H(b)
= (b)
,
(3.24b)
dt
b
R R
(3.24c)
= ,
b
b
= ||( )1 || .

(3.24d)

, , [6b], " " . , (3.1b)


(3.24) b = (r, p) .
, ,
,
1.7, , -
, .
- , [6b],
, ,
[7], .
,
-

H(b)
db
= (b)
=
dt
b

3.2.

149

(3.24e)
H(b)

H(b)

= T6 (b)
=
.
b
b
, :
1) (b), (3.23c),
, (3.17),
(b) = T6 (b);
(3.25)
2) 6 6- T , ,
3)
T (b) = .
(3.26)
6

(3.9), () ,
. ,
, (. 3.5),
(. 3.3 3.4).
,
, , ,
, , , [6b].
,
- (3.7) (3.9)
(3.7c) Fk (t, r, p) -
- .

3.2.11

-, -

, - (3.13).

150

3.


, (3.5),
,
.
,
, , - [7],
, .
- - ,
T , , . T > <T ,
, I> = 1/T >
<I = 1/<T ">" "<". ,
,
,
.
. ( ). , - [7]

db
dt

drk /dt
d pk /dt

033 I33
I33 033

>

= >

> rk
> H/

6> > H =

I
=
> pk
b
> H/

I33 K33
033 I33

H/ pk
,
H/ rk + Fk

I6> = I33 K33 ,


033 I33

H/ rk
H/ pk

(3.27a)

(3.27b)

3.2.
b = {rk , pk },

H = p2 /2 m +V (r, p),

K = F/( H/ p) = F/(p/m).

151
(3.27c)

, [7]:
dA
> A
> H
= (A, H) = > > > > >
dt
b
b
A H H A H i A
k

(3.28)
pk rk pk pk k pi
r
A H H A
A
k
k
+
Fk
pk r
pk pk
r
, (A, H) , ,
dH/dt = (H, H) = pk F k .

(3.29)

, , . (3.27)
. , ,
.
(3.27) (3.1b)
. -, (3.4), (A, B) ( ). , -
, [A,B] =
(A, B) (B, A) ,
(. [7]).
, , , .
(3.27), [7],
Rt2

> A = > (R > d> b H dt) =


=

Rt2
>
t1

t1

>

(R I6 db H dt) = 0,

(3.30)

152

3.

H dt . ,
, .
, - [7]:

A
> A
> A
+ H = 0,
pk = 0,
0.
t
> rk
> pk

(3.31)

, -- , . , , ,
(3.1b), , -
(3.4).
- [6d].
- [7], , , ,
. ,
.
- - [7] -
,
2. , [14]. ,
, ,
(. . 2.1).

3.2.12


, .

3.2.

153

, -

T
0
t
U U = I6 =
,
(3.32a)
0 T 1
T = I

F
F
=I
,
H/ p
p/m

(3.32b)

t F
(3.1b).

,
. , : 6
I6 I6 = U I6 U t ;

(3.33a)

n n = U n U t = n (U U t ) = n I6 ;

(3.33b)

A B A,
B, ,
= U (A B) U t = A0 T B0 ,
A B AB
A0 = U A U t , B0 = U B U t , T = (U U t )1 = T t ;

(3.34a)
(3.34b)

( )

x2 = xt x x2 = U x2 U t =
= [(xt U t ) (U t1 U 1 ) (U x) (U U t ) =

= [x0t (T ) x0 ] I;

(3.35)

154

3.

, , -:
db/dt H/ b = 0
U db/dt U t U / b U t =
= db/dt (U U t ) (U U t ) (U t

1 U 1 )

(3.36)

b = 0,
(U H/ b U t ) (U U t ) = d b/dt
H/
H/ b = T H/ b U
b = b I,
t
U .
,
. , ,

.

3.2.13

,
, ,
,
1.7.
, , . ,
,
U U t .

(3.37)

, ,
. , ..

3.2.

155

, ,
, , , ( 1.7). ,
.
, , U
U t 6= , , ,
.
, . ,
, U - ,

U t .
U

(3.38)

,
,
.

3.2.14

[7]
U U t 6= ,

W W t 6= ,

(3.39)

= W U t = (I6> )t .

(3.40)


I6> = U W t ,

<
I6

U W t
,
n > = U n W t = n I6> , , .., [7].
, W
t
U .

156

3.2.15

3.

, . , ,
, , ,
:
U > > > W t > ,
(3.41a)
W < < < U t < .

(3.41b)

, .

3.2.16


. ,
,
(. [14] [6e]).

3.3
3.3.1

, , .

[6c,6d] ,
. , , ,

3.3.

157

, .

3.2.
. , , A, H, ..,
H,

.., . A,
. , A > , H > , > ..
,
.
, "" -, -
-, "", .

3.3.2

-, -, -


- .
, , ,
.
,

Zt2

(pk drk H dt) i h ln | i,

A=

(3.42)

t1

, -
,
t A = H i h t | i = H | i,

(3.43a)

k A = pk i h k | i = pk | i.

(3.43b)

158

3.

(3.19)
, , . , .
, [8]
Zt2

dxk H
dt] i I ln | i,
[ pk

A =

(3.44)

t1

I ln | i = i isoln| i.
i = i I , i
-- (3.21) (
, T r, ),
i = H T | i,
t A = H i h t | i = H |

(3.45a)

i = pk T | i,
k A = pk i h k | i = pk |

(3.45b)

, .
:
Zt2 h

A =

i
dt i I> ln | > i.
pk > d> xk H

(3.46)

t1

-- (3.31)
:
t A = H i h t | > i = H > | > i = H T > | > i,

(3.47a)

k> A = pk i h k> | > i = pk > | > i = pk T > | > i,

(3.47b)

, ,
.

[7] .

3.3.

3.3.3

159

, -- (3.23), , A / pk = 0. ,
,
, / p = 0, = (t, r),
. , , ,
pk = 0,
, A/
, = (t, r, p), , ,
.

(. 3.2):
1) , -
, : H(t, r, p) =
p2 /2m +V (r, p), V , ,
r, p, , , . . .),
I = I(t,
, - . , [2].
.
( )

H(t, r, p) = p2 /2m +V (r, p),
(3.48a)
Z

I = exp N dv (r) (r) ,


(3.48b)
,
. ,
.
2) I > 0 I = 1/T > 0,
, I
, , ,

160

3.

, ,
.., - , .
. ,
, .
3) , [7]:
= C(
c,
I = 1/T > 0, 3a) C
+, )

c

d = (c d) I,
c = c I = (n1 + i n2 ) I,

c,
d C,
c, d C,

(3.49)

n,
n R, n = n I,
R(
+, )
;
| i, | i, . . . ,
3b) H

i I C,
h ||

i = 1,
h ||

(3.50)

;
, r, , R)
3c) E(
, ,
= T (t, r, p, , , . . .) , = Diag.(1, 1, 1),
r = {rk } I,

(3.51)

r2 = (ri i j r j ) I R;

3d) (. 3.2) (2.13);


3e) - B,
. . . , I,
A,

AB = A T B, -

,B]

= A
B B
A,
[A

U = eX = (eXT ) I = I (eT X ),

(3.52a)
X = X ,

(3.52b)


C,

U = U
U = I.
U

(3.53)

3.3.

161

,
, , I I.
.
, , , , . , , I ,
limr I = I.
, , ,
. ,
, , ..,
tot = H
1 H
2 ...
tot = C
1 C
2 ..., H
Itot = I1 I2 . . . , C

(3.54)

, , , , ( ),
- ( ), .
,
. ,
, , , . ,
, , , I .

3.3.4

, 3.3,

162

3.

[7],
t | i = H |
i = H T | i = E |
i = E | i,
i

(3.55a)

i = pk T | i i
k | i = i Tki i | i,
pk |

(3.55b)

= {eiH t}|

(0)i
(0)i,
| (t)i = U |

(3.55c)

[7],
t) = U
0)
0)

{
A(
U = {eiH t}
A(
eit H },
A(
,H]

= A
dA / dT = [A
H H
A = A T H H T A,
i
= i I6 ,
[b ,b ] = i

b = (rk , pk ).

(3.56a)
(3.56b)
(3.56c)

, ( 3.2), , ,
.
, (3.55) (3.56)
It (t, r, , . . .) = Tt > 0 dt = It dt
t = Tt t . , (3.46b) , , , .
" " (3.55)
(3.56) . , ,
, . ,
(3.55a)
t = i It t | i = H |
i = H T | i =
i
m + U k (t, r)
vk +
= { pk pk /2
+U 0 (t, r)} T (t, r, p,
, , . . .) | (t, r)i =
(t, x)i
= E |
= E | (t, x)i,

(3.57)

3.3.

163

, , () ( ).
(4.56a) [9] , (
3.2). (3.55a) [10a], [10b] [11]
.
(3.55b) , , . (3.55b)
(3.56b)
[7] .

3.3.5

, () ,
h , I , - ,

r, p, , , . . .) = I > 0.
h = I > 0 I = I(t,

(3.58)

, , ,
,
=
hIi

I|
i
h |
= 1 = h ,
i
h ||

i = T 1 T | i = 1 | i = | i.
I|

(3.59a)
(3.59b)

164

3.

, , I = h , ,

I
...
I I,
In = I
(3.60a)
1

I2 I,

(3.60b)

,H]
= I
dI/ dt = [I
H H
I 0.
i

(3.60c)

, (3.55)
(3.56) - , [7].
, (3.56c):
1
1
h[xk, pk ]i = .
(3.61)
2
2
, ,
() SU(2)
k
H C,
xk pk

[i , j ] = i j j i = 2 ii jk k ,

(3.62a)

2 | i = k k | i = 3 | i,

(3.62b)

3 | i = 1 | i.

(3.62c)

, , ,
(. 3.3.6)

k = U k U , U U = I 6= I,

im1
0
im1
0

U=
, U =
,
0
im2
0
im2
2

m
0
m
0
1
1
I =
, T =
,
0 m22
0 m2
2

(3.63a)

(3.63b)

m , ,
, [15]

0 m21
0
im21
m1 0
1 =
, 2 =
, 3 =
.
(3.64)
m22 0
im22
0
0 m22

3.3.

165

[loc. cit.],

0 m1
0 m2

U=
, U =
,
m2 0
m1 0
2

2
(3.65)
m
0
m
0
1
1
, T =
,
I =
0 m22
0 m2
2
,

0
m1 m2
0
im1 m2
, 2 =
,
1 =
m1 m2
0
im1 m2
0
2

m1 0
3 =
,
(3.66)
0 m22
I [15].

C

H
[ i, j ] = i T j j T i = 2 i i jk k ,

(3.67a)

i = ( 1
1 + 2
2 + 3
3 )|
i = 3 | i,
2 |

(3.67b)

i = 1 | i,
3 |

(3.67c)

1/2, - .
,

SU(2)
, [15].
,
, , .
-
, .

166

3.

, , ,
H(t, x, p, , . . .) | i = E | i,
(3.68)
(. 1.7). ,
, , .
,
H(t, x, p, , . . .) | i H0 (t, x, p) T ( , . . .) | i = E | i,
(3.69)
.
(3.56a) ( ); , ;
.
,
, , . ,

.
, ,
,
.
[12]. , ,
, ,
-
.
, , , "" [1],
:

3.3.

167

1) "" - .
2) ""
( ) .
3) "" .
, , , .
, [15],
, .
, " " ,
= T . ""
, . ,
i = H | i = E | i, = T .
H |
, "" ( T )
"" H
| i.
,
[15]
.

3.3.6

, ,
, , ,
,
.
, .

168

3.

, , , . [12]
U U = I 6= I,

(3.70)


(): ,
I I = U I U ;

(3.71)

,
a = n, c,
a a = U a U = a (U U ) = a I;

(3.72)

A B ,

B = A T B,
A B A
A = U A U , B = U B U , T = (U U )1 = T ;

(3.73a)
(3.73b)


H | i = E | i U(H | i) =
= (U H U ) (U U )1 (U | i) =

(3.74a)

i;
= H T | i = H |

i dA/dt A H H A = 0
U (i dA/dt) U U(A H H A) U =

(3.74b)

A/dt
H H
A = 0;
= id
A

h || i U h || iU =

iI;
= (h |U )(U U)1 (U | i)(U U)1 = h ||

(3.74c)

3.3.

169


A(k) = A(0) + k[A, H] + k2 [[A, H, ], H] + . . . U A(k) U =
h
i
= U A(0) + k [A, H] + k2 [[A, H], H] + . . . U =
= A(0)
k)
+ k [
, H]
, H]
+ k 2 [[
, H]
+...,
A
A
= A(
k > 1,

(3.74d)

|T | 1;


( p 6= n)
i|
E(k) = E(0) + k h | V | i + k2 |hE|V|
+...
0n E0p
i
h
U E(k)U = U E(0) + kh |V | i + . . . U =
2

= E(0)
k)

| T V T | i + . . . ,
= E(
+ k h
k > 1,

(3.74e)

|T | 1;

..
, , , ,
, ..
, , (3.74d) (3.74e), . 1.3,
,
, . ,

. , 4, 5 6
, 1000 ,
.
, (3.74d) (3.74e), ,
( ) ,
( ) , ,

170

3.

( ) () 1) (. [6d]).
() , |T | 1 (|I|
, , , . ,
,
[9] (. [6d] ),
, AB
.
, (3.74d) (3.74e) k > 1,

.
|T | = 1/k. , (3.74d) (3.74e) .
, ,
, , ,
|T | .
, , . , 4 5, 1, , |I|
,
.
,
( 3.2.12).

[5e]
( . [12]).

3.3.7

,
( 3.2.13), , -

3.3.

171

, , ,
. , U U 6= I [12]
U = U T 1/2 ,

(3.75)

, H C C,

U = U
U = I.
U U U

(3.76)

- ,
A

B 0 , etc.,
I
U I,
B U (
A
B)
U = A 0
I I0 = U

(3.77a)

i = E |
i U H |
i =
H |
U |
i) = H 0 |
0 i =
= (U H U )(

(3.77b)

E |
i = E
U |
i = E |
0 i,
= U
, , .
,
U U = I I. ,
U = I I,
, U

W = I 6= I, I
W
.
- [12].

3.3.8

1.3 ,
,

172

3.

. ,
F = 1/r2 U (1/r2 ) U = 1/r2 , U U = I.

(3.78)

1.3 , ,
,
, ,
"" . , , ,
:
F = 1/r W (1/r) W = eAr /r, W W = eAr 6= I.

(3.79)

, " "
, , "" ,
, "" ,
"" .
, , .
, , . , ( 1.7), "" , .
,
U U = screening function 6= I,

(3.80a)

U H U = U (p p/2 m + 1/r)U =
p/ 2
m + (1/r) (U U ) =
= p

(3.80b)

m + any desired function.


= p2 / 2

3.3.

173

,
, , ,
, "" ,

.
, , ,
,
H+
2 . , , .
,
ad hoc , ,

- , , 2% . ,
3 4, ,
,
. , , ,
,
, .

3.3.9

-, -

2 , , , ,
[7].
, , , , ,
= A T B = A T B, T .
I = 1/T = I , AB

(3.81)

, , , (, -

174

3.

, ). ,
, :
I> = 1/T > ,

A > B = A T > B,

T > ,

(3.82a)

<

A < B = A <T B,

<

(3.82b)

I = 1/<T ,

T ,

.
I> = (<I)

(3.82c)

,
, ,

.

i > t> | > i = H > | i = H T > | > i =
= E > | > i = E | > i,
pk > | i = pk T > | i =
= i > k > | > i = i Tk>i i | > i,
> t

= {eiHT
| (t)> i = U > > | (0)i

> i,
} | (0)

(3.83a)

(3.83b)
(3.83c)


h< (0)|<t < i = h< | < H = h< | < E = h< | E 0 ,
<T H

h< (t)| = h< (0)| < <U = h< (0)|et

, h< (t)| < pk =

= h< (0)|<T < pk = h< (0)|<k i = h< (0)|i <Tki i,


T > = (<T ) ,

(3.84a)
(3.84b)
(3.84c)

, > (<), () , E 6= E 0 ( ).

3.3.

175


t) = U > > A(
0)
< <U =
A(
>
0)
{eit<T H },
{eiHT t } A(

,H)
= A < H H > A =
i dA / dt = (A

= A <T H H T > A,
(b ,b ) = i = i I6> , b = (rk , pk ).

(3.85a)

(3.85b)
(3.85c)

, , 2, , ..
, , ( ) .
,
.
, , .., ,
, , , .
, ,
. ,
. ,
""
, .

[7], 18 [8].
2, ,
,
,

176

3.

, ,
I> = {1/T1> , 1/T2> , . . .},
A > B = A T1> B + A T2> B + . . . ,

(3.86a)

<I = {1/<T , 1/<T , . . .},


1
2
A < B = A <T1 B + A <T2 B + . . . ,

(3.86b)

.
I> = (<I)

(3.86c)

(3.83)(3.85), (. [6e, 7]).



-
I I d = I,
(3.87a)
A B A d B = A (I) B,

(3.87b)

I A = A I = A I d d A = A d I d = A,

(3.87c)

, ,
I d = I, I,
. , , ..
-, - -
-, - -, , [14]
p, , . . .) Id = I (r , p , , . . .),
I(r,

(3.88a)

= A T B A
d B = A T d B,
AB

(3.88b)

= A
I = A Id
d A = A
d Id = A.
IA

(3.88c)

, , -, - -
.

3.3.

3.3.10

177

-,

, 3.3.6, -, , ,
.
3.3.6, ,
U U = I 6= I.
[12, 13]:
U U 6= I,W W 6= I,
(3.89a)

U W = I> ,W U = <I,

(3.89b)

, , ,
.
, , , .. [12,
13]
I I> = U I W ,
(3.90a)
n n > = U n W = n I> ,
A B A0 > B0 = U (A B) W =
= (U A W ) (U W )1 (U B W ),

(3.90b)
(3.90c)

H | i U (H | i) =
= (U H W ) (U W )1 (U | i) =

(3.90d)

= H T > | > i = H > | > i,


h | | i U (h | | i) W =
= (h | W ) (U W )1 (U | i) (U W ) =
= h< | > | > i I> .

(3.90e)

178

3.


. W

U = <I.
, ,
(3.89) .
- [14],
U U = I,

(3.91)

.
, , , .. [14],
I I d = U I U = I,

(3.92a)

n U n U = nd = n,

(3.92b)

A B Ad d Bd = U (A B) U .

(3.92c)

-, - -
.
, , , , (,
) (, ) . - , - -.

3.3.11

-, -

-, - , ,
. , -,
, .

3.3.

179

, , . ,
: . ,

[13]
Z Z 6= I, Z = Z T >1/2 ,

(3.93a)

Z Z Z > Z = Z > Z = I> .

(3.93b)

,
. ,
[13],
I> I>0 = Z > I> > Z I> ,
(3.94a)
A > B Z > (A > B) > Z = A 0 > B 0 ,

(3.94b)

, . ,
.
, .

3.3.12

, ,
, , :
;
;
;
.

180

3.


, , , ,
.
, ,
, - , , , - [9],
i

d H
H H
H = H T H H T H 0.
= H
dt

(3.95)

, - ,
, , ,
- [9] ,
i

d H
= H < H H > H = H <T H H T > H 6= 0.
dt

(3.96)


, , (3.95)
.
, , (.
. 1.6 ), ,

i ddtH = H < H H > H =

= (H <T1 H H T1> H)+

(3.97)

+ . . . 6= 0.
+(H <T2 H H T2> H)
,

3.3.

181

, . 2.1. ,
- , ,
-,
[15]
id d d d Ad /d d d t d = i dA/dt =
(3.98)
= Ad d H d H d d Ad = A H + H A.
, (. 1.6 2.1).
-, - - .

, , , " ".
,

.

182

3.


[1] Einstein, A., Podolsky, B. and Rosen, N.: Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935).
[2] Boyer, D.J.: Bonding Theory, McGraw Hill, New York (1968) [2a].
Hanna, M.W.:Quantum Mechanical Chemistry, Benjamin, New York
(1965) [2b]. Pople, J.A. and Beveridge, D.L.: Approximate Molecular
Orbits, McGraw Hill, New York (1970) [2c]. Linnet, J.W.: The Electronic
Structure of Molecules, A New Approach, Methuen Press, London, and
Wiley, New York (1964) [2d].
[3] Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Hadronic J. 21, 633 (1998) [3a]; Intern.
J. Hydrogen Energy 24, 943 (1999) [3b]; Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy 25,
173 (2000) [3c].
[4] Sinanoglu, O.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences 47, 1217 (1961) [4a].
Lewis, G.N.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38, 762 (1916) [4b]. Langmuir, I.: J.
Am. Chem. Soc. 41, 868 (1919) [4c]. Boyd, R.J. and Yee, M.C.: J. Chem.
Phys. 77, 3578 (1982) [4d]. Cann, N.M. and Boyd, R.J.: J. Chem. Phys.
98, 7132 (1992) [4e].
[5] Lagrange, L.: Mechanique Analytique (1788), reprinted by GauthierVillars, Paris (1888) [5a]; Hamilton, W.R.: On a General Method
in Dynamics (1834), reprinted in Hamiltons Collected Works,
Cambridge Univ. Press (1940) [5b]. Jacobi, C.G.: Zur Theorie del
Variationensrechnung under der Differentialgleichungen (1937) [5c].
[6] Santilli, R.M.: Foundations of Theoretical Mechanics, Vol. I (1978) [6a]
and II (1983) [6b], Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York; Elements
of Hadronic Mechanics, Vol. I [6c] and II [6d] (1995) and III, in
preparation [6i], Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kiev; Isotopic, Genotopic
183

184

and Hyperstructural Method in Theoretical Biology, Ukraine Academy of


Sciences, Kiev (1996) [6e].

[7] Santilli, R.M.: Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. 42, 7


(1996).
[8] Animalu, A.O.E. and Santilli, R.M.: in Hadronic Mechanics and
Nonpotential Interactions, M. Mijatovic, Editor, Nova Science, New York
(1990).
[9] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 1, 574 (1978).
[10] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 3, 440 (1979) [10a]. Mignani, R., Hadronic
J. 5, 1120 (1982) [10b].
[11] Myuing, H.C. and Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 5, 1277 and 1367 (1983).
[12] Santilli, R.M.: Found. Phys. 27, 625 (1997).
[13] Santilli, R.M.: Found. Phys. 27, 1159 (1997).
[14] Santilli, R.M.: Hyperfine Interactions 109, 63 (1997); Intern. J. Modern
Phys. D7, 351 (1998).
[15] Santilli, R.M.: JINR Rapid Comm. 6, 24 (1993); Acta Appl. Math. 50,
177 (1998).

4


4.1

,
(., , [1]) :
1) , ,
;
2) -, ;
3) ,
.
, ,
,
, , ,

U = eiHt ,

U U = U U = I,

H = H ,

(4.1)

.
20- , "" - 1.
185

186 4.
. :
1) , ;
2) -, , , ,
;
3) , "" , .

, . , ,
U U = U U 6= I,
(4.2)

.
, , -
.
3 , [2], ,
, , .
3, , "" ( ) "" ,
, .


.

4.1.

187

, , , , , ,
p, , , ...) 6= I,
U U = I(r,

(4.3)

, I,
I, .

. 4.1: , . ( ).
, , , ( ), , , . ,
. ( 3)
, .
,
. ,
, . , ,
.

188 4.
, (' 108 ),

(1 = 1013 ).
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
1 ,
lim

r1

p, , , . . .) = I,
I(r,

1,
|I|

|T | 1.

(4.4a)
(4.4b)

, .
(4.4b),
, 3.6, (. (3.74d) (3.74e)),
, .
, (4.4a) (4.4b),
,
.
, ,
( 3). ,a priori

.
,
.

. , .

4.1.

189

,
, 1. ,
(. . 1.7).
, ,
, ,
.

2 , 3
(. [3, 4]).
, (. 3.3.6), - . , , , .

. 4.2: , ,
1 (= 1013 ), , ,
.

190 4.

4.2

, H2 , [5].
.
H- , H2
() ,
[1].
[5] ,
"", oo- ,
(. 4.3).
, [39] , oo-,
,
.
, , ,
, 4.3.

4.2. 191

. 4.3: ,

- , , . . 4.7 .
, . , , ,
, .
H- oo- ,
. , .
oo- ,

0, 2e .
, : H2
H2 O ; ; ;
. , ,
HO, HC .., 3.
. , , , , , ,
.

192 4.

. 4.4: .
, .

. , 1 ,
,
1013 . ,
, , ,
(. 8). , , -
. , ,
, .

= A T B |T | 1 ( 3). ,
AB
, . ,
, ,
, ,
.

4.2. 193
.4.4. ,
. ,
, , ,
. , , in media
virtus,
. , () , ,
, ( 4.3).
, , ,
,
, ,
, ,
(. . 4.4).
, ,
, , , ,
.


= A T B T AB
1. ,
"" -
.

, 1, ,

ad hoc . , , ,
.

194 4.
, , .
, - ,
(. 4.2),
1978 ., . ,
,
,
, .
,
1 . ,
, , . 6,
,
, ,
1 .
,
. , , , .
, , , :
1) , , , , .. , , , - .
, , , . ,
,
, ,
.

4.2. 195
2) , , , . ,
, , . ,
- ,
, - , ,
(. 4.4);
3) ,

, ,
,
.. ,
, .
,
, , , -
.
, 1 , oo-, o-
(. 4.3). . 4.4 (. 8),
.
() , oo-
o-. , : , , (, ,

196 4.
oo- ) .
,
, ,
H- H2 ,
, ( 8).
:
1) ;
2) ,
;
3) ( ) ,
;
4) "" ;
5) ;
6) , . ,
, ,
o-,
(-).

4.2. 197

. 4.5: ,
,
,
. 1,
, --
, . , , .
, ,
. 4.3,
oo- (
), o- . , o-
,
. 7, .

198 4.
3,
. ,
,
.
.
, "" ( "" ), ,
"" , ( ""
).
, ( )
H-, .
H- , , , ,
( )
().
, ,
, , 3.
( ) ,
8.
,
. , ( ) , , ( ).
6.

4.2. 199

. 4.6: , ,
, , (. 4.2),
.

200 4.
[7a] 0
.
[7b] [7c]

.

, , ()
,
(. 4.2)
. , .
0 , ,
. ,
, [7b] [7c]
. , , H-, . ,

, .
, ""
, , , . "" , ,
"",
, , , -. [3c, 3d, 4a].
(), -

4.2. 201

. -
, 1024 .
, , , . , , , , .
, ,

, , , .
, (), , ,
.


,

. ,
, 20- - .
,
, , , , .
, "" .
, , , "" . ,

202 4.
.

4.3

(. 4.3) ,
(. 4.4). , ,

,
.
,
, , ,

.
,
,
. ,
. , ,
.
,
, , "" ,
. , ,
, .

.
, -

4.3. 203
, , , . - , , ,

, , , , .
, "" ,
(. 4.4). , , ,
const/r,
, , . ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
,
1 , . ,
,
1 ,
.

, e
e , (r) = (r),

p p e2
+
m
r

(r) = E (r).

(4.5)

, H- ze, , ,

204 4.
(4.5) , ,
, ,
( 1),
U U = I = 1/T > 0,
(4.6a)
A = U A U ,

A = p, H, . . . ,

= U ,
B = A T B,
U (A B) U = A

2
2
1
e
z

e
p T p T + T
(r) = E0 (r),
m
r
r
(r) = i T (r),
p

(4.6b)
(4.6c)
(4.6d)
(4.6e)

T - (4.5),
, . ,
,
.
(4.6) [3] . r = |r|, [7]
N /

I = e

1 + N / ,

N=

dr3 (r)1 (r)2 ,

(4.7a)

T 1 N / ,

(4.7b)

1,
|I|

(4.7c)

|T | 1,

lim I = 1,

r1

(4.7d)

, (4.7c) (4.7d) (4.7a) (4.7b).


, ,

N exp(b r),
(4.8)

4.3. 205
N ,

1
rc = ,
(4.9)
b

exp(b r)
M 1
,
(4.10)
r
M [7a].

V
ebr
T 1 Hulten = 1 V0
,
(4.11)
r
(1 ebr )/r
, .
,
1 V0 1
.
(4.12)
b
b
r
, ( )

e2 e2
e2
VHulten
ze2
ebr
+ T + 1

= V
, (4.13)
r
r
r
r
r
1 ebr
VHulten r

.
|T | = 1,
0 [7a] [7b, 7c],
V b,

1 d 2d
m
ebr
r
+
E0 +V
(r) = E0 (r). (4.14)
r2 dr dr
1ebr
2 h 2

[7a], 5
.
,
2

2 h 2 b2
m V
1
n ,
(4.15)
|E0 | =
4m
2 h 2 b2 n

206 4.
, , .
,
[7a],
1
k1 =
,
(4.16a)
b
k2 =

m V

2 h 2 b2

(4.16b)

, (1.39)
, k2 , , k2 1 [7].
, , ,
m V
= 1.
(4.17)
2 h 2 b2
, V
, [7],
V 2 h 2 0.5 MeV = 1 MeV,

(4.18)

, 1,

rc = b

h 2
m V

1/2
=

h
m 0

1.054 1027
1.82 1027 1.236 1020

1/2
=
1/2
=

(4.19)

= 6.8432329 1011 = 0.015424288 = 0.006843


A,
, : 1) rc V , , ; 2) ,
; 3)
(
m ).

4.3. 207
,
, , " ", , .
(4.19).
k1 :
k1 =

V
= 0.19,
2 k2 b c0

k2 1.

(4.20)

, 0 [7a] [7b, 7c] (.


1.9),
k1 = 0.34, k2 = 1 + 8.54 102 ,

k1 = 1.3 z 104 , k2 = 1.0 z,

(4.21a)
(4.21b)

, ,
,
,

2
mV
V
2 h 2 b2
|E0 | =
1 =
(k2 1)2 = 0.
(4.22)
2
2
2
4m
4k
h b
2
, , ,
.

( " " [7a])
,
. , , , 0 ,
, , , . , ,
.

,

208 4.
. ,
, ,
- , .
,
[7a]

h
k1
| (0)| EeKin
= 7.16104
.

2
(k2 1)3 bc0
4 h

(4.23)

= , ,
k2 1, , , E0 0.
. , ,
, , [7b],
, . 0

, ,
- , ,
, .
, . .
, , [7b, 7c]. , ,
, , .
. ,

, .

4.3. 209
,
( ) , , ,
. ,
, 2e ,
.
, , , .
, (
),
(4.5) , ,
, ( 1.7). , .
, (4.7) ,
, . ,
,
(4.7a) , I (4.7d), ,
.
, (4.7a), (4.5)
: ,
/ ; , - (4.7a);
, - .
, T ,
(4.7b),
, (4.7c),
|T | = |1 N / | 1.

(4.24)

3, ,
.

210 4.

4.4

,
[5] (, . 4.3, 4.4 4.5).

, , ,
,
.
1 MeV, = 0,
= 2 e, 0,
= rc = b1 = 6.8432329 1011 =
= 0.015424288 = 0.006843
A.

(4.25a)

(4.25b)

,
, ,
.

, (4.25), ,
,
,
( ) ( , . 4.3).
, ,
,
.
H2 [1],

1
1
p1 p1 +
p2 p2 +
(4.26)
21
22

e2
e2
e2
e2 e2
e2
+

+
| i = E | i.
r12 r1a r2a r1b r2b R

4.4.

211

,
U U |rrc = I = 1/T 6= I,

(4.27)


rc = b1 = r12 6.8 1011 cm,

(4.28)

,
U U |r1010 6= I,

Ir1010 = I.

(4.29)

,
, .
(4.29) , . , (4.29) ,

( 1).
(4.26) ( ) [1]
| i = |12 i |1a i |1b i |2a i |2b i |R i,
HTot = H12 H1a H1b H2a H2b HR .

(4.30a)
(4.30b)

, ,
r12 .
:

(r
)
12

U(r12 )U (r12 ) = I = exp


dr12 (r12 )1 (r12 )2 ,
(4.31)
(r12 )
.
, , , ()

212 4.
,
( ),

h 2
h 2

T 1 T 1
T 2 T 2 +
2 1
2 2
e2
e2
e2
e2
e2 e2

+
r12 r1a r2a r1b r2b R

| i = E | i.

(4.32)

, , (4.32) :

h 2
h 2
er12 b
2
2

1
2 V

2 1
2 2
1 er12 b
e2
e2
e2
e2 e2

+
r1a r2a r1b r2b R

| i = E | i.

(4.33)

.
, , . H2
H-. ,
(4.33) ,
.

4.5

(4.33)
, . ,
, .
, (. . 4.3)
r12 r1a , r1b ,

r12 0,

(4.34a)

4.5. 213
r1a r2a = ra ,

r1b r2b = rb .eqno(4.34b)

, H- 2000 , .
, (4.33)
, , H+
2
[1], H2 .

, (, oo-, . 4.4),

h 2
h 2
er12 b

21
21 V
2 1
22
1er12 b
2e2 2e2 e2

+
ra
rb
R

| i = E | i.

(4.35)

,
H2 , H+
2
. 6 .

. .
,

. ,
1 , ,
.
, (4.35) H2 .

.
,
H- , O, , - ,
, HOH, ,

214 4.
HO OH, ,
.
, (4.35),
, ,
. , (4.35) 4.3,
m = 2 m .

(4.36)

, 4.7 .
, ,
.
, , , , . ,

.
, . , ,
, . 4.4.
, : , , ,
. ,
.
,
,
m < 2 m .

(4.37)

, m > 2m .

4.5. 215

(4.35). 6, , (4.35)
(4.36) . , , .
, ,
, (4.19). , 4.3, .
(4.35) . ,
(4.35)
rc = b1 6.8 1011 .

(4.38)

(4.35), ,
rc = b1 6.8 1011 ,
(4.39)
, 4.2 4.3, ,
,
1011 , .
, (4.36) (4.39), (4.38), -
, .
,
,
, .
(4.35) , , , R. ,
. ,
(4.35), R ,
, .
, (4.33) (4.35) , , , ,

216 4.
, , : 1)
; 2) ; 3) .
, (4.35)

H-, .

4.6

[5], ,
(4.35) . 4.3,
, ,
(4.25). ,
, , ad hoc .
, , [6]. [838]
.
,
, ,
, 6.8 1011 .
, erb /(1 erb ), rc = b1 , . ,
(4.35)
erb
1 Aebr

,
r
1 erb

(4.40)

A .
,
. , -

4.6. ... 217


(4.40), , .
4.3,
, "" , .
,
.
, , ,
, -
.
, " "
6.8 1011 .
, , , , ..
,
(4.40). ,
, ,

, . ,
.
,
(4.35) ,
,
(..)

2 1
1 2 2
,
(4.41)
H = +
2
ra rb R
H+
2 [1] -

218 4.
= 1 = 2 e = 1
e = 2.

. S
1. S

. H S
. E .
1

HC = ESC; define C = S 2 C0 , then HS 2 C0 = ES 2 C0 ,


1

HC = ESC; C = S 2 C0 , HS 2 C0 = ES 2 C0 ,
1

(S 2 HS+ 2 C0 ) = H 0C0 = E(S 2 SS 2 )C0 = EC0 ,

(4.42a)
(4.42a)
(4.42b)


1
1
1
S 2 , S 2 = S+ 2 . C0 H 0
1
C = S 2 C 0 .
,
. - C

i = ( j : j = k ; =
ci, j

a j,k

3/4

exp[( A)2 ] = / , A).

(4.43)

1s ;
" " 1s
[18]. s-, p-, d- f -
1s , 1s-
H2 .

4.6. ... 219



( , H-)
. , 1s 1.191 2-, 3- 4- ,
.

, , ,
1.4011 (= 0.74143 ). , .
7.61509174 (= 207.2051232 ), .

1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4 f


, ,
, [12]. , 6- (6G) 1s [18]
0.499946 H , 0.001 .

,
,
,
H2 6
. E(1)
( 11.473164 ) ,
- 1/R.

220 4.

4.7

, ,
, , .
, , , .
[5], H2 ,
, (. . 4.7).
[20] 1930- 2%
. [22] " ", ,
. -, . [23],
,

. . [24],
(MCSCF) . [25] -- [26], , , ,
, [27] Cr2 .
, ""
,
--, .

4.7. ...

221

. 4.7: ,
,
. 4.4 .
,
. , , , , ,
,
1. , ,
, . , ,
.

222 4.
, : ? ,
, .
- [1] (
, [27]) .
, - ,
, 1/2
. , . , [27] 1.39 - Cr2 Mo2 . ,

FC = ESC;

1
Fi, j = Hi, j + Pk,l [(i, j|k, l) (i, k| j, l)],
2
k,l
ZZ

(i, j|k, l) =
Pi, j = 2 cn,i cn, j

i (1) j (1)

1
k (2)l (2) d 1 d 2 ,
r12

(4.44a)

(4.44b)

(sum n only over occupied orbitals).

(4.44c)

( n ).

(4.44c)

Pi, j = 2 cn,i cn, j


n

[7c] 1995 .
, 0 - [7a], - , . ,
,
. , -

.

4.7. ...

223

1978 . , [7a], ,
.
, , .
, -

. ,

, [16], .
1
=
r12

r Z
1
1
2
]ds,
s 2 exp[sr12

1+

(4.45a)

p+q
1
s=
.
pq
1 t2

(4.45b)

, , s = 0. , ,
, (4.45). (
.. ) ,
, [6] 1950 . .
SCF [8, 28] .
, .
,
. ,
.
,
. exp[r2 ]/r,

224 4.

, ,
x, y, z .

, ,
1 2 exp[ r2 ]
Y (r) =
.
(4.46)
r
,
F0 , [8, 28] 1
1
. s 2 (s + ) 2
, .

p+q
1
1+
(s + ) =
,
(4.47)
pq
1 t2
1

(s + )1/2 s 2 .
70- (
20 50 .)
64-,
, 14 .
( ) 1.0 1015 ( )
.
, ,
14 , , , ,
, 12 [28].

1.01015 1.79940
1013 1.01015
( ).
, ,
70- ,

4.7. ...

225

s = 0.0,
, .
1.0 1015 .

exp( (r12 )2 )
cC(2), dD(2) =
(4.48a)
aA(1), bB(1)

r12
=
Z1

2 5/2 [ab/(a+b)]AB2 [cd/(c+d)]CD2

pq p + q

[pq/(p+q)]PQ t 2

[pq/(p + q)]t 2
[pq/(p + q)]t 2 + (t 2 1)

1/2
dt,

(4.48b)

p+q
=+
, p = (a + b), q = c + d, = 1.0 1015 , (4.48c)
pq + (p + q)
pole = (1.79940 1013 )e[pq/(p+q)]PQ

2 2

(4.48d)

,
-- (SCF), F0 ,
(4.46). H2 1.4011 .
6G-1s [18],
H- -- SASLOBE,
512 .
,
E( ). . ,
, , " " rc
.
( : A) . ,

226 4.
rc , b 5,
b=

1
exp[ rc2 ]
=A
,
rc
rc

A = exp[+ rc2 ].

(4.49)

,
( ),

A
ln 2
ln 2 2
A exp 2 rc = , =
, A = 2.
(4.50)
rc
2
rc
4.3 0.6843 1010 , 0.012931401 .
--
H2 , SCF
1.17446875 , 0.0118447 1.18447
1010 , 1s . , b 1/rc H2
. 6G-1s, 1G-2s,
1G-2p .
4.B.

4.8


, - [22]
[2].
CISD -- SCF
99 99 "codetor" [6] . 1s 1.191 6G-1s , 1G-2s, 2G-2p, 1G-3s, 1G-3p, 3G-3d, Thd 1G4sp ( ), 4G-4 f

[17].

4.8.

227

4.1: .


1s
2s
2p
3s
3p
3d
4sp
4f
(. .)
SCF (. .)
CI (. .)
CINO (. .)
SAS (. .)
(. .) [30]
()
()

H2

H2 a

H2

1.191
0.50
0.50
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.25
0.25
*
1.12822497
1.14231305
1.14241312
*
1.174474
1.4011
*

6.103
24.35
24.35
16.23
16.23
16.2b
12.18
12.18
7.61509174
*
*
*
*
*
0.2592
*

1.191
0.50
2.36
*
*
*
*
*
*
1.13291228
*
*
1.174444
1.174474
1.4011
0.01124995

(5.1).
3d 16.20 "" 3d .
b

, ,
,

rc . 4.1.
C.I. - 1.14241305 ,
SCF 1.12822497 . " " (CINO),

[29]. , , , 1.14241312
( 7.0 107 ), , 99-

228 4.
,
.
SASLOBE n7 , n5 (' n ), SASLOBE C.I.
20 300 MFLOPS Silicon
Graphics.
,
. ,
. ,
SASLOBE
.
, , , , 1000
C.I. ,
vs. .
, , ( ),
--, .
H2
. ,
,
(. ).

H F,
100% SCF
, SCF
-.
HF,

4.8.
4.2:
.

SCF- (DH) (. .)
-d (. .)
- (. .)
Rc (
A)
QMC d,e (. .)
-. (. .)
(%)
SCF- (D)
- (D)
. (D)
h (:)

229

,
H2
1.132800a

H2 O
76.051524

1.174441c
0.00671
1.17447
1.174474 f
99.9b
0.0
0.0
0.0
0:15.49

76.398229c
0.00038
76.430020e
91.6b
1.996828
1.847437
1.85g
10:08.31

HF
100.057186
100.07185d
100.459500c
0.00030
100.44296d
100.4595d
103.8
1.946698
1.841378
1.82g
6:28.48

(DH+ ) - (10S/6P), [6,2,1,1,1/4,1,1]+H2 P1 +3D1.


a LEAO-6G1S + GLO-2S GLO-2P.
b ,
HF-.
c - HF.
d - QMC [33].
e QMC . [30].
f 7 . [34].
g Chemical Rubber Handbook, 61- ., . E60.
h O2 Silicon Graphics workstation (100 MFLOPS max.).
- (QMC) [33],
, 10 . ,
HF 8 CPU 100 MFLOP Silicon
Graphics O2 workstation.
(4.48d) 100% HF, H2 O , . HF F , rc
" " . -

230 4.
. H2 O
HF H2 .
H F 4.2.

( )
.

4.9

, [5],
, ,
oo-
.
, ,
, - , , .
, ,
, . , ,
, , , ,
(. 1.7).
, ,
, ;
[3b] ,
.

4.9.

231

, ,
,
, , "
" ().
0.69
10
10
. "", , ,
,
.
, ,
, , .
, , .
, , ,
. , .
[7a] 1978 , 0 -
. . , 0
- , : 0 , "" ,
;
0 ,
; 0 ; .
, , , 0 - ,

232 4.
,
0 e +e+ , [7a].
, 0 - , ( ).
[7b] 1994 [7c] 1995 ,
, .
0 -. ,
, , . ,
, -
.
, -
, ,
( 1.9). , , ,
,

( ).
-, ,
,
.
, 0 -
,
I I = 1/T ,

(4.51a)

4.9.
1,
|I|

233

|T | 1,

(4.51b)

A B A T B,

(4.51c)

.
,
, ,
.
, ,
, . . , , " ",
.
20-
[6, 838] - ,

.
, [5] , :
1) , ,
.
2) H2 H2 O H-.
3) ,
.
4) ,
, ,
,
, ,

234 4.
.
5) , , , , .
6) . " "
,
,
.
7) " " [35], -
.
, " " - " ".
8) "", KCl , ,
[36], [37].
9) , , 1000
(. 7).
,
, , 0.69 1010 , 4.3, 4.6 4.7, ,
0.00671
A.
, ,

, ,
[38].
,
,

4.9.

235

. , .
, ,

, [5], , , , "
" " ".
, ,

.
7, ,

.

4.A H2
[5]
, (4.35), .
(4.25).


: . .
, 1978-1997
3 BODY H2 ()

236 4.
ipear = 1, dt = 0.0, tk = 0.0, imd = 0, ntime = 60, mul = 1, iqd = 0,
icor = 3, mdtim = 0, idb = 0.

ELECTRONIUM-PAIR CALCULATION

Atomic Core
1.
Z1s =
Z3s =
Z4p =
1.
Z1s =
Z4p =

X
0.000000
6.103 Z2s =
16.230 Z3p =
12.180 Z4f =
0.000000
6.103 Z2s =
12.180 Z4f =

Nuclear
Y
0.000000
24.350
16.230
12.180
0.000000
24.350
12.18O

Z2p =
Z3d =

Coordinates
Z
0.000000
24.350
-16.200

Z2p =
Z3d =

0.259200
24.350
-16.200

Basis Size = 50 and Number of Spheres = 142 for 2 Electrons.


Distance Matrix in Angstroms:

H
H

H
H
0.00000 0.13716
0.13716 0.00000

A-B-C Arcs in Degrees for 2 Atoms.


The Center of Mass is at Xm = 0.000000, Ym = 0.000000, Zm = 0.129600.
One-Electron Energy Levels:

4.9.
E( 1)
E( 2)
E( 3)
E( 4)
E( 5)
E( 6)
E( 7)
E( 8)
E( 9)
E(10)
E(11)
E(12)
E(13)
E(14)
E(15)
E(16)
E(17)
E(18)
E(19)
E(20)
E(21)
E(22)
E(23)
E(25)

= -11.473116428176
= -4.103304982059
= -1.621066945385
= -1.621066909587
=
0.735166320188
=
3.760295564718
=
3.760295673022
=
4.206194459198
=
4.813241859203
= 11.2330B0571453
= 15.70B645318078
= 15.708645469273
= 18.535761604401
= 18.535761951543
= 19.329445299735
= 19.329445306194
= 19.644048052034
= 24.002368034839
= 24.002368621986
= 24.076849036707
= 24.076853269415
= 24.574406183060
= 26.836031180463
= 27.860752485358

E(26)
E(27)
E(28)
E(29)
E(30)
E(31)
E(32)
E(33)
E(34)
E(35)
E(36)
E(37)
E(38)
E(39)
E(40)
E(41)
E(42)
E(43)
E(45)
E(46)
E(47)
E(48)
E(49)
E(50)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

237
28.974399759209
28.974400079775
31.002613061833
31.002614578175
35.201145239721
38.003259639003
44.948398097510
44.94839B118458
52.259825531212
57.732587951875
57.732589021798
68.743644612501
68.743644649428
73.195648957615
79.303486379907
85.865499885249
85.865531919077
127.196518644932
130.602186113463
130.602190550265
137.484863078186
158.452350229845
205.158233049979
446.152984041077

epair Energy = -7.615091736818.

4.B H2
[5] , (4.33), 6G-1s . (4.25). , ,
1.174447 .

238 4.


: . .

,
1978-1997
Test of SASLOBE on H2
SANTILLI-RADIUS = 0.01184470000000.
Cutoff = (A/r)*(exp(-alp*r*r)), A = 0.20E+01, alp = 0.49405731E+04.

Atomic Core
1.
Z1s =
Z3s =
Z4p =
1.
Z1s =
Z3s =
Z4p =

X
0.000000
1.200 Z2s =
0.000 Z3p =
0.000 Z4f =
0.000000
1.200 Z2s =
0.000 Z3p =
0.000 Z4f =

Nuclear
Y
0.000000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Z2p =
Z3d =

Coordinates
Z
0.000000
0.000
0.000

Z2p =
Z3d =

1.401100
0.000
0.000

Basis Size = 2 and Number of Spheres = 12 for 2 Electrons.


Distance Matrix in Angstroms:

H
H

H
H
0.00000 0.74143
0.74143 0.00000

The center of Mass is at: Xm = 0.000000, Ym = 0.000000, Zm = 0.700550.


Spherical Gaussian Basis Set:

4.9.

No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 12

alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha

239

=
0.944598E+03 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
=
0.934768E+02 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
=
0.798123E+01 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
=
0.519961E+01 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
=
0.235477E+00 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
=
0.954756E+00 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
= 0.1944598E+03 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
= 0.7934768E+02 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
= 0.40798123E+01 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
= 0.11519961E+01 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z
= 0.37235477E+00 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 2
= 0.12954756E+00 at X = 0.0000 Y = 0.0000 Z

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.4011
1.4011
1.4011
1.4011
1.4011
1.4011

a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.
a.u.

Contracted Orbital No. 1:


0.051420*(1), 0.094904*(2), 0.154071*(3), 0.203148*(4), 0.169063*(5), 0.045667*(6).
Contracted Orbital No.2:
0.051420*(7), 0.094904*(8), 0.154071*( 9), 0.203148*(10), 0.169063*(11),
0.045667*(12).
***** Nuclear Repulsion Energy in au = 0.71372493041182. *****
Overlap Matrix:
#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
1s 1.000
1s 0.674

2
0.674
1.000

S(-1/2) Matrix:
#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
2
1s 1.263 -0.490
1s -0.490 1.263

H
H

at-orb
1
2
1s -1.127 -0.965
1s -0.965 -1.127

H-Core Matrix:
#
1
2

Initial-Guess-Eigenvectors by Column:

240 4.
#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
1s 0.546
1s 0.546

2
1.239
-1.239

One-Electron Energy Levels: E(1) = -1.249428797385, E(2) = -0.499825553916.


minus
total
minus
total
minus
total
minus
total
minus
total
minus
total

(1,1/1,1)
(1,1/1,1)
(1,1/1,1)
(1,1/1,2)
(1,1/1,2)
(1,1/1,2)
(1,1/2,2)
(1,1/2,2)
(1,1/2,2)
(1,2/1,2)
(1,2/1,2)
(1,2/1,2)
(1,2/2,2)
(1,2/2,2)
(1,2/2,2)
(2,2/2,2)
(2,2/2,2)
(2,2/2,2)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.75003658795676
0.08506647783478
0.66497011012199
0.44259146066210
0.02960554295227
0.41298591770983
0.55987025041920
0.01857331166211
0.54129693875709
0.30238141375547
0.01938180841827
0.28299960533720
0.44259146066210
0.02960554295227
0.41298591770983
0.75003658795676
0.08506647783478
0.66497011012199

Block No. 1 Transferred to Disk/Memory. The Two-Electron Integrals


Have Been Computed.
Electronic Energy = -1.88819368266525 a.u., Dif. = 1.8881936827,
Electronic Energy = -1.88819368266525 a.u., Dif. = 0.0000000000.
Energy Second Derivative = 0.00000000000000.
e1a = -2.499 e1b =
e2a = 0.611 e2b =

-2.499
0.611 e2ab = 0.611

Iteration No. = 2, alpha = 0.950000.


Electronic Energy = -1.88819368266525 a.u., Dif. = 0.0000000000.
Total Energy = -1.17446875 a.u.
One-Electron Energy Levels: E(1) = -0.638764885280, E(2) = 0.561205833046
Reference State Orbitals for 1 Filled Orbitals by Column:

4.9.
#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
1s 0.546
1s 0.546

241
2
1.239
-1.239

Dipole Moment Components in Debyes:


Dx = 0.0000000, Dy = 0.0000000, Dz = 0.0000000.
Resultant Dipole Moment in Debyes = 0.0000000.
Computed Atom Charges: Q(1) = 0.000, Q(2)= 0.000.
Orbital Charges: 1.000000, 1.000000.
Mulliken Overlap Populations:
#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
1s 0.597
1s 0.403

2
0.403
0.597

Total Overlap Populations by Atom:


H
H

H
H
0.597222 0.402778
0.402778 0.597222

Orthogonalized Molecular Orbitals by Column:


#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
1s 0.422
1s 0.422

2
2.172
-2.172

Wiberg-Trindie Bond Indices:


#
1
2

H
H

at-orb
1
1s 0.127
1s 0.127

2
0.127
0.127

Wiberg-Trindie Total Bond Indices by Atoms:


H
H

H
H
0.127217 0.127217
0.127217 0.127217

242 4.


[1] Boyer, D.J.: Bonding Theory, McGraw Hill, New York (1968) [1a].
Hanna, M.W.: Quantum Mechanical Chemistry, Benjamin, New York
(1965) [1b]. Pople, J.A. and Beveridge, D.L.: Approximate Molecular
Orbits, McGraw Hill, New York (1970) [1c]. Schaefer, H.F.: The
Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
Mass. (1972) [1d].
[2] Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Ab Initio Hadronic Chemistry: Basic
Methods, Hadronic J. 21, 633 (1998).
[3] Santilli, R.M.: Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. 42, 7
(1996) [3a]; Found. Phys. 27, 625 (1997) [3b]; Nuovo Cimento Lett.
37,545 (1983) [3c]; J. Moscow Phys. Soc. 3, 255 (1993) [3d]; Elements
of Hadronic Mechanics, Vol. I and II, Ukraine Academy of Sciences,
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Methods in Theoretical Biology, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kiev
(1996) [3f]; Intern. J. Modern Phys. A14, 3157 (1999) [3g].
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Tsagas, Gr. and Sourlas, D.S.: Algebras, Groups and Geometries 12,
1 and 67 (1995) [4b]. Tsagas, Gr. and Sourlas, D.: Mathematical
Foundations of the Lie-Santilli Theory, Ukraine Academy of Sciences,
Kiev (1992) [4c]. Lohmus, J., Paal, E. and Sorgsepp, L.: Nonassociative
Algebras in Physics, Hadronic Press (1995) [4d]. Vacaru, S.: Interactions,
Strings and Isotopies on Higher order Superspaces, Hadronic Press
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[5] Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy, 24, 943
(1999).
243

244

[6] Lewis, G.N.: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38, 762 (1916) [6a]. Langmuir, I.: J.
Am. Chem. Soc., 41, 868 (1919) [6b]. Frost, A.A.: J. Chem. Phys., 47,
3707 (1967) [6c]. Bates, D.R., Ledsham, K. and Stewart, A.L.: Phil.
Tran. Roy. Soc. (London) A246, 215 (1954) [6e]. Wind, H.: J. Chem.
Phys. 42, 2371 (1965) [6f]. Boys, S.F.: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A200,
542 (1950) [6g].
[7] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 1, 574 (1978) [7a]. Animalu, A.O.E.: Hadronic
J. 17, 379 (1994) [7b]. Animalu, A.O.E. and Santilli, R.M.: Intern. J.
Quantum Chemistry 29, 175 (1995) [7c].
[8] Whitten, J.L.: J. Chem. Phys. 39, 349 (1963); Sambe, H.: J. Chem. Phys.
42, 1732 (1965); Preuss, H.: Z. Naturforsch. 11a, 823 (1956); Whitten,
J.L. and Allen, L.C.: J. Chem. Phys. 43, S170 (1965); Harrison, J.F.:
J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1115 (1967); Frost, A.A.: J. Chem. Phys. 47, 3707
(1967).
[9] Le Rouzo, H. and Silvi, B.: Int. J. Quantum Chem. 13, 297, 311 (1978);
Nguyen, T.T., Raychowdhury, P.N. and Shillady, D.D.: J. Comput.
Chem. 5, 640 (1984).
[10] Shavitt, I.: Methods in Computational Physics, B. Alder (ed.), Academic
Press, New York (1963).
[11] Born, M. and Oppenheimer, J.R.: Ann. Physik 84, 457 (1927).
[12] Bates, D.R., Ledsham, K. and Stewart, A.L.: Phil. Tran. Roy. Soc.
(London), A246, 215 (1954); Wind, H.: J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2371 (1965).
[13] Boys, S.F.: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A200, 542 (1950).
[14] Whitten, J.L.: J. Chem. Phys. 39, 349 (1963). Sambe, H.: J. Chem. Phys.
42, 1732 (1965). Preuss, H.: Z. Naturforsch. 11a, 823 (1956). Whitten,
J.L. and Allen, L.C.: J. Chem. Phys. 43, S170 (1965). Harrison, J.F.:
J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1115 (1967). Frost, A.A.: J. Chem. Phys. 47, 3707
(1967).
[15] Le Rouzo, H. and Silvi, B.: Intern. J. Quantum Chem. 13, 297,
311 (1978). Nguyen, T.T., Raychowdhury, P.N. and Shillady, D.D.: J.
Comput. Chem. 5, 640 (1984).

245

[16] Shavitt, I.: Methods in Computational Physics, B. Alder, (ed.), Academic


Press, New York, (1963).
[17] Shillady, D.D. and Talley, D.B.: J. Computational Chem. 3, 130
(1982). Shillady, D.D. and Richardson, F.S.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 359
(1970).
[18] Ditchfield, R., Hehre, W.J. and Pople, J.A.: J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5001
(1970).
[19] Davis, K.B., Mewes, M.O., Andrews, M.R., van Druten, N.J., Durfee,
D.S., Kurn, D.M. and Ketterle, W.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (27
November 1995). Ketterle, W. and van Drutten, N.J.: Phys. Rev. A54
656 (1996).
[20] Hylleras, E.: Z. Physik 54, 347 (1929).
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S.K. and Sauls, J.A.: Phys. Rev. B51 16233 (1955); see also the levels
of "normal"H2 in Symmetry and Spectroscopy, by D.C. Harris and M.D.
Bertolucci, p. 345, Oxford Univ. Press. New York (1978).
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C.M.: Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 9, 276 (1966); Lengsfield, B.
and Liu, B.: J. Chem. Phys. 75, 478 (1981); Walch, S.P., Bauschlicher,
C.W. Jr., Roos, B.O. and Nelin, C.J.: Chem. Phys. 103, 175 (1983).
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Quantum Chem. 14, 545 (1978). Krishnan R. and Pople, J.A.: Int. J.
Quantum Chem. 14, 91 (1978).
[24] Cizek, J.: J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4256 (1966); Paldus, J., Cizek, J. and
Shavitt, I.: Phys. Rev. A5, 50 (1972). Bartlett, R.J. and Purvis, G.D.:
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J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1910 (1982).
[25] Schaefer, H.F.:The Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules,
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. (1972).
[26] Kelly, H.P.: Phys. Rev. 131, 684 (1963).

246

[27] Goodgame, M.M. and Goddard, W.A.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 661 (1985).
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cf. program LOBE140 described by D.D. Shillady and Sheryl Baldwin,
Int. J. Quantum Chem., Quantum Biology Symposium 6, 105 (1979).
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3268 (1988).
[37] Xia, P. and Bloomfield, L.A.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1779 (1993).
[38] Burnett Collaboration, http://eve.physics.ox.ac.uk/intense/
[39] Moore, C.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3675 (1993). Chenciner, A. and
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Notices of the Am. Math. Soc. 48, 471 (2001).

5


5.1


, . , , , (., , [1]).
, , , , :
1) , , ,
(, - [1]) "", ""
( "" "" ,
, ). , " ", , -- . ,
"
"
.
247

248

5.

2) ,
.
,
, , .
3)
, . ,
2% , 20- .
4) , ,
, , ,
.
5) . , 2%
950 Kcal/mole,
50
Kcal/mole. , 20
.
6)
, , , , (. , [1a], . 22).
,
.
7) .
, .
8) "
",
. , , , ,
.

5.1.

249

9) , , . , , , ,
.
,
. , ,

, -.
, ,

, , . ,

, . , ,
, ,
100% ,
. , , , .
, , , . , , ,
[1].
, , , ,
,
.
, . ,
, ,
, .

250

5.

, , . , ( ) ( , ),
, ( , ). , ,
, .
,
[2], , " "
( 1.8). , ,
1 (= 1013 ), ,
() .
, , ""
, --,
, , ,
,
.
,
, -, - - [2c]
(. 2) , , , .
I
I ,
, , 1978 . [2],
I I = I ,

I I 6= I ,

= {I1 , I2 , I3 , ...} 6= {I}


.
I {I}

(5.1)



, I,
I, .
-, - - -

5.1.

251

, -, - -, :
1) -, , ;
2) -, ,
;
3) -, ,
.
, [6]
, -, - - ( 1.9) ( ) ,
, .
1999 ., [3a] ( 3), , -, .
, .
[3a] ( 4), ,
- , .
4, ,
, : ,
H-; ;
1000
;
.

,
[3b], ,
.
, ,
, ,

252

5.

, , -
.
, ,
""
. ,
, 1)9)
, .
, ,
I ( , )
, . , .
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
, , , ,
1.7.
, ,
, , ,
+1 .
,
I = 1/T = U U > 0,

(5.2)

( 3.6). , ,
, 1,
lim

r1

I = I.

(5.3a)

5.1.

253
1.
|I|

(5.3b)

(5.3a) , , ,
. (5.3b) .
, [3b], , :
1)
(5.2) (5.3), , , ,
, ,
[3a] ;
2) ,
;
3) ,
I,
I,
, - .
, 1.7 (, ), , ,
..
. ,
, , , .
, ,
, / .

. ,
, - .

254

5.

4.3,
, .
,

, ,
.
, ,
U (H| i) = (U HU )(U U )1 (U | i) =
i = U (E | i) =
= H T | i = H |

(5.4)

= [E (U U )](U U )1 (U | i) = E T | i =
= E | i,
,

U n U = n (U U ) = n I,

n R,

(5.5a)

i I C.
U h || iU = h |T | i(U U ) = h ||
(5.5b)
, E = E I
R,
H
E, E T | i =
(E/T )T | i = E | i.
,
, , ,
.
H,
4.3
, ,
i = E | i H |
. , ,
.

, ,

5.2.

255

5.2

. , ,
1 H, 2 H 3 H, , 14 O
19 O. , 1 H 16O,
2
H2 O = H-O-H, .
: 1) ; 2) - , , ; 3) (. [1]
).
H- 1s. ,
1s
, 2s 2p
.
, ,
y-z H O-, , 1s 2s , 2p yz 2px ; xz xy
2py 2pz .
,
9.511 ; 10.086 ; 2070.46 ;
0 K 2080.55 ,
+2080.6 4411.4 ;
is +250.2 ; 2330.8 ; O-H 5.11 H-
4.40 .

256

5.

-, 0 K ,
H-O 0.95718108 , H-O O-H
104.523 . ,
H-O-H , .
,
, . , , 8.5 .
,
.
1.83
8
10 e.s.u. cm 5.6 1026 e.s.u. cm.
,
H-O-H
(.., 180 ).
, ( ) (2.46, 0.77 1.42)106
e.m.u./mol xx,
yy and zz, .
,
H-O
(..),
1 = (H0 , 1s) + (O, 2pz ),
(5.6a)

2 = (H00 , 1s) + (O, 2py ),

(5.6b)

.
, 90 . , 2p 2s . , ,
H-O-H ,
. ,
, ,
.

1 = [cos (O, 2s) + sin ((O, 2p)] + (H0 , 1s),

(5.7a)

5.2.

2 = [cos (O, 2s) + sin ((O, 2p)] + (H00 , 1s),

257
(5.7b)

cos =
0.093, , , , 2p .
, , , , ,
. , ( ),
.
, H-O O-H
,
.
, H2 O H+ O-H [H+ ][O-H ]
, 1.0 1014 , pH
pH = log10 [H+ ], pOH = 14 pH.

(5.8)

, [H+ ] = [O-H ] = 1.004107


/.
, 1.84
1.834 80 20 C.
, ,
5.7 108 1 1 .
, , ,
HCl H2 SO4 , , - H+ H2 O
H3 O+ , , H+ "" H3 O+ H+ ,
[4]. ,
, ,
, 70% H+ . , OH
, H + (
, H+ ),

258

5.


.
H-O-O-H HO 11.63 pH [5] 1.363
0.0293 pH, . (M. Pourbaix) H+ , O-H , H , H-O-O-H H-O . ,
H-O-O-H
pH.
, H+ , OH ,
H2 O 2H2 1O2 , / pH ( H+ ) H-O-O-H.
, , - ( ) , , ,
, . ,
, H2 O.
,
, , , -- ,
H O H2 O , .
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.

5.3. ...

5.3

259

3 [3a], , , -
- , oo - ,
(. 4.3). , ,
4.3 :
2e, 0, 0,
1.022 MeV, = rc = b1
(h2 /m V )1/2 = (h/m )1/2 = 6.8432329 1011 cm =
.
= 0.015424288 = 0.006843 A

(5.9)

,
( ,
, , ,
( )). ,
(, -- ..), ,
.
H2 O=HO-H, [3b], ,
- , . ,
H- 2p O-,
,
H-O . 5.1.
/
. , , , ,
. ,
, H-C.

260

5.

. 5.1: ,
- , . , , , , " " .
( ) ,
, , , , H-O,
(. ). H-O O-.
, oo- H- O-.

. ,
oo - ,
0 2e. , ,
H-O-H ,
5.2. , --
,
. : 1) ""
; 2) H2 O ; 3) ,
; , .
H-O H, H-C.

5.3. ...

261

H-O-H H-O , ,
.
, 5.2. , H-O ,
, +e, . ,
, , , . [1].
,
[3b]
+e
+e(1 e r )

,
(5.10)
r
r
,
, "" O- (- ), "+" O- H- (-
).
3 [3a],
, .
1 a , 2 b ,
, H-O ,
+e, :

1
1
p1 p1 +
p2 p2
21
22

e2
e2
e2 e2 e2
e2

+ +
| i = E | i,
(5.11)

r1a r2a r1b r2b rR r12


H2 ,
, ,
2

262

5.

rc = b1 = r12 (rc )
Ir1010 6= I, Ir1010 = I.
, (5.11)
( )
| i = |12 i |1a i |1b i |2a i |2b i |R i,

(5.12a)

HTot = H12 H1a H1b H2a H2b HR .

(5.12b)

,
r12 , , .
U(r12 ) U (r12 ) = I = e[ (r12 )/ (r12 )]

dr12 (r12 )1 (r12 )2

(5.13)


,

|T | = |(U U )1 | 1.

(5.14)

() (),

h 2
h 2
T 1 T 1
T 2 T 2 +
2 1
2 2
e2
e2
e2
e2 e2
e2
+
T

+
r12
r1a r2a r1b r2b R

| i = E| i.

(5.15)

,
, (5.15)

h 2
h 2
er12 b
21
22 V

2 1
2 2
1 er12 b

5.3. ...
e2
e2
e2
e2 e2

+
r1a r2a r1b r2b R

263

| i = E | i.

(5.16)

. , ,
H-O (5.16) ,
H+
2 [1] (
H2 ),

h 2
h 2
er12 b
21
21 V

21
2 2
1 er12 b
2e2 2e2 e2

+
ra
rb
R

| i = E | i.

(5.17)

"" O- , H-

h 2
h 2
er12 b

21
22 V
21
2 2
1 er12 b

2e2 2e2 (1 e rb ) e2 (1 + e R )

+
| i = E | i,
ra
rb
R

(5.18)

; E ; , (4.35), ,
.
, , ,
. , , , .
, (5.18)
"" H-O , ; , H.

264

5.

, , ,
.
, , , ,
H-C. ,
, ( 8).

5.4

(5.18) . ,
[3b] , .
, , , ,
,
-
.
, ,
,
.
. , , HOOH
, HO H2 O

2e OH+ . OH+

5.4. ...

265

OH HOOH,
2e .
, " " (. 4.6) () ,
,
.
V0
, [6] 1978 , , ,
" ",
(

).
" " , , . , .
, , , -
[7-9]
,
,
.
, - , , . OH .
OH OH+ + (2e)2 .

(5.19)

, OH OH+ , , ,

266

5.

. , 2e , ,

, , I 2 R
.
, , , , ,
" " H+ . ,
,
.
, , -, 2e
.
"" - , .

, , ( )
.
, (Ashoori) . [10]

GaAs, (Boyd) (Yee) [11] "" alkali halide .
,
(Car) (Parinello) [12].
, .
;
OH .
,
, - 2e

5.4. ...

267

, . . OH
OH+ , 2e
OH , H+
OH H2 O, .
, OH OH+ ,
HO-OH,
. , (),
,
, [13], ( , ,
H+ ).

OH ,
OH+ + OH HOOH,

(5.20)

CH = CHR
\ /
+ H2 O.
CH2 = CHR + HOOH
O
, , . , ,
" " " ",
.

, .
, kT
= RT ,
.
, HO+ HO - "
", HO+ .
, ,

268

5.

HOOH -
H+ HOO , , H+ , OH ,H , H2 O2 , HO
2 , H2 O ,
[5].
, , H+
OH , OH+ H .
, , , , HOOH,
H+ + HOO HOOH,
(5.21a)
H+ + OH H + OH+ ,

(5.21b)

OH+ + OH HOOH,

(5.21c)

, .
. (" "),
, OH-. -.

, 2e.
,
OH
HFR-SCF ,
1.0 .
" " (Cook) [14] (. 438) , HFR-SCF
. , HFR-SCF SCF , , " "
- [15] (
) . , OH
" SCF ".

5.5.

5.5

269

, [3b], -- [16] (
,
[15]) .
, ,
,
1/2 .
.
, (Goddard) [15]
1.39 - Cr2 Mo2 .
FC = ESC; Fi, j = Hi, j + Pk,l [(i, j|k, l) 1/2(i, k| j, l)],

(5.22a)

k,l

ZZ

(i, j|k, l) =
Pi, j = 2 cn,i cn, j
n

i (l) j (l)

1
k (2)l (2)d 1 d 2 ,
r12

(5.22b)

( n ).

(5.22c)
[6b] 1995 ,
, ,
0 - [6a],
, . , " " ,
-
.
- , , , .
, .
. -

270

5.

1978 [6a],
, , . ,

,
.

,
b (, ). ,

, V0
.
,
, , ,
,
.
,
(Shavitt)
[17] .
SCF [18, 19]
. ,
,
.
,
. , 1/r . , [3b],

5.5.

271

exp[ r2 ]/r,
, ,
( ) ,
x, y, z .


1 2 exp[ r2 ]
Y (r) =
.
(5.23)
r
,
0.13441885 107 . ,
F0 , [18] .
s1/2 , (s + )1/2 , . (s + )1/2
s1/2 .
70-
( 20 50 ).
64-
, 14 . 1.0 1015 , ,
.
, ,
, , , ,
12 . 1.01015 ,
3.43207 108 1.01015 (
).
F0 [17], -

272

5.

70- ,
s = 0.0
. ,
1.0 1015 .
H2 [20].
, , ,
erf(x) (. 6),
, . ,

.

5.6

H2 O (Dunning) [21] HFR-SCF 3d [3b] O (2s,2p) H . O3d


(O3d,H2s,H2p)
(2.498, 0.500, 1.000). - (10s6p) [20] H1s
1.2 , 6-31G GAMESS.
OH+ .
OH ,
HFR-SCF ,
, , . 0.00038 ,
H2 O, OH+ OH .
Rc , HF, - [21].
, ,

5.6.

273

.
5.1:
[3b].
SCF-Energya
Hartree-Fockb
Iso-Energyc
Horizon Rc (
A)
QMC Energyb,d
Exact non-rel.
Iso-Dipole (D)
Exper. Dipole

OH+

OH

-74.860377

-75.396624 -76.058000

-75.056678
0.00038
-76.430020d
5.552581

H2 O

HF

-100.060379
-100.07185b
-75.554299 -76.388340 -100.448029
0.00038
0.00038
0.00030
-100.44296b
-100.4595
8.638473
1.847437
1.8413778
1.84
1.82

- (10s/6p), (6,2,1,1,1/4,1,1)+H2s1+H2p1+3d1.

HF.
c - QMC [22].
d QMC , [21].
b

5.1, OH OH+
0.497621 (13.54 ) SCF . SCF H2 O ,
, . , ,
HF, .
0.0115
, [22] - (QMC). , H2 O HF
, , .
, 13.7 HOOH
13.7 . , ,
SCF

274

5.

; , -- (14),

--.
, SCF [6a] ,
--
"
" .
, ,
( , )
, / -, . -
. ,
HFR-SCF , , , , ""; "
".

5.7

3, . 4,
,
- , .
, , ,
:
; ;
1000 ; .

5.7.

275

,
, . ,
,
:
1) ( ), ;
2)
;
3) ;
4)
, ;
5)
1000 ;
, .
, 4,
(5.9) ,
.
3. 4 ,
, ,
[23]. . ,
.
, ,
, ,
[3], -

276

5.

, - , " " .
, , . , -SCF
OH- , OH+ , . OH+
, 8 , OH , 10 , 13.54 . ,
, (2e)2 OH .
13.6 , (2e)2 . H+
.

(2e)2 .
, HOOH .
,
, ,
. , OH OH+ ,
HOOH.
HOOH
, , .
, .
, . ,
, ,
.

, ( ), -

5.7.

277

( . 8).
, ,
,
, oo , , .

7 8.

278

5.


[1] Eisenberg, D. and Kauzmann, W.: The Structure and Properties of
Water, Oxford University Press, New York (1969).
[2] Santilli, R.M.: Elements of Hadronic Mechanics, Vols. I and II, Ukraine
Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 2-nd ed. (1995); Found. Phys. 27, 625
(1998); Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. 42, 7 (1996);
Algebras, Groups and Geometries 10, 273 (1993); Isotopic, Genotopic
and Hyperstructural Methods in Theoretical Biology, Ukraine Academy
of Sciences, Kiev (1996). Sourlas, D.S. and Tsagas, G.T.: Mathematical
Foundations of the Lie-Santilli Theory, Ukraine Academy of Sciences,
Kiev, (1993). Lohmus, J., Paal, E. and Sorgsepp, L.:Nonassociative
Algebras in Physics, Hadronic Press, Palm Harbor, FL (1994).
[3] Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy 24, 943
(1999) [3a]; Intern. J. Hadrogen Energy 25, 173 (2000) [3b].
[4] Barrow, G.M.: Physical Chemistry, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York
(1996), Chapter 8.
[5] Pourbaix, M.: Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions,
National Assoc. Corrosion Engr., Houston, Texas, USA, p. 99. (1974).
[6] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 1, 574 (1978); Animalu, A.O.E. and Santilli,
R.M.: Int. J. Quantum Chem. 29, 175 (1995).
[7] Boys, S.F.: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A200, 542 (1950).
[8] Whitten, J.L.: J. Chem. Phys. 39, 349 (1963); Sambe, H.: J. Chem. Phys.
42, 1732 (1965); Preuss, H.: Z. Naturforsch. 11a, 823 (1956); Whitten,
J.L. and Allen, L.C.: J. Chem. Phys. 43, S170 (1965); Harrison, J.F.:
279

280

J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1115 (1967); Frost, A.A.: J. Chem. Phys. 47, 3707
(1967).

[9] Le Rouzo, H. and Silvi, B.: Int. J. Quantum Chem. 13, 297, 311 (1978);
Nguyen, T.T., Raychowdhury, P.N. and Shillady, D.D.: J. Comput.
Chem. 5, 640 (1984).
[10] Zhitenev, N.B., Ashoori, R.C., Pfeiffer, L.N. and West, K.W.: Phys. Rev.
Lett. 79, 2308 (1997).
[11] Boyd, R.J. and Yee, M.C.: J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3578 (1982).
[12] Fois, E.S., Selloni, A., Parinello, M. and Car, R.: J. Phys. Chem. 92,
3268 (1988).
[13] March, J.: Advanced Organic Chemistry, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons,
New York, p. 733 (1985),
[14] Cook, D.B.: Handbook of Computational Quantum Chemistry, Oxford
Science Publications, Oxford New York, pp. 285-295 and 438-441 (1998).
[15] Goodgame, M.M. and Goddard, W.A.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 661 (1985).
[16] Schaefer, H.F.: The Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules,
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. (1972).
[17] Shavitt, I.: Methods in Computational Physics, B. Alder (ed.), Academic
Press, New York (1963).
[18] Mosier, C. and Shillady, D.D.: Math. of Computation, 26, 1022 (1972):
Program LOBE140 described by D.D. Shillady and Sheryl Baldwin, Int.
J. Quantum Chem., Quantum Biology Symposium 6, 105 (1979).
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Shillady D.D. and Richardson, F.S.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 359 (1970).
[20] Dunning, T.H.: J. Chem. Phys. 53, 2823 (1970), J. Chem. Phys. 55, 716
(1971), J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3958 (1971).
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Methods, in: Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry, World Scientific Lecture
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67 (1994).


[22] Luchow, A. and Anderson, J.B.: J. Chem. Phys. 105, 7573 (1996).
[23] Burnett Collaboration, http://eve.physics.ox.ac.uk/INTENSE/zz.
[24] USMagnegas, Inc., http://www.santillimagnegas.com.

281

282

6.1

[1a], 4, , ,
, .
[1b], 5,
, HO
, .
4 5, SASLOBE [1] , ,

.
[1a,1b] .. .. [2a]
.. [2b] (Ritz), [1].
283

284

6. ...

[2], , ,
.

6.2

[2a] ,
H2 - [1a], (4.35), r12 ' 0, ,

h 2 2
2e2 2e2 2e2

+
= E.
2M ab
ra
rb
R

(6.1)

4, (6.1) ,
- (4.25), ,
' 1 ,

= 0,

= 2e,

' 0,

= rc = b1 = 6.8432329 1011 =

(6.2)

= 0.015424288 = 0.006843
A,
.
(, ,
), H2 , , , .
,
, , . ,
, , , . 4.4. ,

6.2. -...

285


M < 2m ,

(6.3)

.
,
H2 H+
2 . ,
2 , ( ) "", H2 .
"", H
, [2a]
:
1) ;
2)
H2 ;
3) H2 ;
4) ;
5) R H2
.
[2a] , 2 -
H

M = 0.308381me ,
(6.4)

R = 1.675828 a.u.,

(6.5)

19.6% , R[H2 ] = 1.4011 . . = 0.742


A.
, (6.1) , ,
[1a].
-, ,
, H+
2 M -

286

6. ...

q
q
+ 2M E + +
= 0.
ra rb
2

(6.6)

,
x=

ra + rb
,
R

1 x ;

y=

ra rb
,
R

1 y 1;

0 2 ,

R a b,

4
2

2
2
= 2 2
(x 1) + (1 y )
+
R (x y2 ) x
x y
y
+

(6.7)

(6.8)

2
1
.
R2 (x2 1)(1 y2 ) 2

(6.1)

2
x 2 y2
2

(x 1) + (1 y2 ) +
+
x
x y
y 4(x2 1)(1 y2 ) 2

MER2 2
2
+
(x y ) + 2MqRx = 0,
2

1
1
4 x
+ =
.
ra rb R x 2 y 2

= f (x)g(y)eim ,

(6.9)

(6.10)

(6.11)

d
m2
d
MER2 2
2
(x 1) f 2MqRx
x + 2
f = 0,
dx
dx
2
x 1

d
MER2 2
m2
2 d
y
g = 0,
(6.12)
(1 y ) g +
dy
dy
2
1 y2
. f (x) g(y)

(csf) .

6.2. -...

287

[2a]

Qk+1 = Qk Nk Qk1 Nk Nk+1 ,

Q1 = 0,

Q0 = 1,

(6.13)

s =

(s + 2m + 1)[b 2p(s + m + 1)]


,
2(s + m) + 3

s = (s + m)(s + m + 1) ,
s =

(6.14)

s[b + 2p(s + m)]


.
2(s + m) 1

[2a] N = 16
, . 16
,
R 0.

(x) (p, a) = (y) (p, b),

(6.15)

,
E(R) = E1s (R),

(6.16)

1sg H+
2 , R . , " "
, N, N = 50,
(, ..).
, ,
, E(R)
H+
2 .
6.1 ,
M = me ,
M = , .

(6.17)

288

6. ...

6.1: Emin 2
Ropt H
a
- M .
M, a.u.
Emin , a.u. Ropt , a.u. M, a.u. Emin , a.u. Ropt , a.u.
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.307
0.308
0.308381
0.309
0.31
a

-0.380852
-0.571278
-0.761704
-0.952130
-0.990215
-1.028300
-1.066385
-1.104470
-1.142556
-1.169215
-1.173024
-1.174475
-1.176832
-1.180641

5.167928
3.445291
2.583964
2.067171
1.987664
1.914050
1.845688
1.782044
1.722645
1.683367
1.677899
1.675828
1.672471
1.667073

0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00

-1.218726
-1.256811
-1.294896
-1.332982
-1.523408
-1.713834
-1.904260
-2.856390
-3.808520
-4.760650
-5.712780
-6.664910
-7.617040

1.614977
1.566041
1.519981
1.476553
1.291982
1.148428
1.033585
0.689058
0.516792
0.413434
0.344529
0.295310
0.258396

. . 6.1 and 6.2.

[2a] 27 , , R. , 6.1.
/ , 6.1 (. 6.1 6.2) ,

Emin (M) ' 3.808M,

(6.18)


Ropt (M) ' 0.517/M.

(6.19)

, M = 2me
Emin (M) = 7.617041 ..,

Ropt (M) = 0.258399 ..,

(6.20)

6.2. -...

289

6.2: E R.
E, a.u.
R, a.u.
H2+ ion, exact theory, N=16 [2a]
H2+ ion, experiment [3]
2 , M=2me , exact theory [2a]
3-body H
2 , M=2me , var. theory [1a]
3-body H
2 , M=0.381me , exact theory [2a]
3-body H
4-body H2 , rc =0.01125 a.u., Vg var. theory [1a]
4-body H2 , rc =0.01154 a.u., Ve var. theory [2b]
4-body H2 , rc =0.08330 a.u., Ve var. theory [2b]
H2 , experiment

-0.6026346
-0.6017
-7.617041
-7.61509174
-1.174475
-1.174474
-1.144
-1.173
-1.174474

1.9971579
2.00
0.258399
0.2592
1.675828
1.4011
1.4011
1.3184
1.4011

, [1a],

Emin = 7.61509174 ..,

Ropt = 0.2592 ..,

(6.21)

.
, ,
, ,
. Emin Ropt
6.2.
[2a] , , ,
.
, 4,
, ,
, .

290

6. ...
0
-1
Emin, a.u.

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
0

0.5

1
Mass M, a.u.

1.5

2
. 6.1: Emin (M) H
M.

6.3

[2b] (4.33), ,

h 2 2
h 2 2
er12 /rc
e2
+
1
2 V0

2m1
2m2
1 er12 /rc r12

(6.22)

e2
e2
e2 e2
e2

+
| i = E| i,

r1a r2a r1b r2b R


,
.
, H2 -

6.3. ...

291

Ropt, a.u.

4
3
2
1
0
0

0.5

1
Mass M, a.u.

1.5

2
. 6.2: Ropt (M) H
M.
, Vg , ,
Ve =

Aer12 /rc
,
r12

(6.23)

Vh (6.22). . ,
,
[2b].
Ve ,
Vg Vh , -
(Gegenbauer).
, , (6.22) (6.23), ,
[1a]
SASLOBE Vg -. Emin

292

6. ...

Ropt 6.2.
, [2b]
rc , , 6.2.
, [2b] , 1% 6% Ve . ,
, -, Vh .
, Vh rc
, (6.27).
Ve -,
.
, [loc. cit.] , ,
, .
.
,
-, V (r) , ,
r < rmax
r > rmax , rmax .
,
, . ,
, ,
( ,
), .
,
,
, . 6.3.
, . , , -

6.3. ...

293

6.3: [2b]
, E , , r rmax , .
Energy E, a.u. eV
Lifetime, D0 sec
2
1
0.5
0.037
0.018
0.0018

54.4 2.6 1018


27.2 1.6 1017
13.6 2.2 1016
1
5.1 106
0.5 4.0
0.1 3.1 10+25

. ,
,
,
. R ,
.
, [loc. cit.] ,
,

r
3 r
(r) =
e ,
(6.24)

= R .
, ,

.
, H2 - , V0 rc , V0
rc , . , : , , V0 rc .
, ,

294

6. ...
0

Ce, a.u.

-0.001
-0.002
-0.003
-0.004
-0.005
-0.006
0

3
r, a.u.

. 6.3: Ce0 , = 1/37,


= R, R , = 2 rc rc .
.
H2 , . , , ,
, .

Vh [2b]. , , , ,
, -,
(Lerch).
-,
[2b] : Ve Vg ,, Vh .
,
, A rc .
, A A = V0 rc
.
, ,

6.3. ...

295

-0.03

Ce,, a.u.

-0.04
-0.05
-0.06
-0.07
-0.08
-0.09
0

2
3
rc, a.u.

. 6.4: Ce0 rc , = 1.67.


rc > 0.2 a.u. .
.
, , Vg , erf(z), Ve
. , [2b]

A 2
e2
4
0
Ce =
( + 2 2 + 3 ) + 3 2 (5 + 10 2 + 4 3 )
2
4
8(1 )

4 3
4
2
3
6
2
2 2
(15 + 14 + 4 ) + (8 + 11 + 6 + 8e
) ,
(6.25)
3
= 2 rc . . 6.3 6.4.
[2b] . ,
,
. [2b], Ve , , , , , ( ). , Ee0 Ve

296

6. ...

, R = 0 ( ), . ,
R-, EC0 (
(Sugiura)), ,

5 2 8 0
A 2
1 1
0
Ee '
+ +
E ,
(6.26)
(1 + )4 8 2
8
5 C
= 2 rc (. . 6.5). , Ve .
,
, Ve .
0
-0.01
Ee,, a.u.

-0.02
-0.03
-0.04
-0.05
-0.06
-0.07
0

3
rc, a.u.

. 6.5: Ee0 rc , = 1.67.


, Ve ,
,

, , A rc . ,
( ) -: V0 = h 2 /(2mrc2 ). ,
A = V0 rc , A = 1/rc 2 / , (h = me = c = 1).

6.3. ...

297

-1
-1.025

E, a.u.

-1.05
-1.075
-1.1
-1.125
-1.15
-1.175
1

1.5

2
r, a.u.

2.5

. 6.6: E = Emol , = 1/60, 1/40,


1/20, 1/10, 1/5. = 1/5.
, [2b] ,
,

1 = > 0,

(6.27)

.

, Ve .
, - -
,
4 1 60,

(6.28)


.
, 56 ,
(6.28).
. 6.4, 6.5, . 6.6. , rc ,
.

298

6. ...

, [2b], , , rc 1 .
6.3, .
, 1 , . 4, 1
,
, .
, , , .
, " 1 " 1 , . 3 ,
1 , , (
), ,
,
, , .
, [2b], , rc ,
, , .
, ,
-,
.

" " ,
. , "
" , rc 1 . , "

6.3. ...

299

" rc ,
. , Vh ,
Ve Vg .
, [2b] Ve , 1%
6%. Ve ,
.
,
, [2b], E,
R , [1].

300

6. ...

6.4: Emin Ropt rc Ve .


1 rc , . .
Ropt , . .
Emin , . .
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

0.10337035071618050
0.08329699109108888
0.06975270534273319
0.05999677404817234
0.05263465942162049
0.04688158804756491
0.04226204990365446
0.03847110142927672
0.03530417706681329
0.03261892720535206
0.03031323689615631
0.02831194904031777
0.02655851947236431
0.02500959113834722
0.02363136168905809
0.02239708901865092
0.02128533948435381
0.02027873303335994
0.01936302821907175
0.01852644434336641
0.01775915199935013
0.01705288514774330
0.01640064219648127
0.01579645313764336
0.01523519631632570
0.01471245291356761
0.01422439038752817

1.297162129235449
1.318393698326879
1.333205576478603
1.344092354783681
1.352417789644028
1.358984317233049
1.364292909163710
1.368671725082009
1.372344384866235
1.375468373051375
1.378157728092548
1.380497017045902
1.382550255552670
1.384366780045693
1.385985219224291
1.387436244558651
1.388744515712491
1.389930082626193
1.391009413196452
1.391996158084790
1.392901727808297
1.393735733699196
1.394506328745493
1.395220473843219
1.395884147817973
1.396502514589167
1.397080057337240

-1.181516949656805
-1.172984902150024
-1.167271240301846
-1.163188554065554
-1.160130284706318
-1.157755960428922
-1.155860292450436
-1.154312372623724
-1.153024886026671
-1.151937408039373
-1.151006817317425
-1.150201529091051
-1.149497886394651
-1.148877823925501
-1.148327310762828
-1.147835285349041
-1.147392910500336
-1.146993041730378
-1.146629840949675
-1.146298491232105
-1.145994983116511
-1.145715952370148
-1.145458555325045
-1.145220372020229
-1.144999330178493
-1.144793644973560
-1.144601770891686

6.3. ...

1
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

301

6.5: 6.4.
rc , a.u.
Ropt , . .
Emin , . .
0.01376766836566138
0.01333936209977966
0.01293689977547854
0.01255801083612469
0.01220068312791624
0.01186312715793131
0.01154374612489787
0.01095393745919852
0.01068107105944273
0.01042146833640030
0.01017418516195214
0.00993836493541500
0.00971322867044429
0.00949806639934841
0.00929222969498477
0.00909512514431396
0.00890620863525624
0.00872498034101540
0.00855098030451296
0.00838378454080327
0.00822300158793934
0.00806826944722482
0.00791925286251402
0.00777564089552400
0.00763714476025456
0.00750349588477794
0.00737444417302681
0.00724975644291090
0.00712921502024112

1.397620687025853
1.398127830817745
1.398604504597664
1.399053372836414
1.399476798299823
1.399876883556063
1.400255505817128
1.400954915288619
1.401278573036792
1.401586548200467
1.401879953246168
1.402159797887369
1.402427000676349
1.402682399061957
1.402926758144872
1.403160778323019
1.403385101987775
1.403600319405678
1.403806973898863
1.404005566419838
1.404196559601683
1.404380381352424
1.404557428052374
1.404728067404676
1.404892640982100
1.405051466507240
1.405204839898059
1.405353037106507
1.405496315774223

-1.144422362947838
-1.144254245203342
-1.144096385030938
-1.143947871939897
-1.143807900045981
-1.143675753475045
-1.143550794143290
-1.143320213707519
-1.143213620508321
-1.143112256673494
-1.143015746732479
-1.142923750307661
-1.142835958109381
-1.142752088467028
-1.142671884314343
-1.142595110561057
-1.142521551794315
-1.142451010262626
-1.142383304102633
-1.142318265775268
-1.142255740683024
-1.142195585944305
-1.142137669304475
-1.142081868166104
-1.142028068723488
-1.141976165188595
-1.141926059097351
-1.141877658686723
-1.141830878334298

302

6. ...


[1] Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy 24, 943
(1999) [1a]; Intern. J. Hadronic Energy 25, 173 (2000) [1b].
[2] Aringazin, A.K. and Kucherenko, M.G.: Hadronic J. 23, 1 (2000). e-print
physics/0001056 [2a]. Aringazin, A.K.: Hadronic J. 23, 57 (2000). e-print
physics/0001057 [2b].
[3] Flugge, Z.: Practical Quantum Mechanics, Vols. 1, 2, Springer-Verlag,
Berlin (1971).

303

304

7



7.1

-
74 (. 7.2).
, , , , .
1998
Toups Technologies Licensing, Inc., ,
, (Leon Toups).
USMagnegas, Inc., EarthFirst
Technologies, Inc., (John
Stanton).
, ,

. ,
.
, 305

306

7. ...

:
1) , ;
2)
;
3) .
, , .
, , , . , . ,
, ,
.
, 1970-
, .
.
, , ,
Scandia Laboratories,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
.
,

.
, , -

7.1.

307

, . ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
. , (. [1]
).
, . , , - ,
. , , ,
. ,
,
, .
, . -

308

7. ...

, ,
, , " " ( ,
, ), " " (, , , ,
)
.
, , ,
. , , , ,
, , , , .
,
: - (GC-MS). , (IRD), GC-MS IRD
.
, , ,
GC-MS, .
, , ( ), ,
. , ,
,
, , -, ( ).

7.2. ...

309

, , ,
MS , , MS
. , IRD ,
.
,
, ,
, , -
.

7.2

, , CO2
(HC). , CO2

H2 O + CO2 + h O2 + CH2 O,

(7.1)

.
20- .
21- ,
, (. 7.A
),
74.18 106 = 4.08 109 =
= 9.4984 1010 n- ,

(7.2)

310

7. ...

(., , [2]), , ,
n- CH3 -(CH2 )6 -CH3
0.7028 /3 20o C.
, (7.2) ,

.
,
, :
1) . , ,
, ,
. " " . ,
,
,
.
2) . ,
(7.2), CO2 ,
CO2 , . ,
C8 H18 +

25
O2 8CO2 + 9H2 O,
2

(7.3)

CO2
- :
7.5987 1011 CO2 = 3.3434 107 .

(7.4)

, CO2 . CO2 , , , CO2 , -

7.2. ...

311

, , CO2
, ,
CO2
1950 .: 0.033 0.01%

(7.5)

(., , ).
, USMagnegas, Inc., , CO2
. ,
, .
.
3) , , , ,
, , ,
. , , , .
(7.3) (7.4),
, , , :
1.1873 1012 O2 = 3.7994 107 .

(7.6)

-,
CO2 , .
,
,
O2 CO2 , .
,
, -

312

7. ...

, , , ,
.
, , ,
, , ,


1950 .: 20.946 0.02%

(7.7)

(., , ).
USMagnegas, Inc., , 3% 5%. , , ,
, .
, , ,
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.
, (7.2) , , . ,

, .

7.3. ...

7.3

313

,
.
,
, , . , ,
,
, (). , ,
, ,
.
, EPA , Honda Civic (1600 . .)
(. 7.9)
646.35 CO2 ,

(7.8)

, ,
458.65 CO2 .

(7.9)

, , 40% ,
.
, (7.8) (7.9)
, EPA ,
, .
, ,
, ,

, ,
.

314

7.4

7. ...

, ,


, , - ,

.
, , ,
,
(, ) , -
, , , . .
U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory [3].
- , ,
, , .
, , , , , , .
, , CO2 , ,
O2 , ,
, , , ,
, ( , , )
.
, C8 H18 ,
. H2
68.32 ,
1302.7 . , 19.07 = 1302.7/68.32 H2 ,
,
.
, 19.07 H2 9.535 O2 ,

7.4. ...

315

12.5 O2 . , ,
( 76% ).
,
, , ,
,
. ,
. , ,
,
, .
, , , 76% ,
, , (7.6),
,
:
76% , =
= 2.8875 107 O2 .
(7.10)

, , ,

.
, , , . , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , (7.1). , , -

316

7. ...

, : 1)
(7.1)
; 2) - ;
3)
.
, , 78% . ,
, 400
.
, ,
, , , - ,
. ,
, - , CO2 ,
, O2 .


. , . ,
(7.10) -
.
, , . ,
,
, , .

7.4. ...

317

, , , , ,
,
- , .
, ,

. , ,
, , -, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, -, , , .
, , , BMW
[4], :
1) , , . ,
253o C,
.
2) , 35% ,
. -
.
3) -

318

7. ...

, .
(under-unity) ; ;
; .
, , ,
, .
, , , . , , 120
.
, , . ,
,
,
. ,
.

7.5

, , ,
, ,
,
, .
, , -

7.6. ...

319

, ,
, , , ,
. ,
; , , ;
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.

7.6

, , , , , ,
, , .
, 1,
2%, , , ,

320

7. ...

, , 950 /, 20-
,
50 /. , , ,

.
1 .
, , , , 20- . ,

,
.
, ,
1), 2) 3) 7.5 , .
, (.,
, [4]),
, . ,
. ,

.
, CO H2 50% 50% . ,
H2 + 12 O2 H2 O, CO + 12 O2 CO2 , 1/2 O2 .
, 50% 50% H2 CO 1/2
O2 , H2 .
, , ,
,
, -

7.7. ...

321

8.

7.7

, ,

.. 1978 .,
(U.S. Department of Energy),
, ,
[5].
, , ,
.
, ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
1013 , , ,
-
.
,
- . ,
1978 ., ,

322

7. ...


r, p, , , . . .) = 1/T =
I = Diag.(1, 1, 1, 1) I(t,
n R
o
= Diag.(n21 , n22 , n23 , n24 ) exp N dv (r) (r) ,

(7.11)

n21 , n22 , n23 , , n24 , .


, , ,
, .
1, 2 3, , , , , ,
. ,
, ,
U U 6= I,

U U > 0,

(7.12a)

I I = U I U = 1/T ,
= A0 T B0 = U (A B) U ,
A B AB
A0 = U A U , B0 = U B U ,

(7.12b)

> I = U (< | | >),


< | | > I < ||
>= U (H | >) =
H | >= E | > H 0 |

(7.12d)

= E 0 | >= U (E | >),

| >= U | > .

(7.12c)

(7.12e)

,
. , U U
. , , ,
, , . .

7.7. ...

323

, ,
, , , , ,
, .
, , ,
.
,
, , ,
-. ,
, (
), (7.11) , ,
[5].
,
, , ,
.
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.
, , . , ,
.
, .
, , (
),
.
, , [6], -

324

7. ...

(. [5]).
, , , , .
,
, , , .
[5]:
1) I,
.
, ,
. , ,
n p+ + e + ,
(7.13)
0.8 ,
, , 100000 ,
, .
[7].

, [7d],, , , , , (. . 7.1).
, ( , , ,
) , .

[7d]:
1) , , , N(A, Z), ,

7.7. ...

325

, 1.294 ,

+ n p+ + e + ;

(7.14)

2) N(A, Z + 1) ,

1 N(A, Z + 2) + e
1 + 2 ;
+ N(A, Z) N(A, Z + 1) + e
1 +
2 +

(7.15)

3) N(A, Z + 2)
, ,
.
Zn(70, 30), Mo(100,
42) [7a]. , 1.294 , ;
;

, , ,
, ,
.
(7.15) . ,
, , (7.15) 1010 ,
.
.
, , .
, , (7.15) ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, (7.14) 1.294 . , , (7.15) 1.294
, ,
.

326

7. ...

-n , , ( ), ,
, 1.294 , - , 1960- .

7.7. ...

327

. 7.1: [7] ,
, .
, .
, , ,

. , , ; , 15 ;
, ; , , ,
. ,
.
,

, ,
(. . 1.18).

328

7. ...

. 7.2: [7] , [7d] ( ). , ( " ") , 1.294 , .


Mo(42,100),
Tc(43, 100), , , , Ru(44, 100),
5 7 .
Zn(30, 70), "
" . , . ,
, (
, )
.

7.7. ...

329

. 7.3: [7] , [7e],


. , , , , , .
,
.
.
,
,
[7a, 7b, 7c], . ,
0.80 ,
. ,
.

330

7. ...

,
,
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, .
,
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, (. 1.18). ,
( ,
), , , , .
, , - ,
. , , 1.8, ,
. , . ,
, . ,
SU(3) .
. , , .

. , . , , , ,
, . ,

7.7. ...

331

[7e].
.
, ,
, [7f].
.

, , . ,

,
, ,
. ,
.

332

7. ...

. 7.4: [7]
, (Tsagas) [7f] , .
, . 7.3, . 52,
, 1.294 , . ,
. , , () ,
Eu-Mo,
2 , , ,
, , ,
1 . ,
.
, , Mo(42, 100),
0.6%. , , , -
/ . , Mo(42, 100),
, [7f].

7.7. ...

333


, , ,
,
.

. 7.5: [7] ,
Clean Energies Technologies, Inc., ,
. ( ). , ,
( , ,
), ( ).
, 1.8,
, . ,
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-

334

7. ...


[7e, 7f].
, , , ,
.
,
, , .
2) II, I.
, , , ,
. , ,
, "" .
, -
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.
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" " ""
.
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7.7. ...

335

" ,
- " ", . , " "
, , " " .
.
II, , [5] (.
).
, , , ,
.

, (. 1.18).
, I II , ,
, .
II.
, ,
.
, .
, , (ec), ,

. , ec

336

7. ...

,

N(A, Z) + e N(A, Z 1) + .

(7.16)

, ec ,
, (7.16)
( , N(A, Z 1) , N(Z, A)) , - ( ,
N(A, Z 1) ) [5],
N(A, Z) + e + tr N(A, Z 1) + .

(7.17)

(. [5]). , (7.16)
, (0.80 ), "
" (tr), ( 4).
II
,
,
.
, , , ,
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.
,
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II ( ).
,
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,
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.

7.7. ...

337

II , ,
, , , , 40% .
, , ,
100 .
,
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,
, .
, ,
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,
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.
, . ,
, .
(
) ( ,
), ,
[5],
tr + 1 H2 + 6 C12 7 N14 + (heat),

(7.18)

tr , , ( , ). ,
.
-, , (7.18) , , . , (7.18) . ,

338

7. ...

( ) (7.18) .
, (7.18) , , , , . (7.18) ( ,
, [5]), , .

, ,

.
, (7.18) , 6 C12 , , , .

(7.18) ( , ):
1+ + 0+ 1+ ,

(7.19)


. ,
, [5].
, (7.18), .
(7.20)
MD = 1, 876.122 MeV/c20 .

MC = (12.000 6 me E) ... ' 11, 174.865 MeV/c20 ,

(7.21)


MN = 13, 040.137 MeV/c20 .

(7.22)

7.7. ...

339

, ,
(7.18),

E = (MD + MC ) MN = 14.850 MeV/c20 .

(7.23)

1 MeV = 1.6021 1013 ,

(7.24)

6.0221023 ,
(7.18) 1010

(106

14.8 106 1.6 1019 ) (6 1023 )


) = 1.42 106 /.

(7.25)

340

7. ...

. 7.6: [5]
, Clean Energy
Technologies, Inc., , . ( ). .
, . ,
( ), ,
. ,
, , , .

7.7. ...

341

. 7.7: [5] ,
Clean Energies Technologies,
Inc. , . ( ). 20- ,
, , . , , .
.
, , , . , , ,
, .

342

7. ...

. 7.8: [5] II,


Clean Energies Technologies, Inc. , . , ( ).

,
(7.18), ,
(7.25),
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,
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.
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7.7. ...

343

.
, , , .
3) III, I II.
I
, ,
.
II
, ,
, , .
III , ,
, .
, ,
, PlasmaArcFlowT M ,
,
.
I, II III , ,
.
, ,
I, II III, . ,
.

344

7.8

7. ...

PlasmaArcFlow

( III),

PlasmaArcFlowT M ( ),
1998 . Toups Technology Licensing, Inc., , , . EarthFirst Technologies, Inc. ( Toups Technology Licensing, Inc.) , , USMagnegas, EuroMagnegas
AsiaMagnegas.
[8].
PlasmaArcFlow , , , T M , , ,
. , , ,
. , , ,
,
(. ).
PlasmaArcFlow

, , , (. . 7.9).

3500o K, , , H, O C. , ,
, .
, H, O C ,
,

7.8. PLASMAARCFLOW ...

345

. 7.9: [8] . : ; ,
; ; ; ,
. , .
.
C O ,
CO. , CO
CO2 ,
CO2 .
H2 (. ).
, , ,
, , CO2 , CO2 ,
. , .
, H O H2 O,
.
, ,

346

7. ...

.
, PlasmaArcFlow H O
, H2 O, , , .

. 7.10: [8] PlasmaArcFlowT M 75 , 1000 .


, 870 BTU . ,
500000 BTU .
PlasmaArcFlow ,
, ,
, ,
.
308 GTSi Honda Civic
USMagnegas, Inc.
. EPA
-, -,

7.9. EPA...

347

7.9, , EPA, , , CO,


, CO2 , , 40% 12%
15% .
, PlasmaArcFlow
, HT M , , ,
, .
, , , , , , EarthFirst Technologies,
Inc., " PlasmaArcFlow , , , ,
, ".

7.9

EPA

, - (. ),

.
Honda Civic Natural
Gas Vehicle (NGV) VIN, 1HGEN1649WL000160 (
. 7.11), 1998 , ().
1999 . USMagnegas, Inc., , , () 2000 .
, , .
:
1) 100 3600 psi,
1000 . ;
2) , -

348

7. ...

20 , ,
, , ;
3) ,
.
, .
(, ..) ,
, .
. , ,
, :
: 1096 . 3500 psi,
:
2,5 ,
:
7 . .
(7.26)
, 1500 . 5000 psi, , 4 ,
.
, , , , ,
: 120 . .

(7.27)

National Technical Systems, Inc., , ,


:
:
50% - 60%,
:
10% - 12%,
:
6% - 7%,
:
,
, ,
:
(ppm).
(7.28)

7.9. EPA...

349

EPA Liphardt & Associates, Long Island, New


York, (Peter di Bernardi),
(Varied Test Procedure, VTP)
EPA 40-CFR, 86.
EPA .
60 ,
.

.
, (/),
EPA , .
Liphardt & Associates :
1) :
:

0.026 /, 0.063 EPA


0.41 /;
: 0.262 /, 0.077 EPA
3.40 /;
:
0.281 /, 0.28 EPA
1.00 /;
: 235 /, 6%;
EPA CO2 ;
:
9.5% 10%; EPA
.
(7.29)
, , , 1/15 EPA .
2)
,

350

7. ...

(1):
:

0.199 /, 0.485 EPA


0.41 /;
: 2.750 /, 0.808 EPA
3.40 /;
:
0.642 /, 0.64 EPA
1.00 /;
: 266 /, 6%;
:
9.5% 10%.

(7.30)

, Liphardt & Associates


, EPA . , , , EPA .
3)
,
(1):
:

0.380 /, 0.926 EPA


0.41 /;
: 5.494 /, 1.615 EPA
3.40 /;
:
0.732 /, 0.73 EPA
1.00 /;
: 646.503 /,
9%;
:
0.5% 0.7%.

(7.31)

, 2.5 CO2 , . , , ,
EPA
,
Honda
( ), , EPA :

7.9. EPA...

351

4) () , Honda KIA:
:

0.234 / 9
;
: 1.965 / 7.5
;
:
0.247 / 0.86
;
: 458.655 / 1.95
,
:
.

(7.32)



. :
1) () , 3500o K. ,
,
.
2) (
). , CO .
3)
EPA , ,
, , . 7.13.
4) ( ), -
, . ,
, ,
.
5)
, . , , -

352

7. ...

, - ,
.
.
CO2 , ,
CO2 , ( ). ( ), , ,
, , , ,
. , CO2 ,
, .

7.10

,
. , ( 2001 .). ,
, .
, , 8, ,
- (GC-MS) , , , , , 1000 a.m.u.,
MS
.
8, , , (IRD),
, ( -

7.10.

353

,
).
, , CO, ( ),
,
.
, , , . , PlasmaArcFlow , , , , , 50% H2 50% CO,
O2 CO2 .
,
CO, CO2 MS ,
, .
, , ,
50% H2 50% CO, 315 BTU/. , ,
. ,
, , 50% ,
( 2300 BTU/. ).

, , H2 , .
, , , ,
.
,
, ,
.
, , GC-MS ,
, , .

354

7. ...

, H, C O
. ,
, 50% H, 25% O, 25%
C, ,
, ..

, , ,
.
, ,
, H2 CO, GC-MS .
, ,
, ,
8.

7.11

,
, , - ,
, , .
, ,
, , . , ,
:
Emg + Eheat

=
< 1.

Eelectr + Eliq

(7.33)

,
, , -

7.11. ...

355

, ,
Emg + Eliq
> 1.
Eelectr

(7.34)

, , .
,

, , .
, , ,
.
, ,
..
(7.34),
.
, , - (HT M ) .
, , (7.34) 18 19 , 1998 ., , , ,
Motorfuelers, Inc., , , (. [8]):
1) ,
WattWatchers, Inc.,, , -,

;
2) , ,
, ..;
3) , ,
..
, Motorfuelers
, , -

356

7. ...

,
.
,
, . ,
. , ,
.
, Motorfuelers, Inc. [8],
,
, , , :
Eelectr = 122 W/cf = 416 BTU/cf 5%.

(7.35)

, , .
, 65%
,
Eelectr = 79.3 W/cf = 270 BTU/cf.

(7.36)

(1,050 BTU/cf). , Motorfuelers,


Inc. ,
, 110 psi.
5 psi, , . , ,
.
, Motorfuelers, Inc. [8],
,
, 80%
,
Emg = 871 BTU/cf 5%.

(7.37)

, , , , .

7.11. ...

357

,
Motorfuelers, Inc. .
, 871 BTU/cf . , , 7.9,
, ,
, ,
Emg = 1, 000 BTU/cf.

(7.38)

, , ,
, ,
.
Motorfuelers, Inc. , 1 cf , 285 BTU/cf , 23 BTU/cf
,
Eheat = 308 BTU/cf.

(7.39)

, 122 W = 416 BTU,


, 871 BTU/cf, , 308 BTU/cf.
, , , , ,
5% :
871 BTU/cf + 308 BTU/cf
= 2.83.
416 BTU/cf

(7.40)

, ,
, 79.3 W/cf = 270 BTU/cf, , :
871 BTU/cf + 285 BTU/cf
= 4.36.
270 BTU/cf

(7.41)

358

7. ...

, Motorfuelers, Inc. , , , ,
.
Motorfuelers, Inc. , (7.37) ,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
,
,
, .
. (David A. Hernandez), Radiation Protection
Associates, , , , , ,
, .
, , ,
- . , Radiation Protection Associates , , :
"PlasmaArcFlowT M , 64-E. ,
".
, , , 50 kW
, , , , :
Emg = 871 BTU/cf,

(7.42a)

7.11. ...

359

Eliq = 326 BTU/cf,

(7.42b)

Eelectr = 100 W/cf = 342 BTU/cf,

(7.42c)

, ,
, , , , 50 kW :
871 BTU/cf + 326 BTU/cf
= 3.5.
342 BTU/cf

(7.43)

, 2.78.
,
,
. , 250 kW, 250 psi 400o F.
, (7.43).
(7.43)
. , , [9],
, .
[9],

PlasmaArcFlow ,
. , .
, . ,
PlasmaArcFlow , ,
.
, . ,
, . ,
300o K , , 3300o K.

360

7. ...

, , (.
7.A ):
1)
H2 O() H2 O() 10.4 Kcal/mole,

(7.44)

2) ,
1
H2 O H2 + O2 57 Kcal/mole,
2

(7.45)

3) ,
H2 H + H 104 Kcal/mole,

(7.46)

4) H O, , , 1197 Kcal.
:
C() C() 437 /,

(7.47)

1634 Kcal 4 ,
408.5 Kcal/mol = 0.475 kWh/mol = 1621 BTU/mol =
= 515.8 Kcal/cf = 0.600 kWh/cf = 2, 047 BTU/cf,

(7.48)

,
220 BTU/cf, 2267 BTU/cf.
, ,
, ,
. , ,
PlasmaArcFlow , 70%,
, , , :
Total Electric Energy = 3, 238 BTU/cf = 949 W/cf.

(7.49)

, PlasmaArcFlow , . , ,

7.11. ...

361

50% 50% , .
PlasmaArcFlow , . , CO2 . , CO2
, .
, , ,
,
,

. ,
H O, H2 O (
).
, PlasmaArcFlow : 3300o K 300o K
;
H + H H2 + 104 Kcal/mole,
1
H2 + O2 H2 O + 57 Kcal/mole,
2
C + O CO + 255 Kcal/mole.

(7.50a)
(7.50b)
(7.50c)

100% ( , ),
398 Kcal/mole = 1, 994 BTU/cf.

(7.51)

,
, PlasmaArcFlow ,
2254 BTU/cf.
, .
:
1
H2 (mg) + O2 (atm) H2 O + 57 Kcal/mole,
2

(7.52a)

362

7. ...

1
CO(mg) + O2 (atm) CO2 + 68.7 Kcal/mole.
(7.52b)
2
, 50%-50% H2 CO :
=
= 62.8 Kcal/mole = 249.19 BTU/mole = 315 BTU/cf.

(7.53)

, PlasmaArcFlow
:
E(mg) + E(heat) = 315 BTU/cf + 2, 254 BTU/cf = 2, 569 BTU/cf. (7.54)
, PlasmaArcFlow ,
=
=

Emg + Eheat
2, 569 BTU/cf
Total energy out
=
=
= 0.79.
Electric energy in
Eelectr
3, 238 BTU/cf

(7.55)

, 50% ( ,
50% H O ) , , . [9].

7.12

,
,
,
, ,
, , .
,
, , ,
H, C O, .

7.12.

363

EarthFirst Technologies, Inc., . , , , : , , WattWatchers, Inc., ; , , Tampa Transformers, Inc.; , , , Miller


Corporation, , ,
; , , Motorfuelers, Inc., Clearwater,
; Institute for Basic Research, , , .
, , ,
, , , ,
.
. , , 3238
BTU/cf = 949 W/cf H2
CO . ,
2569 BTU/cf.

, PlasmaArcFlow , , :
1) , 949 W/cf, , ;
2) , , 1994 BTU/cf, -

364

7. ...

, ,
;
3) , , 315 BTU/cf, , , .
, ,

. ,
, .
, :
1) ,

.
, 7.7, , , , , , .
.
2) ,
. .
3) , , [8].
,
,
.

7.12.

365

7.A
7.1: .
1
1
1
1
1
a

kWh
Kcal
eV
cal
molea

860 Kcal = 3413 BTU


3.97 BTU
3.831023 Kcal
4.18 J
22.4 liters = 0.792 cf

1 cf
28.3 liters
a
1 cf
1.263 mol
NA
6.0221023 mol1
NA k/2 1 cal/(molK)
R
8.314 J/(molK) = 1.986 cal/(molK)

, .
7.2: . p = 1 .,
H2 (gas)
29.83 J/(molK)
7 cal/(molK)
H2 O (liquid)
4.18 J/(gramK) 1 cal/(gramK)
Graphite (solid) 0.71 J/(gramK) 0.17 cal/(gramK)
O2 (gas)
29.36 J/(gramK) 7 cal/(gramK)
H (gas)
14.3 J/(gramK) 3.42 cal/(gramK)
O (gas)
0.92 J/(gramK) 0.22 cal/(gramK)
Fe (solid)
0.45 J/(gramK) 0.11 cal/(gramK)

T = 25o C.
18 cal/(molK)
2 cal/(molK)

6 cal/(molK).

7.3: , T =25o C.
Kcal/mol

HH 104.2a
CC 82.6
CO 85.5
a

H2 ;

O2 ;

Kcal/mol

C=O 192.0d
OH 110.6
CC 199.6

Kcal/mol

O=O 119.1b
C=C 145.8
C=O 255.8c
d

366

7. ...

7.4: .
Kcal/mol

Water
10.4
Graphite 171.7

Atoms

eV

H
C
O

13.6
11.26
13.6

. 7.11: [8] 308 GTSi 1980 .


Honda Civic, USMagnegas, Inc.,
, EPA
,
, CO2 50% 10% 14%
.

7.12.

367

. 7.12: [8]
, , . 7.10, , .
. , , , , ,
.

368

7. ...

. 7.13: EPA 40-CFR, 86, Vehicle


Certification Laboratory Liphardt & Associates -, Honda Civic Natural Gas Vehicle,
USMagnegas, Inc., , .
, ,

EPA .
. ,

.

7.12.

369

. 7.14: . , : 1)
, , ,
( ,
, 2300 BTU/. ); 2) , , 50% , ; 3) , , ,
, ; 4)
,
, ,
; 5) - ,
; 6) , ,
; 7) ,
.

370

7. ...


[1] Jena, P., Rao, B.K. and Khanna, S.N.: Physics and Chemistry of Small
Clusters, in NATO ASI Series, Series B: Physics, Vol. 158, Plenum Press
(1986). Jena, P., Khanna, S.N., and Rao, B.K.: Physics and Chemistry of
Finite Systems: From Clusters to Crystals, in NATO ASI Series, Series
C: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 374, Vol. 1 and 2 (1991).
Jena, P., Khanna, S.N., and Rao, B.K.: in Proceedings of the Science and
Technology of Atomically Engineered Materials, World Scientific Press
(1996).
[2] http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/energy.html.
[3] Spath, P. and Mann, M.: A Complete Look at the Overall Environmental
Impact of Hydrogen Production, in Proceedings of HY 2000 EFO Energy
Forum, GmbH, p. 523 (2000).
[4] Frank, D., Wolf, J., and Pehr, K.: Visions Come True: BMW Hydrogen
Vehicles lead the Way, in Proceedings of HY 2000 EFO Energy Forum,
GmbH, p. 181 (2000).
[5] Santilli, R.M.: The Physics of New Clean Energies and Fuels According
to Hadronic Mechanics, Journal of New Energy 4, Special Edition, No. 1
(1999), 318 pages.
[6] Santilli, R.M.: Nuovo Cimento Lettere 37, 545 (1983) [6a]; J. Moscow
Phys. Soc. 3, 255 (1998) [6b]; and Intern. J. Modern Phys. D7, 351
(1998) [6c].
[7] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 13, 513 (1990) [7a]. Santilli, R.M., JINR
Comm. E4-93-352 (1993) [7b]. Santilli, R.M., Chinese J. Syst. Eng.
and Electr. 6, 177 (1995) [7c]. Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 17, 311
371

372

(1994) [7d]. Borghi, C., Giori, C., and DallOilio, A.: (Russian) J. Nucl.
Phys. 56, 147 (1993) [7e]. Tsagas, N.F., Mystakidis, A., Bakos, G., and
Seftelis, L.: Hadronic J. 19, 87 (1996) [7f]. Smith, S.: in Proceedings of
the International Symposium on New Energies, ed. by M. Shawe et al.,
Association of New Energy, Denver, Colorado (1996) [7g].

[8] http://www.magnegas.com.
[9] Aringazin, A.K. and Santilli, R.M.: A study of the energy efficiency of
hadronic reactors of molecular type (2001), in preparation.

8
:

8.1

, , ,
, , ,
(Avogadro) (1811), (Canizzaro) (1858) , .
, , , . , ,
.
, 7, , , .
,
, , ,
, ,
,
. 373

374 8. :
,
,
.
. , , , . ,
, , , , ,
,
, .
1998 . .. [1] , , , ,
, , .
( ), - , , ,
.
, Toups
Technologies Licensing, Inc., , , ,
, , - 1998 ., . EarthFirst Technologies, Inc. ( Toups Technologies Licensing, Inc.) (EFTI [2]), , , : USMagnegas, Inc. (, ), EuroMagnegas,
Ltd. (, ) AsiaMagnegas, Lim. (),
.

, , , , , [2].
:
1) "" ,

8.2.

375

, , , , ,
;
2) "" , : HO, HC ..,
, , ;
3) "" ,
, , , , : H2 , H2 O, C2 H2 .., , , ;
4) "" , / , / , / - ,
, ; "" ;
5) " " ,
, , , , ,
.
,
, , , [1] 1998 .

8.2

, , :
8.2.1 ( ) [1]: ,
, / , / , , ,

376 8. :
,
. , , ,
,
. ,
, :
I) , , ,
;
II) -,
;
III) ,
/ , ;
IV) ( "") , , ,
, ( ), ;
V) , ()
,
, , ;
VI) ,
,
/ ,
( );
VII)
, ;
VIII) ,

8.2.

377

, ;
IX) ,
, ;
X) ,
;
XI) , , ,
;
XII) ,
( ), , ,
, ;
XIII)
, , ,
.., ;
XIV)
, ;
XV) ,
,
; ,
, ,
.
: ,
; ,
; , .
, , , ,
, , .
, , , USMagnegas, Inc. [2], , ,
. ,

378 8. :
, .
,
"", :
{HH} {HH},

{OO} {OCO}, etc.,

{C15 H20 O} {C15 H20 O}, etc.;

(8.1a)
(8.1b)

:
{HH} {HH} {HH} . . . , etc.,
(8.2a)
{HOH} {HOH} . . . , etc.;

(8.2b)

:
{H H} {C O} {O C O} {C = O} . . . , etc.,

(8.3a)

{C13 H18 O} {C14 H12 O3 } {C15 H20 O} . . . , etc.

(8.3b)

, , :
{HH} {CO} H {HOH} C {HO} . . . , etc.

(8.4)

( XIV 8.2.1),
, ( 7.10 7.11).
, , H, C
O / , HO HC. , ,

, :
H + H H2 + 105 Kcal/mole,
C + O CO + 255 Kcal/mole,
HO + H H2 O + 28 Kcal/mole, etc.,

(8.5)

8.3.

379

, ,
, .
, , , , ,
, .

, . , ,
, , .

8.3

, ,
. ,
,
.
,
[1],
(. . 8.1.A). , , ,
, , ,
.
[1]
, ,
.
, (
) , , ,

380 8. :
(. . 8.1.A).
, ,
, ""
(. . 8.1.B).
[1] ,
. , ,
(. 8.1.C).
, , ,
,
, .
1998 . ( ),
.
, , , ,
, , . , ,
, , .
, ,
() .

8.4

, , ,
. ,

, -

8.4.

381

,
.
, ,
, , 4. ,
, , . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
- , ,
,
.

[1]. , Me-orb .
:
q
Me-orb. =
L ,
(8.6)
2m
L ,
, q = e m = me .
, , (4.25), . , ,
(8.6),
q = 2e ,
m = 2me , (8.6) .

, :
Me-orb. = Misoe-orb. = 1, 859.59 .

(8.7)

, -

382 8. :
1.4107 , [1]:
Me-orb.
1, 856.9590
=
= 1, 316.33,
Mp-intr.
1.4107

(8.8)

, , , 1316 , , .
,
, . , ,
.
, . 8.2, .
, 10 ,
:
MH-tot. = Mp-intr. + Me-intr. + Me-orb. 3, 000 ,

(8.9)

, ,
, :
MH2 -tot. = Mp-intr. + Misoe-orb. 1, 500 ,

(8.10)

-, - , .
, , ,
, ,
.
.. (M.G. Kucherenko) .. (A.K. Aringazin) [3],
:
Me-orb.
1, 315 .
Mp-intr.

(8.11)

8.4.

383

,
() , , ,
L = 0, , M = 0. , ()
.
, (8.6)-(8.11) .
,
, . ,
, PlasmaArcFlow ,
, . , ,
,
, ,
- , .
, (8.6)-(8.11)
,
, .
, ,
.
, L = 1 (8.6)-(8.11) . [2] [8] (. 8.A).
, 20- , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
. , , -

384 8. :
, ,
. , , . ,
,
.
, , , . , ,
2

p
H| i =
+V | i = E| i,
(8.12)
2m
| i . |h | | i|.
, ,
.
, B.
,

e
(p A)2 /2m +V | 0 i = E 0 | 0 i,
(8.13)
c
A B. ,
, |h 0 | | 0 i| ,
. ,
.
..
[8], , , . 8.A. , , , , 1013 = 107 ,

8.4.

385

(8.13)
, ,
, , .
, ,
H- , ,

,
8.9.
109 , ,
105 , , .
, ,
8.2.1,
. , 8.10.
. , , . , 10
. ,

(8.9), , 6000 . ,
, ,
.
, . , 1316
, - ,
,
, .
, , .
, , , , -

386 8. :
. , . , , 8.1, ""
, ,
,
"".
,
,
- , , , , , . , , ,
, , , ,
, .
,
. ,
. ,
. , , , . , , ,
. . , , , ,
.

, .
,
, , ,
. , ,
, .
,

8.5. ...

387

,
, -,
.
, , . 1.4 1.5.
,
, , , , , .
, , , oo- . , o- .
, ,
, ,
(. . 4.5 8.3).

8.5


. , , , . , ,
,
.
. , ,
. ,

388 8. :
, , , , .
, -/-/-/. . .
, .
, , ,
: ;
; .
, ,
. , , , . 8.5.A. ,
, , , . 8.4.B ,
, . 8.4.C.
,
, . 8.5.A. ,
, .
PlasmaArcFlow , [2]. ,
,
GC- LC-MS.
PlasmaArcFlow . . 7.9, ,

8.5. ...

389

, .
;
; H, C O
3500 K. . , , ,

, , .
, 8.1 , ,
,
m1 m2
Fmagnetic = 2 .
(8.14)
r
,
1,000 A 30 V, ,
r = 108 , 1016 .


, , ,
, .
, , ,
,
. 8.3.A.
, ,
. , , ,
, - ,
. 8.5.C.
, , PlasmaArcFlow

390 8. :
, . ,
,
HO. , 8.2.1, , /
, / , , ,
.
PlasmaArcFlow .
, , , .
, , ,
LC-MS/UVD .


,
, .
,
.
-,
, , HH
, , H H (. 8.2).
,
{Ha Hb } {Hc Hd },

(8.15)

a, b, c, d ; Ha Hc ,
a
c; b
d (., , . 8.5.A). -
,

8.5. ...

391

, , . ,
, 8.1, ,
(8.15) .
:
{H H } {C O };

(8.16)

, ,
{HH }H {CO }{HO }{HCABC . . .}. . . , (8.17)
A, B, C , , , .
. , ;
, . , ,
. - ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
.
(8.15) , (
). ,
"" H3 , , ,
. 8.5.C.

, ,
.

392 8. :

8.6

8.2, , , CO2 , , ,
. , , CO2
,
.

. ,
,
. , , ,
, .
, C=O. , PlasmaArcFlow ,
, , , . , ,
, , .
, . ,

, , ,
- - , . 8.6.A.
OCO, , , , , OC CO ,
. 8.6.B.
,

8.7. ...

393

, , ,
,
.
,
. , , ,
.

8.7

, 8.2.1. , ,
GC-MS . .
1: MS .
. , GC-MS
, . .
CO2 , 44 a.m.u. , GC-MS
,
, 44 a.m.u. ,
1000 a.m.u.
2: MS
.
, MS 1 "" , -

394 8. :
150000 . ,
, per se, .
3: MS .
, MS 1, , / .
, , . ,
, ,
.
, , , CO2
44 a.m.u. 458 a.m.u.
4: .

, , . ,
, .
, .
5: .

, , , , ,
, , MS . , , , ,
,

.
6: , .

8.7. ...

395

, , ,
. , 1, ,

.

7: .
, , ,
. - ,
, ,

/ .
, . , , GC-MS
. ,

. ,
, ,
.

, ,
, , .
.
, , , ( ), , ,
, .

396 8. :

8.8
8.8.1

(., , [4]), : (GC), (LC),


(CEC), (SCC), (IC), (IR), (RS),
- (NMRS), (XRS), (AAS), - (MS), - (LMS), - (FIS) ..
, , ,
.
, GC 0.32 , 8.8.3. ,
, CEC, , ,
, IC.
,
IR, ,
, , , . RS
, ,
NMRS ,
, - , NMRS

H-, . .
, -

8.8. ...

397

MS, - , , , . . - ( ,
) , , , .
, , . , GC , . , MS ,
.
, . ,
GC MS,
GC-MS. IR
GC-MS. ,
, GC-MS IRD, GC-MS/IRD,
LC-MS UVD, LC-MS/UVD.
GC-MS , , , .
, (
), GC Hewlett-Packard (HP), 5890, MS HP, 5972,
,
( 10 C)
( 25 ).
IRD IRD. ,
(-,
), IRD HP, 5965,
, .

398 8. :
,
, , ,
, , :
i) ,
, , (
, , 8.10);
ii)
, , - , ,
, ;

iii) , , , ,
3 a.m.u., . 8.4.
, ,
.

8.8.2

, GC-MS ,
. , GC-MS IRD ,
.
,
, .

,
.

8.8. ...

399

, - ,
.
,

IRD. , ,
. , H2 O, IRD ,
HO.
,
. ,
. ,
,
MS ,
, , .
, , MS ,
IRD. , MS ,
,
MS
, ,
.
, GC-MS IRD. ,
, MS, , , IRD. ,
MS a.m.u.,
IRD, ,
, -, , .
, , , , , , MS -

400 8. :
, IR ,
GC-MS IRD.


, ,
,

, ,
.
, .
, , : GC-MS, IRD, 19 a.m.u.; 18 a.m.u.; IRD HO-. ,
,
19 a.m.u. , a.m.u.
"" - ,
, , .
, , 19 a.m.u.
, , :
{H O H } H .

(8.18)

, , 19 a.m.u.
, , MS 99.99% IR 100%,
. ,
IR , ,
.
, 19 a.m.u. ,
, , , a.m.u. .
,
. ,

8.8. ...

401


. , H HOH,
1/2 (
) ( ),
, , . ,

(8.9).
, ,
, ,
, .
,
, , . , ,

.
, GC-MS IRD, , , ,
, . ,
, .

8.8.3

MS
,
. MS

402 8. :
. , , .

.
,
GC-MS IRD,

MS, IR . -, IRD
GC-MS, ; IRD ; , MS
.
, . , , , CO2
44 a.m.u. MS 481 a.m.u.
,
, , , , ,
MS 481 a.m.u. . MS
, .
GC-MS IRD,
481 a.m.u. IRD 481 a.m.u., 44 a.m.u.
CO2 , .
, 481 a.m.u. ,
,
, 8.2.1.
, IRD
, -
. , , ,
: 1) IR -

8.8. ...

403

; 2) IR 481 a.m.u.;
3) IRD , .
, IRD CO2
, CO , CO2 , .
, ,
, IR ,
.
, (8.5), .
, GC-MS IRD , :
i) MS
, GC-MS ,
;
ii) ;
iii) GC-MS/IRD 0.5 ;
iv) GC-MS
, ;
v)
, , , 25 .
, , , . , 0.5
, ,
. ,
, , , .
, , -

404 8. :
GC-MS ,
, .
, , , ,
. ,
, .
, , GC-MS
, , . -, , , . 25 , , ,
, . , , . , ,
, .
IRD,
, . , GC-MS
,
.
, , , , , , , GC-MS IRD, , , .. , .
LC-MS/UVD
, , - , , , ,
, .
, -

8.8. ...

405

, LC-MS,
, .

8.8.4

H3 O3

, , GC-MS , 3 a.m.u.,
H , H3 , O3 .
, , , , ,
,
.
,
. , . H3 O3
H2 O2 , , ,
.
, ,
, ( 1/2) (
0), . ,
, , "" , .
( ) ,
, H3 O3 , , H O, H2 O2 , , . 8.5.C.
, 8.2.1, ,

406 8. :
.
O3 . , , ,
, , .
(
) .

, O2 O.
O3
GC-MS 32 a.m.u. , ,
, O2 O2 .

H3 , .
, ,

, , , . 8.2.
, MS 3 a.m.u. . , GC
. ,
H2 H
. , , PlasmaArcFlow
. , GC H-,
, .
,
, . 8.5.C, ,
{H H } H .

(8.19)

, , (8.9). 3 a.m.u., , ,

8.8. ...

407

, ,
.
H3 GCMS 4 a.m.u. ,
,
,
H2 H2 , . 8.5.A.
, , GC-MS LC-MS ,
, , ,
.
, MS
.
,
( 100 a.m.u.) 133 a.m.u., 166 a.m.u. 207 a.m.u.,
, . , , .
GC-MS , , ,
.

8.8.5

,
,
( 2001 .). , , ,
MS . , . ,
, IRD
104 ,

408 8. :
, IRD.


, . 8.5. ,
,
, .

, ,
10000o K. , , , .
,
. , , ( ),
. , , ,
.

, , ,
, IR , MS ,

, , .

, IR , , MS , , , .

8.9. 409

8.9
8.9.1

,
19- . , ,
,
,
.
,
(., ,
[5]). , CO2 , .
, PlasmaArcFlow ( ), .
,
.
"",
.
,
, . ,
NASA , :
50% H2 ,

40% CO,

9% CO2 , traces of O2 and H2 O.

(8.20)

, , , CO2 44 a.m.u.
, , , ,

410 8. :
"H3 " GC-MS . [6] . , , , , . 8.5.C
[6].
, , [7] .
""
"" " ". ,
" "
" " .
() ,
" " " " ,

.

8.9.2

GC-MS/IRD
McClellan

[1] , ,
, , 8.2.1, ,
(8.20) .
, [loc. cit.] GC-MS IRD, , -
McClellan Air Force Base North Highland,
(Sacramento), . , Toups Technologies Licensing,
Inc., , , GC-MS/IRD
(8.20).
19 , 1998 ., Natio-

8.9. 411
nal Technical Systems (NTS) McClellan
Air Force Base . : . (Louis A. Dee),
(Branch Manager), (Norman Wade), HP GC 5890, HP MS 5972, HP IRD
5965. ,
.
NTS,

8.8.3. , VOC IRMS.M, HP Ultra 2 25
, 0.32 0.52 .
40 a.m.u. 500 a.m.u. ,
CO 28 a.m.u.
, GC-MS/IRD 10 C;
0.5 ; ;
26 ; 50
/. .
, ( ). ,
. , , 8.78.12
.
26 , MS
40 500 a.m.u., . 8.7. MS "",
McClellan Air Force Base
, . 8.8.
CO2 MS , 40 500 a.m.u., ,
9% (8.20).
MS , , 40

412 8. :
500 a.m.u., IR . ,
,
. 8.9. , IR MS , CO2 ,
,
.
, , CO O2
IR , . ,
CO2 , . 8.10. ,
, CO2 , ,
, . 8.6.
, . 8.10,
, CO, , , , CO
.
IR , , "", , . 8.11.
GC-MS/IRD, . 8.7 . 8.12 . ,
, . , ,
.

8.9.3

GC-MS/IRD Pinellas County Forensic

, NTS, 25 , 1998 , GCMS/IRD Pinellas County Forensic Laboratory (PCFL), ,


, Toups Technologies Licensing, Inc.
HP GC , 5890, II; HP MS,

8.9. 413
5970; HP IRD, 5965B. NTS, PCFL ,
10 C 55 C 26 1 .
. 8.7 , GC-MS .
, PCFL,
8.138.18, ,
NTS. ,
.
[1], MS , 30 .
. 8.13 8.14, PCFL
. , . 8.13 . 8.14.
, , ,
, , , / .
, ,
.
8.15 GC-MS/IRD . 8.13 8.14 , .
8.16 . 8.9, , MS ,
. 8.13 8.14, , CO2 . ,
MS . , IR CO2
. 8.13 8.14.
MS ,
.
8.17 CO2 , -

414 8. :
. 8.10, , , , ,
.
8.18 , MS
, .

8.9.4

. , , GC-MS/IRD , IRD CO2 MS ,


MS IR . , IR CO2 ,
. 8.10 8.17, - MS , . 8.7, 8.13 8.14. , IR
MS , .
, IR 40
500 a.m.u., , MS , , IRD .
, , , IRD
, CO, HO ..,
. , , IRD,
CO2 , MS. , MS
- CO2 , . , MS CO2 . , , MS

CO CO2 , , /
, / , 40 a.m.u., .
, -

8.9. 415
,
.
, , (8.5). ,
,
, ,
.
MS NTS
PCFL , 40 500 a.m.u., GC-MS/IRD ,

26 . , MS 26 , . 8.7,

. 8.13 8.14,
1 . , . 8.7 . 8.13 8.14
, .

8.9.5

McClellan Air Force Base


Pinellas County Forensic Laboratory, . 8.78.18, 8.2.1,
GC-MS
IRD, .
, , , , . 8.7,
8.13 8.14
, ,
8.1, ,
, .

416 8. :
, ,
, , 8.2.1:
I) MS , . , , , (8.20), ,
CO2 44 a.m.u.,
.
II) MS , , .
. 8.7, . 8.13 8.14, , ,
. 8.8 8.15, MS
, .
III) MS , , , .
, , , , . 8.9 8.16,
.
IV) , ,
, CO2 , , , . 8.10
. 8.17. ,
PlasmaArcFlow
, . 8.6.
V) , , , ()
, , , , . 8.12 8.18.
VI) ,
, , .

8.9. 417
. 8.13 8.14 , ,
, 30 .
VII) ,
. . 8.13 8.14, , : 286 a.m.u.
287 a.m.u. ,
; 302 a.m.u.
319 a.m.u. , HO ; 328 a.m.u.
334 a.m.u. , O2 ; 299 a.m.u.
297 a.m.u. , H2 ; .. ,
GC-MS/IRD , .
8.2.1
, GC-MS/IRD, .
, , . 4.5 8.3,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.
, . 8.78.18, ,
, , ,
.

,
,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
-

418 8. :
,
:
1) ,
.
2) , ,
,
, ;
3) .
"" I) XV) 8.2.1, . , .

.

8.10

8.10.1

1998 , [1] Givaudan-Roure Corporation (GR),


(Teaneck), -. 50 cc . 12000 G 1/200 100 200 .
, , , . , ,
. , , -

8.10.

419

, , .
, .
,
, -
, , - . , .
, ,
.
[1] ,
, , ( ), ,
, 8.2.1, , .
, , ,
,
,
(. 8.1). ,
. , 8.5,
PlasmaArcFlow , .

8.10.2

, GR (Dubendorf), ,
, . 8.19 8.20.

420 8. :

. 8.1: . . 8.1.A , ,
,
. . 8.1.B , . ,
, . . 8.1.C
,
, . 8.1.A,
, , ,
. ,
. 8.1.B ,
.

8.10.

421

. 8.2:
, . , ,
, . ,
, .
1 ,
, . ,
, , . , , 4.2,
oo- ( ),
,
N-.

422 8. :

. 8.3: , , - ( 5), (. 1.5). ,



. , , , , 105 HO .
. 4.5.

8.10.

423

. 8.4: , .
, ,
, ,
, .
, . ,
( 7).

,
, 108 ,
(108 )2 = 1016 , (. 8.A).

424 8. :

. 8.5: . A , ,
. , . ,
4 a.m.u. GC-MS , ,
. B ,
3 a.m.u., "" H3 ,
,
. - , ,

, : , , ;
2e, e,
; ..

8.10.

425

. 8.6: C=O OCO, , ,


IR .

426 8. :

. 8.7: MS ,
19 , 1998 , .
National Technical; Systems (NTS) McClellan Air Force Base North Highland, ,
, Toups Technologies Licensing, Inc. (TTL),
, . 40 a.m.u 500 a.m.u.

, . (8.20). ,
CO2 , CO2
MS .

8.10.

427

. 8.8: NTS
, . 8.7 "" .
8.924 ,
. , . ,
()
, .
. 8.7.

428 8. :

. 8.9: , NTS, MS . MS , . ,
CO2 , . 8.7.
CO2 ,
40 a.m.u. 500 a.m.u. , ,
, O2 CO (H2 ).

8.10.

429

. 8.10: , NTS, , CO2 (), (). , CO2


,
. , ,

CO2 . , , , , [2]., CO,
, CO .

430 8. :

. 8.11: ,
, IR , , , , MS .

8.10.

431

. 8.12: , .

432 8. :

. 8.13: " " () MS ()


, 25 , 1998 , HP GC-MS/IRD Pinellas County Forensic Laboratory (PCFL), , ,
Toups Technologies Licensing, Inc. (TTL), , .
40 a.m.u 500 a.m.u. NTS .

8.10.

433

. 8.14: ,
PCFL, ,
, 30 . ,

.

434 8. :

. 8.15: GC-MS/IRD PCFL MS


, .

8.10.

435

. 8.16: . 8.13 8.14,


. 8.9, , MS . 8.13
8.14 , .

436 8. :

. 8.17: PCFL
. 8.10 NTS,
CO2 .
. 8.10 . , ,
CO2 , ,
. , ,
CO2 .

8.10.

437

. 8.18: PCFL . ,
. , MS ,
, . , . ,

, .

.

438 8. :
. 8.19 GR, "ING258AIN, Test 2", , 10 100 .
, , , " ", 10- ,
per se , . ,
"", "".
, 50 cc .
. 8.20 - 10 100 , GR,
"Mixture 2",
. , ,
12000 G,
, 10000 a.m.u., ,
, I) 8.2.1.
,
. , ,
.

.

. 8.19 8.20.

8.10.

8.10.3

439

, Tekmar-Dohrmann Corporation

5- , 1998 ., (Brian
Wallace) (Mia Burnett) Tekmar-Dohrmann Corporation
(TDC) , , Tekmar 7000 HT Static
Headspacer Autosampler - (FID). 8- 11- , 1998 .,
. , Tekmar ,
UV . , . , FID
,
.
: 1, (
) GR "Fragrance Oil 2"; 2, ; 3,
.
, Tekmar
, , 8.2.1.
, ,
, .

440 8. :

. 8.19: ,
Givaudan-Roure Research Laboratory , , GR "ING258IN Test 2"
10 100 [1].

8.10.

441

. 8.20: GR "Mixture 2" 10- 100- , (University of South Florida), .


. 8.19 [1].

442 8. :

. 8.21: 5- , 1998 ., Tekmar


Dohrmann Company (TDC), , , Tekmar 7000
HT Static Headspacer Autosampler - (FID).

8.10.

443

. 8.22: TDC, 8.19 5/5/98, .

444 8. :

. 8.23: TDC, 8.19 5/5/98, ,


, .

8.10.

445

,
. 8.218.25 [1]. . 8.21
. ,
"Peak 1" 24.28%, "Peak 2"
3.19% "Peak 3" 70.00%. . 8.22 , . 8.23
, : "unknown 1"
64.24% "unknown 2" 33.53%, 97.78%. , , 8.2.1. . 8.24
, : "unknown 1" 1.75% "unknown 2" 0.45%.
,
Peak 1 . 8.21 24.28% Peak 3 70.00% 5.33% 68.71%, . , . . 8.25
. , , ,
.

8.10.4

LC-MS, UVD,
GR "ING258IN Test 2" . 8.19, 1- 1998 .,
(FIU), , .
17- 18- .
, ,
:
1) (TIC) -

446 8. :
.
2) TIC ;
3) - 2;
4) HP LC 254 ;
5) UV- HPLC 230
700 mm.
:
I) GR331, , GR "ING258IN Test 2";
II) GR332, "ING258IN Test
2" 10% - (Dipropylene Glycol) (DPG);
III) GR332S, ;
IV) GR335, 4% GR "ING258IN Test 2", 0.4% DPG 95%
;
V) GR335O, .
, 8.26
8.30 [1]. , ,

.
. FIU , . 8.18. ,
. ,
LC-MS/UVD .
, , . PlasmaArcFlow 7,
.

8.11. ...

8.11

447

, , . ,
, , . .
, , , , ,
, " " R ( )
P, V , T , R = R(P,V, T ), :
PV
= nR(P,V, T ),
T

(8.21)

R P, V T .
USMagnegas, Inc., ,
, , :
1)
;
2) , V ,
P
T , T 0 > T
T . P,
P0 > P;
3)
, , ,
100 psi 200 psi V
cf ,

448 8. :
, 4000 psi 4100 psi, ,
, V 0 , ,
, V 0 > V .
,
, , , . , , , , ,
. ,
( 8.2.1), , - . ,
,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
GC-MS/IRD LC-MS/UVD , 8.2.1.
GR.
, , 200 G ( , , . 8.18 8.19).
, -
, , .
1 25.
9 1998 .,
U.S. Testing Company, Inc. (USTC), (Fairfield), -.
. 8.31 8.32.
1 -

8.11. ...

449

. 2
5 . 3 4 .
5
GR "APC Fragrance". 6 5 ,
5 . 7 8 , 5, . 17
GR "Air Freshener 1". 19 Fragrance 17
16, 5
. , . ,
.
1 ( ) 2 ( )
, 0.86%,
. , , . 8.27.
, ()
, , , 5 , 1. , , ,
, .
, , GR , 6, , , .
, ,

.
, . , " UPS-", ,
, , - .

450 8. :
. ,
- , - , , ,
.
, ,
,
, , , .
, , , , ,
(, , ..)
. 8.32. 30-40 Castrol Motor Oil
,
, A B.
, -
. , 2 44.5%.
, , .
, ,
, , .
. , .

,

, .

8.11. ...

451

, . .

. , , USTC, , , ,
.

452 8. :

. 8.24: , 8.21 5/5/98,


,
.

8.11. ...

453

. 8.25: TDC, 2.26 5/5/98, , .

454 8. :

. 8.26: GR
"ING258IN Test 2". 8.18 (GR331 ) (FIU).

8.11. ...

. 8.27: FIU GR332.

455

456 8. :

. 8.28: FIU GR332S.

8.11. ...

. 8.29: FIU GR335.

457

458 8. :

. 8.30: FIU GR335O.

8.11. ...

459

. 8.31: USTC , .

460 8. :

. 8.32: USTC , .

8.12.

8.12

461


, , , .
, , ,
a.m.u., , CO2
44 a.m.u.; ;
, ; .
, , [1] , ,
, , , , , -,
.
, , , , 8.2.1 ,
,
, .
,
, , , ,
,
, , , , . ,
. , ,
, ,
, , .

462 8. :
, ,
, .


, ,
, , , ,
,
, [1] .
[8]
, , , ,
, .
, ( , 108 ) ( 7),
, ,
(. . 8.4.D).
, , B
, .
, -
( ), ehB/2mc > E j j0 ' 103 eV, , B '
105 Gauss, , -,
.
, B, B,
,

8.12.

463

B.
, ,
H . ,
, , ehB/2mc me4 /2h2 = 13.6 eV,
, , , B B0 = 2.4 109 Gauss = 240000 (,
1 = 104 Gauss). ,
.
, B B0 ,
B . , . ,

, , (. . 8.4.D), , , ,

. [9].
, ,
.
, , 105 106 Gauss ( 50 ), ,
B0 = 2.4 109 Gauss ( 105 ).
, B Bc = B0 / 2 = 4.4 1013 Gauss,
, mc2 = 0.5 MeV, = e2 /hc
. , ,
- ,

() -
(Bethe-Salpeter). , , , B ' 109 . . . 1013 Gauss.

464 8. :
[8]
2.4 1010 B 2.4 1013 Gauss,

.
( ), ,
, ,

.
, 4.
, ,
(Lamb shift).
, , ,
, [10]. (Faddeev)
(Niemi) [10] , ,
.
, ,
B0 . ,
.
, .
, ,
. B ' B0 ,

. ,
[9, 11, 12].
(Lai) [12] ,

8.12.

465

B B0 , ,
, B ' B0 , H2 .
, H ,
H , , a0 = h 2 /me2 ' 0.53 108
= 1 a.u., ,
~B.
, ,
:
s
n + 1/2
Rn =
,
(1)

= eB/2hc, B z, ~B = (0, 0, B),


~r = (r, , z) n = 0, 1, . . . . , (1) .

, .
En ,
,
h 2 kz2
1
k
En = En + Ekz = h (n + ) +
,
2
2m

(2)

= eB/mc h kz
h~k , < kz < ,
m e .
En , .
k
Ekz ( ), h kz
.

466 8. :
,
,
.
,
, Ar = Az = 0, A = rB/2,

h 2
1
1 2
2
2
2 2

+ r + 2 + z r + 2i = E ,
(3)
2m r r
r
[9]:

n,s,kz (r, , z) =

p
eil eikz z
2 Ins ( r2 ) ,
2 L

(4)

Ins ( ) ,
Ins ( ) =

1 /2 (ns)/2 ns
e

Qs ( );
n!s!

(5)

Qns
, L , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .
s
, s = n l
= r2 .
:


1
1
1
0
( ) =
(6)
, ( ) =
,
0
1
2
2
Espin = 0 B,
(2); 0 = eh/2mc .
, , n = 0, s = 0
z, h kz = 0, (2) :
ehB
,
(7)
2mc
, (4),
r
r2 /2
,
000 (r, , z) = 000 (r) =
e
(8)

E0 =

8.12.

467

0.5

psi

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

3
r, a.u.

. 33:
, 000 ( ), (8),
B = B0 = 2.4 109 , r , ( )
( ),
r/a
0 ( ), r (1/ )e
.
. 34; 1 a.u. = a0 = 0.53 108 .
R R 2

rdrd |000 |2 = 1.
()
s
r
h c
1
R0 =

,
(9)
eB
2

0 0

000
s
2
r2
1
4R0
000 =
e
.
2 R20

(10)

33 , 000 ,
B = B0 = 2.4109 (R0 = 1 a.u.), ( )

, , (1/ )er/a0 .
. 34 35 r ,
1 a.u.
, , , R0 <
a0 ( ""

468 8. :
0.6
0.5

Landau

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

3
r, a.u.

. 34: , 2 r|000 |2 ( ), (8),


B = B0 = 2.4109 ,
r , ( )
(

2
r/a
2
0
), 4 r |(1/ )e
| ( ), r . . 33; 1 a.u. = 0.53 108 .
H ) ,
B > B0 =

m2 ce3
= 2.351 109 Gauss,
h 3

(11)

m . , , H , |E0Bohr | = | me4 /2h2 | = 0.5


a.u. = 13.6 eV, , E0 .
, B0 ,

,

, |E0Bohr | = E0 = 13.6 , , , , a0 = R0 = 0.53 108 .
, ,
|E0Bohr | a0 , H
. ,
.

8.12.

469

-1

-2
-2

-1

. 35: (r, ) , 2 r|000 |2 , (8),


B = B0 = 2.4 109 , a.u. (1 a.u. = 0.53 108 ).
. "".

, [8] H
.
(r, , z), ~B = (0, 0, B), ,
z, ( -)

h 2
1
1 2
2me2
2
2
2 2

+ r + 2 + z + 2
r + 2i = E , (12)
2m r r
r
h r2 + z2
= eB/2hc.

. .

470 8. :
, B B0 = 2.4 109
, ,
. ,
(4),
(12) ,

= e r

2 /2

(z),

(13)

(z) ,
. .
, ,
, "" . , ,
, R0 a0 . , , , z.
(13) (12),
r z- :

h 2 d 2 h 2

+
+C(z) (z) = E (z),
(14)
2m dz2
m

C(z) = e2

Z
0

2
e
p
d = e2 e z [1 erf( |z|)]
+ z2

(15)

erf(x) .
C(z), (14), ,
H .
, 1, ,
hz2 i 1, -

8.12.

471

(15).

C(z) ' V (z) =

e2
,
|z|

hz2 i 1,

(16)


, z. (15),
C(z) z . ,
, C(z) z = 0, ,

C(0) = e2 , C(z)
.
C(z) ,
e2
C(z) ' V (z) =
,
|z| + z0
z0 , z0 6= 0, B,
r
e2
2hc
1
z0 =
= =
.
C(0)

eB

(17)

(18)

,
V (z) z = 0, , , . , (14)
- ,
2 2

h d
e2
h 2
+
+
+ E (z) = 0.
(19)
2m dz2 |z| + z0
m
(e = h = m = 1),
E0 =

h 2
+ E,
m

n2 =

1
,
2E 0

(20)

x = 2z/n x0 = 2z0 /n,


,

1 n
d
+ +
(21)
(x) = 0,
dx2
4 x

472 8. :
x > 0. v(x),
(x) = xex/2 v(x), ,
xv00 + (2 x)v0 (1 n)v = 0.

(22)

, (Cummer),
xv00 + (b x)v0 av = 0,

(23)


v(x) = C1 1F1 (a, b, x) +C2U(a, b, x),

(24)

(b)
1F1 (a, b, x) =
(b a)(a)

Z 1

ext t a1 (1 t)ba1 dt

(25)

U(a, b, x) =

1
(a)

ext t a1 (1 + t)ba1 dt

(26)

, C1,2 ; a = 1 n
b = 2. , (x)

(x) = (|x| + x0 )e(|x|+x0 )/2 C1 1F1 (1 n, 2, |x| + x0 )+


(27)

C2U(1 n, 2, |x| + x0 ) ,

x0 "", C1,2
, x, (
).
x0 = 0. 1F1 (1n, 2, x) x = 0 n.
x, , n
, n = 1, 2, . . . , .
U(1 n, 2, x) ,
-, . x 0,
n = 1, 2, 3, . . . 1/x n > 1
0 n < 1. x ,

8.12.

473

n, n > 1 n = 0
0 < n < 1.
, - xex/2 (27),
, ,
.
, x0 6= 0
n = 1, 2, . . . (
), n 0 , .
z z,
C1+ = C1 ,

C2+ = C2 ,

0 (0) = 0.

(28)

, n = 1 E 0 = 1/(2n2 ) = 1/2 a.u.,


n 0 < n < 1, . , n = 1 ,
.
, , ,
n. , n 0 1. , E 0 = 1/2n2 ,
n < 1 , E 0 = 0.5 a.u.
n < 1, xex/2 (27) x,
, , C1 = 0.
n < 1
(27). , 0 (x)|x=0 = 0
1 (x+x0 )/2
C2 [(2 x x0 )U(1 n, 2, x + x0 )
2e

2(1 n)(x + x0 )U(2 n, 3, x + x0 ))]|x=0 = 0.

(29)

n x0 , B,

474 8. :
x0 = x0 (B) n, E 0 .
, , , vice versa, x0
n.

, n = 1/ 15.58 ' 0.253 < 1, x0 = 0.140841. x0 =


0.141 (Heyl) (Hernquist) [14]. , x0 , (18), ,
x0 = 2z0 /n, B ' 4.7 1012 . ,

n = 1/ 15.58.

s

(r, , x) '

1 4Rr 2
e 0 (|x| + x0 )e(|x|+x0 )/2U(1 n, 2, |x| + x0 ),
2 R20

(30)

n

. 36.
, ,

n = 1 .
-, . 36
.
[1, 11]
.
, [14] , . 37,
. 3 ; = 2 z/e ; B = 4.7 1012 .
(17)
-

8.12.

475

. 36: H ~B = (0, 0, B),


B B0 = 2.4109 , .
R0 0.53 108 ,
.
R0 . .

(|x|+xm )/2

(|x|+xm )e

1F1 (1n, 2, |x|+xm )

Z |x|+xm

et
dt, (31)
(t 1F1 (1 n, 2,t))2

m =
0 .
n = 1/ 15.58, x0 = 0.141, B = 4.7 1012
. .
. 37 , z = 0,
z = 0 (
). , (
)
z z,
z = 0
. |000i

476 8. :

. 37:
( ) B = 4.7 1012 . , |000i ( ), |002i,|004i, |006i () |001i
|003i (); n = 1/ 15.58, = 2z/n x, ; z a.u., 1 a.u. = 0.53 108 (
. 3 [14]).

[14]:
Magnetic field B
(Gauss)
4.7 1012
9.4 1012
23.5 1012
4.7 1013
9.4 1013
23.5 1013
4.7 1014

Binding energy, |000i state


(Rydberg)
15.58
18.80
23.81
28.22
33.21
40.75
47.20

, (Ruder) . [9]
(Lai) [12].

8.12.

477

x
y

. 38: H ~B = (0, 0, B), B B0 =


2.4 109 . R0 ,
(x, y) , z = Lz z = +Lz , z = 0.
(x, y)- , . 35,
, R0 a0 .
.

, , () R0
(r, )-, z = Lz
z = +Lz , z = 0,
. 38.
,
, z z,
x = 0.
.

478 8. :
,
[12]. 3%, 1011
1015 . , [12], z Lz ' [ln(B/B0 )]1 a.u.; ()
L ' (B/B0 )1/2 a.u.; E ' 0.16[ln(B/B0 )]2
a.u., , b B/B0 102
106 . , B = 100B0 ,
E = 3.4 a.u. = 92.5 ,
L 0.1 a.u. = 0.53 109 z- Lz
0.22 a.u.
.
H , , ,
. ,
.
,
(., , [12, 14])
, , p- ,
. ,
. , , , .
,
, - ,
. , ,
,
.
,

8.12.

479

. 39: (r, z) ,
, 1011 ()
1012 (). 99% , 90%, 80% ..,
5% 1%, ( . 5 (Johnsen)
(Yngvason) [13]).
[13], - , (26 )
, B = 100B0 . . . 1000B0 .
, , . 39.
, , ,
, -
,
. , ,
( ),
, ( ).

480 8. :
. 39 ,

, ()
( ), , , , ,
( ,
). , . 39
. 38, , z z, , z,
-.

. 40: H+
2 . |000i,
|0 -1 0i.
, . B = 4.7 1012 ;
= 2 z/e z a.u.; 1 a.u. = 0.53 108 (
. 5 [14]).
H2 . , ,
H2+ ,
. [12, 14, 15],

8.12.

481

H+
2 H2 . . 40
H2+ [14].

482 8. :


[1] Santilli, R.M.: Hadronic J. 21, 789 (1998).
[2] http://www.magnegas.com.
[3] Kucherenko, M.G. and Aringazin, A.K.: Hadronic J. 21, 895 (1998).
[4] Settle, F.A.: Editor, Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytic
Chemistry, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (1997).
[5] Eldridge, H.: U.S. Patent no. 603,058, Spril [5a]; Dammann, W.A. and
Wallman, D.: U.S. Patents nos. 5,159,900 (1992) and 5,417,817 (1995)
[5b]; Richardson, W.H. jr.: U.S. Patents nos. 5,435,274 (1995), 5,692,459
(1997), 5,792,325 (1999) [5c]; See also for the Brown Gas Web Site
http://www.eagle-research.com [5d],
and for the SkyGas Web Site http://www.mpmtech.com [5e].
[6] Sachse, T.I. and Kleinekathofer, U.: "Generalized HeitlerLondon Theory
for H3 : A Comparison of the Surface Integral Method with Perturbation
Theory", e-print arXiv: physics/0011058 (November 2000).
[7] Kadomtsev, B.B. and Kudryavtsev, V.S.: Pisma ZhETF 13, 15, 61
(1971); Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 13, 9, 42 (1971) (English Translation);
ZhETF 62, 144 (1972); Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 76 (1972) (English
Translation). Ruderman, M.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1306 (1971); in: IAU
Symposium 53, Physics of Dense Matter, C.J. Hansen (ed.), Dordrecht,
Reidel (1974). Lai, D., Salpeter, E. and Shapiro, S.L.: Phys. Rev. A45,
4832 (1992). Lai, D. and Salpeter, E.: Phys. Rev. A52, 2611 (1995); Phys.
Rev. A53, 152 (1996); Astrophys. J. 491, 270 (1997).
483

484

[8] Aringazin, A.K.: Toroidal configuration of the orbit of the electron of


the hydrogen atom under strong external magnetic fields, Hadronic J. 24
(2001), in press.
[9] Sokolov A.A., Ternov I.M., and Zhukovskii, V.Ch.: Quantum mechanics,
Nauka, Moscow, 1979 (in Russian). Landau, L.D. and Lifshitz E.M.:
Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory, 3rd ed., Pergamon,
Oxford, 1989. Ruder, H., Wunner, G., Herold, H. Geyer, F.: Atoms
in Strong Magnetic Fields, Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1994.
Kadomtsev, B.B.: Soviet Phys. JETP 31 945 (1970). Kadomtsev, B.B.
and Kudryavtsev, V.S.: JETP 13 42 (1971); JETP Lett. 13 9 (1971).
[10] Faddeev, L. and Niemi, A.J.: Magnetic geometry and the confinement
of electrically conducting plasmas, physics/0003083, April 2000.
R. Battye, R., Sutcliffe, P.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4798 (1998); and
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A455, 4305 (1999). Hietarinta, J, Salo, P.: Phys.
Lett. B451, 60 (1999); and The ground state in the Faddeev-Skyrme
model, University of Turku preprint, 1999; for video animations, see
http://users.utu.fi/hietarin/knots/index.html
[11] Santilli, R.M.: The Physics of New Clean Energies and Fuels According
to Hadronic Mechanics, Journal of New Energy 4, Special Edition, No. 1
(1999), 318 pages. Santilli, R.M. and Shillady, D.D.: Intern. J. Hydrogen
Energy 24,
943 (1999); Intern. J. Hadrogen Energy 25, 173 (2000).
[12] Lai, D.: Matter in strong magnetic fields, chem-ph/0009333, September
2000.
[13] Johnsen, K. and Yngvason, J.: Density Matrix Functional Calculations
for Matter in Strong Magnetic Fields: I. Atomic Properties, chemph/9603005, March 1996.
[14] Heyl, J.S. and Hernquist, L.: Hydrogen and Helium Atoms and
Molecules in an Intense Magnetic Field, chem-ph/9806040, June 1998.
Jones, M.D., Ortiz, G., and Ceperley, D.M.: Spectrum of Neutral Helium
in Strong Magnetic Fields, chem-ph/9811041, November 1998.
[15] Lopez, J.C., Hess, P., and Turbiner, A.: H2+ ion in strong magnetic
field: a variational study, Preprint ICN-UNAM 97-06, chem-ph/9707050.

485

Turbiner, A., Lopez, J.C., and Solis, U.: H3++ molecular ions can exist
in strong magnetic fields, Preprint ICN-UNAM 98-05, chem-ph/9809298.
Lopez, J.C. and Turbiner, A.: One-electron linear systems in a strong
magnetic field, Preprint ICN-UNAM 99-03, chem-ph/9911535.


H+
2 - , 287

0 , 56, 205
k-, 31
q-, 31
4 - , 44

isoelectronium, 190
Lai, D., 464
Liphardt & Associates, 349

, .., 222
, .., 270

magnegas
exhaust, 349
McClellan Air Force Base, 410
Motorfuelers, Inc., 355, 363

AsiaMagnegas, Ltd., 344, 374


Baldwin, S., 235
Castrol motor oil
, 450
Clean Energy Technologies, Inc., 340
Coloumb hole, 234

NASA , 409
PlasmaArcFlow
reactors, 343
, 344, 388
, 344
, 363

Di Bernardi, Peter, 349


EarthFirst Technologies, Inc., 305,
344, 363
EPA
, 350
, 349, 368
, 347
EuroMagnegas, Ltd., 344, 374

Radiation Protection Associates, 358


SASLOBE, 225, 291
Tampa Transformers, Inc., 363
Tekmar-Dohrmann Corporation, 439
Toups Technologies Licensing, Inc.,
305, 344, 410

Florida International University, 445

U.S. Testing Company, Inc., 448


under-unity, 318
USMagnegas, Inc., 344, 374

Givaudan-Roure Corporation, 418


H , , 380, 469

water
486


characteristics, 255
WattWatchers, Inc., 355
Wiberg-Trindie bond indices, 241
, 373

, 289, 291
.., 25
..., 56, 58, 60, 158
, 58
, ..., 200, 222, 269
, .., 283, 289, 359,
382, 462
, .., 266
, .., 219
, ., 439

, 31, 147
, 148, 149, 155
, .., 234
- , 41
, ., 130
, .., 234, 266
, .., 220
-- , 97
., 33
, ., 410

, 292
, 12, 133, 135
-
, 150
, 140, 150
, 152
, 139, 155

487
, 140
, 137
--
, 152
, 146, 157
-- , 157

, 168
, 1
, 168

, 102
, 1, 25, 30
, .., 222
--
, 220
, .., 272
, 60
, .., 80
, ., 479
, .., 410

, 283, 285
, 283, 289
, 284
, 290
., 14
, ., 479
H+
2 , 285
-,
284
, .., 234, 266
, 373
, ., 234, 266

488
, .., 220
SCF ,
273
, ., 234
, .., 268

, 294

, 295
, 3
, 295
, 56, 63
, .., 283, 382
, 12, 133, 135
, ., 219
, ., 130
, 2
- , 135
-
, 104, 116
, 104, 117
, 116
, 96
, 96
, 97
, 95, 144, 160
, 117
, 143
-, 29
, .., 130
HT M , 347
, 4
-, 284,
289, 290
2 , 285
H


, ., 464
, 294
, ., 234, 266
, 98
, 89, 129, 175
, .., 220
, ., 258
, ., 267
, 194
, 298
, 136, 144
, 327
, 89, 129, 175
, ., 476
.., 14, 25, 32, 56, 129,
186
, .., 283, 305, 321, 333,
344, 355, 359, 379
-- , 140
, ., 234

, 285
, , 344, 347
, , 305, 374
, .., 219
, 295
, , 305, 344, 374
, 332
, ., 439
, ., 464

, 291


, .., 234
, 23, 58, 61, 63,
202
, 290, 294
--, 268
--, 220
-- , 130
, .., 474
, ., 474
, ., 220
, ., 223
, ., 270
, .., 220
.., 186
, .., 129, 223, 283

, 168
, 1
, 56, 157, 168
, 123
, ., 89, 129, 135, 175
, .., 358
, 12
Ferrari 308 GTSi, 346
Honda Civic, 346

, 38, 322
, 55
, 75, 80, 83, 89, 94, 129,
131, 134, 148, 156, 179, 322
, 324

, 234

489
, 324

, 250
, 343

, 26
-, 26, 32
, 419
, 449
, 438
, 313
, 101, 105

, 373
, 289
, 12, 133, 134, 136,
137, 139, 140, 142, 149, 153
BMW,
317
, 22
, 4
, 360
, 256

, 219
, 218

, 217
, 112
, 113,
114
, 113

490
, 104, 108, 110, 114,
116
, 125
, 115, 116
, 115
, 100, 101, 108, 114,
118
, 109, 110, 114, 118
, 104, 110, 116
, 100, 111, 116,
118

, 36, 101
, 115
, 101, 116, 180
, 100, 109
, 27
, 256

, 93
, 125
, 118
, 461
, 118, 119, 125

, 36
, 180
, 359
, 385
H-O, 261
, 6
, 31
, 262
, 124


, 87,
94
, 145
,
86
, 86, 96

, 122
, 121
, 122

, 122
, 121
, 121, 122
, 121, 123
, 81, 82,
85, 92
, 76, 78, 84, 88, 187
, 86
, 81, 83
, 75, 323
, 81, 82, 84
, 81
, 89
, 79, 82, 85, 93, 94, 98, 105
, 110
, 76, 79, 82, 103,
109
, 8185, 92, 95, 98,
105
, 335
-,
323
, 144
, 82,
139
, 79, 80


, 35, 75

, 76, 89, 90, 97, 107,


149, 153, 166
, 88, 94, 98
, 139
, 91

, 259, 264
H2 , 210
, 190
, 75, 80, 83, 91
, 79, 80

, 204
, 335
, 381
, 216
, 215
, 87
, 32
, 2, 187
, 350
, 308

491
Pinellas County Forensic,
412

GC-MS/IRD , 411
, 413

, 413


, 367

, 349

, 439
, 374

LC-MS/UVD ,
439, 445
, 438
, 378

, 333
, 390
, 307
, 393
, 362

, 389
, 130
, 378

, 172
, 375
, 130

, 207
, 463
, , 376, 463
National Technical Systems,
410

492
, 381
- , 309

, 215
, 287
-, 232

, 247
H2 , 190
, 344
, 323

, 321
, 323
, 324

, 95
, 73, 148
, 73
, 74, 136

, 93
, 98, 153, 155
, 29
, 30

, 74
, 33
, 12
, 129, 132

, 94, 129, 161,


166, 194, 321
, 134, 137, 141, 159
, 163
, 147


, 138

, 95
, 73
, 73
, 74

, 254, 322

, 93
, 322
, 99, 172
, 323
, 345

, 376
, 257
, 344
, 359
, 311
, 4, 22
, 311
- ,
220
, 344, 389
, 478
-,
285
, 214, 231
, 313
, 28
, 311
, 202
, 295



, 353
, 135, 138
, 138

, 392

, 347, 348
, 313

, 351
, 310

, 352
, 271
, 336

, 333
, 337

, 14, 125
, 13
, 25
, 13

, 330
, 387
, 4

, 356

, 374
, 317
, 384,
462, 474
, 465

493

, 22
, 22
, 22
, 22
, 22

, 352
, 334
, 465
, 320
I, 324
III, 343
II, 334
,
340
, 341

, 344, 389
, 316
, 317

, 23, 234
, 11

, 335

PlasmaArcFlow, 354
, 268
, 257
, 325

, 334

494


, 343