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Foundations of

Individual Behaviour

By:- Sayad Rashid

Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristics- such as age,
gender, and marital status – that are
objective and easily obtained from
personal records.
Age – has impact on performance,
turnover, absenteeism, productivity and

Gender – has impact on absenteeism

and turnover.

Education – This has its impact upon

individual behaviour, largely through the
level of education received.
Tenure – has its impact on job
performance, turnover.

Marital status – has impact on

absenteeism, turnover, and

Number of dependents – has its main

impact on absenteeism and turnover.
An individual’s capacity to perform the
various tasks in a job.

Intellectual abilities
Physical abilities
The Ability – job Fit
Intellectual abilities – Needed to perform
mental activities. Dimensions of Intellectual
ability are:
 Number aptitude
 Verbal comprehension
 Perceptual speed
 Inductive reasoning
 Deductive reasoning
 Spatial visualization
 Memory
Physical abilities – The capacity to do tasks
demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and
similar characteristics. Nine basic physical abilities
 Strength Factors
 Dynamic strength
 Trunk strength
 Static strength
4. Explosive Strength
 Flexibility Factors
 Extent Flexibility
 Dynamic Flexibility
 Body coordination
Other Factors
 Balance
 Stamina
Any relatively permanent change in
behaviour that occurs as a result of
Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning: A type of
conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.
Operant Conditioning: A type of
conditioning in which desired voluntary
behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a
Cognitive Theory of Learning: Cognitive
theory of learning assumes that the
organism learns the meaning of various
objects and events, and learned
responses depending on the meaning
assigned to stimuli.
Social Learning Theory: Social learning
theory emphasizes the ability of an
individual to learn by observing others.
Principles of Learning
Shaping Behaviour- Systematically
reinforcing each successive step that
moves an individual closer to the desired
response. Methods of Shaping Behaviour:
 Negative reinforcement
 Positive reinforcement
 Punishment
 Extinction
Whole versus part learning
Learning curves
Meaningfulness of material and Learning
Thank You…..
Presentation By: Sayad Rashid Parrey
Of: International Institute of Business
Studies, Bangalore
Section: Innovation
Email: Sayad_S19@Rediffmail.com